Lunar phase (or Moon phase) refers to the appearance of the illuminated portion of the Moon as seen by an observer, usually on Earth. The lunar phases vary cyclically as the Moon orbits the Earth, according to the changing relative positions of the Earth, Moon, and Sun. In Physics, an orbit is the gravitationally curved path of one object around a point or another body for example the gravitational orbit of a planet around a star The Sun (Sol is the Star at the center of the Solar System. One half of the lunar surface is always illuminated by the Sun (except during lunar eclipses), and is hence bright, but the portion of the illuminated hemisphere that is visible to an observer can vary from 100% (full moon) to 0% (new moon). The Sun (Sol is the Star at the center of the Solar System. A lunar eclipse occurs whenever the Moon passes through some portion of the Earth's shadow Full moon is a Lunar phase that occurs when the Moon is on the opposite side of the Earth from the Sun. This article is about the lunar phase for other uses see New Moon (disambiguation. The boundary between the illuminated and unilluminated hemispheres is called the terminator. The terminator is a fictive line that delimits the illuminated day side and dark Night side of a planetary body (also known as the "grey line" or
Lunar phases are the result of seeing the illuminated half of the Moon from different viewing geometries: they are not caused by shadows of the Earth on the Moon that occur during a lunar eclipse. A lunar eclipse occurs whenever the Moon passes through some portion of the Earth's shadow The Moon exhibits different phases as the relative geometry of the Sun, Earth, and Moon change, appearing as a full moon when the Sun and Moon are on opposite sides of the Earth, and as a new moon (also named dark moon, as it is not visible at night) when they are on the same side. Full moon is a Lunar phase that occurs when the Moon is on the opposite side of the Earth from the Sun. This article is about the lunar phase for other uses see New Moon (disambiguation. A dark moon describes the Moon during that time that it is invisible against the backdrop of the Sun in the Sky. The phases of full moon and new moon are examples of syzygies, which occur when the Earth, Moon, and Sun lie (approximately) in a straight line. In broadest terms Syzygy (ˈsɪzɪʤi is a kind of unity especially through coordination or alignment most commonly used in the Astronomical and/or Astrological The time between two full moons (and between successive occurrences of the same phase) is about 29. 53 days (29 days, 12 hours, 44 minutes) on average. This synodic month is longer than the time it takes the Moon to make one orbit about the Earth with respect to the fixed stars (the sidereal month), which is about 27. The month is a unit of Time, used with Calendars which is approximately as long as some natural period related to the motion of the Moon; The orbital period is the time taken for a given object to make one complete Orbit about another object The month is a unit of Time, used with Calendars which is approximately as long as some natural period related to the motion of the Moon; 32 days. This difference is caused by the fact that the Earth-Moon system is orbiting about the Sun at the same time the Moon is orbiting about the Earth. The actual time between two syzygies is variable because the orbit of the Moon is elliptic and subject to various periodic perturbations, which change the velocity of the Moon. In Physics, an orbit is the gravitationally curved path of one object around a point or another body for example the gravitational orbit of a planet around a star
It might be expected that once every month when the Moon passes between Earth and the Sun during a new moon, its shadow would fall on Earth causing a solar eclipse. A solar eclipse occurs when the Moon passes between the Sun and the Earth so that the Sun is wholly or partially obscured Likewise, during every full moon, we might expect the Earth's shadow to fall on the Moon, causing a lunar eclipse. A lunar eclipse occurs whenever the Moon passes through some portion of the Earth's shadow We do not observe a solar and lunar eclipse every month because the plane of the Moon's orbit around the Earth is tilted by about 5 degrees with respect to the plane of Earth's orbit around the Sun. Thus, when new and full moons occur, the Moon usually lies to the north or south of a direct line through the Earth and Sun. Although an eclipse can only occur when the Moon is either new or full, it must also be positioned very near the intersection of Earth's orbit plane about the Sun and the Moon's orbit plane about the Earth (that is, at one of its nodes). An eclipse is an astronomical event that occurs when one Celestial object moves into the shadow of another The lunar nodes are the Orbital nodes of the Moon, that is the points where the orbit of the Moon crosses the Ecliptic (which is the apparent This happens about twice per year, and so there are between 4 and 7 eclipses in a calendar year. Most of these are quite insignificant; major eclipses of the Moon or Sun are relatively rare. An eclipse is an astronomical event that occurs when one Celestial object moves into the shadow of another
The phases of the Moon have been given the following names, which are listed in sequential order:
|Phase||Northern Hemisphere||Southern Hemisphere|
|Dark Moon||Not visible||Not visible|
|New Moon||Not visible, or traditionally, the first visible crescent of the Moon|
|Waxing Crescent Moon . Northern Hemisphere is the half of a Planet that is North of the Equator —the word hemisphere literally means 'half ball' Southern Hemisphere is the half of a Planet that is South of the Equator —the word hemisphere literally means 'half ball' For things named Crescent see Crescent (disambiguation. In art and symbolism a crescent is generally the shape produced when a||Right 1-49% visible||Left 1-49% visible|
|First Quarter Moon||Right 50% visible||Left 50% visible|
|Waxing gibbous Moon||Right 51-99% visible||Left 51-99% visible|
|Full Moon||Fully visible||Fully visible|
|Waning gibbous Moon||Left 51-99% visible||Right 51-99% visible|
|Last Quarter Moon||Left 50% visible||Right 50% visible|
|Waning Crescent Moon||Left 1-49% visible||Right 1-49% visible|
When the Sun and Moon are aligned on the same side of the Earth, the Moon is "new", and the side of the Moon visible from Earth is not illuminated by the Sun. As the Moon waxes (the amount of illuminated surface as seen from Earth is increasing), the lunar phases progress from new moon, crescent moon, first-quarter moon, gibbous moon and full moon phases, before returning through the gibbous moon, third-quarter moon, crescent moon and new moon phases. The terms old moon and new moon are interchangeable, although new moon is more common. Half moon is often used to mean the first- and third-quarter moons.
When a sphere is illuminated on one hemisphere and viewed from a different angle, the portion of the illuminated area that is visible will have a two-dimensional shape defined by the intersection of an ellipse and circle (where the major axis of the ellipse coincides with a diameter of the circle). If the half-ellipse is convex with respect to the half-circle, then the shape will be gibbous (bulging outwards), whereas if the half-ellipse is concave with respect to the half-circle, then the shape will be a crescent. For things named Crescent see Crescent (disambiguation. In art and symbolism a crescent is generally the shape produced when a
In the northern hemisphere, if the left side of the Moon is dark then the light part is growing, and the Moon is referred to as waxing (moving towards a full moon). Northern Hemisphere is the half of a Planet that is North of the Equator —the word hemisphere literally means 'half ball' If the right side of the Moon is dark then the light part is shrinking, and the Moon is referred to as waning (moving towards a new moon). Assuming that one is in the northern hemisphere, the right portion of the Moon is the part that is always growing.
The average calendrical month, which is 1/12 of a year, is about 30. A lunar calendar is a Calendar that is based on cycles of the Moon phase. 4 days, while the Moon's phase (synodic) cycle repeats every 29. 53 days. Therefore the timing of the Moon's phases shifts by an average of about one day for each successive month. If you photographed the Moon's phase every day for a month, starting in the evening after sunset, and repeating approximately 25 minutes later each successive day, ending in the morning before sunrise, you could create a composite image like the example calendar below from May 8, 2005 to June 6, 2005. Note that there is no picture on May 20 since a picture would be taken before midnight on May 19, and after midnight on May 21. For a similar reason, if you look at a calendar listing moon rise or set times, there will be days where the moon neither rises nor sets.
See 3D Moon phases simulation, to interact with the Moon and see the "dark side of the Moon", the invisible side of the Moon from earth.