A llama in southern Bolivia
The llama (Lama glama) is a South American camelid, widely used as a pack animal by the Incas and other natives of the Andes mountains. Carl Linnaeus (Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as, May 23 new style (13 May old style 1707 who laid the foundations for South America is a Continent of the Americas, situated entirely in the Western Hemisphere and mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a Camelids are members of the biological family Camelidae, the only living family in the suborder Tylopoda. A pack animal is a Beast of burden used by Humans as means of Transporting materials by attaching them so their weight bears on the Animal The Andes form the world's longest exposed Mountain range. They lie as a continuous chain of highland along the western coast of South America. In South America llamas are still used as beasts of burden, as well as for the production of fiber and meat. 
The height of a full-grown, full-size llama is between 5. 5 feet (1. A foot (plural feet or foot; symbol or abbreviation ft or sometimes &prime – the prime symbol) is a non-SI unit 6 meters) to 6 feet (1. The metre or meter is a unit of Length. It is the basic unit of Length in the Metric system and in the International 8 m) tall at the top of the head. They can weigh between approximately 280 pounds (127 kilograms) and 450 pounds (204 kilograms). The pound or pound-mass (abbreviation lb, lbm, or sometimes in the United States #) is a unit of Mass At birth, a baby llama (called a "cria") can weigh between 20 pounds (9 kilograms) to 30 pounds (14 kilograms). Llamas are very social animals and like to live with other llamas as a herd. A herd is a large group of animals The term is usually applied to mammals particularly Ungulates. Overall, the fiber produced by a llama is very soft and is naturally lanolin free. Lanolin, also called Adeps Lanae, wool wax, wool fat, anhydrous wool fat or wool grease, is a greasy yellow substance secreted by Very intelligent, llamas learn simple tasks after a few repetitions. When using a pack, llamas can carry about 25%–30% of their body weight for several miles. A mile is a unit of Length, usually used to measure Distance, in a number of different systems including Imperial units United States 
Llamas originated from the central plains of North America about 40 million years ago. A year (from Old English gēr) is the time between two recurrences of an event related to the Orbit of the Earth around the Sun They migrated to South America and Asia about 3 million years ago. By the end of the last ice age (10,000–12,000 years ago) camelids were extinct in North America. An ice age is a period of long-term reduction in the Temperature of the Earth 's surface and atmosphere resulting in an expansion of continental Ice sheets  As of 2007, there were over 7 million llamas and alpacas in South America and, due to importation from South America in the late 20th century, there are now over 100,000 llamas and 6,500–7,000 alpacas in the US and Canada. The Alpaca ( Vicugna pacos) is a domesticated species of South American Camelid. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page 
Although they were often compared by early writers to sheep and spoken of as such, their similarity to the camel was very soon perceived. Machu Picchu (Machu Pikchu "Old Peak" 'mɑtʃu 'piktʃu is a Pre-Columbian Inca site located 2400 meters (7875 ft above sea level Peru (Perú Piruw Piruw officially the Republic of Peru ( reˈpuβlika del peˈɾu is a country in western South America. They were included in the genus Camelus in the Systema Naturae of Linnaeus. Carl Linnaeus (Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as, May 23 new style (13 May old style 1707 who laid the foundations for They were, however, separated by Cuvier in 1800 under the name of llama along with the alpaca and the guanaco. Baron Georges Léopold Chrétien Frédéric Dagobert Cuvier ( August 23 1769 &ndash May 13, 1832) was a French naturalist Vicuñas are in genus Vicugna. The animals of the genus Lama are, with the two species of true camels, the sole existing representatives of a very distinct section of the "Artiodactyla" or even-toed ungulates, called Tylopoda, or "bump-footed," from the peculiar bumps on the soles of their feet, on which they tread. The even-toed ungulates form the Mammal order Artiodactyla. They are Ungulates whose weight is borne (if they have more than two toes about Tylopoda (meaning "padded foot" is a suborder of the mammalian order Artiodactyla containing some families like the Camelidae, Oromerycidae, This section thus consists of a single family, the Camelidae, the other sections of the same great division being the Suina or pigs, the Tragulina or chevrotains, and the Pecora or true ruminants, to each of which the Tylopoda have more or less affinity, standing in some respects in a central position between them, borrowing as it were some characters from each, but in others showing great special modifications not found in any of the other sections. Pigs, also called hogs or' swine', are Ungulates which have been domesticated as sources of food leather and similar products since ancient times "Kancil" redirects here For the car see Perodua Kancil Not to be confused with Kanchil (Lesser Mouse Deer Not to be confused Physiologically a ruminant is a Mammal of the order Artiodactyla that digests plant-based food by initially softening it within the animal's first stomach known
The discoveries of a vast and previously unsuspected extinct fauna of the American continent of the Tertiary period, as interpreted by the palaeontologists Leidy, Cope, and Marsh, has thrown a flood of light upon the early history of this family, and upon its relations to other mammals. The chuprichondira geological time interval covers roughly the time span between the demise of the non- avian Dinosaurs and beginning of the most recent Ice Age, approximately It is now known that llamas at one time were not confined to the part of the continent south of the Isthmus of Panama, as at the present day, for their remains have been abundantly found in the Pleistocene deposits of the region of the Rocky Mountains, and in Central America, some attaining a much larger size than those now existing. The Isthmus of Panama, also historically known as the Isthmus of Darien, is the narrow strip of land that lies between the Caribbean Sea and the Pacific The Pleistocene ('plaɪstəsin is the epoch from 18 million to 10000 years BP covering the world's recent period Mountain peaks of the Rocky Mountains The Rocky Mountains, often called the Rockies, are a Mountain range in western North America. Some species of llamas did stay in North America during the last ice ages. 25,000 years ago, llamas would have been a common sight in modern-day California, Texas, New Mexico, Utah, Missouri, and Florida. California ( is a US state on the West Coast of the United States, along the Pacific Ocean. Texas ( is a state geographically located in the South Central United States and is also known as the Lone Star State. New Mexico ( is a state located in the southwestern region of the United States of America. The State of Utah (ˈjuːtɔː or) is a western state of the United States. Missouri ( or) is a state in the Midwestern region of the United States bordered by Iowa, Illinois, Kentucky, Tennessee Florida ( is a state located in the southeastern region of the United States, bordering Alabama to the northwest and Georgia to the These North American llamas belong to a single genus, Hemiauchenia, which is extinct.
Many camel-like animals exhibiting different genetic modifications and a gradual series of changes, coinciding with the antiquity of the deposits in which they are found, have been traced from the thoroughly differentiated species of the modern epoch down through the Pliocene to the early Miocene beds. The Pliocene epoch (spelled Pleiocene in some older texts is the period in the Geologic timescale that extends The Miocene is a geological epoch of the Neogene period and extends from about 23 Their characters having become more generalized, they have lost all that especially distinguishes them as Camelidae: they are merged into forms common to the ancestral type of all the other sections of the Artiodactyles.
So far none of these annectant forms have been found in any of the fossiliferous strata of the Old World; it may therefore be fairly surmised (according to the evidence at present before us) that the Americas were the original home of the Tylopoda, and that the true camels have passed over into the Old World, probably by way of north Asia. The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World, consisting of the Continents of North America and South America Gradually driven southward, perhaps by changes of climate, and having become isolated, they have undergone further special modifications. Climate encompasses the temperatures humidity rainfall atmospheric particle count and numerous other meteorogical factors in a given region over long periods of Meanwhile, those members of the family that remained in their original birthplace have become, through causes not clearly understood, restricted solely to the southern or most distant part of the continent. There are few groups of mammals for which the palaeontological history has been so satisfactorily demonstrated as the llama. Mammals ( class Mammalia) are a class of Vertebrate Animals characterized by the presence of Sweat glands, including sweat glands
The following characteristics apply especially to llamas. Quechua ( Runa Simi) is a Native American language of South America. ||} Cusco (also spelled Cuzco, and in the local Quechua language as Qusqu 'qos Dentition of adults:-incisors 1/3 canines 1/1, premolars 2/2, molars 3/2; total 32. Dentition is the development of Teeth and their arrangement in the Mouth. In the upper jaw there is a compressed, sharp, pointed laniariform incisor near the hinder edge of the premaxilla, followed in the male at least by a moderate-sized, pointed, curved spank canine in the anterior part of the maxilla. Incisors (from Latin incidere, "to cut" are the first kind of Tooth in Heterodont Mammals They are located in the Premaxilla The premaxilla is a pair of small Cranial bones at the very tip of the jaws of many animals usually bearing Teeth, but not always "Cuspid" redirects here For the heart valves see Bicuspid valve and Tricuspid valve. The isolated canine-like premolar which follows in the camels is not present. The teeth of the molar series which are in contact with each other consist of two very small premolars (the first almost rudimentary) and three broad molars, constructed generally like those of Camelus. Molars are the rearmost and most complicated kind of Tooth in most Mammals In many mammals they grind food hence the Latin name mola, " Millstone In the lower jaw, the three incisors are long, spatulate, and procumbent; the outer ones are the smallest. Next to these is a curved, suberect canine, followed after an interval by an isolated minute and often deciduous simple conical premolar; then a contiguous series of one premolar and three molars, which differ from those of Camelus in having a small accessory column at the anterior outer edge.
The skull generally resembles that of Camelus, the relatively larger brain-cavity and orbits and less developed cranial ridges being due to its smaller size. The nasal bones are shorter and broader, and are joined by the premaxilla.
The ears are rather long and slightly curved inward, characteristically known as "banana" shaped. There is no dorsal hump. Feet are narrow, the toes being more separated than in the camels, each having a distinct plantar pad. The tail is short, and fibre is long, woolly and soft.
In essential structural characteristics, as well as in general appearance and habits, all the animals of this genus very closely resemble each other, so that whether they should be considered as belonging to one, two, or more species is a matter of controversy among naturalists. Natural history is the Scientific research of Plants or Animals leaning more towards the Observational than Experimental methods
The question is complicated by the circumstance of the great majority of individuals which have come under observation being either in a completely or partially domesticated state. Many are also descended from ancestors which have previously been domesticated; a state which tends to produce a certain amount of variation from the original type. It has, however, lost much of its importance since the doctrine of the distinct origin of species has been generally abandoned. Charles Darwin 's On the Origin of Species (published 24 November 1859) is a seminal work in Scientific literature and arguably the The four forms commonly distinguished by the inhabitants of South America are recognized by some naturalists as distinct species, and have had specific designations attached to them, though usually with expressions of doubt, and with great difficulties in defining their distinctive characteristics.
The llama and alpaca are only known in the domestic state, and are variable in size and of many colours, being often white, brown, or piebald. Some are grey or black. The guanaco and vicuña are wild, the former being endangered, and of a nearly uniform light-brown colour, passing into white below. They certainly differ from each other, the vicuña being smaller, more slender in its proportions, and having a shorter head than the guanaco. The vicuña lives in herds on the bleak and elevated parts of the mountain range bordering the region of perpetual snow, amidst rocks and precipices, occurring in various suitable localities throughout Peru, in the southern part of Ecuador, and as far south as the middle of Bolivia. A herd is a large group of animals The term is usually applied to mammals particularly Ungulates. Peru (Perú Piruw Piruw officially the Republic of Peru ( reˈpuβlika del peˈɾu is a country in western South America. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Ecuador topics. The Republic of Bolivia (República de Bolivia) named after Simón Bolívar, is a Landlocked country in central South America. Its manners very much resemble those of the chamois of the European Alps; it is as vigilant, wild, and timid. The chamois ( Rupicapra rupicapra) is a Goat -like animal native to the Carpathian Mountains of Romania the European Alps, the Gran The fiber is extremely delicate and soft, and highly valued for the purposes of weaving, but the quantity which each animal produces is minimal. Alpaca are descended from a wild vicuna ancestor while the domesticated llama is descended from a wild guanaco ancestor, though at this point there has been a considerable amount of hybridization between the two species. In Biology, hybrid has two meanings The first meaning is the result of interbreeding between two animals or plants of different taxa.
Differentiating characteristics between llamas and alpacas include the llama's larger size and longer head. Alpaca fiber is generally more expensive but not always more valuable. Alpacas tend to have a more consistent color throughout the body. The most apparent visual difference between llamas and camels is that camels have a hump or humps and llamas do not. Camels are Even-toed ungulates within the Genus Camelus. The Dromedary, one-humped or Arabian camel has a single hump and the
Llamas have an unusual reproductive cycle for a large animal. Female llamas are induced ovulators. Through the act of mating, the female releases an egg and is often fertilized on the first attempt. Female llamas do not go into "heat" or have an estrus cycle. 
Like humans, llama males and females mature sexually at different rates. Females reach puberty at approximately 12 months. However, males do not become sexually mature until approximately 3 years. 
Llamas mate with the female in a kush (lying down) position, which is fairly unusual in a large animal. They mate for an extended period of time (20–45 minutes), also unusual in a large animal.
The gestation period of a llama is 11 1/2 months (350 days). Dams (female llamas) do not lick off their babies, as they have an attached tongue which does not reach outside of the mouth more than half an inch. Rather, they will nuzzle and hum to their newborns. 
Male is left with females most of the year.
A female is turned out into a field with a male llama and left there for some period of time. This is the easiest method in terms of labor, but the least useful in terms of prediction of a likely birth date. An ultrasound test can be performed and together with the exposure dates a better idea when the cria is expected can be determined.
This is the most efficient method, but requires the most work on the part of the human involved. A male and female llama are put into the same pen and breeding is monitored. They are then separated and rebred every other day until one or the other refuses the breeding. Usually one can get in two breedings using this method, though some studs have routinely refused to breed a female more than once. The separation presumably helps to keep the sperm count high for each breeding and also helps to keep the condition of the female llama's reproductive tract more sound. If the breeding is not successful within two to three weeks, the female is rebred once again.
Llamas should be tested for pregnancy after breeding at 2–3 weeks, 6 weeks, and at least 12 weeks.
Spit testing with an intact male is generally free and is usually accurate. However, some hormonal conditions in females can make them reject a male when they are in fact not pregnant, and, more rarely, accept a male when they are pregnant. Progesterone tests can give a high reading in some females with a hormonal problem who are in fact not pregnant. Neither of the previous methods, nor palpation, can give you a reasonably accurate idea of the age of the fetus, while an ultrasound procedure can. In addition, an ultrasound procedure can distinguish between pregnancy and misleading physical conditions, or between a live and dead fetus. The big disadvantage of an ultrasound procedure is that some training in the use of ultrasound equipment is required, and not all veterinarians have the equipment needed to perform the examination.
Options for feeding llamas are quite wide. The llama owner has a wide variety of commercial and farm based food products to choose from for llamas. The major determining factors which enter into the decision of what to feed include feed cost, availability of feed, nutrient balance and energy density required. Young llamas, which are still actively growing, require a greater concentration of nutrients than mature animals because of their relatively smaller digestive tract capacity. 
|(as fed)||(dry matter)||(as fed)||(dry matter)||(as fed)||(dry matter)|
|22||0. 8||0. 7||0. 5||0. 5||1. 5||0. 4|
|44||1. 3||1. 1||0. 9||0. 8||2. 6||0. 7|
|88||2. 1||1. 9||1. 5||1. 3||4. 3||1. 2|
|110||2. 6||2. 3||1. 7||1. 6||5. 2||1. 4|
|165||3. 4||3. 1||2. 3||2. 1||6. 9||1. 9|
|275||5. 0||4. 5||3. 4||3. 1||10. 1||2. 8|
|385||6. 4||5. 7||4. 3||3. 9||12. 9||3. 6|
|495||7. 8||7. 0||5. 3||4. 8||15. 8||4. 4|
|550||8. 5||7. 6||5. 7||5. 2||17. 0||4. 8|
Llamas who are well-socialized and trained to halter and lead after weaning are very friendly and pleasant to be around. They are extremely curious and most will approach people easily. However, llamas who are bottle-fed or over-socialised and over-handled as youngsters will become extremely difficult to handle when mature, when they will begin to treat humans as they treat each other, which is characterized by bouts of spitting, kicking and neck wrestling. Anyone having to bottle-feed a cria should keep contact to a minimum and stop as soon as possible.
When correctly reared spitting at a human is a rare thing. Llamas are very social herd animals, however, and do sometimes spit at each other as a way of disciplining lower-ranked llamas in the herd. A llama's social rank in a herd is never static. They can always move up or down in the social ladder by picking small fights. This is usually done between males to see who becomes alpha. Their fights are visually dramatic with spitting, ramming each other with their chests, neck wrestling and kicking, mainly to knock the other off balance. The females are usually only seen spitting as a means of controlling other herd members.
While the social structure might always be changing, they are a family and they do take care of each other. If one notices a strange noise or feels threatened, a warning bray is sent out and all others come to alert. They will often hum to each other as a form of communication.
The sound of the llama making groaning noises or going "mwa" is often a sign of fear or anger. If a llama is agitated, it will lay its ears back. One may determine how agitated the llama is by the materials in the spit. The more irritated the llama is, the further back into each of the three stomach compartments it will try to draw materials from for its spit.
An "orgle" is the mating sound of a llama or alpaca, made by the sexually aroused male. The sound is reminiscent of gargling, but with a more forceful, buzzing edge. Males begin the sound when they become aroused and continue throughout the act of procreation — from 15 minutes to more than an hour.  
One of the main uses for llamas at the time of the Spanish conquest was to bring down ore from the mines in the mountains. The Spanish conquest of the Inca Empire was a process through which a group of forty (40 Spaniards led by Francisco Pizarro succeeded in toppling the Inca  Gregory de Bolivar estimated that in his day, as many as three hundred thousand were employed in the transport of produce from the Potosí mines alone, but since the introduction of horses, mules, and donkeys, the importance of the llama as a beast of burden has greatly diminished. Transport or transportation is the movement of people and goods from one place to another Potosí is a city the capital of the department of Potosí in Bolivia. The horse ( Equus caballus) is a hoofed ( Ungulate) Mammal, one of eight living species of the family Equidae. In its common modern meaning a mule is the offspring of a male Donkey and a female Horse, which is classified as a kind of F1 hybrid. The donkey or ass, Equus asinus, is a member of the Equidae or horse family and an odd-toed ungulate. 
The Inca deity Urcuchillay was depicted in the form of a multicolored llama. Urcuchillay was the name given to Lyra by the Incas. Urcuchillay was worshipped by herders and believed to be a multicolored Llama who watched  The Moche people frequently placed llamas and llama parts in the burials of important people, as offerings or provisions for the afterlife. The Moche civilization (alternately the Mochica culture Early Chimu Pre-Chimu Proto-Chimu etc  The Moche culture of pre-Columbian Peru depicted llamas quite realistically in their ceramics. The Moche civilization (alternately the Mochica culture Early Chimu Pre-Chimu Proto-Chimu etc The pre-Columbian era incorporates all period subdivisions in the history and prehistory of the Americas before the appearance of significant European influences Peru (Perú Piruw Piruw officially the Republic of Peru ( reˈpuβlika del peˈɾu is a country in western South America.
Llamas also have a fine undercoat which can be used for handicrafts and garments. The coarser outer guard hair is used for rugs, wall-hangings and lead ropes. The fiber comes in many different colors ranging from white, grey, redish brown, brown, dark brown and black.
The individual shafts of the wool can be measured in microns. 1 micron = 1/1000 millimeter.
|Vicuña||6 – 10|
|Alpaca (Suri)||10 - 15|
|Muskox (Qivlut)||11 - 13|
|Merino||12 - 20|
|Cashmere||15 - 19|
|Yak Down||15 - 19|
|Camel Down||16 - 25|
|Guanaco||16 - 18|
|Llama (Tapada)||20 - 30|
|Mohair||25 - 45|
|Alpaca (Huacaya)||27. The vicuña ( Vicugna vicugna) is one of two wild South American Camelids along with the Guanaco, which live in the high alpineous areas of the Alpaca fleece is the Natural fiber harvested from an Alpaca. It is a light-weight soft durable luxurious and silky natural Fiber. The muskox ( Ovibos moschatus) is an Arctic Mammal of the Bovidae family noted for its thick coat and for the strong odor emitted by males The Merino is the most economically influential breed of sheep in the world prized for its Wool. Angora wool or Angora fiber refers to the downy coat produced by the Angora rabbit. Cashmere wool, usually simply known as cashmere, and sometimes known as Pashmina, is a fiber obtained from the Cashmere goat. The yak ( Bos grunniens) is a long-haired Bovine found throughout the Himalayan region of south Central Asia, the Qinghai - Camels are Even-toed ungulates within the Genus Camelus. The Dromedary, one-humped or Arabian camel has a single hump and the The guanaco ( Lama guanicoe) is a Camelid animal native to South America that stands between 107 and 122 centimeters (3 Chinchillas are rabbit-sized Crepuscular Rodents native to the Andes mountains in South America. Mohair usually refers to a Silk -like fabric or Yarn made from the Hair of the Angora goat. Alpaca fleece is the Natural fiber harvested from an Alpaca. It is a light-weight soft durable luxurious and silky natural Fiber. 7|
|Llama (Ccara)||30 - 40|
Technically the fiber is not wool as it is hollow with a structure of diagonal 'walls' which makes it strong, light and good insulation. Wool as a word by itself refers to sheep fiber. However, llama fiber is commonly referred to as llama wool or llama fiber.
The name "llama" has been used for a wide variety of descriptions for people and items alike within general computing and gaming industries. Within some computing environments, the label "llama" has been derogatory indicating a person with little knowledge and new to the environment. Acronyms have been spelled similarly to llama and thus pronounced as llama. The llama has proved to be quite popular among some simulation games. Also the llama has been made popular in many movies as well, such as Napoleon Dynamite and the Disney film The Emperor's New Groove. Napoleon Dynamite is a 2004 independent Film co-written and directed by Jared Hess and Jerusha Hess and stars Jon Heder The Emperor's New Groove is an Academy Award -nominated Animated feature film produced by Walt Disney Feature Animation and released by Walt