Lower Manhattan (or downtown Manhattan) is the southernmost part of the island of Manhattan, the main island and center of business and government of the City of New York. Manhattan Island, in New York Harbor, is much the largest part of the Borough of Manhattan, one of the Five Boroughs which form the City of New York Manhattan Island, in New York Harbor, is much the largest part of the Borough of Manhattan, one of the Five Boroughs which form the City of New York The City of New York Lower Manhattan or "downtown" is defined most commonly as the area delineated on the north by 14th Street, on the west by the Hudson River, on the east by the East River, and on the south by New York Harbor (also known as Upper New York Bay). The Hudson River, called Muh-he-kun-ne-tuk, the Great Mohegan by the Iroquois, or as the Lenape Native Americans called it in Unami The East River is a tidal Strait in New York City. It connects Upper New York Bay on its south end to Long Island Sound on its north end New York Harbor, a geographic term refers collectively to the rivers bays and tidal estuaries near the mouth of the Hudson River in the vicinity of New York City See also Geography and environment of New York City Upper New York Bay, sometimes called Upper New York Harbor or the Upper Bay, is When referring specifically to the lower Manhattan business district and its immediate environs, the northern border is commonly designated by thoroughfares approximately a mile-and-a-half south of 14th Street and a mile north of the island's southern tip: Chambers Street from near the Hudson east to the Brooklyn Bridge entrances and overpass. Chambers Street is a bi-directional (two way street in the Manhattan borough of New York City. The Brooklyn Bridge, one of the oldest Suspension bridges in the United States, stretches 5989 feet (1825 m over the East River connecting the Two other major arteries are also sometimes identified as lower Manhattan's northern border: Canal Street, roughly half a mile north of Chambers Street, and 23rd Street, roughly half a mile north of 14th Street. Canal Street is a major street in New York City, crossing lower Manhattan to join New Jersey in the west (via the Holland Tunnel 23rd Street is a large thoroughfare across the New York City borough of Manhattan.
The lower Manhattan business district forms the core of the area below Chambers Street. Greenwich Village (ˌgrɛnɪtʃ ˈvɪlɪdʒ often simply called the Village, is a largely residential area on the west side of downtown (southern Manhattan Brownstone is a brown Triassic Sandstone which was once a popular Building material. It includes the Financial District—often referred to as Wall Street, after its primary artery—and the site of the World Trade Center. The Financial District of New York City (sometimes called FiDi) is a neighborhood on the southernmost section of the borough of Manhattan which Wall Street is a street in lower Manhattan, New York City, United States. The World Trade Center in New York City, United States (sometimes informally the WTC or Twin Towers) was a complex of seven buildings in Lower Manhattan At the island's southern tip is Battery Park; City Hall is just to the north of the Financial District. Battery Park is a 25-acre (10 hectare public park located at the Battery the southern tip of the New York City borough of Manhattan, facing New York City Hall is located at the center of City Hall Park in the Civic Center section of Lower Manhattan between Broadway, Park Row and Also south of Chambers Street are the planned community of Battery Park City and the South Street Seaport historic area. A new town, planned community or planned city is a City, Town, or Community that was carefully planned from its inception and is typically Battery Park City is a 92 acre (04 km² Planned community at the southwestern tip of Lower Manhattan in New York City, United States. The South Street Seaport is a historic area in the New York City borough of Manhattan, located where Fulton Street meets the East River The neighborhood of TriBeCa straddles Chambers on the west side; at the street's east end is the giant Manhattan Municipal Building. TriBeCa is a Neighborhood in Lower Manhattan, New York in the United States. The Manhattan Municipal Building, at 1 Centre Street in New York City, is a 40-story building built to accommodate increased governmental space demands after the 1898 North of Chambers and the Brooklyn Bridge and south of Canal Street lies most of New York's oldest Chinatown neighborhood. ||-||-||-||}The Chinatown neighborhood of Manhattan &mdash (紐約華埠 a borough of New York City &mdash is an Ethnic enclave with a large Many court buildings and other government offices are also located in this area. The New York City court system consists of civil criminal and family courts Foley Square is a green space in Lower Manhattan, New York City. The Lower East Side neighborhood straddles Canal. The Lower East Side is a Neighborhood in the southeastern part of the New York City borough of Manhattan. North of Canal and south of 14th Street are the neighborhoods of SoHo, the Meatpacking District, the West Village, Greenwich Village, Little Italy, Nolita, and the East Village. This article is about an area of Manhattan, New York City. For the area in London UK see Soho. The Meatpacking District, officially known as Gansevoort Market, and also known as MePa, is a Neighborhood in the New York City borough For the West Village development in Dallas, Texas, see West Village Dallas Texas The West Village is the western portion Greenwich Village (ˌgrɛnɪtʃ ˈvɪlɪdʒ often simply called the Village, is a largely residential area on the west side of downtown (southern Manhattan "Nolita" redirects here For the Italian fashion designer see No The East Village is a neighborhood in the borough of Manhattan in New York City. Between 14th and 23rd streets are lower Chelsea, Union Square, the Flatiron District, Gramercy, and the large residential development Peter Cooper Village—Stuyvesant Town. Chelsea is a neighborhood on the West Side of the Manhattan borough of New York City. Union Square Park (also known as Union Square) is an important and historic intersection in New York City, located where Broadway and the Bowery The Flatiron District is a small neighborhood in the New York City borough of Manhattan, named after the Flatiron Building at 23rd Street Gramercy, a real-estate term extending fashionable Gramercy Park, is a neighborhood in the New York City borough of Manhattan, focused around Peter Cooper Village —Stuyvesant Town is a large private residential development on the East Side of the borough of Manhattan in New York City
The lower Manhattan business district is the fourth largest central business district in the United States, after Midtown Manhattan, Chicago's Loop, and Washington, D.C. The area was previously the third largest CBD. The New York Stock Exchange ( NYSE) is a Stock exchange based in New York City. A central business district ( CBD) is the commercial and often geographic heart of a city See also Manhattan Midtown Manhattan, or simply Midtown, is an area of Manhattan, New York City home to world-famous commercial Chicago (ʃɪˈkɑːgoʊ is the largest City by population in the state of Illinois and the American Midwest of the United States. Population According to the 2000 Census, 16388 people live in the Loop Washington DC ( formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington, the District, or simply D  Lower Manhattan fell to fourth place due to the district's loss of the World Trade Center, which contributed over 16,000,000 square feet (1,500,000 m²) of office space to the area. The square footage lost in the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks was equivalent to the office space then in the entire city of Cincinnati. It is expected that the district will regain its third place ranking after the construction of the Freedom Tower, which is planned to yield close to the original center's square footage of rentable commercial space, and the construction of new headquarters for financial firm Goldman Sachs. 1 World Trade Center, or the Freedom Tower, is the main building of the new World Trade Center complex currently under construction in Lower Manhattan in The Goldman Sachs Group Inc, or simply Goldman Sachs ( is a large global Bank holding company that engages in Investment banking securities
The Dutch established the first European settlements in Manhattan, which were located at the lower end of the island. The Netherlands ( Dutch:, ˈnedərlɑnt is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which consists of the Netherlands the Netherlands  The first fort was built at the Battery to protect New Netherland. Battery Park is a 25-acre (10 hectare public park located at the Battery the southern tip of the New York City borough of Manhattan, facing New Netherland (Dutch Nieuw-Nederland, Latin Novum Belgium or Nova Belgica) 1614–1674 is the name of the former Dutch territory on the eastern coast In 1771, Bear Market was established along the Hudson shore on land donated by Trinity Church, and replaced by Washington Market in 1813.  Washington Market was located between Barclay and Hubert Streets, and from Greenwich to West Street.  The area remains one of the few parts of Manhattan where the street grid system is largely irregular. The grid plan or gridiron plan is a type of City plan in which Streets run at right angles to each other forming a grid. Throughout the early decades of the 1900s, the area experienced a construction boom, with major towers such as 40 Wall Street, the American International Building, Woolworth Building, and 20 Exchange Place being erected. 40 Wall Street is a 70-story Skyscraper originally known as the Bank of Manhattan Trust building, but then became known by the numerical address when its founding The American International Building is a 66- story, 952 foot (290 m tall Building in Lower Manhattan in New York City. The Woolworth Building, at 57 stories is one of the oldest—and one of the most famous— Skyscrapers in New York City. City Bank-Farmers Trust Company Building New York is a 59 floor Art Deco building in New York City.
In the 1950s, a few new buildings were constructed in lower Manhattan, including an 11-story building at 156 William Street in 1955.  A 27-story office building at 20 Broad Street, a 12-story building at 80 Pine Street, a 26-story building at 123 William Street, and a few others were built in 1957.  By the end of the decade, lower Manhattan had become economically depressed, in comparison with midtown Manhattan, which was booming. See also Manhattan Midtown Manhattan, or simply Midtown, is an area of Manhattan, New York City home to world-famous commercial David Rockefeller spearheaded widespread urban renewal efforts in lower Manhattan, beginning with construction One Chase Manhattan Plaza, the new headquarters for his bank. David Rockefeller Sr (born June 12, 1915) is a prominent American Banker, Statesman, Globalist and the current patriarch Urban Renewal (similar to Urban Regeneration in British English) is a controversial U One Chase Manhattan Plaza is a banking Skyscraper located in the downtown Manhattan Financial District of New York City (Between Pine Liberty Nassau He established the Downtown-Lower Manhattan Association (DLMA) which drew up plans for broader revitalization of lower Manhattan, with the development of a world trade center at the heart of these plans. The original DLMA plans called for the "world trade center" to be built along the East River, between Old Slip and Fulton Street. The East River is a tidal Strait in New York City. It connects Upper New York Bay on its south end to Long Island Sound on its north end Fulton Street is a busy street located in Lower Manhattan. It is in New York City 's Financial District, a few blocks north of Wall Street. After negotiations with New Jersey Governor Richard J. Hughes, the Port Authority ended up deciding to build the World Trade Center on a site along the Hudson River and the West Side Highway, rather than the East River site. New Jersey ( is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States. Richard Joseph Hughes (b August 10 1909, Florence Township New Jersey d The Port Authority of New York and New Jersey ( PANYNJ) is a bi-state Port district, established in 1921 (as the Port of New York Authority) through The World Trade Center in New York City, United States (sometimes informally the WTC or Twin Towers) was a complex of seven buildings in Lower Manhattan The Hudson River, called Muh-he-kun-ne-tuk, the Great Mohegan by the Iroquois, or as the Lenape Native Americans called it in Unami The West Side Highway (officially the Joe DiMaggio Highway, formerly the Miller Highway or West Side Elevated Highway) is a mostly-surface section of
Through much of its history, the area south of Chambers Street was mainly a commercial district, with a small population of residents. Union Square Park (also known as Union Square) is an important and historic intersection in New York City, located where Broadway and the Bowery In 1960, there were approximately 4,000 residents living downtown.  Construction of Battery Park City brought in many new residents to Lower Manhattan. Battery Park City is a 92 acre (04 km² Planned community at the southwestern tip of Lower Manhattan in New York City, United States. The Complex started construction in the 1980s from landfill from construction of the World Trade Center. Gateway Plaza, the first complex to be completed in Battery Park City, was finished in 1983. The World Financial Center was the centerpiece of the project, consisting of four luxurious highrise towers. The World Financial Center is a complex of buildings across West Street from the World Trade Center site in Lower Manhattan in New York City, By the turn of the century, Battery Park City was mostly completed, with the exception of some ongoing construction on West Street. Around this time, lower Manhattan reached its highest population of business tenants and full-time residents.
Since the early twentieth century, Lower Manhattan has been an important center for the arts and leisure activities. Greenwich Village was a locus of bohemian culture from the first decade of the century through the 1980s. The term bohemian, of French origin was first used in the English language in the nineteenth century to describe the untraditional lifestyles of marginalized and impoverished Artists Several of the city's leading jazz clubs are still located in Greenwich Village, which was also one of the primary bases of the American folk music revival of the 1960s. The American folk music revival was a phenomenon in the United States in the 1950s to mid-1960s Many art galleries were located in SoHo between the 1970s and early 1990s; today, the downtown Manhattan gallery scene is centered in Chelsea. From the 1960s onward, lower Manhattan has been home to many alternative theater companies, constituting the heart of the Off-Off-Broadway community. Off-Off-Broadway refers to theatrical productions including plays, musicals or Performance art pieces performed in New York City in smaller theatres Punk rock emerged in the mid-1970s largely at two venues: CBGB on the Bowery, the western edge of the East Village, and Max's Kansas City on Park Avenue South. CBGB ( Country, Blue Grass, and Blues) was a music club at 315 Bowery at Bleecker Street in the borough of Manhattan Bowery (ˈbaʊɚi or /ˈbaʊri/ is the name of a street and a small neighborhood in the southern portion of the New York City borough of Manhattan. Max's Kansas City was a Nightclub (upstairs and Restaurant (downstairs at 213 Park Avenue South between 17th and 18th Streets in New York City. Park Avenue (formerly Fourth Avenue) is a wide boulevard that carries north and southbound traffic in New York City Borough of Manhattan The area's many nightclubs and bars draw patrons from throughout the city and the surrounding region. Since the turn of the century, the Meatpacking District has gained a reputation as New York's trendiest neighborhood. 
The most famous landmark in lower Manhattan is now the former World Trade Center site. The World Trade Center in New York City, United States (sometimes informally the WTC or Twin Towers) was a complex of seven buildings in Lower Manhattan The World Trade Center in New York City, United States (sometimes informally the WTC or Twin Towers) was a complex of seven buildings in Lower Manhattan Before the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001 the Twin Towers were major New York icons.
The area contains many old and historic building and sites, including Castle Garden, originally the fort Castle Clinton, Bowling Green, the old United States Customs House, now the National Museum of the American Indian, Federal Hall, where George Washington was inaugurated as the first U.S. President, Fraunces Tavern, New York City Hall, the New York Stock Exchange, renovated original mercantile buildings of the South Street Seaport (and a modern tourist building), the Brooklyn Bridge, South Ferry, embarkation point for the Staten Island Ferry and ferries to Liberty Island and Ellis Island, and Trinity Church. Castle Clinton or Fort Clinton was once a circular sandstone Fort now located in Battery Park at the southern tip of Manhattan, New Castle Clinton or Fort Clinton was once a circular sandstone Fort now located in Battery Park at the southern tip of Manhattan, New Bowling Green is a small public park in Lower Manhattan at the foot of Broadway next to the site of the original Dutch fort of New Amsterdam. The Alexander Hamilton US Custom House (originally US Custom House) is a building in New York City, built 1902 - 1907 by the federal government to house the The Smithsonian’s National Museum of the American Indian is a museum dedicated to the life languages literature history and arts of the native peoples of the Western Hemisphere Federal Hall, located at 26 Wall Street in New York City, was the first capitol of the United States of America and the site of George Washington George Washington (February 22 1732 December 14 1799 served as the first President of the United States of America (1789&ndash1797 and led the The swearing-in of the President of the United States occurs upon the commencement of a new term of a President of the United States. The President of the United States is the Head of state and Head of government of the United States and is the highest political official in United States by Fraunces Tavern is a restaurant and museum in lower Manhattan, New York City. New York City Hall is located at the center of City Hall Park in the Civic Center section of Lower Manhattan between Broadway, Park Row and The New York Stock Exchange ( NYSE) is a Stock exchange based in New York City. The South Street Seaport is a historic area in the New York City borough of Manhattan, located where Fulton Street meets the East River The Brooklyn Bridge, one of the oldest Suspension bridges in the United States, stretches 5989 feet (1825 m over the East River connecting the South Ferry is at the southern tip of Manhattan Island in New York City and is the embarkation point for ferries to Staten Island ( The Staten Island Ferry is a passenger Ferry service operated by the New York City Department of Transportation that runs between Manhattan and Staten Liberty Island, formerly called Bedloe's Island, is a small uninhabited island in Upper New York Bay in the United States best known as the location of the Ellis Island, at the mouth of the Hudson River in New York Harbor Trinity Church, at 79 Broadway in New York City, is a historic full service Parish church in the Episcopal Diocese of New York. Lower Manhattan is home to some of New York City's most spectacular skyscrapers, including the Woolworth Building, 40 Wall Street (also known as the Trump Building), the Standard Oil Building at 26 Broadway, and the American International Building. The Woolworth Building, at 57 stories is one of the oldest—and one of the most famous— Skyscrapers in New York City. 40 Wall Street is a 70-story Skyscraper originally known as the Bank of Manhattan Trust building, but then became known by the numerical address when its founding Standard Oil was a predominant American integrated oil producing transporting refining and marketing company The American International Building is a 66- story, 952 foot (290 m tall Building in Lower Manhattan in New York City.
After the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, lower Manhattan lost much of its economy and office space. New Jersey ( is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States. While the area's economy has rebounded significantly, as of February 2008, the enormous site once occupied by the World Trade Center site remains undeveloped. The Lower Manhattan Development Corporation plans to rebuild downtown Manhattan, by adding new streets, buildings, and office space. The Lower Manhattan Development Corporation ( LMDC) was formed after the September 11 attacks to plan the reconstruction of Lower Manhattan and distribute
Downtown in the context of Manhattan, and of New York City generally, has different meanings to different people, especially depending on where in the city they reside. Downtown is a term primarily used in North America to refer to a city's core usually in a geographical commercial and community sense See Washington Square Park (disambiguation Washington Square Park is one of the best-known of New York City 's 1700 public Residents of the island generally speak of going "downtown" to refer to any southbound excursion to any Manhattan destination.  A declaration that one is going to be "downtown" may indicate a plan to be anywhere south of 14th Street—the definition of downtown according to the city's official tourism marketing organization—or even 23rd Street. 23rd Street is a large thoroughfare across the New York City borough of Manhattan.  The full phrase downtown Manhattan may also refer more specifically to the area of Manhattan south of Canal Street. Canal Street is a major street in New York City, crossing lower Manhattan to join New Jersey in the west (via the Holland Tunnel  Within business-related contexts, many people use the term downtown Manhattan to refer only to the Financial District and the corporate offices in the immediate vicinity. The phrase lower Manhattan is more often used in narrower senses, but may apply to any of these definitions: the broader ones often if the speaker is discussing the area in relation to the rest of the city; more restrictive ones, again, if the focus is on business matters or on the early colonial and postcolonial history of the island.
As reflected in popular culture, "downtown" in Manhattan has historically represented a place where one could "forget all your troubles, forget all your cares, and go Downtown," as the lyics of Petula Clark's 1964 hit "Downtown" celebrate. The Meatpacking District, officially known as Gansevoort Market, and also known as MePa, is a Neighborhood in the New York City borough Petula Clark, CBE (born 15 November 1932 is an English singer actress and Composer best known for her upbeat popular international hits " Downtown " is a pop song composed by Tony Hatch following a first-time visit to New York City. The protagonist of Billy Joel's 1983 hit "Uptown Girl" contrasts himself (a "downtown man") with the purportedly staid uptown world. William Martin Joel (born May 9 1949 is an American Pianist and Singer-songwriter. " Uptown Girl " is a Song performed by musician Billy Joel, whose lyrics deal with a working-class "downtown man" attempting to woo a wealthy  Likewise, the chorus of Neil Young's 1995 single "Downtown" urges "Let's have a party, downtown all right. Neil Percival Young OM (born November 12, 1945, Toronto Ontario) is a Canadian Singer-songwriter, Musician "
Institutions of higher education in Manhattan south of 14th Street include:
The New York City Department of Education operates New York City's public schools. The New York City Department of Education ( NYCDOE) is the branch of municipal government in New York City that manages the city's public school system The northeastern corner of lower Manhattan is covered by New York City School District 1, whose northern border is 14th Street. The rest of the area lies within School District 2, which covers midtown and part of upper Manhattan as well. District 1 is served by over twenty elementary and middle schools. The district's high schools include:
Public high schools in District 2 south of 14th Street include:
Private schools in the area include: