Local governments are administrative offices that are smaller than a state. A state is a political association with effective Sovereignty over a geographic Area and representing a Population. The term is used to contrast with offices at nation-state level, which are referred to as the central government, national government, or (where appropriate) federal government. For the online game see Jennifer Government NationStates. The nation-state is a certain form of State that derives its legitimacy Central government or the national government (or in Federal states the Federal government) is the Government at the level of the Nation-state National governments (alternatively national unity governments or national union governments) are broad Coalition governments consisting of all parties (or
In modern nations, local governments usually have fewer powers than national governments do. A nation is a Human Cultural and Social Community. In as much as most members never meet each other yet feel a common bond it may be considered They usually have some power to raise taxes, though these may be limited by central legislation. Legislation (or " Statutory law " is law which has been promulgated (or " Enacted quot by a Legislature or other Governing In some countries local government is partly or wholly funded by subventions from central government taxation. The question of Municipal Autonomy—which powers the local government has, or should have, and why—is a key question of public administration and governance. Urban secession is a city's Secession from its surrounding region to form a new political unit Public administration can be broadly described as the development implementation and study of branches of government Policy. Governance relates to decisions that define expectations, grant power, or verify performance. The institutions of local government vary greatly between countries, and even where similar arrangements exist, the terminology often varies. Common names for local government entities include state, province, region, department, county, prefecture, district, city, township, town, borough, parish, municipality, shire and village. A province is a territorial unit almost always an Administrative division. The article is about the geographic sense of the term For other uses including Regions and Regional, see Region (disambiguation. In the Terminology of Political geography and Historiography a National department (département departamento is an administrative A county is a Land area of Regional Government within a larger State. For subsequent types of praefectura, see Prefect. Prefecture (from the Latin Praefectura) indicates the office Districts are a type of Administrative division, in some countries managed by a Local government. A city is an Urban area with a large Population and a particular Administrative, Legal, or Historical status A township (or Municipality) is a settlement which has the status and powers of a unit of local government A town is a type of settlement ranging from a few to several thousand (occasionally hundreds of thousands inhabitants although it may be applied loosely even to huge metropolitan A borough is an Administrative division of various countries In principle the term borough designates a self-governing Township although in practice A parish is a Local church; it is an administrative unit typically found in episcopal or presbyterian churches A municipality is an administrative entity composed of a clearly defined territory and its population and commonly denotes a City, Town, or Village, or A shire is an Administrative division of Great Britain and Australia. A village is a clustered human settlement or community, larger than a hamlet, but smaller than a Town or City. However all these names are often used informally in countries where they do not describe a legal local government entity.
Main articles on each country will usually contain some information about local government, or links to an article with fuller information. The rest of this article gives information or links for countries where a relatively full description is available.
Local government is the 3rd tier of government in Australia, after Federal and State. Australia has two tiers of subnational government state (or territory government and local government.
Canada has a federal system with three orders of government. Local government in Canada lies at a lower level than federal and provincial government Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page The largest is the federal government, followed by the provincial and territorial governments. At the root level is the municipal (or local) government.  Municipal governments are controlled by the provincial (or territorial) order of government.
However, intercommunalities are now a level of government between municipalities and departments.
Paris (both a commune and a département) and Corsica are local government sui generis. Paris (ˈpærɨs in English; in French) is the Capital of France and the country's largest city Corsica (Corse Corsican and Italian: Corsica) is the fourth largest island in the Mediterranean Sea (after Sicily
As a federal country, Germany is divided into a number of states (Länder in German), which used to have wide powers, but whose main remaining power today (2004) is their ability to veto federal laws through their Bundesrat representation. Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. "MMIV" redirects here For the Modest Mouse album see " Baron von Bullshit Rides Again " The Bundesrat ("federal council" or "upper house of German parliament" is the representation of the 16 Federal States ( Bundesländer) of The system of local government is described in the article on States of Germany. Germany (Deutschland is a Federal Republic consisting of sixteen States, known in German as Länder (singular
The Italian Constitution defines three levels of local government:
Major cities also have an extra tier of local government named Circoscrizione di Decentramento Comunale or, in some cities (e. g. Rome) Municipio.
Since the Meiji restoration, Japan has had a local government system based on prefectures. The, also known as the Meiji Ishin, Revolution, or Renewal, was a chain of events that led to enormous changes in Japan 's political and social structure For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. For subsequent types of praefectura, see Prefect. Prefecture (from the Latin Praefectura) indicates the office The national government oversees much of the country. Municipal governments consist from historical villages. Now merger and restoration of those municipal governments are undergoing for cost effective administration. In between are the 47 prefectures which are made up by area and population. The prefectures of Japan are the country's 47 sub-national Jurisdictions one "metropolis" (都 to) Tokyo; one " circuit They have two main responsibilities. One is mediation between national and municipal governments. The other is area wide administration.
The Netherlands has three tiers of government. The Netherlands ( Dutch:, ˈnedərlɑnt is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which consists of the Netherlands the Netherlands There are two levels of local government in The Netherlands, the provinces and the municipalities. The water boards are also part of the local government.
The Netherlands is divided into twelve provinces. A Dutch province represents the administrative layer in between the national government and the local municipalities having the responsibility for matters of subnational or regional They form the tier of administration between the central government and the municipalities. Each province is governed by a provincial council (Provinciale Staten). Its members are elected every four years. The day-to-day management of the province is in the hands of the provincial executive (Gedeputeerde Staten). Members of the executive are chosen by the provincial council from among its own members and like the members of the provincial council serve for a period of four years. Members elected to the executive have to give up their membership of the provincial council. The size of the executive varies from one province to another. In Flevoland, the smallest of the Dutch provinces, it has four members, while most other provinces have six or seven. Flevoland is a province of the Netherlands. Located in the centre of the country at the location of the former Zuiderzee, the province was established on Meetings of the provincial executive are chaired by the Queen's Commissioner. The King's Commissioner (Commissaris van de Koning is the head of a Province in the Netherlands, who is chairman of both the Provinciale Staten (PS the The Queen's Commissioner (Commissaris van de Koningin) is not elected by the residents of the province, but appointed by the Crown (the Queen and government ministers). The appointment is for six years and may be extended by a second term. The Queen's Commissioner can be dismissed only by the Crown. Queen's Commissioners play an important part in the appointment of municipal mayors. When a vacancy arises, the Queen's Commissioner first asks the municipal council for its views as to a successor, then writes to the Minister of the Interior recommending a candidate.
Municipalities form the lowest tier of government in the Netherlands, after the central government and the provinces. There are 458 of them (1 January 2006). The municipal council (gemeenteraad) is the highest authority in the municipality. Its members are elected every four years. The role of the municipal council is comparable to that of the board of an organisation or institution. Its main job is to decide the municipality's broad policies and to oversee their implementation. The day-to-day administration of the municipality is in the hands of the municipal executive (college van burgemeester en wethouders, abbreviated to B en W), made up of the mayor (Burgemeester) and the aldermen. The executive implements national legislation on matters such as social assistance, unemployment benefits and environmental management. It also bears primary responsibility for the financial affairs of the municipality and for its personnel policies. Aldermen (Wethouders) are appointed by the council. Councillors can be chosen to act as aldermen. In that case, they lose their seats on the council and their places are taken by other representatives of the same political parties. Non-councillors can also be appointed. Unlike councillors and aldermen, mayors are not elected (not even indirectly), but are appointed by the Crown. Mayors chair both the municipal council and the executive. They have a number of statutory powers and responsibilities of their own. They are responsible for maintaining public order and safety within the municipality and frequently manage the municipality's public relations. As Crown appointees, mayors also have some responsibility for overseeing the work of the municipality, its policies and relations with other government bodies. Although they are obliged to carry out the decisions of the municipal council and executive, they may recommend that the Minister of the Interior quash any decision that they believe to be contrary to the law or against the public interest. Mayors are invariably appointed for a period of six years and are normally re-appointed automatically for another term, provided the municipal council agrees. They can be dismissed only by the Crown and not by the municipal council.
Water boards are among the oldest government authorities in the Netherlands. Dutch water boards (waterschappen or nl ''hoogheemraadschappen'' are regional government bodies in the Netherlands. They literally form the foundation of the whole Dutch system of local government; from time immemorial they have shouldered the responsibility for water management for the residents of their area. In polders this mainly involves regulating the water level. It has always been in the common interest to keep water out and polder residents have always had to work together. That is what led to the creation of water boards. The structure of the water boards varies, but they all have a general administrative body, an executive board and a chairperson. The general administrative body consists of people representing the various categories of stakeholders: landholders, leaseholders, owners of buildings, companies and, since recently, all the residents as well. Importance and financial contribution decide how many representatives each category may delegate. Certain stakeholders (e. g. environmental organisations) may be given the power to appoint members. The general administrative body elects the executive board from among its members. The government appoints the chairperson (Dijkgraaf) for a period of six years. The general administrative body is elected for a period of four years (as individuals, not party representatives). Unlike municipal council elections, voters do not usually have to go to a polling station but can vote by mail or even by telephone.
New Zealand has two tiers of authorities. New Zealand is an Island country in the south-western Pacific Ocean comprising two main landmasses (the North Island and the South Island The top tier comprises the regional councils. The region is the top tier of Local government in New Zealand. The second tier is the territorial authorities consisting of city councils, district councils and one island council. Territorial authorities are the second tier of Local government in New Zealand, below regional councils. After the local government reforms of 1989 the term "city" began to take on two meanings in New Zealand. Four territorial authorities are unitary authorities, in that they also perform the functions of a regional council. See also Independent city A unitary authority is a type of Local authority that has a single tier and is responsible for all Local government functions This also covers territorial problems.
Norway's regional administration is organised in 19 counties (fylke), with 18 of them subdivided into 431 municipalities (kommune) per January 1, 2006. The municipal sector is a provider of vital services to the Norwegian public, accounting for about 20% of Norwegian GNP and 24% of total employment.
For a description of the arrangements in force, see the section on Regions and Provinces in the article on the Philippines. The Philippines ( Filipino: Pilipinas, officially known as the Republic of the Philippines (fil ''Republika ng Pilipinas'' RP Institute of Development Management and Governance 
The system of local government is different in each of the four countries of the United Kingdom. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located
The most complex system is in England, the result of numerous reforms and reorganisation over the centuries. The pattern of local government in England is complex with the distribution of functions varying according to the local arrangements England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland
England is subdivided on different levels:
The top level of local government within England are the nine regions. The subdivisions of England consists of as many as four levels of subnational division and at some levels there are a variety of types of administrative entity The region, also known as the government office region, is currently the highest tier of local government sub-national entity of England, with only one Each region has a government office and assorted other institutions. Only the London region has a directly elected administration. Only one other regional referendum has been held to date to seek consent for the introduction direct elections elsewhere - in the northeast of England - and this was soundly rejected by the electorate.
The layers of government below the regions are mixed.
Historic counties still exist with adapted boundaries, although in the 1990s some of the districts within the counties became separate unitary authorities and a few counties have been disbanded completely. The counties of England are territorial divisions of England for the purposes of administrative political and geographical demarcation The districts of England are a level of subnational division of England used for the purposes of local government See also Independent city A unitary authority is a type of Local authority that has a single tier and is responsible for all Local government functions There are also metropolitan districts in some areas which are similar to unitary authorities. A metropolitan borough is a type of local government district in England covering urban areas within metropolitan counties. In Greater London there are 32 London boroughs which are a similar concept. The administrative area of Greater London contains thirty-two London boroughs.
Counties are further divided into districts (also known as boroughs in some areas). The districts of England are a level of subnational division of England used for the purposes of local government
Districts are divided into wards for electoral purposes. In Australia, Canada, Ireland, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, and the United States, a ward is an Electoral district
Districts may also contain parishes and town council areas with a small administration of their own. A parish is a Local church; it is an administrative unit typically found in episcopal or presbyterian churches
Other area classifications are also in use, such as health service and Lord-Lieutenant areas. The title Lord Lieutenant is given to the British Monarch 's personal representatives in the United Kingdom, usually in a county or similar circumscription with varying
Northern Ireland is divided into 26 districts. The ceremonial counties are areas of England that are appointed a Lord-Lieutenant, and are defined by the government as the Counties for the purposes of the Lieutenancies Metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties are one of the four levels of Subdivisions of England used for the purposes of Local government outside Greater London Northern Ireland is divided into 26 districts for local government purposes Northern Ireland (Tuaisceart Éireann Ulster Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a Country within the United Kingdom, lying in the northeast of Local government in Northern Ireland does not carry out the same range of functions as those in the rest of the United Kingdom. The Northern Irish Department of the Environment has announced plans to decrease the number of councils to 15. The Department of the Environment ( DOE) is a Devolved Northern Ireland government department in the Northern Ireland Executive.
Wales has a uniform system of 22 unitary authorities, referred to as counties or county boroughs. For Local government purposes Wales is divided into 22 Unitary authorities, which are responsible for the provision of all local government services including education There are also communities, equivalent to parishes.
Local government in Scotland is arranged on the lines of unitary authorities, with the nation divided into 32 council areas. Local government in Scotland is organised through 32 unitary authorities consisting of Councillors elected every four years by registered voters in each of the Scotland ( Gaelic: Alba) is a Country in northwest Europethat occupies the northern third of the island of Great Britain. See also Independent city A unitary authority is a type of Local authority that has a single tier and is responsible for all Local government functions For local government purposes Scotland is divided into 32 areas designated as "council areas" which are all governed by unitary authorities designated as
Local government of the United States refers to the governments at the city, town, village, or civil township level in the United States of America. Local government in the United States is generally structured in accordance with the laws of the various individual states. Local government in the United States is generally structured in accordance with the laws of the various individual states. A city is an Urban area with a large Population and a particular Administrative, Legal, or Historical status A town is a type of settlement ranging from a few to several thousand (occasionally hundreds of thousands inhabitants although it may be applied loosely even to huge metropolitan A village is a clustered human settlement or community, larger than a hamlet, but smaller than a Town or City. A civil township is a widely used unit of Local government in the United States, subordinate to a county. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the In the more general sense, local government also refers to state government, regional government, and county government. A US state is any one of the fifty subnational entities of the United States of America that share Sovereignty with the federal government A county is a Land area of Regional Government within a larger State.