|Born||Luis Buñuel Portolés|
February 22, 1900
Calanda, Teruel, Aragón, Spain
|Died||July 29, 1983 (aged 83)|
Mexico City, Mexico
|Spouse(s)||Jeanne Buñuel (1925 - his death)|
Luis Buñuel Portolés (February 22, 1900 – July 29, 1983) was a Spanish filmmaker who worked mainly in Mexico and France, but also in his native country and the United States. Events 1495 - King Charles VIII of France enters Naples to claim the city's throne Year 1900 ( MCM) was an exceptional Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar Calanda is a town in the province of Teruel, in Aragon, Spain. Teruel is a province of Aragon, in the northeast of Spain. It is bordered by the provinces of Tarragona, Castellón, Valencia Aragon ( Spanish: "Aragón") is an autonomous community of Spain. Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Events 1014 - Byzantine-Bulgarian Wars: Battle of Kleidion: Byzantine emperor Basil II inflicts a decisive defeat Year 1983 ( MCMLXXXIII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1983 Gregorian calendar) Mexico City (in Spanish: Ciudad de México, México DF, México or simply Méjico) is the Capital city of Mexico The United Mexican States ( or commonly Mexico (ˈmɛksɪkoʊ () is a federal constitutional Republic in North America. Events 1495 - King Charles VIII of France enters Naples to claim the city's throne Year 1900 ( MCM) was an exceptional Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar Events 1014 - Byzantine-Bulgarian Wars: Battle of Kleidion: Byzantine emperor Basil II inflicts a decisive defeat Year 1983 ( MCMLXXXIII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1983 Gregorian calendar) A film director, or filmmaker, is a person who directs the making of a Film. The United Mexican States ( or commonly Mexico (ˈmɛksɪkoʊ () is a federal constitutional Republic in North America. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the He is considered one of Spanish cinema's finest directors, and one of the most important directors in the history of cinema.
Buñuel was born in Calanda, Teruel in the province of Aragón, Spain. Calanda is a town in the province of Teruel, in Aragon, Spain. Teruel is a province of Aragon, in the northeast of Spain. It is bordered by the provinces of Tarragona, Castellón, Valencia Aragon ( Spanish: "Aragón") is an autonomous community of Spain. Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. His parents were Leonardo Buñuel and María Portolés; he had two brothers, Alfonso and Leonardo, and four sisters, Alicia, Concepción, Margarita and María. He had a strict Jesuit education at the Colegio del Salvador in Zaragoza from which he was expelled. The Society of Jesus ( Latin: Societas Iesu, SJ and SI or SJ, SI) is a Catholic religious order Zaragoza, also called Saragossa in English, is the capital city of the Zaragoza province and of the autonomous community and former Later he went to university in Madrid. Madrid (pronounced in English in Spanish and colloquially in Spain) is the Capital and largest city of Spain. While studying at the University of Madrid (current-day Universidad Complutense de Madrid) he became a very close friend of painter Salvador Dalí and poet Federico García Lorca, among other important Spanish artists living in the Residencia de Estudiantes. Salvador Domingo Felipe Jacinto Dalí i Domènech 1st Marquis of Púbol (May 11 1904 &ndash January 23 1989 was a Spanish Catalan Surrealist Federico García Lorca' ( 5 June 1898 &ndash 19 August 1936) was a Spanish Poet and dramatist also remembered as The Residencia de Estudiantes, literally the "Student Residence" is a one of the original Spanish cultural centers in Madrid, Spain. Buñuel first studied the natural sciences and agronomy, then engineering, but later switched to philosophy. In Science, the term natural science refers to a naturalistic approach to the study of the Universe, which is understood as obeying rules or law of Agronomy is the science and technology of using plants for food fuel feed and fiber Engineering is the Discipline and Profession of applying technical and scientific Knowledge and Philosophy is the study of general problems concerning matters such as existence knowledge truth beauty justice validity mind and language In 1925, he moved to Paris where he began work as a secretary in an organization called the International Society of Intellectual Cooperation. Paris (ˈpærɨs in English; in French) is the Capital of France and the country's largest city He later found work in France as a director's assistant to Jean Epstein on Mauprat and Mario Nalpas on La Sirène des Tropiques and he co-wrote and then filmed a 16-minute short film Un chien andalou (1929) with Dalí. Jean Epstein ( 25 March 1897, Warsaw &ndash 3 April 1953, Paris) was a film director and early film theoretician Un chien andalou ( An Andalusian Dog) is a 1928 short Surrealist film made in France by two Spanish auteurs the Aragonian This film, featuring a series of startling and sometimes horrifying images of Freudian nature (such as what appears to be the slow slicing of a woman's eyeball with a razor blade) was enthusiastically received by French surrealists of the time, and continues to be shown regularly in film societies to this day. Sigmund Freud (ˈziːkmʊnt ˈfʁɔʏt born Sigismund Shlomo Freud (May 6 1856 &ndash September 23 1939 was an Austrian Psychiatrist who founded Surrealism is a cultural movement that began in the early-1920s and is best known for the visual artworks and writings of the group members
He followed this with L'Âge d'or (1930), partly based on the Marquis de Sade's 120 Days of Sodom. L'Âge d'Or ( The Golden Age) is a 1930 surrealist Film directed by Luis Buñuel and written by Buñuel and Salvador Donatien Alphonse François de Sade, Marquis de Sade ( June 2, 1740 – December 2, 1814) ( was a French aristocrat The film was begun as a second collaboration with Dalí but became Buñuel's solo project after a falling-out they had before filming began. During this film he worked around his technical ignorance by filming mostly in sequence and using nearly every foot of film that he shot. L'Âge d'or was read to be an attack on Catholicism, and thus, precipitated an even larger scandal than Un chien andalou. The right-wing press criticized the film and the police placed a ban on it that lasted 50 years. In Politics, right-wing, the political right, and the Right are positions that uphold traditional values and/or authorities
Following L'Âge d'or, Buñuel returned to Spain and directed Las Hurdes: Tierra Sin Pan (Land Without Bread, 1933), a documentary on peasant life. Las Hurdes Tierra Sin Pan ( 1932) ( English language: Land Without Bread or Unpromised Land) is a 27-minute-long Documentary film is a broad category of visual expression that is based on the attempt in one fashion or another to " Document " reality A peasant is an agricultural worker who subsists by working a small plot of ground This was a convulse period which led, in 1936, to the Spanish Civil War. The Spanish Civil War was a major conflict in Spain that started after an attempted Coup d'état committed by parts of the army against the government of The times were changing quickly and Buñuel could see that someone with his political and artistic sensibilities would have no place in a fascist Spain. Fascism is a totalitarian nationalist and corporatist ideology He co-wrote and produced a documentary short about the changing political climes in Spain entitled España 1936. A documentary short made by Luis Buñuel about the early days of the Spanish Civil War.
After the Spanish Civil War, Buñuel was exiled and moved to the United States. The Spanish Civil War was a major conflict in Spain that started after an attempted Coup d'état committed by parts of the army against the government of Buñuel moved to Hollywood to capitalize on the short-lived fad of producing completely new foreign-language versions of hit films for sales abroad. After Buñuel worked on a few Spanish-language remakes, the industry eventually turned instead to re-dubbing of dialogue. In filmmaking, dubbing or looping is the process of recording or replacing voices for a Motion picture. He then left Hollywood for New York, getting a job at the Museum of Modern Art (where he re-edited a shorter version of Leni Riefenstahl's documentary on Hitler, Triumph of the Will). The Museum of Modern Art (MoMA is an art museum located in Midtown Manhattan in New York City, USA, on 53rd Street between Fifth Helene Bertha Amalie "Leni" Riefenstahl ( August 22 1902 – September 8 2003) was a German Film director Hi and welcome to Wikipedia! Please understand that this article is frequently vandalized and vandalism is reverted immediately Triumph of the Will (Triumph des Willens is a propagandistic Documentary film by the German filmmaker
In his autobiography, The Secret Life of Salvador Dalí (1942), Dalí suggested that he had split with Buñuel because the latter was a Communist and an atheist. Communism is a Socioeconomic structure that promotes the establishment of an egalitarian, classless, stateless Society based Atheism Buñuel was fired (or resigned) from MOMA, supposedly after Cardinal Spellman of New York went to see Iris Barry, head of the film department at MOMA. Francis Joseph Cardinal Spellman ( May 4, 1889 – December 2, 1967) wasthe ninth Bishop and sixth Archbishop of the Iris Barry (1895 - 1969 was the founder of the film department of the Museum of Modern Art in New York City in 1935 Buñuel then went back to Hollywood where he worked in the dubbing department of Warner Brothers from 1942 to 1946. Warner Bros Entertainment Inc (or Warner Bros, Warner Bros Pictures) is one of the world's largest producers of Film and In his 1982 autobiography My Last Sigh, Buñuel wrote that he submitted a treatment to Warners about a disembodied hand which was later adapted into The Beast with Five Fingers (1946) with Peter Lorre. The Beast with Five Fingers ( 1946) is a Horror film directed by Robert Florey and with a screenplay by Curt Siodmak, based on Peter Lorre ( June 26 1904 &ndash March 23 1964) born László Löwenstein, was a Hungarian - Austrian Buñuel also wrote that, over the years, he rejected Dalí's attempts at reconciliation.
In 1972, Buñuel, along with his screenwriter Jean-Claude Carrière and producer Serge Silberman, was invited by George Cukor to his house. Jean-Claude Carrière (born September 17, 1931 in Colombières-sur-Orb, Hérault, France) is an award-winning Screenwriter Serge Silberman ( May 1, 1917 &ndash July 22, 2003) was a French Film producer. George Dewey Cukor ( July 7, 1899 – January 24, 1983) was an Academy Award -winning American Film director. This gathering was particularly memorable and other invitees included Alfred Hitchcock, Rouben Mamoulian, Robert Mulligan, George Stevens, Billy Wilder, Robert Wise and William Wyler. Sir Alfred Joseph Hitchcock, KBE (13 Rouben Mamoulian ( October 8, 1897 &ndash December 4, 1987) was an Armenian - American film and Theatre Robert Mulligan (born August 23, 1925 in The Bronx, New York) is an American film and television director George Stevens ( December 18, 1904 - March 8, 1975) was an Academy Award -winning American motion picture Billy Wilder ( June 22, 1906 – March 27, 2002) was an Austrian born Jewish - American Journalist Robert Wise ( September 10, 1914 &ndash September 14, 2005) was an American sound effects editor film editor and Academy William Wyler ( July 1, 1902 – July 27, 1981) was a four-time Academy Award -winning motion picture director 
Buñuel arrived in Mexico in 1946 and got the Mexican citizenship in 1949. The United Mexican States ( or commonly Mexico (ˈmɛksɪkoʊ () is a federal constitutional Republic in North America. The first film he directed there was the Gran Casino (1946), produced by Oscar Dancigers. Buñuel found the plot boring and it was not hugely successful. He later again collaborated with Dancigers in creating El Gran Calavera (1949), a successful film starring Fernando Soler. El Gran Calavera (The Great MadCap is a 1949 Mexican Comedy film directed by Luis Buñuel. Fernando Soler ( May 26 1896 in Saltillo - October 24 1979 in Mexico City) was a prolific Mexican As Buñuel himself has stated, he learned the techniques of directing and editing while shooting El Gran Calavera. Its success at the box office encouraged Dancigers to accept the production of a more ambitious film for which Buñuel, apart from writing the script, had complete freedom to direct. A box office is a place where tickets are sold to the public for Admission to a venue The result was his critically acclaimed Los Olvidados (1950), which was recently considered by UNESCO as part of the world's cultural heritage. Los Olvidados ( The Forgotten Ones) is a 1950 Mexican film directed by Spanish - Mexican filmaker Luis Buñuel United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization ( UNESCO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established on November 16 Los Olvidados (and its triumph at Cannes) made Buñuel an instant world celebrity and the most important Spanish-speaking film director in the world. The Cannes Film Festival (le Festival de Cannes founded in 1946 is one of the world's oldest most influential and prestigious Film festivals alongside Venice,
Buñuel spent most of his later life in Mexico, where he directed 21 films. Those films included:
After the golden age of the Mexican film industry ended, Buñuel started to work in France along with Silberman and Carrière. During this "French Period", Buñuel directed some of his best-known works: Le Journal d'une femme de chambre (Diary of a Chambermaid), free adaptation of the famous Octave Mirbeau's novel Le journal d'une femme de chambre ; Belle de Jour ; Cet obscur objet du désir (That Obscure Object of Desire) ; and Le Charme discret de la bourgeoisie (The Discreet Charm of the Bourgeoisie) - as well as some lesser-known films such as The Phantom of Liberty and La Voie lactée (The Milky Way). Diary of a Chambermaid ( French: Le journal d'une femme de chambre) is a 1964 film Octave Mirbeau ( February 16, 1848 in Trévières - February 16, 1917) was a French Journalist, Art critic This article is on the novel For the Bunuel film see Diary of a Chambermaid (1964 film, for the Jean Renoir film see The Diary of a Chambermaid (1946 film Belle de jour is a 1967 French film starring Catherine Deneuve as a woman who decides to spend her days as a prostitute while her husband is at work That Obscure Object of Desire ( Cet obscur objet du désir; Spanish: Ese oscuro objeto del deseo) is a 1977 Film The Discreet Charm of the Bourgeoisie ( Le charme discret de la bourgeoisie) is a 1972 surrealist Film written and directed by The Phantom of Liberty ( Le Fantôme de la liberté) is a 1974 Luis Buñuel film produced by Serge Silberman and starring The Milky Way ( La Voie Lactée) is a 1969 film directed by Luis Buñuel.
After the release of Cet obscur objet du désir (1977) he retired from film making, and wrote (with Carrière) an autobiography, Mon Dernier Soupir (My Last Sigh), published in 1982, which provides an account of Buñuel's life, friends, and family as well as a representation of his eccentric personality. In it he recounts dreams, encounters with many well known writers, actors, and artists such as Pablo Picasso and Charlie Chaplin, and antics such as dressing up as a nun and walking around town. Pablo Diego José Francisco de Paula Juan Nepomuceno María de los Remedios Cipriano de la Santísima Trinidad Martyr Patricio Clito Ruíz y Picasso (October 25 1881 &ndash April 8 1973 A Nun is a Woman who has taken special vows committing her to a religious life As one might deduce from these antics, Buñuel was famous for his atheism. In a 1960 interview with Michele Manceaux in L'Express, Buñuel famously declared: "I am still, thank God, an atheist. "
Buñuel almost seemed to repudiate this statement in a 1977 article in The New Yorker. The New Yorker is an American Magazine that publishes reportage commentary criticism essays fiction satire cartoons and poetry "I'm not a Christian, but I'm not an atheist, either", he said. A Christian is a person who adheres to Christianity, a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth "I'm weary of hearing that accidental old aphorism of mine, 'I'm an atheist, thank God. ' It's outworn. Dead leaves. In 1951, I made a small film called Mexican Bus Ride, about a village too poor to support a church and a priest. The place was serene, because no one suffered from guilt. It's guilt we must escape from, not God. "
He married Jeanne Rucar in a town hall in Paris in 1934 and they remained married throughout his life. His sons are Rafael and Juan Luis Buñuel. Diego Buñuel, filmmaker and host of the National Geographic Channel's Don't Tell my Mother I am in. National Geographic Channel, also called Nat Geo, is a subscription television network that features Documentaries produced by the National Geographic Society . . series, is his grandson.
He died in Mexico City in 1983. Mexico City (in Spanish: Ciudad de México, México DF, México or simply Méjico) is the Capital city of Mexico
Buñuel's films were famous for their surreal imagery; they include scenes in which chickens populate nightmares, women grow beards, and aspiring saints are desired by luscious women. Even in the many movies he made for hire (rather than for his own creative reasons), such as Susana, Robinson Crusoe, and The Great Madcap, he always added his trademark of disturbing and surreal images. Robinson Crusoe ( 1954) is a film by director Luis Buñuel. The film is based on the novel Robinson Crusoe by Daniel Running through his own films is a backbone of surrealism; Buñuel's world is one in which an entire dinner party suddenly finds themselves inexplicably unable to leave the room and go home, a bad dream hands a man a letter which he brings to the doctor the next day, and where the devil, if unable to tempt a saint with a pretty girl, will fly him to a disco. Satan, ( Standard Hebrew Satan'el, English accuser) is a term that originates from the Abrahamic faiths, being traditionally Disco is a Genre of dance-oriented music whose origins are hard to define An example of a more Dada influence can be found in Cet obscur objet du désir, when Mathieu closes his eyes and has his valet spin him around and direct him to a map on the wall. For other meanings see Dada (disambiguation DaDa is a Concept album by Alice Cooper, released That Obscure Object of Desire ( Cet obscur objet du désir; Spanish: Ese oscuro objeto del deseo) is a 1977 Film
Buñuel never explained or promoted his work. On one occasion, when his son was interviewed about The Exterminating Angel, Buñuel instructed him to give facetious answers; for example, when asked about the presence of a bear in the socialites' house, Buñuel fils claimed it was because his father liked bears. The exterminating angel, or in original Spanish El ángel exterminador, is the second of the Buñuel/Alatriste/Pinal film trilogy written and Similarly, the several repeated scenes in the film were explained as having been put there to increase the running time.
Many of his films were openly critical of middle class morals and organized religion, mocking the Roman Catholic Church for hypocrisy. The middle class, in colloquial usage consists of those who have some economic independence but not a great deal of social Influence or power. Morality (from the Latin la moralitas "manner character proper behavior" has three principal meanings A religion is a set of Tenets and practices often centered upon specific Supernatural and moral claims about Reality, the Cosmos Many of his most famous films demonstrate this:
The story of the making of Viridiana is illustrative. Buñuel's earlier Spanish and French films from the 1930s were regarded as cinema landmarks -- Un Chien Andalou, L'Âge d'or, and Las Hurdes (also known as Tierra sin Pan or Land Without Bread) (1933). French ( français,) is a Romance language spoken around the world by 118 million people as a native language and by about 180 to 260 million people Las Hurdes or Las Jurdes is a Comarca in Cáceres Province of Extremadura, one of Spain's seventeen Autonomous Communities The advent of the Spanish Civil War in 1936, however, caused the expatriation of many artists and intellectuals from the fascist dictatorship of Franco, whose military revolt and rise to power had had the strong backing of the Spanish Catholic hierarchy. An expatriate (in abbreviated form expat) is a person temporarily or permanently residing in a country and culture other than that of the person's upbringing A dictatorship is usually defined as an autocratic Form of government in which the Government is ruled by a Dictator.
Had Buñuel stayed in Spain, his fate might have been the same as that of his friend, poet Federico García Lorca, who was assassinated at the outset of Franco's military revolt. Federico García Lorca' ( 5 June 1898 &ndash 19 August 1936) was a Spanish Poet and dramatist also remembered as After some years of artistic silence forced by the difficult circumstances of his expatriation, Buñuel, then residing in Mexico, returned in full force to writing and directing with some of his best films, which once more won him international acclaim.
In 1960, for political propaganda reasons, Franco instructed his minister of culture to invite the country's most famous filmmaker to return to Spain to direct a film of his choice. Propaganda is a concerted set of messages aimed at influencing the opinions or behaviors of large numbers of people Buñuel accepted and proceeded to make Viridiana, promptly departing from the country after finishing the film, but leaving a few official copies. Viridiana is a 1961 Spanish - Mexican Coproduction, directed by Luis Buñuel and produced in Spain by Mexican After viewing them, the copies were burned by the dictator's authorities. The minister of culture was reprimanded for having passed the screenplay in the first place. See also Pre-production Screenwriting A screenplay or script is a written plan authored by a Screenwriter, for a Film or Television A copy of Viridiana, however, had been smuggled to France, where it proceeded to win the Palme D'Or of the Cannes International Film Festival. The Palme d'Or ( English: Golden Palm) is the highest prize awarded to competing films at the Cannes Film Festival. The Cannes Film Festival (le Festival de Cannes founded in 1946 is one of the world's oldest most influential and prestigious Film festivals alongside Venice, The film was banned in Spain, but got international attention and praise (with some exceptions). The Vatican's official press organ, l'Osservatore Romano, published an article calling Viridiana an insult not only to Catholicism, but to Christianity itself. The Holy See is the episcopal jurisdiction of the Bishop of Rome, commonly known as the Pope, and is the preeminent Episcopal see of the Roman Catholic L'Osservatore Romano ( English: The Roman Observer) is the "semi-official" Newspaper of the Holy See. Christianity ( Greek Χριστιανισμός from the word Xριστός ( Christ)is a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings
Buñuel's style of directing was extremely economical. He shot films in a few weeks, never deviating from his script and shooting in order as much as possible to minimize editing time. He told actors as little as possible, and limited his directions mostly to physical movements ("move to the right", "walk down the hall and go through that door", etc. ). He often refused to answer actors' questions and was known to simply turn off his hearing aid on the set; though they found it difficult at the time, many actors who worked with him acknowledged later that his approach made for fresh and excellent performances.
Buñuel preferred scenes which could simply be pieced together end-to-end in the editing room, resulting in long, mobile, wide shots which followed the action of the scene. Examples are especially present in his French films. For example, at the restaurant / ski resort in Belle de jour, Séverin, Pierre, and Henri are conversing at a table. Belle de jour is a 1967 French film starring Catherine Deneuve as a woman who decides to spend her days as a prostitute while her husband is at work Buñuel cuts away from their conversation to two young women who walk down a few steps and proceed through the restaurant, passing behind Séverin, Pierre, and Henri, at which point the camera stops and the young women walk out of frame. Henri then comments on the women and the conversation at the table progresses from there.
Buñuel disliked non-diegetic music, and avoided it in his films, though traditional drums from Calanda sound in most of his films. Diegesis is the (fictional world in which the situations and events narrated occur and telling recounting as opposed to showing enacting Calanda is a town in the province of Teruel, in Aragon, Spain. The films of his French era were not scored and some (Belle de jour, Diary of a Chambermaid) contain absolutely no music whatsoever. This article is on the novel For the Bunuel film see Diary of a Chambermaid (1964 film, for the Jean Renoir film see The Diary of a Chambermaid (1946 film Belle de Jour does, however, feature (potentially) non-diegetic sound effects, believed by some to be clues as to whether or not the current scene is a dream. For the album by The Jam see Sound Affects. Sound effects or audio effects are artificially created or enhanced Sounds
Luis Buñuel was given the Career Golden Lion in 1982 by the Venice Film Festival and the FIPRESCI Prize - Honorable Mention in 1969 by the Berlin Film Festival. The Venice Film Festival is the oldest Film festival in the world The Berlin International Film Festival, also called the Berlinale, is one of the world's leading Film festivals and most reputable media events held in Berlin