A leak is a hole or other opening, usually unintended and therefore undesired, in a container or fluid-containing system, such as a tank or a ship's hull, through which the contents of the container can escape or outside matter can enter the container. FLUID ( F ast L ight '''U'''ser '''I'''nterface D esigner is a graphical editor that is used to produce FLTK Source code A storage tank is a container usually for holding liquids sometimes for compressed gases (gas tank A hull is the body of a Ship or Boat. It is a central concept in floating vessels as it provides the Buoyancy that keeps the vessel from sinking The word "leak" is also used as a verb; matter going through the opening is said to leak. The entry, exit, or exchange of matter through the leak is called leakage, the subject of another disambiguation article. Leakage describes an unwanted loss or Leak, of something which escapes from its proper location The matter leaking in or out can be gas, liquid, a highly viscous paste, or even a solid such as a powdered or granular solid or other solid particles. This page is about the physical properties of gas as a state of matter Liquid is one of the principal States of matter. A liquid is a Fluid that has the particles loose and can freely form a distinct surface at the boundaries of Viscosity is a measure of the resistance of a Fluid which is being deformed by either Shear stress or Extensional stress. A solid' object is in the States of matter characterized by resistance to Deformation and changes of Volume. A leak can be between two (or more) fluid-containing systems, allowing transfer of matter from either system to the other, or even an exchange of matter between them. Leakage of matter into a container or other system could be called inleakage. Leakage of matter out of a container or other system could be called outleakage. The presence of a leak does not necessarily mean there is always leakage of matter; it just implies there could be leakage through the opening. If the container or system is empty in an empty environment, there is no leakage at that time. Sometimes the word "leak" is used to refer to leakage in a certain situation, for example the passing or making public of secret information.
Types of leak openings include a puncture, gash, rust or other corrosion hole, very tiny pinhole leak (possibly in imperfect welds), crack or microcrack, or inadequate sealing between components or parts joined together. Rust is a general term for a series of Iron oxides, usually red oxides formed by the reaction of Iron with Oxygen in the presence of water or air Corrosion means the breaking down of essential properties in a material due to Chemical reactions with its surroundings Welding is a fabrication process that joins materials usually Metals or Thermoplastics by causing coalescence. When there is a puncture, the size and shape of the leak can often be seen, but in many other cases, the size and shape of the leak opening may not be so obvious. In many cases, the location of a leak can be determined by seeing material drip out at a certain place, although the leak opening itself is not obvious. In some cases, it may known or suspected there is a leak, but even the location of the leak is not known. Since leak openings are often so irregular, leaks are sometimes sized by the leakage rate, as in volume of fluid leaked per time, rather than the size of the opening.
Common types of leaks for many people include leaks in vehicle tires, causing air to leak out resulting in flat tires, and leaks in containers, spilling the contents. Vehicles, derived from the Latin word vehiculum, are non-living Means of transport. This article is about tires used on road Vehicles including pneumatic tires and solid tires. Leaks can occur or develop in many different kinds of household, building, vehicle, marine, aircraft, or industrial fluid systems, whether the fluid is a gas or liquid. Leaks in vehicle hydraulic systems such as brake or power steering lines could cause outleakage of brake or power steering fluid resulting in failure of the brakes, power steering, or other hydraulic system. For the mechanical technology see Hydraulic machinery and Hydraulic cylinder Hydraulics is a topic of science and Engineering A brake is a device for slowing or stopping the motion of a Machine or Vehicle, or alternatively a device to restrain it from starting to move again Power steering is a system for reducing the Steering effort on vehicles by using an external power source to assist in turning the roadwheels. Also possible are leaks of engine coolant - particularly in the radiator and at the water pump seal, transmission fluid, motor oil, and refrigerant in the air conditioning system. Radiators and convectors are types of Heat exchangers designed to transfer Thermal energy from one medium to another for the purpose of cooling For information on Wikipedia project-related discussions see WikipediaVillage pump. Hydraulic fluids are a large group of fluids used as the motive medium in Hydraulic machinery. Motor oil, or engine oil, is an Oil used for lubrication of various Internal combustion engines While the main function is to lubricate Moving A refrigerant is a compound used in a heat cycle that undergoes a Phase change from a Gas to a Liquid and back The term air conditioning refers to the cooling and dehumidification of indoor air for Thermal comfort. Some of these vehicle fluids have different colors to help identify the type of leaking fluid.
The water supply system or a wastewater system in a house or other building may have a leak in any of numerous locations, causing dripping out or spillage of the water. Water is a common Chemical substance that is essential for the survival of all known forms of Life. Distinguish from Wastwater (a lake in the Lake District in northwest England Gas leaks, e. In common usage a gas leak refers to a Leak of Natural gas, from a pipe or other containment into a living area or any other area where the gas should g. in natural gas lines allow flammable and potentially explosive gas to leak out, resulting in a hazardous situation. Natural gas is a Gaseous Fossil fuel consisting primarily of Methane but including significant quantities of Ethane, Propane, Flammability is the ease with which a substance will ignite causing Fire or Combustion. An explosive material is a material that either is chemically or otherwise Energetically unstable or produces a sudden expansion of the material usually accompanied Leaks of refrigerant may occur in refrigerators or air conditioning systems, large and small. A refrigerator (often called a " fridge " for short is a cooling appliance comprising a thermally insulated compartment and a Heat pump - Some industrial plants, especially chemical and power plants, have numerous fluid systems containing many types of liquid or gas chemicals, sometimes at high temperature and/or pressure. A chemical plant is industrial process plant that manufactures (or otherwise processes Chemicals usually on a large scale A power station (also referred to as generating station, power plant or powerhouse) is an industrial facility for the generation of Temperature is a physical property of a system that underlies the common notions of hot and cold something that is hotter generally has the greater temperature Pressure (symbol 'p' is the force per unit Area applied to an object in a direction perpendicular to the surface An example of a possible industrial location of a leak between two fluid systems includes a leak between the shell and tube sides in a heat exchanger, potentially contaminating either or both fluid systems with the other fluid. A heat exchanger is a device built for efficient Heat transfer from one medium to another whether the media are separated by a solid wall so that they never mix or the media A system holding a full or partial vacuum may have a leak causing inleakage of air from the outside. This vacuum means "absence of matter" or "an empty area or space" for the cleaning appliance see Vacuum cleaner. Hazmat procedures and/or teams may become involved when leakage or spillage of hazardous materials occurs. Leaks while transporting hazardous materials could result in danger; for example, when accidents occur. However, even leakage of steam can be dangerous because of the high temperature and energy of the steam. Uses A Steam engine uses the expansion of steam in order to drive a Piston or Turbine to perform Mechanical work.
Leakage of air or other gas out of hot air balloons, dirigibles, or cabins of airplanes could present dangerous situations. The hot air balloon is the oldest successful human-carrying Flight technology Terminology In some countries airships are also known as dirigibles from the French (fr ''diriger'' to direct plus -ible) meaning "directable" Overview Fixed-wing aircraft range from small training and recreational aircraft to Wide-body aircraft and military cargo aircraft. A leak could even be inside a body, such as a hole in the septum between heart ventricles causing an exchange of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood, or a fistula between bodily cavities such as between vagina and rectum. A septum ( Latin: something that encloses; plural Septa) is a partition separating two cavities or spaces The heart is a muscular organ in all Vertebrates responsible for pumping Blood through the Blood vessels by repeated rhythmic In medicine a fistula (pl fistulas or fistulae is an abnormal connection or passageway between two Epithelium -lined organs or vessels that normally do not connect The vagina (from Latin, literally " Sheath " or " Scabbard " is a fibromuscular tubular tract leading from the Uterus The rectum (from the Latin rectum intestinum, meaning straight intestine) is the final straight portion of the Large intestine in some Mammals
There can be numerous causes of leaks. Leaks can occur from the outset even during construction or initial manufacture/assembly of fluid systems. In the fields of Architecture and Civil engineering, construction is a process that consists of the Building or assembling of Infrastructure Pipes, tubing, valves, fittings, or other components may be improperly joined or welded together. A pipe is a tube or hollow cylinder used to convey materials or as a structural component For other uses see Valve (disambiguation. For the electronic component see Thermionic valve. Components with treads may be improperly screwed together. Leaks can be caused by damage; for example, punctures or fracture. Often leaks are the result of deterioration of materials from wear or aging, such as rusting or other corrosion or decomposition of elastomers or similar polymer materials used as gaskets or other seals. An elastomer is a Polymer with the property of Elasticity. The term which is derived from elastic polymer, is often used interchangeably with the term A polymer is a large Molecule ( Macromolecule) composed of repeating Structural units typically connected by Covalent Chemical bonds A gasket is a mechanical seal that fills the space between two objects generally to prevent leakage between the two objects while under compression. A mechanical seal is a device which helps join systems or mechanisms together by preventing leakage (e For example, wearing out of faucet washers causes water to leak at the faucets. Cracks may result from either outright damage, or wearing out by stress such as fatigue failure or corrosion such as stress corrosion cracking. Fracture mechanics --> Stress corrosion cracking ( SCC) is the unexpected sudden failure of normally Ductile metals or tough Thermoplastics Wearing out of a surface between a disk and its seat in a valve could cause a leak ports (valve inlets or outlets). Wearing out of packing around a turning valve stem or rotating centrifugal pump shaft could develop into fluid outleakage into the environment. For some frequently operating centrifugal pumps, such leakage is so expected that provisions are made for carrying away the leakage. Similarly, wearing out of seals or packing around piston-driven pumps could also develop into outleakage to the environment.
The pressure difference between both sides of the leak can affect the movement of material through the leak. Fluids will commonly move from the higher pressure side to the lower pressure side. The larger the pressure difference, the more leakage there will typically be. The fluid pressures on both sides include the hydrostatic pressure, which is pressure due to the weight from the height of fluid level above the leak. Fluid statics (also called hydrostatics) is the Science of Fluids at rest and is a sub-field within Fluid mechanics. In the Physical sciences weight is a Measurement of the gravitational Force acting on an object When the pressures are about equal, there can be an exchange of fluids between both sides, or little to no net movement of fluid across the leak.
Containers, vessels, enclosures, or other fluid system are sometimes tested for leaks - to see if there is any leakage and to find where the leaks are so corrective action can be taken. There are several methods for leak testing, depending on the situation. Sometimes leakage of fluid may make a sound which can be detected. Sound' is Vibration transmitted through a Solid, Liquid, or Gas; particularly sound means those vibrations composed of Frequencies Tires, engine radiators, and maybe some other smaller vessels may be tested by pressurizing them with air and submerging them in water to see where air bubbles come out to indicate a leak. If submerging in water is not possible, then pressurization with air followed by covering the area to be tested with a soap solution is done to see if soap bubbles form, which indicate a leak. SOAP (see below for name and origins is a protocol for exchanging XML -based messages over Computer networks normally using Other types of testing for gas leaks may involve testing for the outleaking gases with sensors which can detect that gas, for example - special sensing instruments for detecting natural gas. U. S. federal safety law now requires natural gas companies to conduct testing for gas leaks upstream of their customer's gas meters. Where liquids are used, special color dyes may be added to help see the leakage. Other detectable substances in one of the liquids may be tested, such as saline to find a leak in a sea water system, or detectable substances may even be deliberately added to test for leakage.
Newly constructed, fabricated, or repaired systems or other vessels are sometimes tested to verify satisfactory production or repair. Plumbers often test for leaks after working on a water or other fluid system. A plumber is a Tradesperson who specializes in installing and maintaining systems used for potable (drinking Water, sewage Drainage, or industrial A vessel or system is sometimes pressure tested by filling with air and the pressure monitored to see if it drops, indicating a leak. A very commonly used test after new construction or repair is a hydrostatic test, sometimes called a pressure test. A hydrostatic test is the common way in which leaks can be found in pressure vessels such as pipelines and Plumbing. In a hydrostatic test, a system is pressurized with water to look for a drop in pressure or to see where it leaks out. Helium testing may be done to detect for any very small leakage such as when testing certain diaphragm or bellows valves, which are made to be practically leak-proof. Helium ( He) is a colorless odorless tasteless non-toxic Inert Monatomic Chemical Helium and Hydrogen have very small molecules which can go through very small leaks. Helium ( He) is a colorless odorless tasteless non-toxic Inert Monatomic Chemical Hydrogen (ˈhaɪdrədʒən is the Chemical element with Atomic number 1 In Chemistry, a molecule is defined as a sufficiently stable electrically neutral group of at least two Atoms in a definite arrangement held together by
Leak testing is part of the non-destructive test NDT portfolio that can be applied to an art to verify its conformity; depending on material, pressure, leak tightness specifications, different methods can be applied. Nondestructive testing ( NDT) also called nondestructive examination ( NDE) and nondestructive inspection ( NDI) is testing that does International standards has been defined to assist in these choices. For example BS EN 1779:1999; it applies to assessment of leak tightness by indication or measurement of gas leakage, but excludes hydrostatic, ultrasonic or electromagnetic methods. Other standards also apply:
In complex plants with multiple fluid systems, many interconnecting units holding fluids have isolation valves between them. If there is a leak in a unit, its isolation valves can be shut to "isolate" the unit from the rest of the plant.
Leaks are often repaired by plugging the leaking holes or using a patch to cover them. Leaking tires are often fixed this way. Leaking gaskets, seals, washers, or packing can be replaced. Use of welding, soldering, sealing, or gluing may be other ways to fix leaks. Sometimes, the most practical solution is to replace the leaking unit. Leaking water heaters are often replaced by home or building owners. Water heating is a thermodynamic process using an energy source to heat Water above its initial Temperature.