Litter is waste disposed in the wrong place by unlawful human action and can vary in size of incident, occurrence or items. WASTE is a Peer-to-peer and Friend-to-friend protocol and software application developed by Justin Frankel at Nullsoft in 2003 that features Law is a system of rules enforced through a set of Institutions used as an instrument to underpin civil obedience politics economics and society It can occur as small items like wrappers, large collections of waste or scatterings of litter dispersed around public places outdoors. WASTE is a Peer-to-peer and Friend-to-friend protocol and software application developed by Justin Frankel at Nullsoft in 2003 that features Litter can be occasioned by malicious, careless or accidental intent and is generally disposed of illegally rather than lawfully. Litter has the potential to cause harm to human health, safety and welfare, it harms wildlife and causes environmental impact. The Mathematical study of potentials is known as Potential theory; it is the study of Harmonic functions on Manifolds This mathematical Waste abandoned in a private space is not considered litter. WASTE is a Peer-to-peer and Friend-to-friend protocol and software application developed by Justin Frankel at Nullsoft in 2003 that features The American Public Works Association standardized the term litter in the mid-20th Century, to be later known as a form of solid waste—“…material which, if thrown or deposited, tends to create a danger to public health, safety and welfare. The twentieth century of the Common Era began on ” Litter is categorized into three specific components: hazardous, reusable-recyclable and non-hazardous, non-from trash-hauling vehicles, unsecured loads, or construction sites. 
Some commonly-blamed groups are customers of fast food outlets, smokers and young adults. Lizards are a large and widespread group of Reptiles of the order Squamata, with nearly 5000 species and ranging across all continents except Fast food is the term given to food that can be prepared and served very quickly Studies show that areas which are allowed to remain dirty are prone to becoming dirtier, i. Fixing Broken Windows Restoring Order and Reducing Crime in Our Communities by George L e. litter gives "permission" to litter. There are also natural causes such as high winds disturbing litter containers. Litter can be a result of lack of education.
Francis McAndrew's Environmental Psychology, a textbook used by scholars to explain littering by humans, reports that women, youth, rural dwellers and live-alone peoples litter more than men, seniors, urban dwellers and multi-person households.  Picnickers, hunters, fishermen, campers, motorboaters, water skiers, careless pedestrians, motorists, truck drivers, construction and loading dock workers, are prime litter providers. A pedestrian is a person travelling on foot whether Walking or Running. Prototype research by the state of Texas "profiled" litterers being males, youth under age 25, smokers, and frequenters to bars, parties and fast food restaurants. Texas ( is a state geographically located in the South Central United States and is also known as the Lone Star State. These research results are replicated by many state governments to tailor and enforce litter eradication programs. A state is a political association with effective Sovereignty over a geographic Area and representing a Population.
Many factors contribute to why people choose to litter, according to McAndrew. He argues the “presence of other litter” is a powerful instigator. Studies confirm that litter begets litter. A “disconnect from reality” – apathy – is a second dynamic. Research by Keep America Beautiful in 1999 found 75 percent of Americans admitted to littering in the last five years, yet 99 percent of the same surveyed individuals admitted they enjoyed a clean environment. Keep America Beautiful is an environmental organization founded in 1953 The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Negligent, lax law enforcement contributes significantly to this disconnect. Generally, violations must be witnessed to be legally pursued. Inconvenience is another influence. Entitlement is a fourth dynamic to why people litter. A fifth factor is class alienation leading to poor education of individuals. “Dumping is a social activity we learn from. . . parents and pass on unconsciously to. . . children. ” Litterers are “raised badly” by parents--“…vandals with little sense [of the] damage they do. ” The temptation to litter can be motivated “by greed” and ignorance about the law and its actual enforcement, according to a Federal document by The United States Department of Justice, mentioning the criminal intent of suspects arrested for illegal waste disposal, reassured by lax law enforcement. The federal government of the United States is the central United States Governmental body established by the United States Constitution. For animal rights group see Justice Department (JD The United States Department of Justice ( DOJ) is a Cabinet department In the Parlance of Criminal justice, a suspect is a known person suspected of committing a Crime. Finally, governmental neglect influences littering. “Government… [has followed] the path of least resistance…[in addressing] externalities…that may pose…health threat[s]…to nearby communities. For the government of parliamentary systems see Executive (government. ” Culturally biased indifference by public servants causes some communities to have persistent dumping problems. 
Litter can harm the environment. It is unsightly and uncollected litter can attract more. Animals may get trapped or poisoned with litter in their habitats.  Litter can end up in rivers and canals, polluting the water supply. A large amount of floating waste ends up in the Great Pacific Garbage Patch. Plastic waste can be consumed by wildlife, with negative health consequences.
Vermin and disease are rife in places with high amounts of litter. Vermin is a term applied to various animal species regarded as pests or nuisances and especially to those associated with the carrying of Disease. A disease is an abnormal condition of an organism that impairs bodily functions and can be deadly Open containers such as paper cups or beverage cans can hold rainwater, providing breeding locations for mosquitoes which have been known to cause disease like the West Nile Virus or Malaria. Mosquitoes are insects in the family Culicidae. They have a pair of scaled wings a pair of Halteres, a slender body and long legs A disease is an abnormal condition of an organism that impairs bodily functions and can be deadly West Nile virus (or WNV is a Virus of the family Flaviviridae; part of the Japanese encephalitis (JE antigenic complex of viruses it is found in Malaria is a vector -borne Infectious disease caused by Protozoan Parasites It is widespread in tropical and subtropical regions including It is also a road hazard and can occasionally contribute to accidents.
Litter is a breeding ground for disease causing insects and rodents, features most prominently for its “ugliness” that damages scenic environments. A disease is an abnormal condition of an organism that impairs bodily functions and can be deadly Insects ( Class Insecta) are a major group of Arthropods and the most diverse group of Animals on the Earth with over a million described Rodentia is an order of Mammals also known as rodents, characterised by two continuously-growing incisors in the upper and lower jaws which must Trash collects into streams, and storm water drainage systems, flowing into local bays and estuaries. A stream is a body of Water with a current, confined within a bed and stream-banks Water is a common Chemical substance that is essential for the survival of all known forms of Life. Headlands and bays are two related features of the coastal environment An estuary is a semi-enclosed Coastal body of Water with one or more Rivers or Streams flowing into it and with a free connection to the open Cigarette butts and filters, a threat to wildlife, have been found in the stomachs of fish, birds and whales, who have mistaken them for food. Wildlife includes all non-domesticated plants animals and other organisms Fish are aquatic Vertebrate animals that are typically ectothermic (previously Cold-blooded) covered with scales, and equipped with two Birds ( class Aves) are bipedal endothermic ( Warm-blooded) Vertebrate animals that lay eggs. Whales are marine mammals which are neither Dolphins (ie members of the families Delphinidae or Platanistoidae) nor Porpoises Orcas 
In March 2008, "The American State Litter Scorecard," ranking the fifty U. S. states on overall quality/effectiveness of litter removal programs, was presented at the American Society for Public Administration National Conference. The American Society for Public Administration (ASPA is a membership association in the United States sponsoring conferences and providing professional services primarily to those who Best states included Vermont, Minnesota, New Jersey, Iowa, Connecticut, New Hampshire and Wyoming--all outside the Sunbelt. Vermont ( is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States of America. Minnesota ( Native Americans demonstrated the name to early settlers New Jersey ( is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States. The State of Iowa ( is a state in the Midwestern region of the United States of America. Connecticut ( is a state located in the New England region of the northeastern United States of America. New Hampshire ( is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States of America. The State of Wyoming ( is a sparsely populated state in the western region of the United States. The Sun Belt is a region of the United States generally considered to stretch across the South and Southwest (the geographic southern United States Worst states included Mississippi, Nevada, Louisiana, West Virginia, Alabama, Arkansas, New Mexico and South Carolina--most being inside the Sunbelt. Mississippi ( is a state located in the Deep South of the United States Nevada ( is a state located in the western region of the United States of America. The State of Louisiana ( or, État de Louisiane, pronounced) is a state located in the southern region of the United States of America West Virginia ( is a state in the Appalachian Upland South, and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States, bordered by Alabama (formally the State of Alabama;) is a State located in the southern region of the United States of America. Arkansas ( is a state located in the southern region of the United States. New Mexico ( is a state located in the southwestern region of the United States of America. South Carolina ( is a state in the southern region ( Deep South) of the United States of America.
Prior to reforms within cities in the mid to late 1800s, sanitation was not a priority on governments’ lists of things to do. Human beings, humans or man (Origin 1590–1600 L homō man OL hemō the earthly one (see Humus Waste was disposed of by the roadside or in small local dumps. It was unsanitary for local inhabitants and the growing piles of waste led to the spread of disease. Farms and gardens have also long recognized the benefits of composting food waste and biodegradable waste. A garden is a planned space usually outdoors set aside for the display cultivation and enjoyment of Plants and other forms of Nature.
From ancient Greece to the present day Western hemisphere, humans have thrown unwanted refuse onto streets, countrysides and remote places, unpunished. The term ancient Greece refers to the period of Greek history lasting from the Greek Dark Ages ca The Western Hemisphere, also Western hemisphere or western hemisphere, is a geographical term for the half of the Earth that lies West  The only known pre-modern exception, however, was the Arab Empire, especially in Cordoba, al-Andalus, which had facilities for litter collection. ||-||-||} Córdoba ( Cordova in English is a City in Andalusia, southern Spain, and the capital of the province of Córdoba. Al-Andalus (الأندلس was the Arabic name given to those parts of the Iberian Peninsula governed by Muslims or 
In the 14th century, the rise of waste in Europe helped contribute to the bubonic plague. Bubonic plague is the best-known manifestation of the bacterial disease plague, caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis (formerly known as Black rats carried the fleas which were the vectors for the plague fed off biodegradable waste that was discarded by the public. In Epidemiology, a vector is an Organism that does not cause Disease itself but which transmits Infection by conveying Pathogens from Biodegradable waste is a Type of waste, typically originating from Plant or Animal sources which may be broken down by other living organisms
During the times of colonial exploration and expansion starting in the 1600s, littering was not uncommon on seafaring vessels. Boats were small, packed with goods, cramped with people, and dirty. After meals people would discard leftovers or broken plates or cups by throwing them overboard into the sea. Leftovers are the uneaten edible remains of a Meal after the diner has finished Eating. Certain goods that were found to be tainted or broken were also thrown overboard. During George Washington's famous crossing of the Delaware River to defeat the Hessians, littering had occurred. George Washington (February 22 1732 December 14 1799 served as the first President of the United States of America (1789&ndash1797 and led the The Delaware River is a river on the Atlantic coast of the United States. Washington's men had carried small supplies of food onboard with them, but prior to battle, the food was tossed away. In present day, litter is all around us. City streets and sidewalks are covered with candy bar wrappers, soda bottles, tissues and papers. Waste is often thrown out of windows of automobiles or out of hands of people. This is done intentionally for the discarding of unwanted goods. It can be considered both unsightly and rude.
Litter can be expensive to clean up, so the act of littering has been made a fineable offense by statute in many places. FINE was created in 1998 and is an informal association of the four main Fair Trade networks F Fairtrade Labelling Organizations International A statute is a formal written enactment of a Legislative authority that governs a Country, State, City, or County.
In the United States, litter laws, enforcement efforts, and court prosecutions are used to help curtail littering. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Law is a system of rules enforced through a set of Institutions used as an instrument to underpin civil obedience politics economics and society A court is a forum used by a power base to adjudicate disputes and dispense civil, labour administrative and criminal Justice under its All three are part of a "comprehensive response to environmental violators", write Epstein and Hammett, researchers for the United States Department of Justice. For animal rights group see Justice Department (JD The United States Department of Justice ( DOJ) is a Cabinet department State laws appear to take precedence over municipal ordinances in controlling litter and act as public safety, not aesthetic measures. A state is a political association with effective Sovereignty over a geographic Area and representing a Population. A township (or Municipality) is a settlement which has the status and powers of a unit of local government Similar state to state, laws define whom the laws apply to, the type or "function" of the person committing the action, and what items must be littered or dumped to constitute an illegal act. Municipal ordinances and state statutes by-and-large require "human action" in committing an act of illegal littering or dumping for one to be "held in violation. A township (or Municipality) is a settlement which has the status and powers of a unit of local government " Some believe anti-litter statutes are "simply not enforced, or with the lowest priority. " There is ". . . a perception [by law enforcement personnel] that environmental crimes are not real crimes. " Most states require law enforcement officers to ". . . witness the illegal act to write a citation. " Since the 1970s court prosecutions became important in fighting illegal littering and dumping. A court is a forum used by a power base to adjudicate disputes and dispense civil, labour administrative and criminal Justice under its A national survey of prosecutors noted the most important factor to prosecute an offense was the "degree of harm" it posed and the "criminal intent" of the offender. The prosecutor is the chief legal representative of the prosecution in countries with either the Common law Adversarial system, or the civil law America's most prosecuted littering offense involve illegal disposals of hazardous waste. Civil and criminal fines are the “most common strategy governments use to control environmental behaviors. In the sociological field, crime is the breach of a rule or Law for which some governing authority or force may ultimately prescribe a Punishment ” Most criminal offenders choose to settle out of court. For small littering, a monetary penalty and/or a specified number of hours picking up litter or community service is typical chastisement. Community service refers to service that a person performs for the benefit of his or her local Community. Going to jail for a littering/dumping conviction is still a rarity. Jail, or gaol (especially in Canada, Australia and NZ[http //www 
For example, in the U.S. state of California, the punishment for first-time littering starts at a 100 (USD) fine and eight hours of picking up roadside litter. A US state is any one of the fifty subnational entities of the United States of America that share Sovereignty with the federal government California ( is a US state on the West Coast of the United States, along the Pacific Ocean. The United States dollar ( sign: $; code: USD) is the unit of Currency of the United States; it has also been A defendant's third offense and all subsequent offenses are punished with a minimum penalty of a $750 fine and 24 hours of litter cleanup (per offense).  Such penalties are often prominently posted on roadside signs.
In Georgia, the Comprehensive Litter Prevention and Abatement Act was signed into law in 2006. Litterers can be fined up to $1,000 and be ordered to clean a littered area in the community. 
In the UK there is a maximum fine of £2,500 for persistent littering. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Different local authorities also have the powers to impose on the spot fines to those caught littering. These are generally under £100. 
Cases are heard in the Magistrates' Court. Approximately 400 people were prosecuted last year by the police for littering. Alternatively, in some areas you could get a £50 fixed penalty fine for littering from the local authority litter warden. The Offence of Leaving Litter (section 87 of the Environmental Protection Act 1990) says that if a person drops, throws deposits or leaves anything so as to cause defacement in a public place; they could be committing a littering offence. The same applies if you see litter thrown from cars. Police officers or litter wardens are empowered and trained to deal with offenders. If you have information about a littering incident you could report it to the police, the local authority or a litter warden, but it is up to them to decide whether they wish to proceed any further. Whilst it is possible to take a private prosecution, it would be at a person’s own expense and you will need strong evidence to prove your case in court. 
Some jurisdictions offer small bounties for the cleaning of litter (for example, requiring people to pay a deposit on bottles, which is only returned when the bottles are returned). Container deposit legislation are Laws passed by city state provincial or national governments that require that a deposit on carbonated, milk water or Alcoholic In some countries such as Australia, certain areas have a similar scheme but the person bringing the bottle back in gains a small reward. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics.