|Born||March 5, 1938 |
Lynn Margulis (born March 5, 1938) is an American biologist and University Professor in the Department of Geosciences at the University of Massachusetts Amherst. Events 363 - Roman Emperor Julian moves from Antioch with an army of 90000 to attack the Sassanid Empire, in a Year 1938 ( MCMXXXVIII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Foundations of modern biology There are five unifying principles Events 363 - Roman Emperor Julian moves from Antioch with an army of 90000 to attack the Sassanid Empire, in a Year 1938 ( MCMXXXVIII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the A biologist is a Scientist devoted to and producing results in Biology through the study of Organisms Typically biologists study organisms and their relationship The meaning of the word professor ( Latin: professor, person who professes to be an expert in some art or science teacher of highest rank) varies Earth science (also known as geoscience, the geosciences or the Earth Sciences) is an all-embracing term for the Sciences related to the planet The University of Massachusetts Amherst (otherwise known as UMass Amherst, Massachusetts, or UMass) is a research and Land-grant university in  She is best known for her theory on the origin of eukaryotic organelles, and her contributions to the endosymbiotic theory—which is now generally accepted for how certain organelles were formed. Animals Plants fungi, and Protists are eukaryotes (juːˈkærɪɒt or -oʊt Organisms whose cells are organized into complex In Cell biology, an organelle (pronunciation /ɔː(rgəˡnɛl/ is a specialized subunit within a cell that has a specific function and is usually separately enclosed The endosymbiotic theory concerns the origins of mitochondria and Plastids (e In Cell biology, a mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a membrane-enclosed Organelle found in most eukaryotic cells.
Lynn Margulis attended the University of Chicago as an undergraduate, and received her Ph.D. in 1963 from UC Berkeley. The University of Chicago is a Private university located principally in the Hyde Park neighborhood of Chicago. "PhD" redirects here for other uses see PhD (disambiguation. Year 1963 ( MCMLXIII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The University of California Berkeley (also referred to as Cal, Berkeley and UC Berkeley) is a major research university located in Berkeley In 1966, as a young faculty member at Boston University, she wrote a theoretical paper entitled The Origin of Mitosing Eukaryotic Cells. For similarly-named academic institutions see Education in Boston MA.  The paper however was "rejected by about fifteen scientific journals," Margulis recalled.  It was finally accepted by The Journal of Theoretical Biology and is considered today a landmark in modern endosymbiotic theory. The endosymbiotic theory concerns the origins of mitochondria and Plastids (e Although it draws heavily on symbiosis ideas first put forward by mid-19th century scientists and by Merezhkovsky (1905) and Wallin (1920) in the early-20th century, Margulis's endosymbiotic theory formulation is the first to rely on direct microbiological observations (as opposed to paleontological or zoological observations which were previously the norm for new works in evolutionary biology). Konstantin Sergejewicz Mereschkowsky (1855-1921 ( Russian: Константин Сергеевич Мережковский also transliterated Konstantin Sergeevich Microbiology (from Greek grc μῑκρος mīkros, "small" grc βίος bios, " Life " and grc -λογία Palaeontology redirects here For the Scientific journal, see Palaeontology (journal. Zoology (from Greek ζῷον, zoon, "animal" + λόγος, " Logos " "knowledge" is the branch of Evolutionary biology is a sub-field of Biology concerned with the origin of Species from a Common descent, and Descent of species The paper was initially heavily rejected, as symbiosis theories had been dismissed by mainstream biology at the time. Weathering constant criticism of her ideas for decades, Margulis is famous for her tenacity in pushing her theory forward, despite the opposition she faced at the time.
The underlying theme of endosymbiotic theory, as formulated in 1966, was interdependence and cooperative existence of multiple prokaryotic organisms; one organism engulfed another, yet both survived and eventually evolved over millions of years into eukaryotic cells. The prokaryotes (proʊˈkærioʊts singular prokaryote /proʊˈkæriət/ are a group of Organisms that lack a Cell nucleus (= karyon or any other Animals Plants fungi, and Protists are eukaryotes (juːˈkærɪɒt or -oʊt Organisms whose cells are organized into complex Her 1970 book, Origin of Eukaryotic Cells, discusses her early work pertaining to this organelle genesis theory in detail. In Cell biology, an organelle (pronunciation /ɔː(rgəˡnɛl/ is a specialized subunit within a cell that has a specific function and is usually separately enclosed Currently, her endosymbiotic theory is recognized as the key method by which some organelles have arisen (see endosymbiotic theory for a discussion) and is widely accepted by mainstream scientists. The endosymbiotic theory concerns the origins of mitochondria and Plastids (e The endosymbiotic theory of organogenesis gained strong support in the 1980s, when the genetic material of mitochondria and chloroplasts was found to be different from that of the symbiont's nuclear DNA. In Cell biology, a mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a membrane-enclosed Organelle found in most eukaryotic cells. Chloroplasts are Organelles found in Plant cells and eukaryotic Algae that conduct Photosynthesis. Nuclear DNA, nuclear deoxyribonucleic acid (nDNA is DNA contained within a nucleus of eukaryotic organisms. 
In 1995, prominent evolutionary biologist, Richard Dawkins, had this to say about Lynn Margulis and her work:
|“||I greatly admire Lynn Margulis's sheer courage and stamina in sticking by the endosymbiosis theory, and carrying it through from being an unorthodoxy to an orthodoxy. Clinton Richard Dawkins, FRS, FRSL (born 26 March 1941 is a British ethologist, evolutionary biologist, and Popular science I'm referring to the theory that the eukaryotic cell is a symbiotic union of primitive prokaryotic cells. This is one of the great achievements of twentieth-century evolutionary biology, and I greatly admire her for it. ||”|
She later formulated a theory to explain how symbiotic relationships between organisms of often different phyla or kingdoms are the driving force of evolution. eVolution is the third Album by eLDee, it was due to be released in 2008 Genetic variation is proposed to occur mainly as a result of transfer of nuclear information between bacterial cells or viruses and eukaryotic cells. Genetic diversity is a level of Biodiversity that refers to the total number of genetic characteristics in the genetic makeup of a species The Bacteria ( singular: bacterium) are a large group of unicellular Microorganisms Typically a few Micrometres in length bacteria have A virus (from the Latin virus meaning Toxin or Poison) is a sub-microscopic infectious agent that is unable Animals Plants fungi, and Protists are eukaryotes (juːˈkærɪɒt or -oʊt Organisms whose cells are organized into complex While her organelle genesis ideas are widely accepted, symbiotic relationships as a current method of introducing genetic variation is something of a fringe idea. However, examination of the results from the Human Genome Project lends some credence to an endosymbiotic theory of evolution—or at the very least Margulis's endosymbiotic theory is the catalyst for current ideas about the composition of the human genome. The Human Genome Project (HGP was an international Scientific research project with a primary goal to determine the sequence of chemical base pairs which make up DNA Significant portions of the human genome are either bacterial or viral in origin—some clearly ancient insertions, while others are more recent in origin. This strongly supports the idea of symbiotic—and more likely parasitic—relationships being a driving force for genetic change in humans, and likely all organisms. Parasitism is a type of symbiotic relationship between Organisms of different Species. It should be noted that while the endosymbiotic theory has historically been juxtaposed to Neo-Darwinism as a competitor, the two theories are not irreconcilable. Neo-Darwinism is a term used to describe certain ideas about the mechanisms of Evolution that were developed from Charles Darwin 's original Theory of An emerging synthesis holds that natural selection works on many levels (genetic up to the ecosystem) and variation is introduced both at the genetic and the cellular level.
She does, however, hold a negative view of certain interpretations of Neo-Darwinism, excessively focused on inter-organismic competition, as she believes that history will ultimately judge them as comprising "a minor twentieth-century religious sect within the sprawling religious persuasion of Anglo-Saxon Biology. " She also believes that proponents of the standard theory "wallow in their zoological, capitalistic, competitive, cost-benefit interpretation of Darwin - having mistaken him. . . Neo-Darwinism, which insists on (the slow accrual of mutations by gene-level natural selection), is a complete funk. "
She opposes such competition-centric views of evolution, stressing the importance of symbiotic or cooperative relationships between species.
She was the first wife of astronomer Carl Sagan and is the mother of Dorion Sagan, popular science writer and co-author; Jeremy Sagan, software developer and founder of Sagan Technology; Zachary Margulis-Ohnuma, New York City Criminal Defense lawyer; and Jennifer Margulis, teacher and author. Historically Astronomy was more concerned with the classification and description of phenomena in the sky while Astrophysics attempted to explain these phenomena Carl Edward Sagan ( November 9 1934 &ndash December 20 1996) was an American Astronomer, astrochemist, author Dorion Sagan (b 1959 in Madison Wisconsin) is an American Science writer. Jeremy Sagan (born 1960 is an American computer programmer. He is the founder of Sagan Technology and author of Metro an audio MIDI and video Sagan Technology is a Massachusetts based company focusing on the creation of multimedia Software for Apple Macintosh computers
|SHORT DESCRIPTION||American Biologist|
|DATE OF BIRTH||March 5, 1938|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Chicago, Illinois, United States|
|DATE OF DEATH|
|PLACE OF DEATH|