|Lutheran Church - Missouri Synod|
Corporate seal of the LCMS
|Founder||C. F. W. Walther|
|Origin||April 26, 1847|
|Separated from||German Landeskirchen|
|Branched from||Saxon Lutheranism|
|Merge of||incorporated the Evangelical Lutheran Synod of Illinois and Other States in 1880, Evangelical Lutheran Concordia Synod of Pennsylvania and Other States in 1886, English Evangelical Lutheran Synod of Missouri and Other States in 1911, National Evangelical Lutheran Church in 1964, and the Synod of Evangelical Lutheran Churches in 1971|
|Separations||Orthodox Lutheran Conference, Association of Evangelical Lutheran Churches|
|Associations||member of the International Lutheran Council; in altar and pulpit fellowship with the American Association of Lutheran Churches; former member of Synodical Conference|
|Geographical Area||United States, especially the Upper Midwest|
The Lutheran Church—Missouri Synod (LCMS), founded in 1847 in Missouri, is the eighth largest Protestant denomination in the United States, and the second-largest Lutheran body in the U. Lutheranism is a major branch of Western Christianity that identifies with the teachings of the sixteenth-century German reformer Martin Luther Christian Theology is discourse concerning Christian faith Christian theologians use biblical Exegesis, rational analysis and argument Confessional Lutheran is a name used by certain Lutheran Christians to designate themselves as those who accept the doctrines taught in the Book of Concord Ecclesiastical polity is the operational and governance structure of a Church or Christian denomination. Congregationalist polity, often known as congregationalism is a system of Church governance in which every Local church congregation is independent Carl Ferdinand Wilhelm Walther ( October 25 1811 – May 7 1887) was the first President of the Lutheran Church - Missouri Synod Events 1467 - The miraculous image in Our Lady of Good Counsel appear in Genazzano, Italy. Year 1847 ( MDCCCXLVII) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Common Chicago (ʃɪˈkɑːgoʊ is the largest City by population in the state of Illinois and the American Midwest of the United States. The word schism (ˈsɪzəm or /ˈskɪzəm/ from the Greek σχίσμα skhísma (from σχίζω skhízō, "to tear to split" EKD redirects here For the Basque political party see Democracia Cristiana Vasca. Church union is the name given to a merger of two or more Christian Denominations. Year 1880 ( MDCCCLXXX) was a Leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap year Year 1886 ( MDCCCLXXXVI) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Year 1911 ( MCMXI) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year The National Evangelical Lutheran Church (original name was Finnish Evangelical Lutheran National Church of America until 1946 was a Finnish-American Lutheran church that was Year 1964 ( MCMLXIV) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar of the 1964 Gregorian calendar. The Synod of Evangelical Lutheran Churches was an American Lutheran Christian denomination that existed from 1902 to 1971 Year 1971 ( MCMLXXI) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar of the 1971 Gregorian calendar. The Association of Evangelical Lutheran Churches (AELC was a U The International Lutheran Council is a worldwide association of confessional Lutheran denominations The American Association of Lutheran Churches (TAALC also known as The AALC was formed on November 7, 1987 as an alternative choice for churches in The American The Evangelical Lutheran Synodical Conference of North America was a Lutheran joint fellowship (in this sense a declaration of unity of belief organization between the The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The Upper Midwest is a region of the United States with no universally agreed-upon boundary but it almost always lies within the US Census Bureau 's definition Year 1847 ( MDCCCXLVII) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Common Missouri ( or) is a state in the Midwestern region of the United States bordered by Iowa, Illinois, Kentucky, Tennessee Protestantism refers to the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated in the 16th century Protestant Reformation. Lutheranism is a major branch of Western Christianity that identifies with the teachings of the sixteenth-century German reformer Martin Luther S. after the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America. The Evangelical Lutheran Church in America ( ELCA) is a mainline Protestant denomination headquartered in Chicago Illinois.  It is a moderately conservative, Confessional Lutheran denomination with German immigrant roots. For conservative political views within Christianity see Christian right. Confessional Lutheran is a name used by certain Lutheran Christians to designate themselves as those who accept the doctrines taught in the Book of Concord German Americans ( German: Deutschamerikaner) are citizens of the United States of Ethnic German ancestry
The LCMS is headquartered in St. Louis, Missouri, and has about 2. 4 million baptized members, approximately half of whom are located in the Upper Midwest, although it is represented in all 50 U.S. states, and is affiliated with other Lutheran sister churches worldwide. In Christianity, baptism ( Greek, "immersing" "performing Ablutions " is the ritual act with the use of water by which one is admitted The Upper Midwest is a region of the United States with no universally agreed-upon boundary but it almost always lies within the US Census Bureau 's definition A US state is any one of the fifty subnational entities of the United States of America that share Sovereignty with the federal government It also has several congregations in Ontario (and one in Quebec) that remained with the LCMS after most Canadian congregations in the Synod formed the autonomous Lutheran Church - Canada in 1988. Ontario (ɒnˈtɛrioʊ is a province located in the central part of Canada, the largest by population and second largest after Quebec Quebec (kwɨˈbɛk Lutheran Church–Canada ( LCC) was founded in 1988 when most of the Canadian congregations of St The LCMS is divided into 35 districts — 33 geographic districts, and two (the English District and SELC) non-geographic. The Lutheran Church - Missouri Synod (LCMS is organized into 35 districts, 33 of which are defined along geographic lines The English District is one of the 35 districts of the Lutheran Church - Missouri Synod (LCMS The SELC District is one of the 35 districts of the Lutheran Church - Missouri Synod (LCMS The current president is the Rev. Dr. Gerald B. Kieschnick. Gerald Bryan Kieschnick (born January 29 1943 in Houston Texas) is the current president of the Lutheran Church - Missouri Synod.
The Missouri Synod emerged from several communities of German Lutheran immigrants during the 1830s and 1840s. In Indiana, Ohio and Michigan, isolated Germans in the dense forests of the American frontier were brought together and cared for by missionary F. C. D. Wyneken. The State of Indiana ( was the 19th US state admitted into the union Ohio ( is a Midwestern state of the United States. As part of the Great Lakes region, Ohio has long been a cultural and geographical crossroads Michigan ( is a Midwestern state of the United States of America. Friedrich Conrad Dietrich Wyneken ( May 13 1810 &ndash May 4 1876) was a Missionary, pastor and the second president of the Lutheran A movement of Confessional Saxon Lutherans under Martin Stephan created a community in Perry County, Missouri and St. Louis, Missouri. Confessional Lutheran is a name used by certain Lutheran Christians to designate themselves as those who accept the doctrines taught in the Book of Concord The Kingdom of Saxony (Königreich Sachsen lasting between 1806 and 1918 was an independent member of a number of historical confederacies in Napoleonic through post-Napoleonic Martin Stephan (1777-1846 was Pastor of St John Lutheran Church in Dresden, Germany during the early 19th century Perry County is a County located in the US state of Missouri. In Michigan and Ohio, missionaries sent by Wilhelm Löhe cared for scattered congregations and founded German Lutheran communities in Frankenmuth, Michigan and the Saginaw Valley of Michigan. Johann Konrad Wilhelm Löhe (1808 - 1872 (often rendered 'Loehe' was a Pastor of the Lutheran Church Neo-Lutheran writer and is often regarded as being Frankenmuth is a city in Saginaw County in the US state of Michigan. The Saginaw River is a 22-mile-long (35 km River in the US state of Michigan.
In the 19th-century German Kingdom of Saxony, Lutheran pastor Martin Stephan and many of his followers found themselves increasingly at odds with the rationalism and unionism of the state-sponsored Lutheranism. The Kingdom of Saxony (Königreich Sachsen lasting between 1806 and 1918 was an independent member of a number of historical confederacies in Napoleonic through post-Napoleonic Martin Stephan (1777-1846 was Pastor of St John Lutheran Church in Dresden, Germany during the early 19th century In Epistemology and in its broadest sense rationalism is "any view appealing to Reason as a source of knowledge or justification" (Lacey 286 Ecumenism (also oecumenism, œcumenism) refers to initiatives aimed at greater Religious unity or cooperation EKD redirects here For the Basque political party see Democracia Cristiana Vasca. In the neighbouring Kingdom of Prussia, the Prussian Union of 1817 forced Lutherans to, among other changes, embrace non-Lutheran services of Holy Communion and Holy Baptism. The Kingdom of Prussia (Königreich Preußen was a German kingdom from 1701 to 1918 and from 1871 was the leading state of the German Empire, comprising The Prussian Union (Evangelical Christian Church ( Unionsurkunde) was the merger of the Lutheran Church and the Reformed Church in Prussia, by The Eucharist, also called Holy Communion or Lord's Supper and other names is a Christian Sacrament by which in a common interpretation those In Christianity, baptism ( Greek, "immersing" "performing Ablutions " is the ritual act with the use of water by which one is admitted In order to freely practice their Christian faith in accordance with the Lutheran confessions outlined in the Book of Concord, Stephan and nearly 1100 other Saxon Lutherans left for the United States in November 1838. The Book of Concord or Concordia (1580 is the historic doctrinal standard of the Lutheran Church, consisting of ten credal Year 1838 ( MDCCCXXXVIII) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Common
Their ships arrived January 5, 1839 in New Orleans, with one ship lost at sea. Events 1477 - Battle of Nancy: Charles the Bold is killed and Burgundy becomes part of France. Year 1839 ( MDCCCXXXIX) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Common New Orleans (nʲuːˈɔrliənz nʲuːˈɔrlənz French: La Nouvelle-Orléans) is a major United States port city and the largest city in Louisiana After spending some time waiting for that last ship, most of the remaining 750 immigrants settled in Perry County, Missouri and in and around St. Louis. Stephan was initially the bishop of the new settlement, but he soon became embroiled in charges of corruption and sexual misconduct with members of the congregation, and was expelled from the settlement, leaving C. F. W. Walther as the leader of the colony. A bishop is an ordained or consecrated member of the Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and oversight Carl Ferdinand Wilhelm Walther ( October 25 1811 – May 7 1887) was the first President of the Lutheran Church - Missouri Synod
During this period there was considerable debate within the settlement over the proper role of the church in the New World: whether it was a new church, or remained within the German Lutheran hierarchy. Walther's view that they could consider themselves a new church prevailed.
On April 26, 1847, twelve pastors representing 15 German Lutheran congregations met in Chicago, Illinois and founded a new church body, "The German Evangelical Lutheran Synod of Missouri, Ohio and Other States. Events 1467 - The miraculous image in Our Lady of Good Counsel appear in Genazzano, Italy. Year 1847 ( MDCCCXLVII) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Common Chicago (ʃɪˈkɑːgoʊ is the largest City by population in the state of Illinois and the American Midwest of the United States. " Walther became the fledgling denomination's first president.
In its early days the synod was conservative on a number of issues. Following Walther's lead, it strongly opposed humanism and religious syncretism. Humanism is a broad category of ethical philosophies that affirm the dignity and worth of all people based on the ability to determine right and wrong by appealing to universal Syncretism consists of the attempt to reconcile disparate or contradictory beliefs often while melding practices of various schools of thought  It opposed abolitionism based on Biblical passages which it taught neither approved of nor condemned slavery. Abolitionism was a political movement of the 18th and 19th century which sought to make Slavery illegal particularly in the United States and British West Indies The history of slavery uncovers many different forms of human exploitation across many cultures throughout history
Under the leadership of its second President, F. C. D. Wyneken, the Missouri Synod poured much effort into caring for German immigrants, helping them find a home among other Germans, building churches and parochial schools and providing pastors and teachers to serve in them. Friedrich Conrad Dietrich Wyneken ( May 13 1810 &ndash May 4 1876) was a Missionary, pastor and the second president of the Lutheran
As a result, the new synod grew quickly during the 19th century, reaching 685,000 members by 1897.
As one scholar has explained, "The overwhelming evidence from internal documents of these [Missouri Synod] churches, and particularly their schools. . . indicates that the German-American school was a bilingual one much (perhaps a whole generation or more) earlier than 1917, and that the majority of the pupils may have been English-dominant bilinguals from the early 1880s on. "
Until the United States' involvement in the First World War, the older members of the synod remained overwhelmingly German in their language, but younger members had long switched to English. World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All The German language (de ''Deutsch'') is a West Germanic language and one of the world's major languages. English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States The anti-German sentiment during the war enabled the younger generation to "Americanize" the church's image and switch the remaining German services to English. As a result, over the next half-century the synod's membership doubled.
In 1947, the church body shortened its name from "The Evangelical Lutheran Synod of Missouri, Ohio, and other States," to the present one, the Lutheran Church—Missouri Synod. Year 1947 ( MCMXLVII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar of the Gregorian calendar.
On January 1, 1964, the National Evangelical Lutheran Church, an historically Finnish-American Lutheran church, merged with the LCMS. New Year See also New Year The Ancient Romans began their consular year on January 1st since 153 BC Year 1964 ( MCMLXIV) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar of the 1964 Gregorian calendar. The National Evangelical Lutheran Church (original name was Finnish Evangelical Lutheran National Church of America until 1946 was a Finnish-American Lutheran church that was Finnish Americans are Americans of Finnish descent who currently number about 700000 In 1971 the Synod of Evangelical Lutheran Churches, an historically Slovak-American church, also merged with the LCMS. The Synod of Evangelical Lutheran Churches was an American Lutheran Christian denomination that existed from 1902 to 1971 Slovak Americans are Americans of Slovak descent In the 1990 Census Slovak Americans made up the second-largest portion of Slavic
One of the signature teachings of the Lutheran Reformation is the teaching named Sola scriptura—"Scripture alone. Formal principle and material principle are two categories in Christian Theology to identify and distinguish the authoritative source of theology (formal The Protestant Reformation was a reform movement in Europe that began in 1517 though its roots lie further back in time Sola scriptura ( Latin ablative, "by scripture alone" is the assertion that the Bible as God's written word is self-authenticating " The Missouri Synod believes that the Bible is the only standard by which church teachings can be judged. Etymology According to the Online Etymology Dictionary, the word bible is from Latin biblia, traced from the same word through Medieval Latin and Late Latin It also holds that the Holy Scripture is explained and interpreted by the Book of Concord—a series of Confessions of faith composed by Lutherans in the 16th century. The Book of Concord or Concordia (1580 is the historic doctrinal standard of the Lutheran Church, consisting of ten credal Missouri Synod pastors and congregations agree to teach in harmony with the Book of Concord because it teaches and faithfully explains the Word of God. The Missouri Synod also teaches Biblical inerrancy, the teaching that Bible is inspired by God and is without error. Biblical inerrancy is the conservative evangelical doctrinal position that in its original form the Bible is totally without error and free from all contradiction God is the principal or sole Deity in Religions and other belief systems that worship one deity. For this reason, they reject much--if not all--of modern liberal scholarship. For liberal political views within Christianity see Christian left.
The Missouri Synod believes that justification comes from God "by divine grace alone, through faith alone, for Christ's sake alone. Formal principle and material principle are two categories in Christian Theology to identify and distinguish the authoritative source of theology (formal In Christian theology, justification is God 's act of declaring or making a sinner righteous before God In Christianity, divine Grace refers to the sovereign favour of God for humankind — especially in regard to Salvation — irrespective of actions Christ is the English term for the Greek ( Khristós) meaning "the anointed " " It teaches that Jesus is the focus of the entire Bible and that faith in him alone is the way to eternal salvation. Jesus of Nazareth (7–2 BC / BCE —26–36 AD / CE) Faith is a Belief in the trustworthiness of an Idea. Formal usage of the word "faith" is usually reserved for concepts of Religion, as in In Theology, salvation can mean three related things being saved from or Liberation from something such as Suffering or the punishment of The synod rejects any attempt to attribute salvation to anything other than Christ's death and resurrection. Within the body of Christian beliefs the resurrection of Jesus is a core event on which much of Christian doctrine and theology depend
The Synod teaches that the Word of God, both written and preached, and the Sacraments are means of grace through which the Holy Spirit gives the gift of God's grace, creates faith in hearts of individuals, forgives sins for the sake of Christ's death on the cross, and grants eternal life and salvation. A sacrament, as defined in Hexam's Concise Dictionary of Religion is "a Rite in which God is uniquely active The Means of Grace in Christian theology are those things (the means) through which God gives grace. In mainstream Christianity, the Holy Spirit or Holy Ghost is one of the three entities of the Holy Trinity which make up the single substance The Christian cross is the best-known Religious symbol of Christianity. For Missouri Synod Lutherans, sacraments are actions instituted by Jesus and combine a promise in God's Word with a physical element. All agree that Baptism and the Lord's Supper are sacraments. In Christianity, baptism ( Greek, "immersing" "performing Ablutions " is the ritual act with the use of water by which one is admitted The Eucharist, also called Holy Communion or Lord's Supper and other names is a Christian Sacrament by which in a common interpretation those  Confession and absolution is called a Sacrament in the Apology of the Augsburg Confession and so is also considered by many Lutherans to be a sacrament, because it was instituted by Christ and has His promise of grace, even though it is not tied to a physical element. The confession of one's Sins is a religious practice important to many faiths e
Unlike Calvinists, Lutherans agree that the means of grace are resistible; this belief is based on numerous biblical references as discussed in the Book of Concord. Calvinism (sometimes called the Reformed tradition, the Reformed faith, or Reformed theology) is a theological system and an approach to the Prevenient grace is a Christian theological concept rooted in Augustinian theology and embraced primarily by Arminian Christians who are influenced by the
Regarding Holy Communion, the LCMS rejects the Roman Catholic doctrine of transubstantiation and the Reformed teaching that the true body and blood of Christ are not consumed with the consecrated bread and wine in the Lord's Supper. See also Eucharist (Catholic Church On the related belief that Christ is present in the Eucharist in body blood soul and divinity see Real Presence. The Reformed churches are a group of Christian Protestant Denominations formally characterized by a similar Calvinist system of doctrine historically Rather, it believes in the doctrine of the Sacramental Union, that the Body and Blood of Christ are truly present "in, with, and under" the elements of bread and wine. Sacramental union ( Latin, unio sacramentalis; German, sakramentliche Einigkeit) is the Lutheran theological Doctrine Or, as the Smalcald Articles express this mystery: "Of the Sacrament of the Altar, we hold that the bread and wine in the Supper are Christ's true body and blood. The Smalcald Articles or Schmalkald Articles (Schmalkaldische Artikel are a summary of Lutheran doctrine written by Martin Luther in 1537 for a meeting " It is occasionally reported that the LCMS and other Lutherans teach the doctrine of consubstantiation. Consubstantiation is a theological doctrine that (like Transubstantiation) attempts to describe the nature of the Christian Eucharist in concrete metaphysical Consubstantiation is rejected by Lutherans and is explicitly rejected by the LCMS. 
The Missouri Synod flatly rejects millennialism and the teaching of any "secret rapture. This is an article on sociological Millennialism You may be looking for the article on Christian Premillennialism. The Rapture is a prophesied event in Christian eschatology, in which Christians will be gathered together at the return of Christ; even Christians who have died " They believe that all believers will be caught up (raptured) on the Last Day (i. e. , the end of time). This belief system is formally referred to as "Historical Amillennialism. Amillennialism ( Latin: a- "not" + mille "thousand" + annum "year" is a view in Christian eschatology " The synod's focus tends to be on immediate salvation rather than on the end of times. Eschatology (from the Greek, Eschatos meaning "last" and -logy meaning "the study of" is a part of Theology
The LCMS is officially creationist. "Creationism" can also refer to Creation myths in general or to a concept about the origin of the soul.  According to the recent 2004 LCMS synodical resolution 2-08A "To Commend Preaching and Teaching Creation," all LCMS churches and educational institutions—including preschool through 12th grade, universities, and seminaries—are "to teach creation from the Biblical perspective. Creation according to Genesis refers to the Hebrew narrative of the creation of the heavens and the earth as told in chapters 1 and 2 of Genesis "
The LCMS, along with certain other Lutheran church bodies, also teaches the doctrine of the distinction between God's "Law" and God's "Gospel. This article is about the canonical books of the New Testament " The Missouri Synod believes that the Holy Scriptures contain only two teachings—the Law and the Gospel. The Law is all those parts of the Bible that provide commands and instructions, which the LCMS believes are impossible to completely obey. Therefore, the Law is a statement of God's wrath, judgment, and damnation. The Gospel, on the other hand, is the portions of Scripture that promise free salvation from God, even to sinners. Sin is a term used mainly in a religious context to describe an act that violates a moral Rule, or the state of having committed such a violation The law condemns, the Gospel saves. Both the Law and the Gospel are gifts from God; both are necessary. The function of the law is to show a person their sinful nature and drive (draw) them to the Gospel, where the forgiveness of sin is promised for the sake of the death and resurrection of Jesus Christ.
The LCMS insists that both the Old and the New Testament teach both Law and Gospel. In Western Christianity, the Old Testament refers to the books that form the first of the two-part Christian Biblical canon. The Old Testament, therefore, is valuable to Christians. Its teachings point forward in time to the Cross of Christ in the same way that the New Testament points backward in time to the Cross. This vital LCMS doctrine was most famously summarized by C. F. W. Walther in his book, The Proper Distinction Between Law and Gospel.
St. Louis radio station AM 850 KFUO airs a program called "Law and Gospel" and is hosted by an LCMS pastor-the Rev. KFUO ( 850 AM) is the nation's longest continually running Religious Radio station. Dr. Tom Baker. The program runs Monday-Friday and is live from 1:00PM to 3:00PM CST. The show can also be heard world wide via www. kfuo. org.
The LCMS endorses the doctrine of close or closed communion  — the policy of sharing the Lord's Supper ordinarily only with those who are baptized and confirmed members of one of the congregations of the Lutheran Church—Missouri Synod or of a congregation of one of her sister churches with whom she has formally declared altar and pulpit fellowship. There are a variety of ways in which Missouri Synod congregations put close(d) communion into practice, most often asking visitors to speak with the pastor before coming to that congregation's altar for the first time. Fellowship in the Lord's Supper explains more regarding this practice.
The Missouri Synod's original Constitution indicates that one of its purposes is to strive toward uniformity in practice, while also encouraging responsible and doctrinally-sound diversity. The synod requires that hymns, songs, liturgies, and practices be in harmony with the Bible and Book of Concord. A hymn is a type of Song, usually religious specifically written for the purpose of praise adoration or Prayer, and typically addressed to a deity/deities A liturgy is the customary public worship done by a specific religious group according to their particular traditions Etymology According to the Online Etymology Dictionary, the word bible is from Latin biblia, traced from the same word through Medieval Latin and Late Latin The Book of Concord or Concordia (1580 is the historic doctrinal standard of the Lutheran Church, consisting of ten credal Historically, worship in Missouri Synod congregations is orthodox and liturgical, utilizing a printed order of service and hymnal, accompanied by a pipe organ or other classical instrumentation. The pipe organ is a Musical instrument that produces sound when pressurized air (wind is driven through a series of pipes, controlled by a keyboard In recent years, some congregations have adopted a variety of less-formal worship styles, employing contemporary Christian music, pianos, guitars, and other instruments. Contemporary Christian Music (or CCM; also by its religious neutral term " inspirational music " is a genre of Popular music which is This has caused some contention in the church body since it has a decidedly liturgical heritage. The recent publication of Lutheran Service Book and its widespread reception shows the strength of liturgical life in the parishes of the Synod. Lutheran Service Book ( LSB) is the newest official Hymnal of The Lutheran Church - Missouri Synod (LCMS and the Lutheran Church - Canada
The Missouri Synod teaches that the ordination of women as clergy is contrary to scripture. In general religious use Ordination is the process by which a person is consecrated (set apart for the administration of various religious rites The issue of women's roles in the church body has continued to be a subject of great debate within the Synod. Women received the right to suffrage within Missouri Synod congregations in 1969, and it was affirmed at the Synod's 2004 convention that women may also "serve in humanly established offices" as long as those offices do not include any of the "distinctive functions of the pastoral office. Year 1969 ( MCMLXIX) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. "MMIV" redirects here For the Modest Mouse album see " Baron von Bullshit Rides Again " " Thus in many congregations of the LCMS, women now serve as congregation president or chairperson, readers, ushers, etc.
Franz August Otto Pieper's Brief Statement of the Doctrinal Position of the Missouri Synod provides a summary of the major beliefs of the LCMS. Franz August Otto Pieper ( June 27 1852 - June 3 1931) was a Confessional Lutheran theologian born at Carwitz (85 m
The Synodical structure is congregational (run by congregations) instead of episcopal (run by bishops), although, unlike some other Protestant denominations, this is not considered to be a point of doctrine, as the Synod is in fellowship with some Lutheran church bodies in Europe that have an episcopal structure. Congregationalist polity, often known as congregationalism is a system of Church governance in which every Local church congregation is independent Episcopal polity is a form of church governance which is hierarchical in structure with the chief authority over a local Christian church resting in a Bishop (Greek Protestantism refers to the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated in the 16th century Protestant Reformation. Congregations are served by a full-time professional clergy. The strict "democracy-based" values of a congregation have created severe problems in several churches where local internal problems and stress cannot be addressed (by constitutional laws) by elected officials in St. Louis. Programs such as "Peace in the Parish" can only serve as guidelines to a congregation which can reject the wishes of the Synod.
The corporate LCMS is formally constituted of two types of members: autonomous local congregations that qualify for membership by mutual agreement to adhere to stated principles, and clergymen who qualify by similar means. Congregations hold legal title to their church buildings and other property, and call (hire) and dismiss their own clergy. Much of the practical work of the LCMS structure is as a free employment brokerage to bring the two together; it also allows the congregations to work together on projects far too large for even a local consortium of congregations to accomplish, such as foreign mission work.
The entire synod is divided into districts, usually corresponding to a specific geographic area, as well as two non-geographical districts, the English and the SELC, which were formed when the formerly separate English Missouri Synod and the Slovak Synod, respectively, merged with the formerly German-speaking Missouri Synod. The Lutheran Church - Missouri Synod (LCMS is organized into 35 districts, 33 of which are defined along geographic lines The English District is one of the 35 districts of the Lutheran Church - Missouri Synod (LCMS The SELC District is one of the 35 districts of the Lutheran Church - Missouri Synod (LCMS Each district is led by an elected district president, who must be an ordained clergyman. Most district presidencies are full-time positions, but there are a few exceptions in which the district president also serves as a parish pastor. The districts are subdivided into circuits, each of which is led by a circuit counselor, who is an ordained pastor from one of the member congregations. A circuit, in the Lutheran Church - Missouri Synod (LCMS is a local grouping of congregations within one of the Synod's 35 districts.
The LCMS as a whole is led by an ordained Synodical President, currently Gerald B. Kieschnick. Gerald Bryan Kieschnick (born January 29 1943 in Houston Texas) is the current president of the Lutheran Church - Missouri Synod. The President is chosen at a Synodical convention, a gathering of the two membership groups (professional clergymen, and lay representatives from the member congregations). In religious organizations the laity comprises all persons who are not Clergy. The convention is held every three years; discussions of doctrine and policy take place at these events, and elections are held to fill various Synodical positions. The next Synodical convention will be in 2010. Local conventions within each circuit and district are held in the intervening years.
LCMS pastors are generally required to have a four-year bachelor's degree (in any discipline), as well as a four-year Master of Divinity degree which is usually obtained from one of these institutions: Concordia Seminary in St. In Christian Theology, the Master of Divinity ( MDiv, Magister Divinitatis in Latin) is the first Professional degree Concordia Seminary is located in Clayton Missouri, an inner-ring suburb on the western border of St Louis or the Concordia Theological Seminary in Fort Wayne, Indiana or at the two seminaries run by the Lutheran Church—Canada. The Concordia Theological Seminary is an institution of theological higher education of The Lutheran Church - Missouri Synod (LCMS located in Fort Wayne Indiana Fort Wayne is a City in northeastern Indiana, United States and the County seat of Allen Lutheran Church–Canada ( LCC) was founded in 1988 when most of the Canadian congregations of St Candidates may earn their Master of Divinity degree at other seminaries, but must then take colloquy classes at either St. Louis or Ft. Wayne. Seminary training includes classwork in historical theology, Biblical languages (Biblical Greek and Hebrew), practical application (education, preaching, and mission), and doctrine (the basic teachings and beliefs of the synod). Greek (el ελληνική γλώσσα or simply el ελληνικά — "Hellenic" is an Indo-European language, spoken today by 15-22 million people mainly It has been noted that the seminaries of the LCMS are some of the most difficult seminaries in the United States as the LCMS has a strong focus on education.
Ordination is seen as a public ceremony of recognition that a man has received and accepted a divine call, and hence is considered to be in the office of the ministry. The LCMS does not believe ordination is an extension of an episcopal form of apostolic succession but sees the office grounded in the word and sacrament ministry of the Gospel, arguing that Scripture makes no distinction between a presbyter (priest) and a bishop (see Treatise on the Power and Primacy of the Pope, paragraphs 63,64, citing St. The Treatise on the Power and Primacy of the Pope ( 1537) ( Latin, Tractatus de Potestate et Primatu Papae The Tractate Jerome). Jerome (c 347 – September 30, 420) ( Latin: Eusebius Sophronius Hieronymus; Εὐσέβιος Σωφρόνιος Ἱερώνυμος The Apology of the Augsburg Confession (Article XIII) explicitly grants that ordination can be considered a sacrament, only if interpreted in relation to the ministry of the Word. The Augsburg Confession (Article XIV) holds that no one is to preach, teach, or administer the sacraments without a regular call. The Augsburg Confession, also known as the "Augustana" from its Latin name Confessio Augustana is the primary confession of faith of the Lutheran The Treatise on the Power and Primacy of the Pope holds that ordination takes place by divine right (par. The Treatise on the Power and Primacy of the Pope ( 1537) ( Latin, Tractatus de Potestate et Primatu Papae The Tractate 72).
In addition to its two seminaries, the LCMS operates ten universities known as the Concordia University System. The Concordia University System (CUS is an organization of ten colleges and universities throughout the United States operated by the Lutheran Church - Missouri Among the LCMS's other auxiliary organizations are the Lutheran Laymen's League (now known as Lutheran Hour Ministries), which conducts outreach ministries including The Lutheran Hour radio program; and the Lutheran Women's Missionary League. Lutheran Hour Ministries (LHM is a Christian Outreach affiliated with the Lutheran Church - Missouri The Lutheran Hour is a US religious Radio program that proclaims the message of Jesus Christ on nearly The Lutheran Women's Missionary League (LWML is an auxiliary organization of The Lutheran Church—Missouri Synod. The synod also operates a publishing company, Concordia Publishing House, through which it publishes the official periodical of the LCMS, The Lutheran Witness. Concordia Publishing House ( CPH) founded in 1869 is the official publisher of The Lutheran Church - Missouri Synod. The Lutheran Church—Missouri Synod (LCMS founded in 1847 in Missouri, is the eighth largest Protestant denomination in the United States and the second-largest
Maintaining its position as a confessional church body emphasizing the importance of full agreement in the teachings of the Bible, the LCMS is not associated with ecumenical organizations such as the National Council of Churches, the National Association of Evangelicals, the World Council of Churches or the Lutheran World Federation. The National Council of the Churches of Christ in the USA (usually identified as National Council of Churches, or NCC) is an association of 35 Christian National Association of Evangelicals (NAE is an agency dedicated to coordinating cooperative ministry for evangelical denominations of Protestant Christians The World Council of Churches ( WCC) is an international However, it is a member of the International Lutheran Council, made up of over 30 Lutheran Churches worldwide that support the confessional doctrines of the Bible and the Book of Concord. The International Lutheran Council is a worldwide association of confessional Lutheran denominations The Book of Concord or Concordia (1580 is the historic doctrinal standard of the Lutheran Church, consisting of ten credal At the 2007 convention, the delegates voted to establish altar and pulpit fellowship with the American Association of Lutheran Churches (AALC). The American Association of Lutheran Churches (TAALC also known as The AALC was formed on November 7, 1987 as an alternative choice for churches in The American
Although its strongly conservative views on theology and ethics might seem to make the LCMS politically compatible with Protestant evangelicals and fundamentalists in the U. Evangelicalism is a theological movement tradition and system of beliefs most closely associated with Protestant Christianity, which identifies with the Gospel Fundamentalism refers to a "deep and totalistic commitment" to a belief in and strict adherence to a set of basic principles (often Religious in nature a reaction S. , the LCMS largely eschews political activity, partly out of concerns to keep the denomination untainted with potential heresies and also because of its strict understanding of the Lutheran distinction between the Two Kingdoms (see above), which repudiates the primarily Calvinist presuppositions about the totalizing rule of God that informs much, if not most, of U. Martin Luther 's doctrine of the two kingdoms (or two reigns of God teaches that God is the ruler of the whole world and that he rules in two ways Calvinism (sometimes called the Reformed tradition, the Reformed faith, or Reformed theology) is a theological system and an approach to the S. evangelical understanding of politics and Christianity.
With 2. 4 million members, the LCMS is the second-largest American Lutheran denomination, after the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America (ELCA) with 4. The Evangelical Lutheran Church in America ( ELCA) is a mainline Protestant denomination headquartered in Chicago Illinois. 8 million members, and followed by the Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod (WELS) with 410,000. The Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod (WELS is a North American religious denomination with practice rooted in the Lutheran tradition of Christianity
The LCMS is distinguished from the closest non-LCMS Lutheran US denomination — the Wisconsin Synod — by three main theological beliefs: