Liquid mirrors are mirrors made with reflective liquids. A mirror is an object with a surface that has good Specular reflection; that is it is smooth enough to form an Image. The most common liquid used is mercury, but other liquids will work as well (for example, low melting alloys of gallium). Mercury (ˈmɜrkjʊri also called quicksilver or hydrargyrum, is a Chemical element with the symbol Hg ( Latinized hydrargyrum A fusible alloy, usually Eutectic Alloy is capable of being fused, as well as being liquefied by heat Gallium (ˈgæliəm is a Chemical element that has the symbol Ga and Atomic number 31 Liquid mirrors can be a low cost alternative to conventional large telescopes. A telescope is an instrument designed for the observation of remote objects and the collection of Electromagnetic radiation.
Isaac Newton noted that the free surface of a rotating liquid forms a circular paraboloid and can therefore be used as a telescope, but he could not actually build one because he had no way to stabilize the speed of rotation (the electric motor did not exist yet). Sir Isaac Newton, FRS (ˈnjuːtən 4 January 1643 31 March 1727) Biography Early years See also Isaac Newton's early life and achievements In Physics a free surface is the surface of a body that is subject to neither perpendicular normal stress nor parallel Shear stress,such as the boundary In Mathematics, a paraboloid is a Quadric surface of special kind An electric motor uses Electrical energy to produce Mechanical energy. The concept was further developed by Ernesto Capocci of the Naples Observatory (1850), but it was not until 1872 that Henry Skey of the Dunedin Observatory in New Zealand constructed the first working laboratory LMT.
These are made of liquid stored in a cylindrical container made of a composite material, such as Kevlar. A cylinder is one of the most basic curvilinear geometric shapes the Surface formed by the points at a fixed distance from a given Straight line, the axis Composite materials (or composites for short are engineered Materials made from two or more constituent materials with significantly different physical or chemical Kevlar is the registered Trademark for a light strong para-aramid Synthetic fiber, related to other Aramids such as Nomex and The cylinder is spun until it reaches a few revolutions per minute. The liquid gradually forms a paraboloid, the shape of a conventional telescopic mirror. In Mathematics, a paraboloid is a Quadric surface of special kind The mirror's surface is very precise and small imperfections in the cylinder's shape do not affect it. The amount of mercury used is small, less than a millimeter in thickness.
Low temperature ionic liquids (below 130 kelvins) have been proposed as the fluid base for an extremely large diameter spinning liquid mirror telescope to be based on the earth's moon. An ionic liquid is a liquid that contains essentially only ions Some ionic liquids such as Ethylammonium nitrate are in a dynamic equilibrium where at any time more The kelvin (symbol K) is a unit increment of Temperature and is one of the seven SI base units The Kelvin scale is a thermodynamic Low temperature is advantageous in imaging long wave infrared light which is the form of light (extremely red-shifted) that arrives from the most distant parts of the visible universe. In Physics and Astronomy, redshift occurs when Electromagnetic radiation – usually Visible light – emitted or reflected by Such a liquid base would be covered by a thin metallic film that forms the reflective surface.
The Rice liquid mirror telescope design is similar to conventional liquid mirror telescopes. However, it will only work in space, where gravity will not distort the mirror's shape into a parabola. The design features a liquid stored in a flat-bottomed ring-shaped container with raised interior edges. The central focal area would be rectangular, but a secondary rectangular-parabolic mirror would gather the light to a focal point. Otherwise the optics are similar to other optical telescopes. The light gathering power of a Rice telescope is equivalent to approximately the width times the diameter of the ring, minus a percentage based on optics, superstructure design, etc.
The greatest advantage of a liquid mirror telescopic is its small cost, about 1% of a conventional mirror. This cuts down the cost of the entire telescope at least 95%. The University of British Columbia's 6-meter liquid mirror telescope cost about a fiftieth as much as a conventional telescope with a glass mirror. The University of British Columbia ( UBC) is a Canadian public research University with campuses near Vancouver and in Kelowna  Unfortunately, the mirror can only be pointed straight up. If it tilts from the zenith, it loses its shape. In broad terms the zenith is the direction pointing directly above a particular location ( Perpendicular, Orthogonal) The mirror's view changes as the Earth rotates and objects cannot be physically tracked. EARTH was a short-lived Japanese vocal trio which released 6 singles and 1 album between 2000 and 2001 An object can be briefly electronically tracked while in the field of view by applying a voltage to the CCD to shift electrons across it at the same speed as the image moves; this tactic is called "drift scanning. A charge-coupled device ( CCD) is an analog Shift register, that enables the transportation of analog signals (electric charges through successive stages (capacitors " However, some types of astronomical research are unaffected by these limitations, such as long-term sky surveys and supernova searches. Astronomy (from the Greek words astron (ἄστρον "star" and nomos (νόμος "law" is the scientific study A supernova (plural supernovae or supernovas) is a stellar Explosion. Since the Universe is isotropic and homogeneous, the investigation of its structure by cosmologists can also use liquid mirror telescopes. The Universe is defined as everything that Physically Exists: the entirety of Space and Time, all forms of Matter, Energy Isotropy is uniformity in all directions Precise definitions depend on the subject area Physical cosmology, as a branch of Astronomy, is the study of the large-scale structure of the Universe and is concerned with fundamental questions about its However, research is underway to develop telescopes that can be tilted.
Hickson, Paul (May-June 2007). An old idea for astronomical imaging is undergoing a technology-driven renaissance (PDF). American Scientist. Retrieved on 2007-04-23. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Events 215 BC - A temple is built on the Capitoline Hill dedicated to Venus Erycina to commemorate the Roman defeat at