The lentil or daal or pulse (Lens culinaris) is a bushy annual plant of the legume family, grown for its lens-shaped seeds. Botanically an annual plant is a Plant that usually germinates, Flowers and dies in one Year. Fabaceae or Leguminosae is a large and economically important family of Flowering plants which is commonly known as the legume family, pea A seed (in some plants referred to as a kernel) is a small embryonic Plant enclosed in a covering called the seed coat usually with some stored It is about 15 inches tall and the seeds grow in pods, usually with two seeds in each.
The plant originated in the Near East, and has been part of the human diet since the aceramic Neolithic, being one of the first crops domesticated in the Near East. B Syria - Belka Woman from Damascus Arab from Baghdadjpg|thumb|Inhabitants of the Near East late nineteenth century The Neolithic (from Greek νεολιθικός — neolithikos from νέος neos, "new" + λίθος lithos The Neolithic founder crops (or primary domesticates) are the eight Plant Species that were domesticated by early Holocene ( Pre-Pottery With 26% protein, lentil is the vegetable with the highest level of protein after soybeans, and because of this it is a very important part of the diet in many parts of the world, especially in India, which has a large vegetarian population. India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country Vegetarianism is the practice of a diet that excludes Meat (including game and slaughter by-products Fish (including Shellfish and other sea
A variety of lentils exist with colors that range from yellow to red-orange to green, brown and black. Red, white and yellow lentils are decorticated, i. e. , they have their skins removed. One variety of yellow "lentils," Chana, is in fact made from the kernels of chickpeas. There are large and small varieties of many lentils (e. g. , Masoor Lentils). Lentils are sold in many forms, with or without the skins, whole or split. The urad bean, a species of the genus Vigna, is also referred to as "black lentil". Urad, also referred to as urad dal, urd bean, urd, urid, black matpe bean, black gram, black lentil The Genus Vigna is in the Plant family Fabaceae. The genus is named after Dominico Vigna an Italian Botanist Split Pigeon peas (either green or yellow) are sometimes erroneously sold as lentils. The pigeon pea ( Cajanus cajan, syn Cajanus indicus) is a perennial member of the family Fabaceae. They are considered pulses, which includes peas and beans. Pulses are annual leguminous crops yielding from one to twelve Grains or Seeds of variable size shape and color within a Pod, according
The seeds have a short cooking time (especially for small varieties with the husk removed, such as the common red lentil) and a distinctive earthy flavor. Lentils are used to prepare an inexpensive and nutritious soup all over Europe and North and South America, sometimes combined with some form of chicken or pork. Soup is a Food that is made by combining ingredients such as Meat and Vegetables in stock or hot/boiling Water, until the flavor The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World, consisting of the Continents of North America and South America The chicken ( Gallus gallus, sometimes G gallus domesticus) is a domesticated Fowl which is traditionally believed to have descended from Pork' is the Culinary name for Meat from the domestic Pig ( Sus scrofa) often specifically the fresh meat but can be used as an all-inclusive They are frequently combined with rice, which has a similar cooking time. Rice is a Cereal foodstuff which forms an important part of the diet of many people worldwide and as such it is a staple food for many A lentil and rice dish is referred to in the Middle East as mujaddara or mejadra. Mujaddara ( مجدرة Cypriot Greek:) also known as mejadra or mudardara, consists of cooked Lentils together with Wheat Rice and lentils are also cooked together in khichdi, a popular Indian dish. Khichdi (also khichri, khichdee, khichadi, khichuri, khichari and many other variants ( Urdu: کھچڑی) is a South Lentils are used throughout India, the Mediterranean regions and the Middle East. India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country The Middle East is a Subcontinent with no clear boundaries often used as a synonym to Near East, in opposition to Far East. In rare cases the lentils are mixed with dairy cheese. Cheese is a Food made from Milk, usually the milk of cows, Buffalo, Goats or sheep, by coagulation.
A large percentage of Indians are vegetarian and lentils have long been part of the indigenous diet as a common source of protein. India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country Vegetarianism is the practice of a diet that excludes Meat (including game and slaughter by-products Fish (including Shellfish and other sea Usually, lentils are boiled to a stew-like consistency with vegetables and then seasoned with a mixture of spices to make many side dishes such as sambar, rasam and dal, which are usually served over rice and roti. Sambar or sambhar ( Kannada:ಸಾರು Malayalam: സാമ്പാർ Tamil:சாம்பார் Telugu:సాంబారు Rasam, ( Tamil: Rasam; Kannada: Saaru; Telugu: Chaaru; sanskrit: Rasam) is a South Indian Dal (also spelled dahl, dhal or daal) ( Devanagari दाल Telugu పప్పు Bangla দ্দাল is a preparation Roti ( Hindi: रोटी; Dhivehi: ރޮށި; Punjabi: ਰੋਟੀ; Urdu: روٹی; Gujarati: રોટલી; roʈi
When lentils are prepared, they are first inspected for damaged lentils, stones and other foreign matter. Then they are rinsed until the water runs through and comes out clear. Some prefer to soak the lentils for an extended time and discard the water. This removes substances that may cause indigestion. The lentils are then boiled in water or broth. They may be cooked on the stovetop, or in a slow cooker. A slow cooker or Crock-Pot (a trademark often used generically is a Countertop electrical cooking appliance that maintains a relatively low temperature (compared Pressure cookers are not recommended, since the small lentils may clog the pressure relief valve, and their quick cooking time means there is little benefit from pressure cooking. Cooked lentils often require thinning: adding more hot water or broth to the cooked legumes until the desired final consistency is reached.
Nutritional value per 100 g (3. 5 oz)
|Energy 350 kcal 1480 kJ|
|Percentages are relative to US|
recommendations for adults. Reference Daily Intake (or Recommended Daily Intake ( RDI) is the daily dietary intake level of a nutrient which was considered (at the time they were defined to be sufficient
Source: USDA Nutrient database
Apart from a high level of proteins, lentils also contain dietary fiber, vitamin B1, and minerals. Red (or pink) lentils contain a lower concentration of fiber than green lentils (11% rather than 31%).  Health magazine has selected lentils as one of the five healthiest foods.  Lentils are often mixed with grains, such as rice, which results in a complete protein dish. See also Protein in nutrition A complete protein (or whole protein) is a Protein that contains all of the Essential amino acids for
In a study that examined food intake patterns and risk of death from coronary heart disease, researchers followed more than 16,000 middle-aged men in the U. Coronary disease (or coronary heart disease) refers to the failure of Coronary circulation to supply adequate circulation to Cardiac muscle and surrounding S. , Finland, The Netherlands, Italy, former Yugoslavia, Greece and Japan for 25 years. Typical food patterns were: higher consumption of dairy products in Northern Europe; higher consumption of meat in the U. S. ; higher consumption of vegetables, legumes, fish, and wine in Southern Europe; and higher consumption of cereals, soy products, and fish in Japan. When researchers analyzed this data in relation to the risk of death from heart disease, they found that legumes were associated with an 82% reduction in risk.
A study published in the Archives of Internal Medicine confirms that eating high fiber foods, such as lentils, helps prevent heart disease. The Archives of Internal Medicine is a bi-monthly international peer-reviewed professional Medical journal published by the American Medical Association. Almost 10,000 American adults participated in this study and were followed for 19 years. People eating the most fiber, 21 grams per day, had 12% less coronary heart disease (CHD) and 11% less cardiovascular disease (CVD) compared to those eating the least, 5 grams daily. Cardiovascular disease or cardiovascular diseases refers to the class of diseases that involve the Heart or Blood vessels ( arteries and Those eating the most water-soluble dietary fiber fared even better with a 15% reduction in risk of CHD and a 10% risk reduction in CVD. Dietary fibers are the indigestible portion of plant foods that move food through the Digestive system, absorbing water and easing Defecation.
Lentils' contribution to heart health lies not just in their fiber, but in the significant amounts of folate and magnesium they supply. Folate helps lower levels of homocysteine, an amino acid that is an intermediate product in an important metabolic process called the methylation cycle. Folic acid (also known as Vitamin M and Folacin) and Folate (the Anionic form are forms of the water-soluble Vitamin B9 Homocysteine is a Chemical compound with the formula HSCH2CH2CH(NH2CO2H When folate and vitamin B6 are present, homocysteine is immediately converted into cysteine or methionine, both of which are benign. Not to be confused with Cystine, its oxidized dimer Cysteine (abbreviated as Cys or C) is an α- Amino acid with When these B vitamins are not available, levels of homocysteine increase in the bloodstream—a bad idea since homocysteine damages artery walls and is considered a serious risk factor for heart disease.
Lentils' magnesium is a calcium channel blocker. When the body has enough magnesium, veins and arteries relax, which lessens resistance and improves the flow of blood, oxygen and nutrients throughout the body. Studies show that a deficiency of magnesium is not only associated with heart attack but that immediately following a heart attack, lack of sufficient magnesium promotes free radical injury to the heart.
In addition to its beneficial effects on the digestive system and the heart, soluble fiber helps stabilize blood sugar levels. If you have insulin resistance, hypoglycemia or diabetes, legumes like lentils can help you balance blood sugar levels while providing steady, slow-burning energy. Hypoglycemia or hypoglycaemia is the medical term for a pathologic state produced by a lower than normal level of Glucose ( sugar) in the blood Studies of high fiber diets and blood sugar levels have shown the benefits provided by these high fiber foods. Researchers compared two groups of people with type 2 diabetes who were fed different amounts of high fiber foods. One group ate the standard American Diabetic diet, which contains 24 grams of fiber/day, while the other group ate a diet containing 50 grams of fiber/day. Those who ate the diet higher in fiber had lower levels of both plasma glucose and insulin. Glucose (Glc a Monosaccharide (or simple Sugar) also known as grape sugar, is an important Carbohydrate in Biology. Insulin is a Hormone with intensive effects on both metabolism and several other body systems (eg vascular compliance The high fiber group also reduced their total cholesterol by nearly 7%, their triglyceride levels by 10. (more properly known as, TAG or triacylglyceride) is Glyceride in which the Glycerol is Esterified with three Fatty acids It is the 2% and their VLDL (Very Low Density Lipoprotein—the most dangerous form of cholesterol)levels by 12. A lipoprotein is a biochemical assembly that contains both Proteins and Lipids The lipids or their derivatives may be covalently or non-covalently bound 5%.
In addition to providing slow-burning complex carbohydrates, lentils are one of the best vegetable sources of iron. Human iron metabolism is the set of chemical reactions maintaining Human homeostasis of Iron. This makes them an important part of a vegetarian diet, and useful for preventing iron deficiency. For a more specific and detailed discussion of Anemia caused by iron deficiency see the Wikipedia article Iron deficiency anemia. Iron is particularly important for adolescents, and menstruating or pregnant women, whose requirements for it are increased. 
Lentils are relatively tolerant to drought and are grown throughout the world. About half of the worldwide production of lentils is from India, most of which is consumed in the domestic market. India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country Canada is the largest export producer of lentils in the world and Saskatchewan is the most important producing region in Canada. Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page Saskatchewan (səˈskætʃəwən) is a prairie province in Canada, which has an area of 588276 The Palouse Region of Eastern Washington and the Idaho Panhandle, with its commercial center at Moscow, Idaho, constitutes the most important producing region in the United States. The Palouse is a region of the Northwestern United States, encompassing parts of Eastern Washington, North Central Idaho and in some definitions extending  The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) estimates that world production of lentils totalled 3. 2 million metric tons (MT) in 2003. Canada produced 520,000 MT and, according to the market analysis company STAT Communications, will likely export 400,000 MT during the 2003-04 marketing year, which runs from August to July. The FAO estimates world trade in lentils totalled 1. 2 million MT in 2002, with Canada exporting 382,000 MT during the calendar year.
The optical lens is named after the lentil (Latin: lens), whose shape it resembles. This article is a list of diseases of Lentils ( Lens culinaris) A lens is an optical device with perfect or approximate Axial symmetry which transmits and refracts Light, converging or diverging  This same connection appears in many other languages: