The London Company (also called the Charter of the Virginia Company of London) was an English joint stock company established by royal charter by James I of England on April 10, 1606 with the purpose of establishing colonial settlements in North America. England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland A joint stock company (JSC is a type of business entity it is a type of Corporation or Partnership. James VI and I (19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625 was King of Scotland as James VI, and King of England and King of Ireland as James Events 879 - Louis III becomes King of the Western Franks. 1407 - the lama It was not founded as a joint stock company, but became one under the 1609 charter. It was one of two such companies, along with the Plymouth Company, that was granted an identical charter as part of the Virginia Company. The Plymouth Company (the Plymouth Adventurers, also called the Virginia Company of Plymouth or simply Virginia Bay Company) was an English The Virginia Company refers collectively to a pair of English joint stock companies chartered by James I in 1606 with the purposes of establishing The London Company was responsible for establishing the Jamestown Settlement, the first permanent English settlement in the present United States in 1607, and in the process of sending additional supplies, inadvertently settled The Somers Isles (present day Bermuda), the oldest-remaining English colony, in 1609. Jamestown, located on Jamestown Island in the Virginia Colony, was founded on May 14 1607 Ba (officially The Bermuda Islands or The Somers Isles) is a British overseas territory in the North Atlantic Ocean.
The territory granted to the London Company included the coast of North America from 34th parallel (Cape Fear) north to the 41st parallel (in Long Island Sound), but being part of the Virginia Company and Colony, The London Company owned a large portion of Atlantic and Inland Canada. See also Geography of North Carolina The 41st parallel north is a Circle of latitude that is 41 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane. Long Island Sound is an Estuary of the Atlantic Ocean and various Rivers in the United States that lies between the coast of Connecticut The company was permitted by its charter to establish a 100-square-mile (260 km²) settlement within this area. The portion of the company's territory north of the 38th parallel was shared with the Plymouth Company, with the stipulation that neither company found a colony within 100 miles (161 km) of each other.
On May 14, 1607, the London Company established the Jamestown Settlement on the James River about 40 miles (64 km) upstream from the mouth of the Chesapeake Bay at Cape Henry. Events 1264 - Battle of Lewes: Henry III of England is captured in France making Simon de Montfort the The James River in the US state of Virginia is a long River, including its Jackson River source The Chesapeake Bay is the largest Estuary in the United States. Cape Henry is a cape on the Atlantic shore of Virginia in the Independent city of Virginia Beach. Later in 1607, the Plymouth Company established its Popham Colony in present day Maine, but it was abandoned after about a year. The Popham Colony (also known as the Sagadahoc Colony) was a short-lived English colonial settlement in North America that was founded in 1607 and The State of Maine ( is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States of America, bordering the Atlantic Ocean By 1609, the Plymouth Company had dissolved. As a result, the charter for the London Company was adjusted with a new grant that extended from "sea to sea" of the previously-shared area between the 34th and 40th parallel. It was amended in 1612 to include the new territory of Bermuda.
The London Company struggled financially for a number of years, with results improving after sweeter strains of tobacco than the native variety were cultivated and successfully exported from Virginia as a cash crop beginning in 1612. Tobacco is an Agricultural product recognized as an addictive drug processed from the fresh Leaves of plants in the genus Nicotiana. In Agriculture, a cash crop is a crop which is grown for Money. In 1624, the company lost its charter, and Virginia became a royal colony.
The business of the company was the settlement of the Virginia colony using, as the labor force, voluntary transportees under the customary indenture system whereby in exchange for seven years of labor for the company, the company provided passage, food, protection and land ownership. The Commonwealth of Virginia ( is an American state An indentured servant is a form of Debt bondage worker The Laborer is under Contract of an Employer for some period of time usually three to
In December 1606, the Virginia Company's three ships, containing 144 men and boys (40 died during the voyage), set sail from Blackwall, London. This entry concerns the area of London known as Blackwall For the type of merchant sailing ship first built there and named after it see Blackwall Frigate After an unusually long voyage of 144 days, they made landfall on April 26, 1607 at the southern edge of the mouth of the Chesapeake Bay, which they named Cape Henry. Events 1467 - The miraculous image in Our Lady of Good Counsel appear in Genazzano, Italy. The Chesapeake Bay is the largest Estuary in the United States. Cape Henry is a cape on the Atlantic shore of Virginia in the Independent city of Virginia Beach. Under orders to select a site further inland, on May 14, 1607, these first settlers selected the site of Jamestown Island as the place to build their fort. Events 1264 - Battle of Lewes: Henry III of England is captured in France making Simon de Montfort the Jamestown, located on Jamestown Island in the Virginia Colony, was founded on May 14 1607
In addition to survival, the early colonists had another pressing mission: to make a profit for the owners of the Virginia Company. Although the settlers were disappointed that gold did not wash up on the beach and gems did not grow in the trees, they realized there was great potential for wealth of other kinds in their new home. Early industries, such as glass manufacture, pitch and tar production and beer and wine making took advantage of natural resources and the land's fertility. From the outset it was thought that the abundance of timber would be the primary leg of the economy, as Britain's forests had long been felled. The seemingly inexhaustible supply of cheap American timber was to be the primary enabler of England's (and then Britain's) rise to maritime (merchant and naval) supremacy. However, the settlers could not devote as much time as the Virginia Company would have liked to their financial responsibilities. They were too busy trying to survive.
Within the three-sided fort erected on the banks of the James, the settlers quickly discovered that they were, first and foremost, employees of the Virginia Company of London, following instructions of the men appointed by the Company to rule them. In exchange, the laborers were armed and received clothes and food from the common store. After seven years, they were to receive land of their own. The gentlemen, who provided their own armor and weapons, were to be paid in land, dividends or additional shares of stock.
Initially, the colonists were governed by a president and seven-member council selected by the King. Leadership problems quickly erupted and Jamestown's first two leaders coped with varying degrees of success with sickness, Indian assaults, poor food and water supplies and class strife.
When Captain John Smith became Virginia's third president, he proved the strong leader that the colony needed. Captain Sir John Smith (c January 1580– June 21 1631) Admiral of New England was an English Soldier, Sailor Industry flourished and relations with Chief Powhatan's people improved. Chief Powhatan (c June 17, 1547 &ndash c 1618 whose proper name was Wahunsenacawh or (in seventeenth century English spelling Wahunsunacock In 1609, the Virginia Company received its Second Charter, which allowed the Company to choose its new governor from amongst its shareholders. Investment boomed as the Company launched an intensive recruitment campaign. Over 600 colonists set sail for Virginia between March 1608 and March 1609.
Unfortunately for these new settlers, Sir Thomas Gates, Virginia's deputy governor, bound for the colony aboard the Sea Venture, was shipwrecked in Bermuda, along with the Admiral of the Company, Sir George Somers, Captain Newport, and 147 other settlers and seamen. Sir Thomas Gates (fl 1585 - 1621) followed George Percy as governor of Jamestown the English colony of Virginia (now the Commonwealth of Virginia The Sea Venture was a 17th-century English sailing ship the wrecking of which in Bermuda is widely thought to have been the inspiration for Shakespeare's Ba (officially The Bermuda Islands or The Somers Isles) is a British overseas territory in the North Atlantic Ocean. Admiral Sir George Somers (1554-1610 was a British naval hero When Gates arrived to take up his new post in 1610, with most of the survivors of the Sea Venture (on two new ships built in Bermuda, the Deliverance and the Patience) he found only 60 of the original 214 colonists had survived the infamous "Starving Time" of 1609-1610, and most of these were dying or ill. The Starving Time at Jamestown in the English Colony of Virginia killed all but 60 of 500 colonists during the winter of 1609 – 1610 Despite the abundance of food they had brought from Bermuda (which had necessitated the building of two ships), it was clear the colony did not have the means for survival. The survivors of Jamestown were taken aboard the Deliverance and the Patience, and the colony was abandoned. It was intended to return everyone to England, but the fortuitous arrival of another relief fleet, bearing Governor Lord De la Warre, granted Jamestown a reprieve. Thomas West 3rd (or 12th Baron De La Warr ( July 9, 1577 &ndash June 7, 1618) was the Englishman after whom the bay, All the settlers were put ashore again , and Sir George Somers returned to Bermuda aboard the Patience to obtain more food (Somers died there, and his nephew, Matthew Somers, the captain of the Patience, took the vessel to Lyme Regis, instead, to claim his inheritance). Lyme Regis (ˌlaɪmˈriːdʒɪs is a coastal town in West Dorset, England, situated 25 Miles west of Dorchester and east of Exeter
When news of Virginia's woeful state reached London, the result was predictable: financial catastrophe for the Company. Many new subscribers reneged payment on their shares, and the Company became entangled in dozens of court cases. On top of these losses, the Company was forced to incur further debt when it sent hundreds more colonists to Virginia.
There was little to counter this crushing debt. No gold had been found in Virginia; trading commodities produced by exploitation of the raw materials found in the New World were minimal. Attempts at producing glass, pitch, tar and potash had been barely profitable and, regrettably, such commodities could be had far more cheaply on the other side of the Atlantic. Pitch is the name for any of a number of highly viscous Liquids which appear Solid. Tar is a viscous black Liquid derived from the Destructive distillation of organic matter Potash (or carbonate of potash) is an impure form of Potassium carbonate ( K 2 CO3)
Increasingly bad publicity, political infighting and financial woes led the Virginia Company to organize a massive advertising campaign. The Company plastered street corners with tempting broadsheets, published persuasive articles, and even convinced the clergy to preach of the virtues of supporting colonization. Before the Company was dissolved, it would publish twenty-seven books and pamphlets promoting the Virginia venture.
To make shares more marketable, the Virginia Company changed its sales pitch. Instead of promising instant returns and vast profits for investors, the Company exploited patriotic sentiment and national pride. A stockholder was assured that his purchase of shares would help build the might of England, to make her the power she deserved to be. The heathen natives would be converted to the proper form of Christianity, the Church of England. People out of work could find employment in the New World. The standard of living would increase across the nation. How could any good, patriotic Englishman resist?
The English rose to the bait. The gentry wished to win favor by proving their loyalty to the crown. The growing middle class also saw stock purchasing as a way to better itself. But the news was not all good. Although the population of Jamestown rose, high settler mortality kept profits unstable. By 1612, the Company's debts had soared to over £1000.
A third charter provided a short-term resolution to the Virginia Company's problems. The Company was permitted to run a lottery as a fundraising venture. Other attractive features of the charter allowed Virginia's assembly to act as the colony's legislature and also added 300 leagues of ocean to the colony's holdings, which would include Bermuda (sometimes known as Virgineola) as part of Virginia. But the colony was still on shaky ground until John Rolfe's successful experiment with tobacco as a cash crop provided a way to recoup financially. John Rolfe (c 1585 &ndash 1622 was one of the early English settlers of North America.
Unfortunately, by 1616, the Virginia Company suffered further adversity. The original settlers were owed their land and stock shares; initial investors at home were owed their dividends. The Company was forced to renege on its cash promises, instead distributing 50 acre (200,000 m²) lots in payment. The next year, the Company instituted the headright system, a way to bring more settlers to Virginia. Investors and residents were able to acquire land in paying the passage of new settlers. In most cases, these newcomers spent a period of time in servitude on the investor's land. Edwin Sandys, a leading force in the Virginia Company, strongly supported the headright system, for his goal was a permanent colony which would enlarge British territory, relieve the nation's overpopulation, and expand the market for English goods. Sir Edwin Sandys ( 9 December 1561 &ndash October 1629 was a British Statesman and one of the founders of the proprietary Virginia A headright is a legal grant of land of settlers moving into an area uninhabited by settlers Sir Thomas Smith, as the Company's Treasurer, had a different dream: the Virginia Company's mission was to trade and to make a profit.
In the end, it was Sandys' vision which prevailed. When he became Treasurer of the Company in 1619, he moved forward to populate the colony and earn a protective status for the tobacco crop which had become the cash crop of Virginia. Tobacco is an Agricultural product recognized as an addictive drug processed from the fresh Leaves of plants in the genus Nicotiana. In Agriculture, a cash crop is a crop which is grown for Money. At the same time, he urged colonists to diversify their plantings and thus become less reliant on only one staple. The colonists ignored this advice, to their later dismay.
In 1621, the Company was in trouble; unpaid dividends and increased use of lotteries had made future investors wary. The Company debt was now over £9000. Worried Virginians were hardly reassured by the advice of pragmatic Treasurer Sandys, who warned that the Company "cannot wish you to rely on anything but yourselves. " In March 1622, the Company's and the colony's situation went from dire to disastrous when the Powhatan Indians staged an uprising which wiped out a quarter of the European population of Virginia. The Powhatan (also spelled Powatan and Powhaten) or Powhatan Renape (literally the "Powhatan Human Beings" is the name of a The Indian massacre of 1622 (also known as the Jamestown Massacre) occurred in the Virginia Colony on Good Friday, March 22, 1622. When a fourth charter, severely reducing the Company's ability to make decisions in the governing of Virginia, was proposed by the Crown, subscribers rejected it. King James I forthwith changed the status of Virginia in 1624. Virginia was now a royal colony to be administered by a governor appointed by the King. The British Overseas Territories are fourteen territories that are under the Sovereignty of the United Kingdom, but which do not form part of the United Kingdom The Virginia Assembly finally received royal approval, in 1627, and this form of government, with governor and assembly, would oversee the colony of Virginia until 1776, excepting only the years of the English Commonwealth. The Commonwealth of England was the Republican government which ruled first England (including Wales) and then Ireland and Scotland
Bermuda had been separated, in 1614, when the Crown briefly took over its administration. In 1615, the shareholders of the Virginia Company created a new company, the Somers Isles Company, which continued to operate Bermuda, subsequently, also known officially as The Somers Isles (for the Admiral of the Virginia Company, Sir George Somers) until it, too, was dissolved in 1684. The Somers Isles Company was formed in 1615 to operate the English colony of the Somers Isles also known as Bermuda, as a commercial venture Admiral Sir George Somers (1554-1610 was a British naval hero
The instructions issued to Sir Thomas Gates, on November 20, called for a forcible conversion of Native Americans to Anglicanism and subordination to the colonial administration. Sir Thomas Gates (fl 1585 - 1621) followed George Percy as governor of Jamestown the English colony of Virginia (now the Commonwealth of Virginia Events 284 - Diocletian was chosen as Roman Emperor. 762 - Bögü Khan of the Uyghurs, For indigenous peoples in the United States other than Hawaii and Alaska see also Native Americans in the United States. Anglicanism is a tradition of Christian faith Churches in this tradition either have historical connections to the Church of England or have similar beliefs The records of the company record a discussion during one of their first meetings about publishing a justification of their business enterprise and methods to "give adventurers, a clearness and satisfaction, for the justice of the action, and so encourage them". Others opposed this, arguing that "there is much a confession in every apology" and called for "quietness and no doubting" not wanting to create a public debate where Catholics and neutrals might attack them. Whereas Catholic arguments would be in support of Spanish legal claims to the New World under the Treaty of Tordesillas, it was feared that the neutral "pen-adversaries" might "cast scruples into our conscience" by criticising the lawfulness of the plantation. The New World is one of the names used for the non-Eurasian/non-African parts of the Earth specifically the Americas and Australia. The Treaty of Tordesillas ( Portuguese: Tratado de Tordesilhas, Spanish: Tratado de Tordesillas) signed at Tordesillas (now in It was decided to forego such a publication of a justification.
However, in 1608, Sir Edward Coke, in his capacity as Lord Chief Justice, offered a ruling in Calvin's Case which went beyond the issue at hand: whether a Scotsman could seek justice at an English Court. Sir Edward Coke (pronounced "Cook" ( 1 February 1552 &ndash 3 September 1634) was an early English colonial Entrepreneur The Lord Chief Justice of England and Wales was historically the second-highest judge of the Courts of England and Wales, after the Lord Chancellor. Coke distinguished between aliens from nations at war with England and friendly aliens, those from nations in league with England. Friendly aliens could have recourse to English courts. But he also ruled that with "all infidels" (i. e. those from non-Christian nations) there could be no peace, and a state of perpetual hostility would exist between them and Christians.
In 1609, the company issued instructions to kidnap Native American children so as to indoctrinate them with English values and religion. These instructions also sanctioned attacking the Iniocasoockes, the cultural leaders of the local Powhatans. The Powhatan (also spelled Powatan and Powhaten) or Powhatan Renape (literally the "Powhatan Human Beings" is the name of a However, it was only when Thomas West, 3rd Baron De La Warr, arrived, in 1610, that the Company was able to commence a war against the Powhatan with the First Anglo-Powhatan War. Thomas West 3rd (or 12th Baron De La Warr ( July 9, 1577 &ndash June 7, 1618) was the Englishman after whom the bay, The Anglo–Powhatan Wars were two wars fought between English settlers and Indians of the Powhatan Confederacy in Virginia. De La Warr was replaced by Sir Thomas Dale, who continued the war. Sir Thomas Dale (d August 19, 1619) was a British naval commander and deputy-governor of the Virginia Colony in 1611 and from 1614 to 1616 It was during this period that Pocahontas married John Rolfe. Pocahontas (c 1595 – March 21 1617 was a Native American woman who married an Englishman John Rolfe, and became a celebrity in London in the last year of her John Rolfe (c 1585 &ndash 1622 was one of the early English settlers of North America.
The military offensive was accompanied by a propaganda war: Alderman Robert Johnson published Nova Britannia, in 1609, which compared Native Americans to wild animals--"heardes of deere in a forest". While it portrayed the Powhatans as peace loving, it nevertheless threatened to deal with any who resisted conversion to Anglicanism as enemies of 'their' country. (Johnson was the son-in-law of Sir Thomas Smith, leader of one of the court factions within the Company in London. Sir Thomas Smith ( December 23, 1513 &ndash August 12, 1577) was an English scholar and Diplomat. )
In 1622, the Second Anglo-Powhatan War erupted. The Anglo–Powhatan Wars were two wars fought between English settlers and Indians of the Powhatan Confederacy in Virginia. Its origins are disputed. English apologists for the company say that Opchanacanough initiated the war. Opechancanough or Opchanacanough (1554?-1644 was a tribal chief of the Powhatan Confederacy of what is now Virginia in the United Robert Williams, a contemporary Native American Law Professor, argues that Opchanacanough had secured concessions from Governor Yeardley which the company would not accept. Thus, Opchanacanough's attack, on March 22, 1622, may have been a pre-emptive attempt to defeat the colony before reinforcements arrived. The Indian massacre of 1622 (also known as the Jamestown Massacre) occurred in the Virginia Colony on Good Friday, March 22, 1622. Events 238 - Gordian I and his son Gordian II are proclaimed Roman emperor. In about a day, 350 out of 1,240 colonists were killed, and some outlying settlements were wiped out. The Virginia Company quickly published an account of this attack which was steeped in Calvinist theology--the massacre was the work of providence in that it gave a justification for the complete genocide of the Powhatans, and the building of settlements on their former towns. Calvinism (sometimes called the Reformed tradition, the Reformed faith, or Reformed theology) is a theological system and an approach to the New orders called for a "perpetual war without peace or truce" "to root out from being any longer a people, so cursed a nation, ungrateful to all benefitte, and incapable of all goodnesses. "
In 1624, the Virginia Company lost its charter, and Virginia became a royal colony.