The Legislative Yuan (Chinese: 立法院 pinyin: Lìfǎ Yuàn, literally "law-establishing court") is the legislative body of the Republic of China (ROC), which administers Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen, and Matsu Islands. Pinyin, more formally Hanyu pinyin, is the most common Standard Mandarin Romanization system in use A legislature is a type of representative Deliberative assembly with the power to create amend and change Laws The law created by a legislature is called Legislation REPUBLIC OF CHINA ARTICLE GUIDELINES Taiwan ( Taiwanese: Tâi-oân/Tāi-oân (historically 大灣/台員/大員/台圓/大圓/台窩灣 is an Island in East Asia. The Pescadores ( from Portuguese, "fishermen" pron pɨʃ Kinmen, ( Traditional Chinese: 金門 Simplified Chinese: 金门 Hanyu Pinyin: Jīnmén Tongyong Pinyin: Jinmén Wades-Giles The Matsu Islands (also Mazu Islands ( are a minor Archipelago of 19 Islands and islets in the Taiwan Strait administered as Lienchiang
The Legislative Yuan is one of the five branches (called 'yuàn', "courts") of government stipulated by the Constitution of the Republic of China, which follows Sun Yat-sen's Three Principles of the People. For the government of parliamentary systems see Executive (government. The Constitution of the Republic of China ( Tongyong Pinyin: JhongHuá MínGuó SiànFǎ is the basic governing document for the Republic of China (ROC with jurisdiction Sun Yat-sen ( November 12, 1866 &ndash March 12, 1925) was a Chinese Revolutionary and political leader often The Three Principles of the People, also Translated as Three People's Principles, or collectively San-min Doctrine, is a Political Philosophy Although sometimes referred to as a "parliament," the Legislative Yuan, under Sun's political theory, is a branch of government in a presidential system, while only the National Assembly of the Republic of China (now abolished), with the power to amend the constitution and formerly to elect the President and Vice President, could be considered a parliament. TalkParliament#Screen-size. -->A  parliament is a Legislature, especially in those A presidential system is a System of government where an executive branch exists and presides (hence the term separately from the Legislature The National Assembly of the Republic of China ( refers to several Parliamentary bodies that existed in the History of the Republic of China. Nevertheless, after constitutional amendments effectively transferred almost all of the National Assembly's powers to the Legislative Yuan in the late 1990s, it became common in Taiwanese newspapers to refer to the Legislative Yuan as the parliament (國會, guóhuì).
Starting with the 2008 legislative elections, drastic changes were made to the Legislative Yuan in accordance with a constitutional amendment passed in 2005. Legislative elections were held on January 12, 2008 in the Republic of China (Taiwan. The Legislative Yuan has 113 members, down from 225. Legislators come to office through the following ways:
Members serve four-year terms.
|Party||Constituency||Aboriginal||Party list||Total seats||%|
|Kuomintang registration||57||4||20||81||71. 7%|
|People First Party||5||0||3||8|
|Kuomintang with New Party endorsement||2||0||0||2|
|People First Party||0||1||-||1||0. The People First Party (親民黨 Pinyin: Qīnmíndǎng is a Centre-right conservative Political party in the Republic of China The New Party (新黨 Xīn Dăng formerly the Chinese New Party (CNP 中華新黨 Zhōnghúa Xīn Dăng is a Centre-right Political party The People First Party (親民黨 Pinyin: Qīnmíndǎng is a Centre-right conservative Political party in the Republic of China 9%|
|Non-Partisan Solidarity Union||2||1||0||3||2. The Non-Partisan Solidarity Union ( NPSU,) is a Political party in the Republic of China on Taiwan. 7%|
|Independent||1||0||-||1||0. In Politics, an independent is a Politician who is not Affiliated with any Political party. 9%|
|Pan-Blue Coalition||60||6||20||86||76. The Pan-Blue Coalition ( or Pan-Blue Force ( is a Political alliance in the Republic of China (Taiwan consisting of the Kuomintang 1%|
|Democratic Progressive Party||13||0||14||27||23. The Democratic Progressive Party (DPP ( Taiwanese: Bîn-chú-chìn-pō͘-tóng Traditional Chinese: zh-Hant 民主進步黨 Simplified Chinese: zh-Hans 9%|
|Pan-Green Coalition||13||0||14||27||23. The Pan-Green Coalition ( or Pan-Green Camp, is currently an informal Political alliance in the Republic of China (Taiwan consisting of the 9%|
The previous legislature had 225 members. Legislators were elected in the following ways:
The Legislative Yuan has the power to pass all ordinary legislation. The amount of control the Legislative Yuan has over the Executive Yuan was unclear throughout the 1990s, but a convention has developed that the Executive Yuan is responsible to the President of the Republic of China and not the Legislative Yuan. The Executive Yuan ( literally "Executive court" is the Executive branch of the Government of the Republic of China.
Much of the work of the Legislative Yuan is done via legislative committees, and a common sight on Taiwanese television involves officials of the executive branch answering extremely hostile questions from opposition members in committees. In the 1990s, there were a number of cases of fist fights breaking out on the floor, usually triggered by some perceived unfair procedure ruling, but in recent years, these have become less common. Boxing (sometimes also known as English boxing or pugilism) is a Combat sport in which two participants generally of similar weight, There was a brawl involving 50 legislators in January 2007 and an incident involving 40 legislators on 8 May 2007 when a speaker attempted to speak about reconfiguring the Central Election Committee. It has been alleged that fights are staged and planned in advance. 
The other Yuans are authorized to propose legislative bills to the Legislative Yuan. Legislative bills proposed by the Legislative Yuan have to be cosigned by a certain number of legislators. Once a bill reaches the legislature, it is subject to a process of three readings.
The original Legislative Yuan was formed in the original Capital of Nanjing after the completion of the Northern Expedition. ( Chinese: 南京 Romanizations Nánjīng ( Pinyin) Nan-ching ( Wade-Giles The Northern Expedition ( was a military campaign led by the Kuomintang (KMT from 1926 to 1928. Its 51 members were appointed to a term of two years. The 4th Legislative Yuan under this period had its members expanded to 194, and its term in office was extended to 14 years because of the Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945). The Second Sino-Japanese War ( July 7, 1937 to September 9, 1945) was a major war fought between the Republic of China and the According to KMT political theory, these first four sessions marked the period of political tutelage.
The current Constitution of the Republic of China came into effect on December 25, 1947 and the first Legislative session convened in Nanking on May 18, 1948 with 760 members. The Constitution of the Republic of China ( Tongyong Pinyin: JhongHuá MínGuó SiànFǎ is the basic governing document for the Republic of China (ROC with jurisdiction Events 274 - Roman Emperor Aurelian Year 1947 ( MCMXLVII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Events 1152 - Henry II of England marries Eleanor of Aquitaine. Year 1948 ( MCMXLVIII) was a Leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Six preparatory meetings had been held on May 8, 1948 they, during which Dr. Events 589 - Reccared summons the Third Council of Toledo 1450 - Jack Cade's Rebellion: Kentishmen Year 1948 ( MCMXLVIII) was a Leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Sun Fo and Mr. Sun Fo or Sun Ke ( Chinese: 孫科 Pinyin: Sūn Kē October 21, 1891 &ndash September 13, 1973) was a high-ranking Chen Li-fu were elected President and Vice President of the body, respectively. In 1949, the mainland fell to the Communists and the Legislative Yuan (along with the entire ROC government) was transplanted to Taipei. Mainland China, Continental China, the Chinese mainland or simply the mainland, is a geopolitical term synonymous with the area that is under the jurisdiction The Communist Party of China ( CPC) ( also known as the Chinese Communist Party ( CCP) is the founding and ruling political party of the Taipei ( Taiwanese Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Tâi-pak-chhī Jhuyin Fuhao: ㄊㄞˊ ㄅㄟˇ ㄕˋ Hakka: Thòi-pet-sṳ has been the capital of On February 24, 1950, 380 members convened at the Sun Yat-sen Hall in Taipei. Events 303 - Galerius, Roman Emperor, publishes his edict that begins the persecution of Christians in his portion of the Year 1950 ( MCML) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar.
The first Legislative Yuan was to have been elected for a term of three years ending in 1951; however, the fall of the Mainland made it impossible to hold new elections. As a result, the Judicial Yuan decided that the members of the Legislative Yuan would continue to hold office until new elections could be held on the Mainland. The Judicial Yuan (司法院 is one of five branches of the government of the Republic of China (Taiwan in Taipei and serves as the highest judicial organ in In effect, these legislators (and members of the ruling KMT) held their seats for life, in a one-party system. Over the years, deceased members elected on the mainland were not replaced while additional seats were created for Taiwan starting with eleven seats in 1969. Taiwan ( Taiwanese: Tâi-oân/Tāi-oân (historically 大灣/台員/大員/台圓/大圓/台窩灣 is an Island in East Asia. Fifty-one new members were elected to a three-year term in 1972, fifty-two in 1975, ninety-seven in 1980, ninety-eight in 1983, one hundred in 1986, and one hundred thirty in 1989. Although the elected members of the Legislative Yuan did not have the majority to defeat legislation, they were able to use the Legislature Yuan as a platform to express political dissent. Political dissent refers to any expression designed to convey dissatisfaction with or opposition to the policies of a governing body Until 1991, opposition parties in Taiwan were formally illegal. The Tangwai movement (黨外 Pinyin: dăngwài literally "outside the party" was a Political movement in the Republic of China ( Taiwan However in the 1970s, candidates to the Legislative Yuan would run as Tangwai or outside the party and in 1985, candidates began to run under the banner of the Democratic Progressive Party. The Tangwai movement (黨外 Pinyin: dăngwài literally "outside the party" was a Political movement in the Republic of China ( Taiwan The Democratic Progressive Party (DPP ( Taiwanese: Bîn-chú-chìn-pō͘-tóng Traditional Chinese: zh-Hant 民主進步黨 Simplified Chinese: zh-Hans
The original members of the Legislative Yuan remained until December 31, 1991, when as part of subsequent Judicial Yuan ruling, they were forced to retire and the members elected in 1989 remained until the 161 members of the Second Legislative Yuan were elected in December 1992. Events 406 – Vandals, Alans and Suebians cross the Rhine, beginning an invasion of Gallia. Year 1991 ( MCMXCI) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar. The third LY, elected in 1995, had 157 members serving 3-year terms. The fourth LY, elected in 1998, was expanded to 225 members in part to include legislators from the abolished provincial legislature of Taiwan Province. History In 1683 following a naval engagement with Admiral Shi Lang, Koxinga 's (Cheng Ch'eng Kung grandson Zheng Keshuang and ruler of Taiwan
The Legislative Yuan greatly increased its prominence after the 2000 Presidential elections in Taiwan when the Executive Yuan and presidency was controlled by the Democratic Progressive Party while the Legislative Yuan had a large majority of Kuomintang members. The Election for the 10th-term President and Vice-President of the Republic of China (第十任中華民國總統、副總統選舉 the second ever direct elections for President The Executive Yuan ( literally "Executive court" is the Executive branch of the Government of the Republic of China. The President of the Republic of China ( is the Head of state of the Republic of China (ROC (commonly known as Taiwan since the 1970s The Democratic Progressive Party (DPP ( Taiwanese: Bîn-chú-chìn-pō͘-tóng Traditional Chinese: zh-Hant 民主進步黨 Simplified Chinese: zh-Hans The legislative elections in late 2001 produced a contentious situation in which the pan-blue coalition has only a thin majority over the governing pan-green coalition in the legislature , making the passage of bills often dependent on the votes of a few defectors and independents. The Pan-Blue Coalition ( or Pan-Blue Force ( is a Political alliance in the Republic of China (Taiwan consisting of the Kuomintang The Pan-Green Coalition ( or Pan-Green Camp, is currently an informal Political alliance in the Republic of China (Taiwan consisting of the Because of the party situation there have been constitutional conflicts between the Legislative Yuan and the executive branch over the process of appointment for the premier and whether the president has the power to call a special session. The President of the Executive Yuan ( commonly known in English as the Premier of Taiwan ( is the head of the Executive Yuan, the Executive The President of the Republic of China ( is the Head of state of the Republic of China (ROC (commonly known as Taiwan since the 1970s
The new electoral system will include 73 plurality seats (one for each electoral district), 6 seats for aboriginals, with the remaining 34 seats to be filled from party lists. Taiwanese aborigines ( Taiwanese Pe̍h-oē-jī: gôan-chū-bîn literally “original inhabitants” is the term commonly applied in reference to the Indigenous peoples Party-list proportional representation systems are a family of Voting systems used in multiple-winner Elections (e Every county has a minimum of 1 electoral district, thereby guaranteed at least one seat in the legislature, while half of the porportionally represented seats drawn from party lists must be women.
Additionally, the Legislative Yuan proposed to abolish the National Assembly. Future amendments would still be proposed by the LY by a three-fourths vote from a quorum of at least three-fourths of all members of the Legislature. After a mandatory 180-day promulgation period, the amendment would have to be ratified by an absolute majority of all eligible voters of the ROC irrespective of voter turnout. The latter requirement would allow a party to kill a referendum proposal by asking that their voters boycott the vote as was done by the KMT with the referendums associated with the 2004 Presidential Election. The Election for the 11th-term President and Vice-President of the Republic of China (第十一任中華民國總統、副總統選舉 the third direct presidential election in Taiwan's
A DPP proposal to allow the citizen right to initiate constitutional referendums was pulled off the table due to a lack of support. The proposal for a right to initiative was criticized for dangerously lowering the threshold for considering a constitutional amendment. Whereas a three-fourth vote of the LY would require that any proposed constitutional amendment have a broad political consensus behind it, a citizen's initiative would allow a fraction of the electorate to force a constitutional referendum. Consensus has two common meanings One is a general agreement among the members of a given group or Community, each of which exercises some discretion in It was feared that allowing this to occur would result in a referendum on Taiwan independence which would likely result in a crisis with the People's Republic of China. Taiwan independence ( Pe̍h-oē-jī: Tâi-oân To̍k-li̍p ūn-tōng abbreviated to 台獨 Táidú Tâi-to̍k is a Talk People's Republic of China) PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA ARTICLE GUIDELINES
The Legislative Yuan also proposed to give itself the power to summon the president for an annual "state of the nation" address and launch a recall of the president and vice president (proposed by one fourth and approved by two thirds of the legislators and be submitted to a nationwide referendum for approval or rejection by majority vote). The Legislative Yuan will also have the power to propose the impeachment of the president or vice president to the Council of Grand Justices. Impeachment is the first of two stages in a specific process for a legislative body to forcibly remove a Government official The Judicial Yuan (司法院 is one of five branches of the government of the Republic of China (Taiwan in Taipei and serves as the highest judicial organ in
An ad hoc National Assembly was elected and formed in 2005 to ratify the amendments. An election for the National Assembly took place in Taiwan on Saturday 2005-05-14, from 0730 to 1600 local time The downsized Legislative Yuan will take effect in 2008.
On July 20, 2007, the Legislative Yuan passed a Lobbying Act. Events 1304 - Wars of Scottish Independence: Fall of Stirling Castle - King Edward I of England takes the last rebel stronghold Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Lobbying includes all attempts to influence Legislators and officials whether by other legislators constituents or organized groups