Lung Volumes

Lung volumes refers to physical differences in lung volume, while lung capacities represent different combinations of lung volumes, usually in relation to inhalation and exhalation.

The average pair of human lungs can hold about 6 liters of air, but only a small amount of this capacity is used during normal breathing. Human beings, humans or man (Origin 1590–1600 L homō man OL hemō the earthly one (see Humus lung is the essential Respiration organ in air-breathing Animals including most Tetrapods a few Fish and a few Snails The most primitive Temperature and layers The temperature of the Earth's atmosphere varies with altitude the mathematical relationship between temperature and altitude varies among five Breathing takes Oxygen in and Carbon dioxide out of the body Aerobic Organisms require oxygen to create energy via respiration, in

Breathing mechanism in mammals is called "tidal breathing". Tidal breathing means that air goes into the lungs the same way that it comes out.

## Factors affecting lung volume

Several factors affect lung volumes, some that can be controlled and some that can not. Lung volumes can be measured using the following terms:

 Larger volumes' Smaller volumes males females taller people shorter people non-smokers smokers athletes non-athletes people living at high altitudes people living at low altitudes

A person who is born and lives at sea level will develop a slightly smaller lung capacity than a person who spends their life at a high altitude. Male (♂ refers to the sex of an organism or part of an organism which produces small mobile Gametes called spermatozoa. Female (♀ is the Sex of an Organism, or a part of an organism which produces ova (egg cells Tobacco Smoking is the inhalation of smoke from burned dried or cured leaves of the Tobacco plant most often in the form of a Cigarette. Mean sea level (MSL is the average (mean height of the Sea, with reference to a suitable reference surface Altitude is the Elevation of a point or object from a known level or datum (plural data This is because the atmosphere is less dense at higher altitude, and therefore, the same volume of air contains fewer molecules of all gases, including oxygen. Oxygen (from the Greek roots ὀξύς (oxys (acid literally "sharp" from the taste of acids and -γενής (-genēs (producer literally begetteris the In response to higher altitude, the body's diffusing capacity increases in order to be able to process more air.

When someone living at or near sea level travels to locations at high altitudes (eg. the Andes, Denver, Colorado, Tibet, the Himalayas, etc. The Andes form the world's longest exposed Mountain range. They lie as a continuous chain of highland along the western coast of South America. The City and County of Denver (pronounced /ˈdɛnvɚ/ is the Capital and the most populous city of Colorado, in the United States Definitions of Tibet See also Definitions of Tibet Name In English The English word Tibet, like the word for Tibet in most European ) s/he can develop a condition called altitude sickness because their lungs cannot respirate sufficiently in the thinner air. Altitude sickness, also known as acute mountain sickness ( AMS) altitude illness, or soroche, is a pathological condition that is caused by acute

## Measurement and values

These values vary with the age and height of the person; the values that follow are for a 70 kg (154 lb), average-sized adult male [1]:

 Measurement Value Calculation Description Total lung capacity (TLC) = 6. 0 L = IRV + TV + ERV + RV The volume of gas contained in the lung at the end of maximal inspiration. The litre or liter (see spelling differences) is a unit of Volume. The total volume of the lung (i. e. : the volume of air in the lungs after maximum inspiration). Vital capacity (VC) = 4. Vital capacity is the maximum volume of air that a person can exhale after maximum Inhalation. 6 L = IRV + TV + ERV The amount of air that can be forced out of the lungs after a maximal inspiration. Emphasis on completeness of expiration. The maximum volume of air that can be voluntarily moved in and out of the respiratory system. [2][3] Forced vital capacity (FVC) = 4. 8 L measured The amount of air that can be maximally forced out of the lungs after a maximal inspiration. Emphasis on speed. [4][5][6] Tidal volume (TV) = 500 mL measured The amount of air breathed in or out during normal respiration. Temperature and layers The temperature of the Earth's atmosphere varies with altitude the mathematical relationship between temperature and altitude varies among five In Animal physiology, respiration is the transport of Oxygen from the outside air to the cells within tissues and the transport of Carbon dioxide The volume of air an individual is normally breathing in and out. Residual volume (RV) = 1. 2 L measured The amount of air left in the lungs after a maximal exhalation. The amount of air that is always in the lungs and can never be expired (i. e. : the amount of air that stays in the lungs after maximum expiration). Expiratory reserve volume (ERV) = 1. 2 L measured The amount of additional air that can be breathed out after the end expiratory level of normal breathing. (At the end of a normal breath, the lungs contain the residual volume plus the expiratory reserve volume, or around 2. 4 litres. If one then goes on and exhales as much as possible, only the residual volume of 1. 2 litres remains). Inspiratory reserve volume (IRV) = 3. 6 L measured IRV=VC-(TV+ERV) The additional air that can be inhaled after a normal tidal breath in. The maximum volume of air that can be inspired in addition to the tidal volume. Functional residual capacity (FRC) = 2. Functional Residual Capacity (FRC is the volume of air present in the Lungs at the end of passive Expiration. 4 L = ERV + RV The amount of air left in the lungs after a tidal breath out. The amount of air that stays in the lungs during normal breathing. Inspiratory capacity (IC) = 4. 1 L = TV + IRV The volume that can be inhaled after a tidal breathe-out. Anatomical dead space = 150 mL measured The volume of the conducting airways. In Physiology, dead space is Air that is inhaled by the body in breathing, but does not partake in gas exchange Measured with Fowler method. [7] Physiologic dead volume = 155 mL $V_\mathrm{T} \,\frac{P_\mathrm{A\,CO_2}-P_\mathrm{E\,CO_2}}{P_\mathrm{A\,CO_2}}$ The anatomic dead space plus the alveolar dead space.

The tidal volume, vital capacity, inspiratory capacity and expiratory reserve volume can be measured directly with a spirometer. A spirometer is an apparatus for measuring the Volume of Air inspired and expired by the Lungs It is a precision differential Pressure Transducer Determination of the residual volume can be done by radiographic planemetry, body plethysmography, closed circuit dilution and nitrogen washout. Body plethysmography is a very sensitive lung measurement used to detect lung pathology that might be missed with conventional pulmonary function tests

These are the basic elements of a ventilatory pulmonary function test. Spirometry (meaning the measuring of breath) is the most common of the Pulmonary Function Tests (PFTs measuring Lung function specifically the measurement The results (in particular FEV1/FVC and FRC) can be used to distinguish between restrictive and obstructive pulmonary diseases:

 Type Examples Description FEV1/FVC restrictive diseases pulmonary fibrosis volumes are decreased often in a normal range (0. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF, also known as cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis, is a Chronic, progressive interstitial lung disease with an unknown 8 - 1. 0) obstructive diseases asthma or COPD volumes are essentially normal but flow rates are impeded often low (Asthma can reduce the ratio to 0. Asthma is a chronic Condition involving the Respiratory system in which the airways occasionally constrict become inflamed, and are Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease ( COPD) is a Disease of the lungs in which the Airways become narrowed 6, Emphysema can reduce the ratio to 0. 3 - 0. 4)

## Other

The largest human lung capacity recorded is that of British rower Peter Reed (rower) at 11. Peter Reed (born 27 July 1981 in Seattle, United States is a British Olympic Rower. 68 litres, roughly twice that of an average person.

Unofficially Grant Hackett, an Australian Olympic Swimmer, has a lung capacity of 13 litres[8]

Marathon runner Tom Dihm,of Western Australia has the second largest lung capacity recorded at 11. Grant George Hackett OAM (born May 9, 1980) is an Australian swimmer most famous for winning the men's 1500 metres freestyle 632 litres.

## References

1. ^ Palsson, et al. Tissue Engineering (2003). CRC Press. ISBN 0-8493-1812-2. page 7-7.
2. ^ -1281753041 at GPnotebook
3. ^ c_05/12210351 at Dorland's Medical Dictionary
4. ^ Template:GPnoPOLEtebook
5. ^ c_05/12210260 at Dorland's Medical Dictionary
6. ^ Chhabra S (1998). GPnotebook is a British medical database for General practitioners (GPs Dorland's is the brand name of a family of medical reference works (including dictionaries, spellers word books and spell-check software) in various media (including Dorland's is the brand name of a family of medical reference works (including dictionaries, spellers word books and spell-check software) in various media (including "Forced vital capacity, slow vital capacity, or inspiratory vital capacity: which is the best measure of vital cap!!acity?". J Asthma 35 (4): 361-5. PMID 9669830.
7. ^ Physiology at MCG 4/4ch3/s4ch3_17
8. ^ Hackett diagnosed with asthma http://uk.eurosport.yahoo.com/21112007/58/hackett-diagnosed-asthma.html