Principality of Liechtenstein
|Motto: Für Gott, Fürst und Vaterland|
For God, Prince and Fatherland
|Anthem: Oben am jungen Rhein|
"Up on the Young Rhine"
Location of Liechtenstein (circled in inset)
on the European continent (white) — [Legend]
|Demonym||Liechtensteinians, locally Liechtensteiner|
|Government||Parliamentary democracy and Constitutional monarchy|
|-||Prime Minister||Otmar Hasler|
|-||Treaty of Pressburg||1806|
|-||Total||160.4 km² (214th)|
62 sq mi
|-||2007 estimate||35,365 (204th)|
|GDP (PPP)||2001 estimate|
|-||Total||$1. The Flag of Liechtenstein consists of two equal horizontal bands of blue (top and red with a gold ducal crown on the hoist side of the blue band The coat-of-arms of the Princely House of Liechtenstein is also used as the great arms of the nation A motto (from the Italian word motto, meaning witticism sentence is a phrase meant to formally describe the general motivation or intention of a social group A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history traditions and struggles of its people recognized either by a nation's Oben am jungen Rhein ( Up above the young Rhine) sung to the same tune as God Save the King, is the National anthem of Liechtenstein Vaduz (faˈduːts or) is the Capital of the Principality of Liechtenstein and the seat of the national parliament. Liechtenstein is the fourth smallest country of Europe after the Vatican City, Monaco, and San Marino. Schaan is the largest municipality of Liechtenstein. It is in the middle of the country next to Vaduz, the capital An official language is a Language that is given a special legal status in a particular Country, State, or other territory The German language (de ''Deutsch'') is a West Germanic language and one of the world's major languages. A demonym or gentilic is a word that denotes the members of a People or the inhabitants of a place For the government of parliamentary systems see Executive (government. A parliamentary system, also known as parliamentarianism (and parliamentarism in American English) is a System of government in which A constitutional monarchy, or a limited monarchy, is a form of Constitutional Government, wherein either an elected or hereditary Monarch is The Liechtenstein dynasty, or Princely Family of Liechtenstein, after which the sovereign principality between Switzerland and Austria was named in Hans-Adam II (Johannes Adam Ferdinand Alois Josef Maria Marko d'Aviano Pius von und zu Liechtenstein styled HSH The Sovereign Prince of Liechtenstein; born 14 February The Liechtenstein dynasty, or Princely Family of Liechtenstein, after which the sovereign principality between Switzerland and Austria was named in Alois Philipp Maria Hereditary Prince of Liechtenstein Otmar Hasler (born September 28, 1953) is the Prime Minister of Liechtenstein. Independence is the Self-government of a Nation, Country, or State by its residents and population or some portion thereof generally exercising A principality (or princedom) is a monarchical feudatory or Sovereign state, ruled or reigned over by a monarch with the title of Prince The Peace of Pressburg refers to four peace treaties concluded in Pressburg (today Bratislava, Slovakia) Area is a Quantity expressing the two- Dimensional size of a defined part of a Surface, typically a region bounded by a closed Curve. To help compare different Orders of magnitude and geographical regions we list here areas between 100 km² and 1000 km² This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by total area. The square mile is an imperial and US unit of Area equal the area of a square of one statute mile. Water is a common Chemical substance that is essential for the survival of all known forms of Life. In Mathematics, a percentage is a way of expressing a number as a Fraction of 100 ( per cent meaning "per hundred" In Biology a population is the collection of inter-breeding organisms of a particular Species; in Sociology List of countries by population in 2005|List of countries by population in 1907This is a list of countries ordered according to Population. Population density (in agriculture standing stock and Standing crop) is a measurement of Population per unit area or unit volume List of countries and dependencies by Population density in inhabitants/km² The purchasing power parity ( PPP) theory uses the long-term equilibrium Exchange rate of two currencies to equalize their Purchasing power. 786 billion (168)|
|-||Per capita||$52,150 (2001) (36)|
|GDP (nominal)||2004 estimate|
|-||Total||$3. There are three lists of Countries of the world sorted by their Gross domestic product (GDP (the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation Per capita is a Latin phrase meaning for each head with Per meaning 'through' or 'by' This article includes three lists of Countries of the world sorted by their Gross domestic product (GDP at Purchasing power parity (PPP Per capita 441 billion|
|-||Per capita||$130,277 (1)|
|Currency||Swiss franc (|
|Time zone||CET (UTC+1)|
|-||Summer (DST)||CEST (UTC+2)|
The Principality of Liechtenstein (IPA: /ˈlɪktənstaɪn/) (German: Fürstentum Liechtenstein, IPA: [ˈfʏʁstəntuːm ˈlɪçtənʃtaɪn]) is a tiny, doubly landlocked alpine country in Western Europe, bordered by Switzerland to its west and by Austria to its east. Per capita is a Latin phrase meaning for each head with Per meaning 'through' or 'by' This article includes three lists of Countries of the world sorted by their Gross domestic product Per capita at Nominal values, the A currency is a unit of exchange, facilitating the transfer of Goods and/or services It is one form of Money, where money is The franc ( German: Franken, French and Romansh: franc, Italian: franco; code: CHF ISO 4217 is the International standard describing three-letter codes (also known as the currency code) to define the names of currencies established Central European Time ( CET) is one of the names of the Time zone that is 1 hour ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. Daylight saving time ( DST Central European Summer Time ( CEST) is one of the names of UTC+2 Time zone, 2 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. A country This is a list of country calling codes defined by ITU-T recommendation E The German language (de ''Deutsch'') is a West Germanic language and one of the world's major languages. A landlocked country is commonly defined as one enclosed or nearly enclosed by land See Association of the Alpine States for a another meaning The term Alpine states or Alpine countries refers to the countries associated Western Europe at its most general meaning means 'all the countries in the West of Europe ' Switzerland (English pronunciation; Schweiz Swiss German: Schwyz or Schwiiz Suisse Svizzera Svizra officially the Swiss Confederation Austria (Österreich ( officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich Mountainous, it is a winter sports destination, although it is perhaps best known as a "tax haven". A winter sport is a Sport commonly played during Winter. As a formal term it refers to a sport played on Snow or Ice, but informally can refer A tax haven is a place where certain Taxes are levied at a low rate or not at all Despite this, it is not heavily urbanised. Urbanizationn (also spelled urbanisation) is the physical growth of Urban areas into rural or natural land as a result of population in-migration to an existing Many cultivated fields and small farms characterise its landscape both in the north (Unterland) and in the south (Oberland). It is the smallest German-speaking country in the world. The German language (de ''Deutsch'') is a West Germanic language and one of the world's major languages.
At one time, the territory of Liechtenstein formed a part of the ancient Roman province of Raetia. Political identity came to the territory now occupied by the Principality of Liechtenstein in 814 with the formation of the subcountry of Lower Rhaetia. The Roman Empire was the post-Republican phase of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial Raetia (so always in inscriptions classical manuscripts usually use the form Rhaetia) was a province of the Roman Empire, bounded on the west by the country For centuries this territory, geographically removed from European strategic interests, had little impact on the tide of European history. Prior to the reign of its current dynasty, the region was enfeoffed to a line of the counts of Hohenems. A dynasty is a succession of rulers who belong to the same family for generations Under the system of Feudalism, a fiefdom, fief, feud, feoff, or fee, often consisted of inheritable lands or revenue-producing Hohenems is a town in the westernmost Austrian province of Vorarlberg, in the Dornbirn district.
The Liechtenstein dynasty, from which the principality takes its name (rather than vice-versa), comes from Castle Liechtenstein in faraway Lower Austria, which the family possessed from at least 1140 to the thirteenth century, and from 1807 onward. The Liechtenstein dynasty from which the Principality takes its name (rather than vice-versa is the princely family of Liechtenstein. Liechtenstein Castle is a Castle located near Maria Enzersdorf south of Vienna Through the centuries, the dynasty acquired vast swathes of land, predominantly in Moravia, Lower Austria, Silesia, and Styria, though in all cases, these territories were held in fief under other more senior feudal lords, particularly under various lines of the Habsburg family, to whom several Liechtenstein princes served as close advisers. Moravia (Morava; Morawy Moravie Moravia is a historical region in central Europe in the east of the Czech Republic, one of the former Czech lands. Lower Austria (Niederösterreich is one of the nine states or Bundesländer in Austria. Etymology One theory claims that the name Silesia is derived from the Silingi, who were most likely a Vandalic (East Germanic people The Duchy of Styria (Herzogtum Steiermark Vojvodina Štajerska Stájerország was a duchy located in modern-day southern Austria and northern Slovenia. Under the system of Feudalism, a fiefdom, fief, feud, feoff, or fee, often consisted of inheritable lands or revenue-producing Thus, and without any territory held directly under the Imperial throne, the Liechtenstein dynasty was unable to meet a primary requirement to qualify for a seat in the Imperial diet, the Reichstag. The Reichstag ( German for "Imperial Diet " was the Parliament of the Holy Roman Empire, the North German Confederation,
The family yearned for the added power a seat in the Imperial government would bring, and therefore sought to acquire lands that would be unmittelbar, or held without any feudal personage other than the Holy Roman Emperor himself having rights on the land. The Holy Roman Emperor (Römischer Kaiser or Römisch-Deutscher Kaiser Romanorum Imperator was the elected monarch ruling over the many varying numbers of states After some time, the family was able to arrange the purchase of the minuscule Herrschaft ("Lordship") of Schellenberg and countship of Vaduz (in 1699 and 1712 respectively) from the Hohenems. Schellenberg is a municipality in the lowland area of Liechtenstein, on the banks of the Rhine. Vaduz (faˈduːts or) is the Capital of the Principality of Liechtenstein and the seat of the national parliament. Tiny Schellenberg and Vaduz possessed exactly the political status required; no feudal lord other than their comital sovereign and the suzerain Emperor. A count is a Nobleman in European countries The word count comes from French comte, itself from Latin Suzerainty (ˈsjuːzərənti RP or /ˈsjuːzəreɪnti/ RP) (/ˈsuːzərənti/ GA) is a situation in which a Region or people is a
Thereby, on January 23, 1719, after purchase had been duly made, Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor, decreed Vaduz and Schellenberg were united, and raised to the dignity of Fürstentum (principality) with the name "Liechtenstein" in honor of "[his] true servant, Anton Florian of Liechtenstein". Events 393 - Roman Emperor Theodosius I proclaims his nine year old son Honorius co-emperor Year 1719 ( MDCCXIX) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Charles VI (German Karl VI) ( October 1, 1685 &ndash October 20, 1740) was Holy Roman Emperor, King of Bohemia A principality (or princedom) is a monarchical feudatory or Sovereign state, ruled or reigned over by a monarch with the title of Prince Anton Florian Prince of Liechtenstein ( 28 May 1656 - 11 October 1721 Vienna) was Prince of Liechtenstein It is on this date that Liechtenstein became a sovereign member state of the Holy Roman Empire. The Holy Roman Empire ( HRE; German Heiliges Römisches Reich (HRR, Latin Sacrum Romanum Imperium (SRI was a union of territories in As a testament to the pure political expediency of the purchases, the Princes of Liechtenstein did not set foot in their new principality for over 120 years.
In 1806, most of the Holy Roman Empire was invaded by Napoleon I of the First French Empire. Schloss Vaduz ( German for "Vaduz Castle" is the official residence of the Prince of Liechtenstein. Hans-Adam II (Johannes Adam Ferdinand Alois Josef Maria Marko d'Aviano Pius von und zu Liechtenstein styled HSH The Sovereign Prince of Liechtenstein; born 14 February The Holy Roman Empire ( HRE; German Heiliges Römisches Reich (HRR, Latin Sacrum Romanum Imperium (SRI was a union of territories in Napoleon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821 was a French military and political leader who had a significant impact on the History of Europe. The Empire of the French (1804-1814 also known as the Empire of France, Greater French Empire, First French Empire, French Empire, or This event had broad consequences for Liechtenstein: imperial, legal and political mechanisms broke down, while Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor, abdicated the imperial throne and the Empire itself dissolved. Francis II (Franz II Heiliger Römischer Kaiser ( 12 February 1768 &ndash 2 March 1835) was the last Holy Roman Emperor, ruling As a result, Liechtenstein ceased to have any obligations to any feudal lord beyond its borders. Modern publications generally (although incorrectly) attribute Liechtenstein's sovereignty to these events. In reality, its prince merely became suzerain, as well as remaining sovereign lord. Suzerainty (ˈsjuːzərənti RP or /ˈsjuːzəreɪnti/ RP) (/ˈsuːzərənti/ GA) is a situation in which a Region or people is a From 25 July 1806 when the Confederation of the Rhine was founded, the prince of Liechtenstein was a member, in fact a vassal of its hegemon, styled protector, French Emperor Napoleon I, until the dissolution of the Confederation on 19 October 1813. Events 285 - Diocletian appoints Maximian as Caesar, co-ruler Year 1806 ( MDCCCVI) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common The Confederation of the Rhine or Rhine Confederation (Rheinbund États confédérés du Rhin officially and Confédération du Rhin in practice) lasted Events 202 BCE - The Battle of Zama results in the defeat of Carthage and Hannibal. Year 1813 ( MDCCCXIII) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common
Soon afterward, Liechtenstein joined the German Confederation (20 June 1815 – 24 August 1866, which was presided over by the Emperor of Austria). The German Confederation (Deutscher Bund was the association of Central European states created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 to serve as the successor to Events 451 - Battle of Chalons: Flavius Aetius ' defeats Attila the Hun. Year 1815 ( MDCCCXV) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year Events 49 BC - Julius Caesar 's General Gaius Scribonius Curio is defeated in the Second Battle of the Bagradas River Year 1866 ( MDCCCLXVI) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common The phrase Emperor of Austria describes an Hereditary Imperial title and position proclaimed in 1804 by the Austrian Habsburg
Then, in 1818, Johann I granted a constitution, although it was limited in its nature. Johann I Josef Prince of Liechtenstein ( June 26, 1760 - April 20, 1836) was the tenth prince of Liechtenstein between 1818 also saw the first visit of a member of the house of Liechtenstein, Prince Alois; however, the first visit by a sovereign prince would not occur until 1842.
Liechtenstein also had many advances in the nineteenth century, as in 1836, the first factory was opened, making ceramics. In 1861, the Savings and Loans Bank was founded, as was the first cotton-weaving mill. Two bridges over the Rhine were built in 1868, and in 1872 a railway line across Liechtenstein was constructed.
When the Austro-Prussian War broke out in 1866 new pressure was placed on Liechtenstein as, when peace was declared, Prussia accused Liechtenstein of being the cause of the war through a miscount of the votes for war with Prussia. The Austro-Prussian Prussia ( Latin: Borussia, Prutenia; Prūsija Prūsija Prusy Old Prussian: Prūsa) was most recently a historic state This led to Liechtenstein refusing to sign a peace treaty with Prussia and remained at war although no actual conflict ever occurred. This was one of the arguments that were suggested to justify a possible invasion of Liechtenstein in the late 1930s.
Until the end of World War I, Liechtenstein first was closely tied to the Austrian Empire and later to Austria-Hungary; however, the economic devastation caused by WWI forced the country to conclude a customs and monetary union with its other neighbor Switzerland. World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All For the history of these states before 1804 see Holy Roman Empire, Habsburg Monarchy, and articles on each of the component countries. Switzerland (English pronunciation; Schweiz Swiss German: Schwyz or Schwiiz Suisse Svizzera Svizra officially the Swiss Confederation Liechtenstein's Army was disbanded in 1868 for financial reasons. At the time of the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, it was argued that Liechtenstein as a fief of the Holy Roman Empire was no longer bound to the emerging independent state Austria, since the latter did not consider itself as the legal successor to the Empire. The Holy Roman Empire ( HRE; German Heiliges Römisches Reich (HRR, Latin Sacrum Romanum Imperium (SRI was a union of territories in Austria (Österreich ( officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich This is partly contradicted by the coeval Liechtenstein perception that the dethroned Austro-Hungarian Emperor still maintained an abstract heritage of the Holy Roman Empire, which was dissolved in 1806.
In the spring of 1938, just after the annexation of Austria into Greater Germany, eighty-four year-old Prince Franz I abdicated, naming his thirty-one year-old third cousin, Prince Franz Joseph, as his successor. Franz I Prince of Liechtenstein ( 28 August 1853 &ndash 25 July 1938) was the Prince of Liechtenstein between 1929 Franz Joseph II Prince of Liechtenstein, (Franz Joseph Maria Aloys Alfred Karl Johannes Heinrich Michael Georg Ignaz Benediktus Gerhardus Majella ( August 16, 1906 While Prince Franz I claimed that old age was his reason for abdicating, it is believed that he had no desire to be on the throne if Germany gobbled up its new neighbor, Liechtenstein. His wife, whom he married in 1929, was a wealthy Jewish woman from Vienna, and local Liechtenstein Nazis had already singled her out as their anti-Semitic "problem". Although Liechtenstein had no official Nazi party, a Nazi sympathy movement had been simmering for years within its National Union party. 
During World War II, Liechtenstein remained neutral, while family treasures within the war zone were brought to Liechtenstein (and London) for safekeeping. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. At the close of the conflict, Czechoslovakia and Poland, acting to seize what they considered to be German possessions, expropriated the entirety of the Liechtenstein dynasty's hereditary lands and possessions in Bohemia, Moravia, and Silesia — the princes of Liechtenstein lived in Vienna until the Anschluss of 1938. Czechoslovakia may also refer to what is now the Czech Republic and Slovakia. Poland (Polska officially the Republic of Poland Bohemia (Čechy; Bohemia Czechy is a historical region in central Europe, occupying the western two-thirds of the traditional Czech Lands, currently the Moravia (Morava; Morawy Moravie Moravia is a historical region in central Europe in the east of the Czech Republic, one of the former Czech lands. Etymology One theory claims that the name Silesia is derived from the Silingi, who were most likely a Vandalic (East Germanic people Vienna ( in Wien; see also other names) is the Capital of Austria, and is also one of the nine States of Austria. The ( German: "link-up" also known as the, was the 1938 Annexation of Austria into Greater Germany by the Nazi The expropriations (subject to modern legal dispute at the World Court) included over 1,600 km² (618 sq mi) of agricultural and forest land, also including several family castles and palaces. Citizens of Liechtenstein were also forbidden from entering Czechoslovakia during the Cold War. Cold War is the state of conflict tension and competition that existed between the United States and the Soviet Union (USSR and their respective allies from the Liechtenstein gave asylum to approximately five hundred soldiers of the First Russian National Army (a collaborationist Russian force within the German Wehrmacht) at the close of World War II; this is commemorated by a monument at the border town of Hinterschellenberg which is marked on the country's tourist map. Russian Liberation Army (Russian Russkaya Osvoboditel'naya Armiya, Русская Освободительная Армия abbreviated in Cyrillic as РОА in Latin Wehrmacht (literally "defense force" was the name of the unified Armed forces of Germany from 1935 to 1945 Hinterschellenberg is a town in Liechtenstein, located very close to the Austrian border Tourism is Travel for Recreational or Leisure purposes The World Tourism Organization defines tourists as people who "travel The act of granting asylum was no small matter as the country was poor and had difficulty feeding and caring for such a large group of refugees. Eventually, Argentina agreed to permanently resettle the asylum seekers. In contrast, the British repatriated the Russians who fought on the side of Germany to the USSR, and they all perished in the Gulag. Operation Keelhaul was a program carried out in Austria by British and American forces in May and June 1945 that decided the fate of up The Gulag was the government agency that administered the penal labor camps of the Soviet Union.
In dire financial straits following the war, the Liechtenstein dynasty often resorted to selling family artistic treasures, including for instance the priceless portrait "Ginevra de' Benci" by Leonardo da Vinci, which was purchased by the National Gallery of Art of the United States in 1967. Ginevra de' Benci (Born 1457 was a lady of the aristocratic class in 15th century Florence, admired for her intelligence by Florentine contemporaries This article is about the National Gallery of the United States for other National Galleries see National Gallery. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Liechtenstein prospered, however, during the decades following, as its economy modernized with the advantage of low corporate tax rates which drew many companies to the country.
The Prince of Liechtenstein is the world's sixth wealthiest leader with an estimated wealth of USD $4 billion. The Liechtenstein dynasty, or Princely Family of Liechtenstein, after which the sovereign principality between Switzerland and Austria was named in The United States dollar ( sign: $; code: USD) is the unit of Currency of the United States; it has also been The country's population enjoys one of the world's highest standards of living.
Liechtenstein's current constitution was adopted in October 1921. Politics of Liechtenstein takes place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic Monarchy, whereby the Chief of Government is It established in Liechtenstein a constitutional monarchy ruled by the reigning prince of the Princely House of Liechtenstein. It also established a parliamentary system, although the reigning prince retained substantial political authority.
The reigning prince of the Princely House of Liechtenstein is the head of state and, as such, represents Liechtenstein in its international relations (although Switzerland has taken responsibility for much of Liechtenstein's diplomatic relations). The prince may veto laws adopted by the parliament. The prince can call referendums, propose new legislation, and dissolve the parliament, although dissolution of parliament may be subjected to a referendum. A referendum (plural referendums or referenda) ballot question, or plebiscite (from Latin plebiscita
Executive authority is vested in a collegial government (government) comprising the head of government (prime minister) and four government councilors (ministers). The head of government and the other ministers are appointed by the prince upon the proposal and concurrence of the parliament, thus reflecting the partisan balance of the parliament. The constitution stipulates that at least two members of the government be chosen from each of the two regions. The members of the government are collectively and individually responsible to the parliament; the parliament may ask the prince to remove an individual minister or the entire government.
Legislative authority is vested in the unicameral "Landtag" (parliament) made up of 25 members elected for maximum four-year terms according to a proportional representation formula. Fifteen members are elected from the "Oberland" (Upper Country or region) and ten members are elected from the "Unterland" (Lower Country or region). Parties must receive at least eight percent of the national vote to win seats in the parliament. The parliament proposes and approves a government, which is formally appointed by the prince. The parliament may also pass votes of no confidence against the entire government or against individual members. Additionally, the parliament elects from among its members a "Landesausschuss" (National Committee) made up of the president of the parliament and four additional members. The National Committee is charged with performing parliamentary oversight functions. The parliament can call for referendums on proposed legislation. The parliament shares the authority to propose new legislation with the prince and with the requisite number of citizens required for an initiative referendum.
Judicial authority is vested in the Regional Court at Vaduz, the Princely High Court of Appeal at Vaduz, the Princely Supreme Court, the Administrative Court, and the State Court. The State Court rules on the conformity of laws with the constitution. The State Court has five members elected by the parliament.
In March 2003, the results of a national referendum showed that nearly two-thirds of Liechtenstein's electorate agreed to vote in support of Hans-Adam II's proposal of a renewed constitution which replaced the version of 1921. The implications of the referendum, the actual changes to the governance of Liechtenstein, and the repercussions of the vote in the wider context of Europe, are yet unknown.
On 1 July 2007, the Liechtenstein Ruling Prince, H. "July 1st" redirects here For the Ayumi Hamasaki song see H (song. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. S. H Hans-Adam II, and Liechtenstein Prime Minister, Otmar Hasler, appointed Dr. Hans-Adam II (Johannes Adam Ferdinand Alois Josef Maria Marko d'Aviano Pius von und zu Liechtenstein styled HSH The Sovereign Prince of Liechtenstein; born 14 February Otmar Hasler (born September 28, 1953) is the Prime Minister of Liechtenstein. Bruce S. Allen and Mr. Bruce S Allen (Born 1950 is an American foreign consul appointed by the ruling monarch and the prime minister of the Principality of Liechtenstein. Leodis C. Matthews, ESQ. , both in the United States of America, as the first two Honorary Consuls in history for the Principality of Liechtenstein. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The Principality of Liechtenstein (Fürstentum Liechtenstein) is a tiny doubly landlocked Alpine country in Western Europe, bordered by Switzerland 
The principality of Liechtenstein is divided into 11 municipalities called Gemeinden (singular Gemeinde). ||-||}The principality of Liechtenstein is divided into eleven municipalities ( Gemeinden singular Gemeinde) most consisting of only a single Town The Gemeinden mostly consist only of a single town. Five of them fall within the electoral district Unterland (the lower county), and the remainder within Oberland (the upper county).
Liechtenstein is situated in the Upper Rhine valley of the European Alps. Geography of Liechtenstein Location Central Europe, between Austria and Switzerland Geographic The Rhine (Rhein Rijn Rhin Reno Rain Rhenus is one of the longest and most important Rivers in Europe at 1320 kilometres (820 mi with an average discharge The entire western border of Liechtenstein is formed by the river. Measured north to south, the country is only about 24 km (15 mi) long. The kilometre ( American spelling: kilometer) symbol km is a unit of Length in the Metric system, equal to one thousand A mile is a unit of Length, usually used to measure Distance, in a number of different systems including Imperial units United States In its eastern portion, Liechtenstein rises to higher altitudes; its highest point, the Grauspitz, is 2,599 m (8,527 ft). Grauspitz ("Vorder Grauspitz" on some maps is the highest Mountain in Liechtenstein. The metre or meter is a unit of Length. It is the basic unit of Length in the Metric system and in the International A foot (plural feet or foot; symbol or abbreviation ft or sometimes &prime – the prime symbol) is a non-SI unit Despite its alpine location, prevailing southerly winds make the climate of Liechtenstein comparatively mild. In winter, the mountain slopes are well suited to winter sports.
New surveys of the country's borders in 2006 have set its area at 160. Surveying is the technique and science of accurately determining the terrestrial or three-dimensional space Position of points and the distances and angles between 475 km² (61. Square Kilometre ( US spelling square kilometer) symbol km2, is a decimal multiple of the SI unit of 960 sq mi), with borders of 77. The square mile is an imperial and US unit of Area equal the area of a square of one statute mile. 9 km (48. 4 mi).  Thus, Liechtenstein discovered in 2006 that its borders are 1. 9 km (1. 2 mi) longer than previously thought as more modern measuring methods have been introduced and they measure more accurately the borders in mountainous regions. 
Liechtenstein is one of only two doubly landlocked countries in the world—being a landlocked country wholly surrounded by other landlocked countries—the other is Uzbekistan. A landlocked country is commonly defined as one enclosed or nearly enclosed by land Uzbekistan, officially the Republic of Uzbekistan ( Uzbek: O‘zbekiston Respublikasi or Ўзбекистон Республикаси is a doubly It is the only country with a predominantly German-speaking population that does not share a border with the Federal Republic of Germany. Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe.
Liechtenstein is the sixth-smallest independent nation in the world, by land area. The five independent countries smaller than Liechtenstein are Vatican City, Monaco, Nauru, Tuvalu, and San Marino. Vatican City, officially the State of the Vatican City (Stato della Città del Vaticano is a Landlocked sovereign City-state whose territory For other uses see Monaco (disambiguation Monaco, officially the Principality of Monaco ( French: Principauté de Monaco; Monégasque Nauru, officially the Republic of Nauru, is an Island nation in the Micronesian South Pacific. Tuvalu, formerly known as the Ellice Islands, is a Polynesian Island nation located in the Pacific Ocean midway between Hawaii and The Most Serene Republic of San Marino (Serenissima Repubblica di San Marino is a country in the Apennine Mountains. See List of countries and outlying territories by total area. This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by total area.
Despite its small geographic area and limited natural resources, Liechtenstein currently is one of the few countries in the world with more registered companies than citizens; it has developed into a prosperous, highly industrialized, free-enterprise economy, and boasts a financial service sector as well as a living standard which compares favourably to those of the urban areas of Liechtenstein's large European neighbours. Economy - overview Despite its small size and limited natural resources Liechtenstein has developed into a prosperous highly industrialized free-enterprise economy The Kunstmuseum Liechtenstein (Liechtenstein Art Museum is the state museum of modern and contemporary art in Vaduz. Relatively low business taxes—the maximum tax rate is 18%—as well as easy Rules of Incorporation have induced about 73,700 holding (or so-called 'letter box') companies to establish nominal offices in Liechtenstein. Such processes provide about 30% of Liechtenstein's state revenue. Liechtenstein also generates revenue from the establishment of stiftungs ("foundations"), which are financial entities created to increase the privacy of nonresident foreigners' financial holdings. The foundation is registered in the name of a Liechtensteiner, often a lawyer.
Recently, Liechtenstein has shown strong determination to prosecute any international money-laundering and worked to promote the country's image as a legitimate financing center. In February 2008 the country's LGT Bank was implicated in a tax-fraud scandal in Germany, which strained the ruling family's relationship with the German government. LGT (Liechtenstein Global Trust is the Private banking group of the princely House of Liechtenstein. Crown Prince Alois has accused the German government of trafficking in stolen goods for its $7. 3 million purchase of private banking information illegally offered by a former employee of LGT Group. 
Liechtenstein participates in a customs union with Switzerland and employs the Swiss franc as national currency. A customs union is a Free trade area with a Common external tariff. Switzerland (English pronunciation; Schweiz Swiss German: Schwyz or Schwiiz Suisse Svizzera Svizra officially the Swiss Confederation The franc ( German: Franken, French and Romansh: franc, Italian: franco; code: CHF The country imports more than 90% of its energy requirements. Liechtenstein has been a member of the European Economic Area (an organization serving as a bridge between the European Free Trade Association (EFTA) and the European Union) since May 1995 . The European Economic Area ( EEA) came into being on 1 January 1994 following an agreement between member states of European Free Trade Association (EFTAthe The European Free Trade Association ( EFTA) is a European Trade bloc which was established on 3 May 1960 as an alternative for European states who were either The European Union ( EU) is a political and economic union of twenty-seven member states, located primarily in The government is working to harmonize its economic policies with those of an integrated Europe. Since 2002, Liechtenstein's rate of unemployment has doubled, although it stood at only 2. 2% in the third quarter of 2004. Currently, there is only one hospital in Liechtenstein, the Liechtensteinisches Landesspital in Vaduz. Vaduz (faˈduːts or) is the Capital of the Principality of Liechtenstein and the seat of the national parliament. The GDP (PPP) is $1. 786 billion, or $25,000 per person.
Liechtenstein's most recognizable international company and largest employer is Hilti, a manufacturer of concrete fastening systems. Hilti Corporation Hilti Aktiengesellschaft or Hilti AG also known as Hilti Group develops manufactures and markets products for the construction and building Liechtenstein also is the home of the Curta calculator and the principality produces a large portion of the world's false teeth. The Curta was a small hand-cranked mechanical Calculator introduced in 1948 (Ivoclar Vivadent, Schaan)
The government of Liechtenstein taxes personal and business income and principal (wealth). Schaan is the largest municipality of Liechtenstein. It is in the middle of the country next to Vaduz, the capital The basic rate for the personal income tax is 1. 2%. When combined with the additional income tax imposed by the communes, the combined income tax rate is 17. 82%.  An additional income tax of 4. 3% is levied on all employees for the country's social security program. Social security primarily refers to a Social insurance program providing social protection or protection against socially recognized conditions including poverty old This rate is higher for self-employed, up to a maximum of 11%, making the maximum income tax rate about 29% total. Income from employment is taxed through monthly withholdings by employer.
The maximum business income tax rate is 18-20%. 
The basic tax rate on wealth is 0. 06% and the combined total rate is 0. 89%.
Liechtenstein's gifts and estate taxes vary depending upon the relationship the recipient has to the giver and the amount of the inheritance. The tax ranges between 0. 5% and 0. 75% for spouses and children and 18% to 27% for non-related recipients. The estate tax is progressive:
|Amount, SFr||Rate of Estate Duty|
|The first 200,000||1%|
|The next 400,000||2%|
|The next 600,000||3%|
|The next 800,000||4%|
|On the residue over 2m||5%|
The rate above is halved if the estate passes to the spouse, children, or parents. 
The 2008 Liechtenstein tax affair is a series of tax investigations in numerous countries whose governments suspect that some of their citizens may have evaded tax obligations by using banks and trusts in Liechtenstein; the affair broke open with the biggest complex of investigations ever initiated for tax evasion in the Federal Republic of Germany. The 2008 Liechtenstein tax affair is a series of tax investigations in numerous countries whose governments suspect that some of their citizens may have evaded tax obligations by using Tax avoidance is the legal utilization of the Tax regime to one's own advantage in order to reduce the amount of tax that is payable by means that are within the law Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe.  It is seen also as an attempt to put pressure on Liechtenstein, one of the so-called uncooperative tax havens — along with Andorra and Monaco — as identified by the Paris-based Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development in 2002. A tax haven is a place where certain Taxes are levied at a low rate or not at all Andorra, officially the Principality of Andorra ( Catalan: Principat d'Andorra) is a small Landlocked country in western For other uses see Monaco (disambiguation Monaco, officially the Principality of Monaco ( French: Principauté de Monaco; Monégasque 
Liechtensteiners have an average life expectancy at birth of 79. 68 years (76. 1 years for males; 83. 28 years for females). The infant mortality rate is 4. 64 deaths per 1,000 live births, according to recent estimates. It is estimated that 100 percent of the population age 10 and older can read and write.  The Programme for International Student Assessment, coordinated by the OECD, currently ranks Liechtenstein's education as the 10th best in the world, being significantly higher than the OECD average. 
Liechtenstein is the fourth smallest country of Europe, after the Vatican City, Monaco, and San Marino. Liechtenstein is the fourth smallest country of Europe after the Vatican City, Monaco, and San Marino. Vatican City, officially the State of the Vatican City (Stato della Città del Vaticano is a Landlocked sovereign City-state whose territory For other uses see Monaco (disambiguation Monaco, officially the Principality of Monaco ( French: Principauté de Monaco; Monégasque The Most Serene Republic of San Marino (Serenissima Repubblica di San Marino is a country in the Apennine Mountains. Its population is primarily ethnic Alemannic, although its resident population is approximately one third foreign-born, primarily German speakers from the Federal Republic of Germany, Austria, and the Swiss Confederation, other Swiss, Italians, and Turks. The Alamanni, Allemanni, or Alemanni were originally an alliance of Germanic tribes located around the upper Main river ( Germany The German language (de ''Deutsch'') is a West Germanic language and one of the world's major languages. Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. Austria (Österreich ( officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich Switzerland (English pronunciation; Schweiz Swiss German: Schwyz or Schwiiz Suisse Svizzera Svizra officially the Swiss Confederation Switzerland (English pronunciation; Schweiz Swiss German: Schwyz or Schwiiz Suisse Svizzera Svizra officially the Swiss Confederation The' Italian people' are a Southern European Ethnic group located primarily in Italy, Switzerland, France and by virtue of a wide-ranging The Turkish people (Türk Halkı also known as " Turks " ( Türkler) are defined mainly as being speakers of Turkish as a First language Foreign-born people make up two-thirds of the country's workforce. Nationals are referred to by the plural: Liechtensteiners.
The official language is German; most speak Alemannic, a dialect of German that is highly divergent from Standard German (see Middle High German), but closely related to those dialects spoken in neighbouring regions. The German language (de ''Deutsch'') is a West Germanic language and one of the world's major languages. Alemannic German ( Alemannisch) is a group of Dialects of the Upper German branch of the Germanic language family. A dialect (from the Greek word διάλεκτος dialektos) is a variety of a Language that is characteristic of a particular group of Standard German ( German: Hochdeutsch) is the standard varieties of the German language used as a Written language, in formal contexts Middle High German (MHG German Mittelhochdeutsch) is the term used for the period in the history of the German language between 1050 and 1350 In Triesenberg a quite distinct dialect, promoted by the municipality, is spoken. Triesenberg Commune is a village in Liechtenstein with a population of 2564 an area of 30 square kilometers and an elevation of 884-1000 metres According to the 2000 census, 87. 9% of the population is Christian, of which 76% adhere to the Roman Catholic faith, while about 7% are Protestant. A Christian is a person who adheres to Christianity, a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth Protestantism refers to the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated in the 16th century Protestant Reformation. The religious affiliation for most of the remainder is Islam - 4. For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation. 8%, undeclared - 4. 1% and no religion - 2. Irreligion is a lack of religion indifference to religion or hostility to religion 8%. 
Road: There are about 250 km (155 mi) of paved roadway within Liechtenstein. Liechtenstein's railways are operated by the Austrian Federal Railways.
Rail: 9. 5 km (5. 9 mi) of railway connect Austria and Switzerland through Liechtenstein. The country's railways are administered by the Austrian Federal Railways as part of the route between Feldkirch, Austria, and Buchs SG, Switzerland. Liechtenstein's railways are operated by the Austrian Federal Railways. ÖBB ( Österreichische Bundesbahnen - Austrian Federal Railways is the national railway system of Austria. Feldkirch is a medieval city in the western Austrian state of Vorarlberg, at, on the border with Switzerland and Liechtenstein. Austria (Österreich ( officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich Buchs is a municipality in the Wahlkreis (constituency of Werdenberg in the canton of St Switzerland (English pronunciation; Schweiz Swiss German: Schwyz or Schwiiz Suisse Svizzera Svizra officially the Swiss Confederation Four stations in Liechtenstein, namely Schaan-Vaduz, Forst Hilti, Nendeln, and Schaanwald, are served by an irregularly stopping train service running between Feldkirch and Buchs. While EuroCity and other long distance international trains also make use of the route, these do not call at Liechtenstein stations. EuroCity, abbreviated EC, denotes an international Train service within the European Inter-city rail network
Bus: The Liechtenstein Bus is a subsidiary of the Swiss Postbus system, but separately run, and connects to the Swiss bus network at Buchs SG and at Sargans as well as the Austrian city of Feldkirch. Sargans is a municipality in the Wahlkreis (constituency of Sarganserland in the canton of St
N. B. Incidentally, with Liechtenstein's railways being run by the Austrian ÖBB and with special agreements existing between Liechtenstein's and Austria's Governments, the country also falls under the Austrian Verkehrsverbund Vorarlberg tariff region. ÖBB ( Österreichische Bundesbahnen - Austrian Federal Railways is the national railway system of Austria.
Bike: There are 90 km (56 mi) of marked bicycle paths in the country.
Air: There is no airport in Liechtenstein (the nearest large airport is Zürich Airport). Zürich Airport also called Kloten Airport, is located in Kloten, Canton of Zürich, Switzerland and managed by Unique Airport There is a small heliport at Balzers in Liechtenstein available for charter helicopter flights. A heliport is a small Airport suitable only for use by Helicopters Heliports typically contain one or more Helipads and may have limited facilities such Balzers is a village and community located in southern Liechtenstein.
As a result of its small size Liechtenstein has been strongly affected by external cultural influences, most notably those originating in the southern German-speaking areas of Europe, including Austria, Bavaria, Switzerland, and Tyrol. Austria (Österreich ( officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich Bavaria ( German:, with an area of 70553 Km² (27241 square miles and almost 12 Switzerland (English pronunciation; Schweiz Swiss German: Schwyz or Schwiiz Suisse Svizzera Svizra officially the Swiss Confederation Tyrol is a region in Western Central Europe, which included the present day Austrian state of Tyrol (consisting of North Tyrol and East The Historical Society of the Principality of Liechtenstein plays a role in preserving the culture and history of the country.
The largest museum is the Kunstmuseum Liechtenstein, an international museum of modern and contemporary art with an important international art collection. The Kunstmuseum Liechtenstein (Liechtenstein Art Museum is the state museum of modern and contemporary art in Vaduz. The building by the Swiss architects Morger, Degelo and Kerez is a landmark in Vaduz. It was completed in November 2000 and forms a “black box” of tinted concrete and black basalt stone. The museum collection is also the national art collection of Liechtenstein.
The other important museum is the Liechtenstein National Museum (Liechtensteinisches Landesmuseum) showing permanent exhibition on the cultural and natural history of Liechtenstein as well as special exhibitions. There are also a Stamp and a Ski Museum.
The most famous historical sites are Vaduz Castle, Gutenberg Castle, the Red House and the ruins of Schellenberg.
Music and theatre are an important part of the culture. There are numerous music organizations such as the Liechtenstein Musical Company, the annual Guitar Days and the International Josef Gabriel Rheinberger Society; and two main theatres.
The Private Art Collection of the Prince of Liechtenstein, one of the world's leading private art collections, is shown at the Liechtenstein Museum in Vienna. The Liechtenstein Museum is in Vienna, Austria, named after the princely House of Liechtenstein, one of Europe's oldest noble families
Liechtenstein football teams play in the Swiss football leagues. Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a Team sport played between two teams of eleven players and is widely considered The Liechtenstein Cup allows access to one Liechtenstein team each year in the UEFA Cup; FC Vaduz, a team playing in the Swiss Challenge League (i. The UEFA Cup is a football competition for European club teams organised by the Union of European Football Associations (UEFA. FC Vaduz is a Liechtensteiner football team that plays in Vaduz. e. the second level of Swiss football) is the most successful team in the Cup, and scored their greatest success in the European Cup Winners' Cup in 1996 when they defeated the Latvian team FC Universitate Riga by 1–1 and 4–2, to go on to a lucrative fixture against Paris St Germain, which they lost 0–4 and 0–3. Latvia ( Latvija officially the Republic of Latvia (Latvijas Republika is a Country in Northern Europe in the Baltic region. FK Jelgava is a Latvian football club that is based in Jelgava. Paris Saint-Germain Football Club, or PSG, is a French football club based in Paris.
The Liechtenstein national football team has traditionally been regarded as an easy target for any team drawn against them, a fact that served as the basis for a book about Liechtenstein's unsuccessful qualifying campaign for the 2002 World Cup by British author, Charlie Connelly. The Liechtenstein national football team is the national football team of Liechtenstein and is controlled by the Liechtenstein Football Association. The 2006 FIFA World Cup was the 18th instance of the FIFA World Cup, the quadrennial international football world championship tournament Charlie Connelly (born 22 August 1970, London, England) is a British Author and broadcaster from England In one surprising week during autumn 2004, however, the team, headed by Patrick Nikodem, managed a 2–2 draw with Portugal, which only a few months earlier had been the losing finalists in the European Championships. The Portugal national football team is controlled by the Portuguese Football Federation (FPF finishing 4th at the last World Cup. The 2004 UEFA European Football Championship (or just Euro 2004) was the twelfth edition of the UEFA European Football Championship, a quadrennial football Four days later, the Liechtenstein team traveled to Luxembourg where they defeated the home team by four goals to 0 in a 2006 World Cup qualifying match. The Luxembourg national football team is the national football team of Luxembourg, and is controlled by the Luxembourg Football Federation. The 2006 FIFA World Cup was the 18th instance of the FIFA World Cup, the quadrennial international football world championship tournament They are still considered by many to be an easier touch than most, however, they have been steadily improving over the last few years, and are now considered the best of the European "minnows", even though they were recently humbled 7-1 by Malta in March 2008. In the qualification stage of the European Championship 2008, Liechtenstein beat Latvia 1-0, score which prompted the resignation of the Latvian coach. They went on to beat Iceland 3-0 (October 17, 2007), which is considered one of the most dramatic losses of the Icelandic national football team.
As an alpine country, the main opportunity for Liechtensteiners to excel is in winter sports such as downhill skiing: The country's single ski area is Malbun. The downhill is an Alpine skiing discipline The rules for the downhill were originally developed by Sir Arnold Lunn for the 1921 British National Ski Championships Malbun is a ski - Resort Village in the municipality of Triesenberg, Liechtenstein. Hanni Wenzel won two gold and one silver medal in the 1980 Winter Olympics (she won bronze in 1976), whereas her brother, Andreas , won one silver medal (1980) and one bronze medal 1984 in the Giant Slalom event. Hanni Wenzel (born in Straubing, Germany on December 14, 1956) is a former alpine skier from Liechtenstein. The Winter Olympic Games are a winter Multi-sport event held every four years Andreas Wenzel (born March 18, 1958 in Planken) is a former Alpine skier from Liechtenstein. With nine medals overall (all in alpine skiing), Liechtenstein has won more Olympic medals per capita than any other nation. It is also the smallest nation to win a medal in any Olympics, Winter or Summer. Other notable skiers from Liechtenstein are Marco Büchel, Willi Frommelt, Paul Frommelt and Ursula Konzett. Marco Büchel (born November 4, 1971 in Walenstadt, Switzerland) is a Liechtensteiner Skier, who participated in five Willi Frommelt (born November 18 1952 in Schaan) is a former Alpine skier from Liechtenstein. Paul Frommelt (born August 9 1957 in Schaan) is a former Alpine skier from Liechtenstein. Ursula Gregg (born November 16 1959 Ursula Konzett in Triesen) is a former Alpine skier from Liechtenstein.
Vaduz, Liechtenstein, is considering a bid for either the 2018 Winter Olympics or 2022 Winter Olympics. Vaduz (faˈduːts or) is the Capital of the Principality of Liechtenstein and the seat of the national parliament. The 2018 Winter Olympics, officially known as the XXIII Olympic Winter Games will be celebrated in 2018 and are an international Winter sports athletic The 2022 Winter Olympics, formally called the XXIV Olympic Winter Games is an event that the International Olympic Committee has yet to
In June 2003 the state tourism agency decided to give a boost to the country's tourism by offering to rent out the country to businesses and other organizations for conference hosting, weddings, or other such events. The company will be given keys to Vaduz and be offered team-building/tourist activities and attractions, such as wine-tasting, tobogganing, and full access to one of the country's royal castles. A toboggan is a simple Sled used on snow to carry one or more people (often children down a hill or other slope for recreation It costs $375 a person, but it has to for no less than 450 people. Therefore, the minimum cost is approximately $170,000. Prince Hans-Adam II exploited this renting system by threatening to sell Liechtenstein to Bill Gates if he was not given more power. If you would like to experiment with Wikipedia please copy He was given the power he asked for, but he later claimed that he was in fact joking. 
Karl Schwarzler, along with the entire nation of Liechtenstein, was awarded the Ig Nobel Prize in Economics in 2003 for this unique enterprise. The Ig Nobel Prizes are a Parody of the Nobel Prizes and are given each year in early October — around the time the recipients of the genuine Nobel Prizes are 
Liechtenstein follows a policy of neutrality and is one of few countries in the world to have no army, having abolished it in 1868 due to high costs. While the CIA World Factbook claims that the defense of Liechtenstein is the responsibility of Switzerland, Switzerland actually has no defense agreement with Liechtenstein. The World Factbook ( ISSN; also known as the CIA World Factbook) is an annual publication of the Central Intelligence Agency of the No defense treaty is mentioned in a description of the bilateral relationships between the two countries provided on Liechtenstein's official website.