|Length:||3389 mi (5454 km)|
|East end:||Times Square in New York, New York|
|West end:||Lincoln Park in San Francisco, California|
|Major cities:||New York, New York|
Jersey City, New Jersey
Newark, New Jersey
Trenton, New Jersey
Chester, West Virginia
Fort Wayne, Indiana
South Bend, Indiana
Cedar Rapids, Iowa
Council Bluffs, Iowa
Grand Island, Nebraska
Fort Morgan, Colorado
Fort Collins, Colorado
Salt Lake City, Utah
Carson City, Nevada
San Francisco, California
The Lincoln Highway was the first road across America. A mile is a unit of Length, usually used to measure Distance, in a number of different systems including Imperial units United States The kilometre ( American spelling: kilometer) symbol km is a unit of Length in the Metric system, equal to one thousand Times Square is a major intersection in Manhattan, New York City at the junction of Broadway and Seventh Avenue and stretching from West The City of New York Lincoln Park in San Francisco California was dedicated to President Abraham Lincoln in 1909 and includes about of the northwestern corner of the The City and County of San Francisco is the fourth most populous city The City of New York Jersey City is a city in Hudson County, New Jersey, United States. Newark is the largest city in New Jersey, United States and the County seat of Essex County. Trenton is the Capital of the US state of New Jersey and the County seat of Mercer County. Philadelphia (ˌfɪləˈdɛlfiə Lancaster is a city in the South Central part of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania and is the County seat of Lancaster County. York, known as the White Rose City (after the Wars of the Roses) is a city located in South Central Pennsylvania. Chester is a city in Hancock County, West Virginia along the Ohio River. Canton is a city in the US state of Ohio and the County seat of Stark County. Mansfield is a city in the US state of Ohio and the County seat of Richland County. Lima (ˈlaɪmə is a city in the US state of Ohio and the County seat of Allen County. Fort Wayne is a City in northeastern Indiana, United States and the County seat of Allen South Bend is a city on the St Joseph river and a twin city of Mishawaka Indiana. Valparaiso (ˌvɑlpəˈreɪzoʊ is a city in Porter County, Indiana, U Joliet is a city in Will county in the US state of Illinois, located 40 miles southwest of Chicago. Aurora is the second-largest City in the US state of Illinois, with a population of 175952 (2007 est Geneva is a suburb of Chicago located in extreme eastern Kane County Illinois. Clinton is a city in Clinton County, Iowa, United States. The population was 27772 at the 2000 census and the 2006 estimate was 27042 Cedar Rapids (ˌciːdɪrˈræpɨds is the second largest City in the U Ames is a city located in the central part of the US state of Iowa, and is approximately 30 miles north of Des Moines in Story County. Council Bluffs is a city in and the County seat of Pottawattamie County, Iowa, United States and is on the east bank of the Missouri River Grand Island is a city in and the County seat of Hall County, Nebraska, United States. Kearney is a city in Buffalo County, Nebraska, United States. The City of Fort Morgan is a Home Rule Municipality that is the County seat and the most populous city of Morgan County, Colorado, The City and County of Denver (pronounced /ˈdɛnvɚ/ is the Capital and the most populous city of Colorado, in the United States The City of Fort Collins, a Home Rule Municipality situated on the Cache la Poudre River along the Colorado Front Range, is the County seat Cheyenne ( /ʃaɪˈæn/ or /ʃaɪˈɛn/) is the capital of the U Laramie is a city in and the County seat of Albany County in the U Evanston is a city in Uinta County, Wyoming, United States. The population was 11507 at the 2000 census. Ogden is a city in and the County seat of Weber County, Utah, United States. Salt Lake City is the Capital and the most populous city of the U Wendover is a city in Tooele County, Utah, United States. It is part of the Salt Lake City, Utah Metropolitan Statistical Area. Ely (pronounced, rhyming with "freely" is a city in White Pine County, Nevada, in the United States. Stockton is a City in California and the seat of San Joaquin County (the fifth largest agricultural county in the United States Oakland (ˈoʊklənd founded in 1852 is the eighth-largest city in the U The City and County of San Francisco is the fourth most populous city The United States of America —commonly referred to as the This famed transcontinental highway, the first practical automobile road to link the East and West coasts of the United States, was actively promoted by entrepreneur Carl G. Fisher. Carl Graham Fisher ( January 12, 1874 – July 15, 1939) was an American Entrepreneur. By early September 1912, he began organizing the effort by holding a dinner meeting in Indianapolis with many of his automobile industry friends where he urged their support to help fund it.
The Lincoln Highway spanned almost 3400 miles (5400 km) , coast-to-coast, from Times Square in New York City to Lincoln Park in San Francisco, originally through 13 states: New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Iowa, Nebraska, Colorado, Wyoming, Utah, Nevada, and California. Times Square is a major intersection in Manhattan, New York City at the junction of Broadway and Seventh Avenue and stretching from West The City of New York Lincoln Park in San Francisco California was dedicated to President Abraham Lincoln in 1909 and includes about of the northwestern corner of the The City and County of San Francisco is the fourth most populous city New York ( is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States and is the nation's third most populous New Jersey ( is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States. The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania ( often colloquially referred to as PA (its abbreviation by natives and Northeasterners is a state located in the Northeastern Ohio ( is a Midwestern state of the United States. As part of the Great Lakes region, Ohio has long been a cultural and geographical crossroads The State of Indiana ( was the 19th US state admitted into the union The State of Illinois ( roughly ill-i-NOY is a state of the United States of America, the 21st to be admitted to the Union. The State of Iowa ( is a state in the Midwestern region of the United States of America. Nebraska ( is a state located on the Great Plains of the Midwestern United States and The State of Colorado ( or chiefly by nonresidents) is a state located in the Rocky Mountain region of the United States of America. The State of Wyoming ( is a sparsely populated state in the western region of the United States. The State of Utah (ˈjuːtɔː or) is a western state of the United States. Nevada ( is a state located in the western region of the United States of America. California ( is a US state on the West Coast of the United States, along the Pacific Ocean. In 1915, the "Colorado Loop" was removed, and in 1928, a realignment relocated the Lincoln Highway through the northern tip of West Virginia. West Virginia ( is a state in the Appalachian Upland South, and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States, bordered by Thus, there are a total of 14 states, 128 counties, and over 500 cities, towns and villages through which the highway passed at some time in its history.
The first officially recorded mileage for the entire Lincoln Highway was 3389 miles (5454 km) in 1913. Over the years, as the road was improved, numerous realignments were made. Counting the original route and all of the subsequent realignments, there is a grand total of 5869 miles (9445 km). 
The Lincoln Highway is one of America's best-known historical roads. It was inspired by the Good Roads Movement, and in turn inspired the National Interstate and Defense Highways Act of 1956, which was championed by President Dwight D. Eisenhower, influenced by his experiences as a young soldier crossing the country in the 1919 Army Convoy on the Lincoln Highway. The Good Roads Movement occurred in the United States between 1880 and 1916 The Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1956, popularly known as the National Interstate and Defense Highways Act (Public Law 84-627 was enacted on June 29 1956 when Dwight D The President of the United States is the Head of state and Head of government of the United States and is the highest political official in United States by Dwight David "Ike" Eisenhower (October 14 1890 – March 28 1969 was President of the United States from 1953 until 1961 and a five-star general
As the first road across America, the Lincoln Highway brought great prosperity to the hundreds of cities, towns, and villages along the way. Affectionately, the Lincoln Highway became known as "The Main Street Across America", a nickname that, even today, remains synonymous with the famous old road. Additionally, with the renewed interest in America's historic two-lane highways, and in deference to Route 66 having been nicknamed "The Mother Road" by John Steinbeck, the older and longer Lincoln Highway has become regarded as "The Father Road", a nickname used regularly by American Road magazine, and by author Michael Wallis in his recent book, The Lincoln Highway, Coast-to-Coast from Times Square to the Golden Gate: the Great American Road Trip. John Steinbeck III (February 27 1902—December 20 1968 was one of the best-known and most widely read American writers of the 20th century
The Lincoln Highway Association (LHA), originally established in 1913 to plan, promote, and sign the highway, was re-formed in 1992 and is now dedicated to promoting and preserving the road. Year 1913 ( MCMXIII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Year 1992 ( MCMXCII) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar) The LHA, with members throughout the United States and overseas, maintains a national office in South Bend, Indiana, a national visitor center in Franklin Grove, Illinois, and has active state chapters in 12 Lincoln Highway states. South Bend is a city on the St Joseph river and a twin city of Mishawaka Indiana. Franklin Grove is a village in Lee County, Illinois, United States. The LHA holds yearly national conventions, and is governed by a board of directors comprised of representatives from each Lincoln Highway state.
Most of U.S. Route 30 and portions of Interstate 80 now travel the same general corridor from New York to San Francisco. The Lincoln Highway followed the following route New York The very short Lincoln Highway section in New York went west from Times Square on 42nd Street US Route 30 is an east-west main route of the system of United States Numbered Highways, with the highway traveling across the northern tier of the country Interstate 80 (I-80 is the second-longest Interstate Highway in the United States (after I-90) The final (1928) path of the Lincoln Highway now corresponds roughly to the following roads:
In 1912, America's highways were just emerging from fifty years of extremely slow growth. Route 27 is a State highway in New Jersey, United States, running along the original alignment for U The City of New York Trenton is the Capital of the US state of New Jersey and the County seat of Mercer County. US Route 1 (US 1 is a major north-south US Highway that serves the East Coast of the United States. Philadelphia (ˌfɪləˈdɛlfiə US Route 30 is an east-west main route of the system of United States Numbered Highways, with the highway traveling across the northern tier of the country Aurora is the second-largest City in the US state of Illinois, with a population of 175952 (2007 est Illinois Route 31 is a north-south state road in northeastern Illinois, United States. Geneva is a suburb of Chicago located in extreme eastern Kane County Illinois. Illinois Route 38 is an east-west state road that runs across northern Illinois. Sterling is a city in Whiteside County, Illinois, United States. US Route 30 is an east-west main route of the system of United States Numbered Highways, with the highway traveling across the northern tier of the country Granger is a town in Sweetwater County, Wyoming, United States. Interstate 80 (I-80 is the second-longest Interstate Highway in the United States (after I-90) West Wendover is a city in Elko County, Nevada, United States. US Route 93 is a major north-south United States highway in the Western United States. US Route 93 is a major north-south United States highway in the Western United States. Ely (pronounced, rhyming with "freely" is a city in White Pine County, Nevada, in the United States. US Route 50 is a major east-west route of the US Highway system, stretching just over 3000 miles (4800 km from Ocean City Maryland on the Atlantic Ocean Fallon is a city in Churchill County, located in western Nevada, United States. The Sierra Nevada ( Spanish for "Snowy Range" is a Mountain range located in the U US Route 50 Alternate ( US 50A) is an east-west Bannered route of U Wadsworth is a Census-designated place (CDP in Washoe County, Nevada, United States. Interstate 80 (I-80 is the second-longest Interstate Highway in the United States (after I-90) Donner Pass (el 7085 ft / 2160 m is a high Mountain pass in the northern Sierra Nevada, located above Donner Lake about nine miles west US Route 50 is a major east-west route of the US Highway system, stretching just over 3000 miles (4800 km from Ocean City Maryland on the Atlantic Ocean Lake Tahoe is a large freshwater Lake in the Sierra Nevada mountains of the United States. Interstate 80 (I-80 is the second-longest Interstate Highway in the United States (after I-90) The City and County of San Francisco is the fourth most populous city Railroads dominated interstate transportation, and roadways were primarily of local interest. Outside cities, "market roads" were sometimes maintained by counties or townships, but maintenance of rural roads fell to those who lived along them. Many states had constitutional prohibitions against funding "internal improvements" such as road projects, and federal highway programs were not to become effective until 1921.
At the time, the country had about 2. 2 million miles (3. 5 million km) of rural roads between farms and towns. Only 190,476 miles (306,541 km) or 8. 66 percent of roads had "improved" surfaces: gravel, stone, sand-clay, brick, shells, oiled earth, etc. Interstate roads were considered a luxury, something only for wealthy travelers who could spend weeks riding around in their automobiles.
Support for a system of improved inter-State highways had been growing. For example, The New York Times in an article on August 27, 1911, gave quotes from several prominent men. "Of the Nation's leaders," it said, "none is more emphatic than Speaker Champ Clark. James Beauchamp Clark best known as Champ Clark ( March 7, 1850 &ndash March 2, 1921) was a prominent American " Further, from a communication to President Robert P. Hooper of the American Automobile Association, the article quoted Clark's opinion that, "I believe the time has come for the general Government to actively and powerfully co-operate with the States in building a great system of public highways. . . that would bring its benefits to every citizen in the country. " However, Congress as a whole was not yet ready to commit funding to such projects.
Carl G. Fisher was an early automobile enthusiast and racer who was the manufacturer of Prest-O-Lite compressed carbide-gas headlights used on most early cars, and was also one of the principal investors who built the Indianapolis Speedway. Carl Graham Fisher ( January 12, 1874 – July 15, 1939) was an American Entrepreneur. Carl Graham Fisher ( January 12, 1874 – July 15, 1939) was an American Entrepreneur. The Indianapolis Motor Speedway, located in Speedway Indiana (an Enclave of Indianapolis) in the United States, is the home of the He believed that the popularity of automobiles was dependent on good roads. In 1912 he began promoting his dream of a transcontinental highway, and at a September 10 dinner meeting with industry friends in Indianapolis, he called for a coast-to-coast rock highway to be completed by May 1, 1915, in time for the Panama-Pacific International Exposition in San Francisco. Events 305 - Diocletian and Maximian retire from the office of Roman Emperor. Year 1915 ( MCMXV) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year The Panama-Pacific International Exposition (PPIE was a World's fair held in San Francisco California between February 20 and December 4 in He estimated the cost at about $10 million and told the group, "Let's build it before we're too old to enjoy it!" Within a month Fisher's friends had pledged $1 million. Henry Ford, the biggest automaker of his day, refused to contribute because he believed the government should build America's roads. Henry Ford ( July 30, 1863 &ndash April 7, 1947) was the American founder of the Ford Motor Company and father of However, contributors included former U. S. President Theodore Roosevelt and Thomas A. Edison, both friends of Fisher, as well as then-current President Woodrow Wilson, the first U. Theodore Roosevelt (ˈroʊzəvɛlt October 27 1858 January 6 1919 also known as T Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28 1856—February 3 1924 was the twenty-eighth President of the United States. S. President to make frequent-use of an automobile for stress relieving relaxation rides.
Fisher and his associates chose a name for the road, naming it after one of Fisher's heroes, Abraham Lincoln. Abraham Lincoln (February 12 1809 &ndash April 15 1865 the sixteenth President of the United States, successfully led his country through its greatest internal At first they had to consider other names, such as "The Coast-to-Coast Rock Highway" or "The Ocean-to-Ocean Highway," because the Lincoln Highway name had been reserved earlier by a group of Easterners who were seeking support to build their Lincoln Highway from Washington to Gettysburg on federal funds. When Congress turned down their proposed appropriation, the project collapsed, and Fisher's preferred name became readily available.
On July 1, 1913, the Lincoln Highway Association (LHA) was established "to procure the establishment of a continuous improved highway from the Atlantic to the Pacific, open to lawful traffic of all description without toll charges. "July 1st" redirects here For the Ayumi Hamasaki song see H (song. Year 1913 ( MCMXIII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common The Lincoln Highway was the first automobile road across America. " The first goal of the LHA was to build the rock highway from Times Square in New York City to Lincoln Park in San Francisco. Times Square is a major intersection in Manhattan, New York City at the junction of Broadway and Seventh Avenue and stretching from West The City of New York Lincoln Park in San Francisco California was dedicated to President Abraham Lincoln in 1909 and includes about of the northwestern corner of the The City and County of San Francisco is the fourth most populous city The second goal was to promote the Lincoln Highway as an example to, in Fisher's words, "stimulate as nothing else could the building of enduring highways everywhere that will not only be a credit to the American people but that will also mean much to American agriculture and American commerce. " Henry Joy was named as the LHA president, so that although Carl Fisher remained a driving force in furthering the goals of the association, it would not appear as his one-man crusade. Henry Bourne Joy ( November 23, 1864 in Detroit Michigan - November 6, 1936) was President of the Packard Motor Car Company 
The first section of the Lincoln Highway to be completed and dedicated was the Essex and Hudson Lincoln Highway, running along the former Newark Plank Road from Newark, New Jersey to Jersey City, New Jersey. Jersey City is a city in Hudson County, New Jersey, United States. Essex County is a County located in the northeastern part of the U Hudson County is in New Jersey, United States. Its County seat is Jersey City. The Newark Plank Road, like its cousin routes the Hackensack Plank Road and Paterson Plank Road, was a major artery in Colonial times Newark is the largest city in New Jersey, United States and the County seat of Essex County. Jersey City is a city in Hudson County, New Jersey, United States. It was dedicated on December 13, 1913 at the request of the Associated Automobile Clubs of New Jersey and the Newark Motor Club, and was named after the two counties it passed through. Events 1294 - Saint Celestine V abdicates the papacy after only five months Celestine hoped to return to his previous life Year 1913 ( MCMXIII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common
The LHA needed to determine the best and most direct route from New York City to San Francisco. East of the Mississippi River, route selection was eased by the relatively dense road network. The Mississippi River is the second longest River in the United States, with a length of from its source in Lake Itasca in Minnesota to To scout a western route, the LHA's "Trail-Blazer" tour set out from Indianapolis in 17 cars and 2 trucks on July 1, 1913, the same day LHA headquarters were established in Detroit. "July 1st" redirects here For the Ayumi Hamasaki song see H (song. Year 1913 ( MCMXIII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common After 34 days of Iowa mud pits, sand drifts in Nevada and Utah, overheated radiators, flooded roads, cracked axles, and enthusiastic greetings in every town that thought it had a chance of being on the new highway, the tour arrived for a parade down Market Street before thousands of cheering residents. The State of Iowa ( is a state in the Midwestern region of the United States of America. Nevada ( is a state located in the western region of the United States of America. The State of Utah (ˈjuːtɔː or) is a western state of the United States. Radiators and convectors are types of Heat exchangers designed to transfer Thermal energy from one medium to another for the purpose of cooling Market Street is a major street and important Thoroughfare in San Francisco California.
The Trail-Blazers returned to Indianapolis by train, and a few weeks later on September 14, 1913 the route was announced. Events 81 - Domitian becomes Emperor of the Roman Empire upon the death of his brother Titus. Year 1913 ( MCMXIII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common LHA leaders, particularly Packard president Henry Joy, wanted as straight a route as possible and the 3389 mile (5454 km) route announced did not necessarily follow the course of the Trail-Blazers. Packard was an American luxury Automobile marque built by the Packard Motor Car Company of Detroit Michigan, and later by the Studebaker-Packard Corporation Henry Bourne Joy ( November 23, 1864 in Detroit Michigan - November 6, 1936) was President of the Packard Motor Car Company There were many disappointed town officials, particularly in Colorado and Kansas, who had greeted the Trail-Blazers and thought the tour's passage had meant their towns would be on the Highway. The State of Colorado ( or chiefly by nonresidents) is a state located in the Rocky Mountain region of the United States of America. Kansas ( is a Midwestern state in the central region of the United States of America, an area often referred to as the American "
Less than half the selected route was improved roadway. As segments were improved over time, the route length was reduced by about 250 miles (400 km). Several segments of the Lincoln Highway route followed historic roads:
The LHA dedicated the route on October 31, 1913. Chambersburg is a borough in Pennsylvania, United States It is miles north of Maryland and the Mason-Dixon line and southwest of Harrisburg The French and Indian War (1754&ndash1763 was the North American chapter of the Seven Years' War. Ohio ( is a Midwestern state of the United States. As part of the Great Lakes region, Ohio has long been a cultural and geographical crossroads The Mormon George W Chorpenning Jr (whose last name sometimes appears as "Chorpening" was a pioneer in the transportation of mail freight and passengers through the arid and undeveloped The Pony Express was a fast Mail service crossing the North American continent from St Donner Pass (el 7085 ft / 2160 m is a high Mountain pass in the northern Sierra Nevada, located above Donner Lake about nine miles west The Sierra Nevada ( Spanish for "Snowy Range" is a Mountain range located in the U The Donner Party was a group of California -bound American settlers caught up in the "westering fever" of the 1840s For other meanings see Stagecoach (disambiguation. A stagecoach (also called diligence) is a type of four-wheeled enclosed Events 445 BC – Ezra reads the Book of the Law to the Israelites in Jerusalem (see Nehemiah 91 NLTse Bonfires, fireworks, concerts, parades, and street dances were held in hundreds of cities in the 13 states along the route. During a dedication ceremony in Iowa, State Engineer Thomas H. MacDonald said he felt it was "…the first outlet for the road building energies of this community. " He went on to advocate the creation of a system of transcontinental highways with radial routes. In 1919, MacDonald became Commissioner of the Bureau of Public Roads (BPR), a post he held until 1953, when he oversaw the early stages of the Dwight D. Eisenhower System of Interstate and Defense Highways. The Federal Highway Administration ( FHWA) is a division of the United States Department of Transportation that specializes in Highway transportation The Dwight D Eisenhower National System of Interstate and Defense Highways, commonly called the Interstate Highway System (or simply the Interstate System)
In September of 1912, in a letter to a friend, Fisher wrote that "…the highways of America are built chiefly of politics, whereas the proper material is crushed rock, or concrete. Fallsington is a village in Falls Township Bucks County Pennsylvania. " The leaders of the LHA were masters of the public relations, and used publicity and propaganda as even more important materials. Public relations (PR is the practice of managing the flow of Information between an Organization and its Publics Public relations - often referred
In the early days of the effort, each contribution from a famous supporter was publicized. Theodore Roosevelt and Thomas Edison, both friends of Fisher, sent checks. Theodore Roosevelt (ˈroʊzəvɛlt October 27 1858 January 6 1919 also known as T A friendly Member of Congress arranged for a dedicated motor enthusiast, President Woodrow Wilson, to contribute US$5 whereupon he was issued Highway Certificate #1. The United States Congress is the bicameral Legislature of the federal government of the United States of America, consisting of two houses Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28 1856—February 3 1924 was the twenty-eighth President of the United States. Copies of the certificate were promptly distributed to the press.
One of the best known contributions came from a small group of Esquimaux children in Anvik, Alaska. Eskimos or Esquimaux are Indigenous peoples who have traditionally inhabited the circumpolar region from eastern Siberia ( Russia) across Alaska ( Аляска Alyaska) is a state in the United States of America, in the northwest of the North American continent Their American teacher told them about Abraham Lincoln and the highway to be built in his honor, and they took up a collection and sent it to the LHA with the note, "Fourteen pennies from Anvik Esquimaux children for the Lincoln Highway. " The LHA distributed pictures of the coins and the accompanying letter, and both were widely reprinted.
One of Fisher's first acts after opening LHA headquarters was to hire F. T. Grenell, city editor of the Detroit Free Press, as a part-time publicity man. The Detroit Free Press is the largest daily Newspaper in Detroit, Michigan, USA. The Trail-Blazer tour included representatives of the Hearst newspaper syndicate, the Indianapolis Star and News, the Chicago Tribune, and telegraph companies to help transmit their dispatches. Hearst Communications Inc is a privately-held American -based Media conglomerate based in the Hearst Tower in New York City, USA The Indianapolis Star is a daily Newspaper which began publishing on June 6, 1903. The Chicago Tribune is a major daily Newspaper based in Chicago, Illinois, United States, and owned by the Tribune Company
In preparation for the October 31 dedication ceremonies, the LHA asked clergy across the United States to discuss Abraham Lincoln in their sermons on November 2, the Sunday nearest the dedication. The LHA then distributed copies of many of the sermons, such as one by Cardinal Gibbons who, with the dedication fresh in mind, had written that "such a highway will be a most fitting and useful monument to the memory of Lincoln. James Cardinal Gibbons ( 23 July, 1834 - 24 March, 1921) was an American prelate the Roman Catholic Archbishop "
One of the greater contributions to highway development was a well-publicized and promoted U.S. Army Transcontinental Motor Convoy in 1919. The United States Army is a military organization whose primary mission is to "provide necessary forces and capabilities. The Transcontinental Motor Convoys were two crossings one in 1919 in which the US Army sent a convoy from Washington DC to San Francisco on the The convoy left the White House in Washington, D.C. on July 7, 1919, and met the Lincoln Highway route at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. See also Executive Office of the President of the United States The White House, formerly known as the Executive Mansion, is the Official residence Washington DC ( formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington, the District, or simply D Events 1456 - A retrial verdict acquits Joan of Arc of heresy 25 years after her death Year 1919 ( MCMXIX) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Gettysburg is a borough 38 miles (68 km south by southwest of Harrisburg in Adams County, Pennsylvania, USA, of which it is the After two months of travel, the convoy reached San Francisco on September 6, 1919. Events 3114 BC - According to the Proleptic Julian calendar the current era in the Maya Long Count Calendar started Year 1919 ( MCMXIX) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Though bridges failed, vehicles broke and were sometimes stuck in mud, the convoy was greeted in communities across the country. The LHA used the convoy's difficulties to show the need for better main highways, building popular support for both local and federal funding. The convoy led to the passage of many county bond issues supporting highway construction.
One of the participants in the convoy was a young Lt.Col. Eisenhower, and it was so memorable that he devoted a chapter to it ("Through Darkest America With Truck and Tank") in his 1967 book At Ease: Stories I Tell to Friends. Please see " Lieutenant Colonel " for other countries which use this rank In the United States Army, United States Marine Corps Dwight David "Ike" Eisenhower (October 14 1890 – March 28 1969 was President of the United States from 1953 until 1961 and a five-star general That 1919 experience, and his exposure to the autobahn network in Germany in the 1940s, found expression in 1954 when he announced his "Grand Plan" for highways. (German ˈaʊtoːbaːn plural Autobahnen; English /ˈɔːtəʊbɑːn/ is the German word for a major high- Speed Road restricted to motor Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. The resulting 1956 legislation created the Highway Trust Fund that accelerated construction of the Interstate Highway System. The Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1956, popularly known as the National Interstate and Defense Highways Act (Public Law 84-627 was enacted on June 29 1956 when Dwight D The Dwight D Eisenhower National System of Interstate and Defense Highways, commonly called the Interstate Highway System (or simply the Interstate System)
Fisher's idea that the auto industry and private contributions could pay for the highway was abandoned early, and while the LHA did help finance a few short sections or roadway, the contributions of LHA founders and members were used primarily for publicity and promotion to encourage travel on the Highway, and for lobbying of officials at all levels for support construction by governments.
According to the Association's 1916 Official Road Guide a trip from the Atlantic to the Pacific on the Lincoln Highway was "something of a sporting proposition" and might take 20 to 30 days. To make it in 30 days the motorist would need to average 18 miles (29 km) an hour for 6 hours per day, and driving was only done during daylight hours. The trip was thought to cost no more than $5 a day per person, including food, gas, oil, and even "five or six meals in hotels. " Car repairs would, of course, increase the cost.
Since gasoline stations were still rare in many parts of the country, motorists were urged to top off their gasoline at every opportunity, even if they had done so recently. Motorists should wade through water before driving through to verify the depth. The list of recommended equipment included chains, a shovel, axe, jacks, tire casings and inner tubes, tools, and (of course) a pair of Lincoln Highway pennants. And, the guide offered this sage advice: "Don't wear new shoes. "
Firearms were not necessary, but west of Omaha full camping equipment was recommended, and the guide warned against drinking alkali water that could cause serious cramps. In certain areas, advice was offered on getting help, for example near Fish Springs, Utah, "If trouble is experienced, build a sagebrush fire. Mr. Thomas will come with a team. He can see you 20 miles off. " Later editions omitted Mr. Thomas, but westbound travelers were advised to stop at the Orr's Ranch for advice, and eastbound motorists were to check with Mr. K. C. Davis of Gold Hill, Nevada.
While the Lincoln Highway Association did not have sufficient funds to sponsor large sections of the road, starting in 1914 it did sponsor "Seedling Mile" projects. According to the 1924 LHA Guide the Seedling Miles were intended "to demonstrate the desirability of this permanent type of road construction" to rally public support for government-backed construction. The LHA convinced industry of their self-interest and was able to arrange donations of materials from the Portland Cement Association . Portland cement is the most common type of Cement in general usage in many parts of the world as it is a basic ingredient of Concrete, mortar, Stucco
The first Seedling Mile was built in 1914 west of Malta, Illinois, but after years of experience the LHA began a design effort for a road section that could handle traffic 20 years into the future. Malta is a village in DeKalb County, Illinois, United States. Seventeen highway experts met between December 1920 and February 1921, and specified:
The most famous Seedling Mile built to these specifications was the 1. Guard rail, sometimes referred to as guide rail, is a system designed to keep people or vehicles from (in most cases unintentionally straying into dangerous or off-limits areas 3-mile (2 km) "Ideal Section" between Dyer and Schererville in Lake County, Indiana. Dyer is a town in St John Township, Lake County, Indiana, United States. Schererville is a town in St John Township, Lake County, Indiana, United States. Lake County is a county located in the US state of Indiana. In 2000 its population was 484564 making it Indiana's second-most populous county With federal, state, and county funds, and a US$130,000 contribution by United States Rubber Company president and LHA founder C. The United States Rubber Company was founded in Naugatuck Connecticut in 1892 B. Seger, the Ideal Section was built during 1922 and 1923. Magazines and newspapers called the Ideal Section a vision of the future, and highway officials from across the country visited and wrote technical papers that circulated both in the United States and overseas. The Ideal Section is still in use to this day, and has worn so well that a driver would not notice it unless the marker near the road brought it to their attention.
By the mid-1920s there were about 250 National auto trails. Old style Highway markings Lincoln Highway Dixie Highway Some were major routes, such as the Lincoln Highway, the Jefferson Highway, the National Old Trails Road, the Old Spanish Trail, and the Yellowstone Trail, but most were shorter. For the Jefferson Highway from Richmond to Staunton Virginia, see Jefferson Highway (Virginia. National Old Trails Road, also known as the Ocean-to-Ocean Highway, was established in 1912 and became part of the National Auto Trail system in the United States The Old Spanish Trail auto highway (the OST once spanned the country with a full 3000 miles of roadway from ocean to ocean crossing 67 counties and eight states along the The Yellowstone Trail was the first transcontinental automobile highway through the upper tier of states in the United States Some of the shorter routes were formed more to generate revenues for a trail association rather than for their value as a route between significant locations.
By 1925 governments had joined the roadbuilding movement, and began to assert control. Federal and state officials established the Joint Board on Interstate Highways, which proposed a numbered U.S. Highway system which would make the Trail designations obsolete, though technically the Joint Board had no authority over highway names. The system of United States Numbered Highways (often called U Increasing government support for roadbuilding was making the old road associations less important, but the LHA still had significant influence. The Secretary of the Joint Board, BPR official E. W. James, went to Detroit to gain LHA support for the numbering scheme, knowing it would be hard for smaller road associations to object if the LHA publicly supported the new plan.
The LHA preferred numbering the existing named routes, but in the end the LHA was more interested in the larger plan for roadbuilding than they were in officially retaining the name. They knew the Lincoln Highway name was fixed in the mind of the public, and James promised them that, so far as possible, the Lincoln Highway would have the number 30 for its entire route. An editorial in the February 1926 issue of The Lincoln Forum reflected the outcome:
|“||The Lincoln Highway Association would have liked to have seen the Lincoln Highway designated as a United States route entirely across the continent and designated by a single numeral throughout its length. But it realized that this was only a sentimental consideration. … The Lincoln Way is too firmly established upon the map of the United States and in the minds and hearts of the people as a great, useful and everlasting memorial to Abraham Lincoln to warrant any skepticism as to the attitude of those States crossed by the route. Those universally familiar red, white and blue markers, in many states the first to be erected on any thru route, will never lose their significance or their place on America's first transcontinental road.||”|
The states approved the new federal numbering system in November 1926 and began putting up new signs. The Lincoln Highway was not alone in being split among several numbers, but the entire routing between Philadelphia and Granger, Wyoming, was assigned "U. S. 30" per the agreement. East of Philadelphia the Lincoln Highway was part of U. S. 1, and west of Salt Lake City the route became U. S. 40 across Donner Pass. Only the segment between Granger and Salt Lake City was not part of the new numbering plan; U. S. 30 was assigned to a more northerly route toward Pocatello, Idaho. When U. S. 50 was extended to California it followed the Lincoln Highway's alternate route south of Lake Tahoe.
The last major promotional activity of the LHA took place on September 1, 1928, when at 1:00 p. Events 462 - Possible start of first Byzantine indiction cycle. Year 1928 ( MCMXXVIII) was a Leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. m. groups of Boy Scouts placed approximately 2,400 concrete markers at sites along the route to officially mark and dedicate it to the memory of Abraham Lincoln. The Boy Scouts of America ( BSA) is the largest youth organization in the United States with over five million Throughout the world there are many Scouting memorials, monuments and gravesites Less commonly known is that 4,000 metal signs for urban areas were also erected then.  notes the exact number concrete markers, tallied by researcher Russell Rein from Gael Hoag's log, as 2,437 posts (p. 24-25). </ref> The markers were placed on the outer edge of the right of way at major and minor crossroads, and at reassuring intervals along uninterrupted segments. Each concrete post carried the Lincoln Highway insignia and directional arrow, and a bronze medallion with Lincoln's bust and stating "This Highway Dedicated to Abraham Lincoln".
The Lincoln Highway was not yet the imagined "rock highway" from coast to coast when the LHA ceased operating, as there were many segments that had still not been paved. Some parts were because of reroutings, such as a dispute in the early 1920s with Utah officials that forced the LHA to change routes in western Utah and eastern Nevada. Construction was underway on the final unpaved 42 mile segment by the 25th anniversary of the Lincoln Highway in 1938.
On June 8, 1938, President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed the Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1938, which called for a BPR report on the feasibility of a system of transcontinental toll roads. Events 68 - The Roman Senate accepts emperor Galba. 536 - St Silverius becomes Pope (probable Year 1938 ( MCMXXXVIII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The "Toll Roads and Free Roads" report was the first official step toward creation of the Interstate Highway System in the United States.
The 25th Anniversary of the Lincoln Highway was noted a month later in a July 3, 1938, nationwide radio broadcast on NBC. Events 324 - Battle of Adrianople Constantine I defeats Licinius, who flees to Byzantium. Year 1938 ( MCMXXXVIII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The National Broadcasting Company ( NBC) is an American Television network headquartered in the GE Building in New York City's The program featured interviews with a number of LHA officials, and a message from Carl Fisher read by an announcer in Detroit. Fisher's statement included:
|“||The Lincoln Highway Association has accomplished its primary purpose, that of providing an object lesson to show the possibility in highway transportation and the importance of a unified, safe, and economical system of roads. … Now I believe the country is at the beginning of another new era in highway building (that will) create a system of roads far beyond the dreams of the Lincoln Highway founders. I hope this anniversary observance makes millions of people realize how vital roads are to our national welfare, to economic programs, and to our national defense…||”|
Fisher died about a year after the 25th Anniversary in 1940, having lost most of his fortune. The Lincoln Highway was sufficiently well known that on March 23, 1940, NBC Radio introduced a Saturday morning dramatic show called Lincoln Highway sponsored by Shinola Polish, which featured stories of life along the route. Events 1174 - Jocelin, Abbot of Melrose, is elected Bishop of Glasgow. Year 1940 ( MCMXL) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Shinola is a brand of wax Shoe polish that was available in the early- to mid-20th century The show's introduction contained an error in noting the Lincoln Highway was identical to U. S. 30 and ended in Portland. Many of the era's stars including Ethel Barrymore, Joe E. Brown, Claude Rains, Burgess Meredith, and Joan Bennett made appearances on the show, which had an audience of more than 8 million before it left the air in 1942. Ethel Barrymore ( August 15, 1879 – June 18, 1959) was an Academy Award -winning American actress and a member of Joe E Brown may refer to Joe E Brown (comedian (1892–1973 American comedian Joseph E William Claude Rains (10 November &ndash30 May) was an English award-winning Actor and Film star whose career spanned 47 years Oliver Burgess Meredith ( November 16, 1908 He graduated from Hoosac School in 1926 Joan Geraldine Bennett (February 27 &ndashDecember 7) was an Emmy -nominated American stage film and television actress
In the many years since, the Lincoln Highway has remained a persistent memory:
In April 1988, the University of Iowa Press published Lincoln Highway, the Main Street Across America, a text-and-photo essay and history by Drake Hokanson. The University of Iowa, is a major teaching service and Research university located on a campus in Iowa City Iowa, on the banks of the Iowa River  Hokanson had been intrigued by the mystery of this once-famous highway, and tried to explain the fascination with the route in an August 1985 article in Smithsonian magazine:
|“||If it had been restlessness and desire for a better way across the continent that brought the Lincoln Highway into existence, it was curiosity that kept it alive--the notion that the point of traveling was not just to cover the distance but to savor the texture of life along the way. Smithsonian is a monthly Magazine published by the Smithsonian Institution in Washington D Maybe we've lost that, but the opportunity to rediscover it is still out there waiting for us anytime we feel like turning off an exit ramp.||”|
The Lincoln Highway Association was re-formed in 1992 with the mission, "…to identify, preserve, and improve access to the remaining portions of the Lincoln Highway and its associated historic sites. " The new LHA publishes a quarterly magazine, The Lincoln Highway Forum, and holds conferences each year in cities along the route.
In 2003 the Lincoln Highway Association sponsored the 90th Anniversary Tour of the entire road, from New York City at Times Square to Lincoln Park in San Francisco. The tour group, led by Bob Lichty and Rosemary Rubin of LHA and sponsored by Lincoln-Mercury, set out from Times Square on August 17, 2003. Events 986 - A Byzantine army was destroyed in the pass of Trajan's Gate by the Bulgarians under the Comitopuli Year 2003 ( MMIII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. Approximately 35 vintage and modern vehicles, including several new Lincolns from Lincoln-Mercury, traveled about 225 miles per day and attempted to cover as much of the original Lincoln Highway alignments as possible. The group was met by LHA chapters, car clubs, local tourism groups and community leaders throughout the route. Several Boy Scout troops along the way held ceremonies to commemorate the 75th Anniversary of the nationwide LH route marker post erection of September 1, 1928. When the tour concluded at Lincoln Park, in front of the Legion of Honor Museum in San Francisco, another ceremony was held to honor both the 90th Anniversary of the road and the 75th anniversary of the post erections.
In 2005, Greetings from the Lincoln Highway: America’s First Coast-to-Coast Road, a comprehensive coffee table book by Brian Butko, became the first complete guide to the road, with maps, directions, photos, postcards, memorabilia, and histories of towns, people, and places. A mix of research and on-the-road fun, the book placed the LHA's early history in the context of roadbuilding, politics, and geography, explaining why the Lincoln followed the path it did across the US, including the oft-forgotten Colorado Loop through Denver. Butko's book also incorporated quotes from early motoring memoirs and postcard messages - sometimes funny, sometimes painfully descriptive of early motoring woes - hence the Greetings title. Butko had previously written an exhaustive guide to the Lincoln Highway in Pennsylvania in 1996, which was revised and republished in 2002 with different photos and postcard images. 
In July 2007, the W. W. Norton Company published The Lincoln Highway, Coast-to-Coast from Times Square to the Golden Gate: The Great American Road Trip by Michael Wallis, best-selling author of Route 66, and voice in the movie Cars, and Michael Williamson, twice a Pulitzer-Prize winning photographer with The Washington Post. Michael Wallis (born 1945 is an historian of the Western United States from Missouri. Michael Williamson is an American Photographer whose work has been awarded two Pulitzer Prizes With writer Dale Maharidge, he was co-author 
In 2007, the 18 member Lincoln Highway Association National Mapping Committee, chaired by Paul Gilger, completed the research and cartography of the entire Lincoln Highway and all its subsequent realignments (totaling 5869 miles), a five-year long project. Paul Gilger (born October 13, 1954 in Mansfield Ohio) is an American Architect The resulting Lincoln Highway Driving Map CDs are available for purchase through the association's Lincoln Highway Trading Post.
In 1938, composer Harold Arlen and lyricist E. Y. Harburg wrote the song "God's Country", for the finale of the MGM musical Babes in Arms, starring Judy Garland and Mickey Rooney. Year 1938 ( MCMXXXVIII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Harold Arlen ( February 15, 1905 – April 23, 1986) was an American Composer of popular music Edgar Yipsel Harburg ( April 8 1896 – March 4 1981) best known as Yip Harburg, was an American Lyricist Babes in Arms is the 1939 Film version of the 1937 Broadway musical Babes in Arms. Judy Garland (born Frances Ethel Gumm; June 10 1922 – June 22 1969 was an American actress and singer Mickey Rooney (born Joseph Yule Jr; September 23, 1920) is an American Film Actor and Entertainer whose The song starts with the famous lyric: "Hey there, neighbor, goin' my way? East or west on the Lincoln Highway?"
In [(1974)], the song "Old Thirty" was created by Bill Fries(A. K. A. C. W. McCall) and Chip Davis for the album Wolf Creek Pass. An early verse contains the lyric: " She was known to all the truckers, As the Mighty Lincoln Highway, But to me She's still Old Thirty all the way. "
In 1994, the song "Lincoln Highway Dub" was created by the band Sublime in their album Robbin' the Hood. Year 1994 ( MCMXCIV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display full 1994 Gregorian calendar) It features elements later used in the well-known song Santeria, also by Sublime. " Santeria " is a song on Sublime 's eponymous third album.