Laughter is an audible expression or appearance of merriment or amusement or an inward feeling of joy and pleasure (laughing on the inside). It may ensue (as a physiological reaction) from jokes, tickling and other stimuli. Physiology (from Greek grc φύσις physis, "nature origin" and grc -λογία -logia) is the study of the mechanical physical See also Mathematics of humor A joke is a short story or ironic depiction of a situation communicated with the intent of being humorous. Tickling is the act of touching a part of the body so as to cause involuntary twitching movements or Laughter. Inhaling nitrous oxide can also induce laughter; other drugs, such as cannabis, can also induce episodes of strong laughter. Breathing takes Oxygen in and Carbon dioxide out of the body Aerobic Organisms require oxygen to create energy via respiration, in Nitrous oxide, commonly known as " laughing gas," is a Chemical compound with the Chemical formula N 2 O. Cannabis ( Cán-na-bis) is a Genus of Flowering plants that includes three putative species Cannabis sativa subsp Strong laughter can sometimes bring an onset of tears or even moderate muscular pain. Tears are the liquid product of a process of lacrimation to clean and lubricate the Eyes The word lacrimation may also be used in a medical or literary sense Laughter is a part of human behaviour regulated by the brain. Behavior or behaviour (see spelling differences) refers to the actions or Reactions of an object or Organism, usually The brain is the center of the Nervous system in animals All Vertebrates and the majority of Invertebrates have a brain It helps humans clarify their intentions in social interaction and provides an emotional context to conversations. Social interaction is a dynamic changing sequence of Social actions between individuals (or groups who modify their actions and reactions according to the actions by their Laughter is used as a signal for being part of a group — it signals acceptance and positive interactions with others. Laughter is sometimes seemingly contagious, and the laughter of one person can itself provoke laughter from others as a positive feedback. Positive feedback, sometimes referred to as "cumulative causation" is a Feedback loop system in which the system responds to perturbation in the same direction This may account in part for the popularity of laugh tracks in situation comedy television shows.
The study of humor and laughter, and its psychological and physiological effects on the human body is called gelotology. Gelotology is the study of Humor and Laughter, its effects on the human body and of medical abnormalities of laughing
Laughter is not confined or unique to humans, despite Aristotle's observation that "only the human animal laughs". The differences between the laughter of chimpanzees and humans may be the result of adaptations that evolved to enable human speech. However, some behavioral psychologists argue that self-awareness of one's situation, or the ability to identify with another's predicament are prerequisites for laughter, and thus certain animals are not laughing in the "human manner".
Laughter is a rich experience and expression in human beings. Thus there are several shades of smiling and laughing expressions. They involve elaborate neurophysiological and physiological processes. Such laughter is not often seen in animals. But one can not deny occurrences of primitive laughter in terms of experience and expression in animals. Owners of pets can vouch on this point, if they understand when their pet is happy and how it expresses the same.
According to Dr. Shriniwas Kashalikar, self awareness is conscious concommitant of the physiological processes involving laughter or smiling reflex [response] and its grades, degrees or spectrum varies according to phylogenetic development, with no clear cut demarcation. The emotional ingredients [such as contempt, hatred, ridicule, sarcasm, love, amusement etc] are variable and involve different neurophysiological and physiological processes.
Self awareness and ability to identify with another's predicament may be prerequisite to intellectual jokes with specific references and contexts, but not for laughing behavior as such.
Research of laughter in animals may identify new molecules to alleviate depression, disorders of excessive exuberance such as mania and ADHD, or addictive urges and mood imbalances. The orangutans are two Species of great apes known for their intelligence long arms and reddish-brown hair In the fields of Psychology and Psychiatry, the terms depression or depressed refer to both expected and pathologically chronic or severe Mania (from Greek μανία and that from μαίνομαι - mainomai, "to rage to be furious" is a severe medical condition Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD is a neurobehavioral developmental disorder affecting about 3-5% of the world's population
Chimpanzees, gorillas, bonobos and orangutans show laughter-like vocalizations in response to physical contact, such as wrestling, play chasing, or tickling. Chimpanzee (often shortened to chimp) is the common name for the two extant Species of Apes in the Genus Pan. Gorillas, the largest of the living Primates are ground-dwelling Herbivores that inhabit the Forests of Africa. The Bonobo (bə'noʊboʊ Pan paniscus) until recently usually called the Pygmy Chimpanzee (and less often the Dwarf or Gracile Chimpanzee The orangutans are two Species of great apes known for their intelligence long arms and reddish-brown hair This is documented in wild and captive chimpanzees. Chimpanzee laughter is not readily recognizable to humans as such, because it is generated by alternating inhalations and exhalations that sound more like breathing and panting. The differences between chimpanzee and human laughter may be the result of adaptations that have evolved to enable human speech. There are instances in which non-human primates have been reported to have expressed joy. One study analyzed and recorded sounds made by human babies and bonobos (also known as pygmy chimpanzees) when tickled. It found that although the bonobo’s laugh was a higher frequency, the laugh followed the same spectrographic pattern of human babies to include as similar facial expressions. Humans and chimpanzees share similar ticklish areas of the body such as the armpits and belly. The enjoyment of tickling in chimpanzees does not diminish with age. Discovery 2003A chimpanzee laughter sample. Goodall 1968 & Parr 2005
It has been discovered that rats emit short, high frequency, ultrasonic, socially induced vocalization during rough and tumble play, and when tickled. Rats are various medium sized long-tailed Rodents of the superfamily Muroidea The vocalization is described a distinct “chirping”. Humans cannot hear the "chirping" without special equipment. It was also discovered that like humans, rats have "tickle skin". These are certain areas of the body that generate more laughter response than others. The laughter is associated with positive emotional feelings and social bonding occurs with the human tickler, resulting in the rats becoming conditioned to seek the tickling. Additional responses to the tickling were those that laughed the most also played the most, and those that laughed the most preferred to spend more time with other laughing rats. This suggests a social preference to other rats exhibiting similar responses. However, as the rats age, there does appear to be a decline in the tendency to laugh and respond to tickle skin. The initial goal of Jaak Panksepp and Jeff Burgdorf’s research was to track the biological origins of joyful and social processes of the brain by comparing rats and their relationship to the joy and laughter commonly experienced by children in social play. Although, the research was unable to prove rats have a sense of humour, it did indicate that they can laugh and express joy. Panksepp & Burgdorf 2003 Chirping by rats is also reported in additional studies by Brain Knutson of the National Institutes of Health. Rats chirp when wrestling one another, before receiving morphine, or when mating. The sound has been interpreted as an expectation of something rewarding. Science News 2001
The dog laugh sounds similar to a normal pant. The dog ( Canis lupus familiaris) is a domesticated Subspecies of the gray wolf, a Mammal of the Canidae family of the order But by analyzing the pant using a sonograph, this pant varies with bursts of frequencies, resulting in a laugh. The spectrogram is the result of calculating the Frequency spectrum of Windowed frames of a compound signal. When this recorded dog-laugh vocalization is played to dogs in a shelter setting, it can initiate play, promote pro-social behavior, and decrease stress levels. In a study by Simonet, Versteeg, and Storie, 120 subject dogs in a mid-size county animal shelter were observed. Dogs ranging from 4 months to 10 years of age were compared with and without exposure to a dog-laugh recording. The stress behaviors measured included panting, growling, salivating, pacing, barking, cowering, lunging, play-bows, sitting, orienting and lying down. The study resulted in positive findings when exposed to the dog laughing: significantly reduced stress behaviors, increased tail wagging and the display of a play-face when playing was initiated, and the increase of pro-social behavior such as approaching and lip licking were more frequent. This research suggests exposure to dog-laugh vocalizations can calm the dogs and possibly increase shelter adoptions. Simonet, Versteeg, & Storie 2005 A dog laughter sample. Simonet 2005
Recently researchers have shown infants as early as 17 days old have vocal laughing sounds or spontaneous laughter. Tickling is the act of touching a part of the body so as to cause involuntary twitching movements or Laughter. Early Human Development 2006This conflicts with earlier studies indicating that babies usually start to laugh at about four months of age; J. Y. T. Greig writes, quoting ancient authors, that laughter is not believed to begin in a child until the child is forty days old.  "Laughter is Genetic" Robert R. Provine, Ph. D. has spent decades studying laughter. In his interview for WebMD, he indicated "Laughter is a mechanism everyone has; laughter is part of universal human vocabulary. There are thousands of languages, hundreds of thousands of dialects, but everyone speaks laughter in pretty much the same way. ” Everyone can laugh. Babies have the ability to laugh before they ever speak. Children who are born blind and deaf still retain the ability to laugh. “Even apes have a form of ‘pant-pant-pant’ laughter. ”
Provine argues that “Laughter is primitive, an unconscious vocalization. ” And if it seems you laugh more than others, Provine argues that it probably is genetic. In a study of the “Giggle Twins,” two exceptionally happy lesbian twins were separated at birth and not reunited until 43 years later. Twins are Offspring resulting from the same Pregnancy, either of the same or opposite Sex. Provine reports that “until they met each other, neither of these exceptionally happy ladies had known anyone who laughed as much as she did. ” They reported this even though they both had been brought together by their adoptive parents they indicated were “undemonstrative and dour. ” Provine indicates that the twins “inherited some aspects of their laugh sound and pattern, readiness to laugh, and perhaps even taste in humor. ” WebMD 2002
Raju Mandhyan states "The physical and psychological benefits of laughter come second only to the physical and psychological benefits of sex. "
Men and women take jokes differently. A study that appeared in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences found in a study, 10 men and 10 women all watched 10 cartoons, rating them funny or not funny and if funny, how funny on a scale of 1–10. The Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, usually referred to as PNAS, is the official journal of the United The word cartoon has various meanings based on several very different forms of Visual art and Illustration. While doing this, their brains were scanned by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Functional MRI or functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI is a type of specialized MRI scan Men and women for the most part agreed which cartoons were funny. However, their brains handled humor differently. Women’s brains showed more activity in certain areas, including the nucleus accumbens. The nucleus accumbens (NAcc also known as the accumbens nucleus or as the nucleus accumbens septi (Latin for nucleus leaning against the Septum When women viewed cartoons they did not find humorous, their nucleus accumbens had a “ho-hum response. ” A man's nucleus accumbens did not react to funny cartoons, and its natural activity level dropped during unfunny cartoons.
Researchers suspect the element of surprise may be at the heart of the study. They suggested that maybe women did not expect the cartoons to be funny, while men did the opposite. When the men in the study “got what they expected, their nucleus accumbens were calm. ” However, the women’s brains could have had increased activity when they were “pleasantly surprised” by the cartoons’ humour. Researchers also suspect that men might have been “let down by unfunny cartoons, causing a dip in that brain area’s activity. ”
It was indicated that this study might be a clue about the different emotional responses between men and women and could help with depression research. The research suggests men and women “differ in how humour is used and appreciated,” says Allan Reiss, M. D. WebMD 2005
Modern neurophysiology states that laughter is linked with the activation of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, which produces endorphins after a rewarding activity. Neurophysiology (from Greek grc νεῦρον neuron, "nerve" grc φύσις physis, "nature origin" and grc -λογία The ventromedial prefrontal cortex is a part of the Prefrontal cortex in the Human brain. Endorphins are Endogenous Opioid Polypeptide compounds They are produced by the Pituitary gland and the Hypothalamus in Vertebrates
Research has shown that parts of the limbic system are involved in laughter. The limbic system, or Paleomammalian brain is a term for a set of brain structures including the Hippocampus and Amygdala and anterior thalamic nuclei and a limbic The limbic system is a primitive part of the brain that is involved in emotions and helps us with basic functions necessary for survival. The brain is the center of the Nervous system in animals All Vertebrates and the majority of Invertebrates have a brain Two structures in the limbic system are involved in producing laughter: the amygdala and the hippocampus. The la amygdalae ( Latin, also la corpus amygdaloideum, singular la amygdala, from Greek el αμυγδαλή grc-Latn amygdalē, 'almond' The hippocampus is a part of the Forebrain, located in the medial Temporal lobe.
It has been shown that laughing helps to protect the heart. The heart is a muscular organ in all Vertebrates responsible for pumping Blood through the Blood vessels by repeated rhythmic Although studies are inconclusive as to why, they do explain that mental stress impairs the endothelium, the protective barrier lining a person’s blood vessels. The endothelium is the thin layer of cells that line the interior surface of Blood vessels forming an interface between circulating Blood in the Once the endothelium is impaired, it can cause a series of inflammatory reactions that lead to cholesterol build-up in a person’s coronary arteries. This can ultimately cause a heart attack. Psychologist Steve Sultanoff, Ph. D. , the president of the American Association for Therapeutic Humor, gave this explanation:
"With deep, heartfelt laughter, it appears that serum cortisol, which is a hormone that is secreted when we’re under stress, is decreased. Cortisol is a Corticosteroid Hormone produced by the Adrenal gland (in the Zona fasciculata of the Adrenal cortex) So when you’re having a stress reaction, if you laugh, apparently the cortisol that has been released during the stress reaction is decreased. "
Also according to Sultanoff in his interview for the article for WebMD, laughter has been shown to increase tolerance of pain and boost the body’s production of infection-fighting antibodies, which can help prevent hardening of the arteries and subsequent conditions caused thereby such as angina, heart attacks, or strokes.
Sultanoff also added that research shows that distressing emotions lead to heart disease. It is shown that people who are “chronically angry and hostile have a greater likelihood for heart attack, people who “live in anxious, stressed out lifestyles have greater blockages of their coronary arteries”, and people who are “chronically depressed have a two times greater chance of heart disease. ” WebMD 2000
A study in Japan shows that laughter lowers blood sugar after a meal. Blood sugar, used in a physiological context is a misnomer and misleading Keiko Hayashi, Ph. D. , R. N, of the University of Tsukuba in Ibaraki, Japan, and her team performed a study of 19 people with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes mellitus (ˌdaɪəˈbiːtiːz or /ˌdaɪəˈbiːtəs/ /məˈlaɪtəs/ or /ˈmɛlətəs/ often referred to simply as diabetes ( Ancient Greek: grc They collected the patients’ blood before and two hours after a meal. The patients attended a boring 40 minute lecture after dinner on the first night of the study. On the second night, the patients attended a 40 minute comedy show. The patients’ blood sugar went up after the comedy show, but much less than it did after the lecture. The study found that even when patients without diabetes did the same testing, a similar result was found. Scientists conclude that laughter is good for people with diabetes. They suggest that ‘chemical messengers made during laughter may help the body compensate for the disease. ” WebMD 2003
Studies conducted by Michael Miller, MD, FACC and colleagues at the University of Maryland found that when a group of people were shown a comedy, after the screening their blood vessels performed normally, whereas when they watched a drama, after the screening their blood vessels tended to tense up and restricted the blood flow. The University of Maryland College Park (often referred to as The University of Maryland UMD, UMCP or simply Maryland) is a public research The blood vessels are part of the Circulatory system and function to transport Blood throughout the body http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pCrcFcfp-MgWebMD 2006
Studies show stress decreases the immune system. An immune system is a collection of mechanisms within an Organism that protects against Disease by identifying and killing Pathogens and Tumor “Some studies have shown that humor may raise infection-fighting antibodies in the body and boost the levels of immune cells. ” Web MD 2006“When we laugh, natural killer cells which destroy tumors and viruses increase, along with Gamma-interferon (a disease-fighting protein), T cells (important for our immune system) and B cells (which make disease-fighting antibodies). Interferons ( IFN s are natural Proteins produced by the cells of the Immune system of most Vertebrates in response to challenges by foreign agents T cells belong to a group of White blood cells known as Lymphocytes, and play a central role in Cell-mediated immunity. B cells are Lymphocytes that play a large role in the humoral immune response (as opposed to the cell-mediated immune response, which is governed by As well as lowering blood pressure, laughter increases oxygen in the blood, which also encourages healing. ” Discover Health 2004
According to an article of WebMD, studies have shown that children who have a clown present prior to surgery along with their parents and medical staff had less anxiety than children who just had their parents and medical staff present. Clowns are comic performers stereotypically characterized by their Grotesque appearance colored wigs stylistic makeup, outlandish Costumes unusually High levels of anxiety prior to surgery leads to a higher risk of complications following surgeries in children. According to researchers, about 60% of children suffer from anxiety before surgery.
The study involved 40 children ages 5 to 12 who were about to have minor surgery. Half had a clown present in addition to their parents and medical staff, the other half only had their parents and medical staff present. The results of the study showed that the children who had a clown present had significantly less pre-surgery anxiety. WebMD 2005
“The focus on the benefits of laughter really began with Norman Cosins' memoir, Anatomy of an Illness. Cosins, who was diagnosed with ankylosing spondylitis, a painful spine condition, found that a diet of comedies, like Marx Brothers films and episodes of Candid Camera, helped him feel better. Ankylosing spondylitis ( AS; previously known as Bechterew's disease, Bechterew syndrome, Marie Strümpell disease and a form of Spondyloarthritis The Marx Brothers were a popular team of sibling Comedians who appeared in Vaudeville, stage plays film and television Candid Camera was a Television series created and produced by Allen Funt, which initially began on Radio as Candid Microphone He said that ten minutes of laughter allowed him two hours of pain-free sleep. ” WebMD 2006
It has been estimated by scientists that laughing 100 times equals the same physical exertion as a 10 minute workout on a rowing machine or 15 minutes on a stationary exercise bike. Laughing works out the diaphragm, abdominal, respiratory, facial, leg, and back muscles.
However, William Fry, a pioneer on laughter research, in an article for WebMd was said to indicate that it “took ten minutes on a rowing machine for his heart rate to reach the level it would after just one minute of hearty laughter. ” WebMD 2006
Nearly 2/3 of people with asthma reported having asthma attacks that were triggered by laughter, according to a study presented at the American Thoracic Society annual meeting in 2005. Asthma is a chronic Condition involving the Respiratory system in which the airways occasionally constrict become inflamed, and are It did not seem to matter how deep of a laugh the laughter entailed, whether it may be a giggle, chuckle, or belly laugh, says Stuart Garay, M. D. , clinical professor of medicine at New York University Medical Center in New York.
Patients were part of an 18 month long program who were evaluated for a list of asthma triggers. The patients did not have any major differences in age, duration of asthma, or family history of asthma. However, exercise-induced asthma was more frequently found in patients who also had laughter-induced asthma, according to the study. 61% of laughter induced asthma also reported exercise as a trigger, as opposed to only 35% without laughter-induced asthma. Andrew Ries, M. D. indicates that “it probably involves both movements in the airways as well as an emotional reaction. ” WebMD 2005
In addition to helping in many other ways, laughing is also clinically proven to strengthen the abdomen. Jared B. Cohen, Ph. D has run many experiments on laughing at his laboratory in Newark, New Jersey and says "Laughing not only helps your heart, but it also helps you look good for the beach". Although some think it is impossible that something as simple and painless as laughing can strengthen one's abdomen, 14 out of every 15 of Cohen's patients said that laughing was a better, and more humorous workout than sit-ups or crunches. To make laughing a truly effective workout, one must laugh for at least 30 seconds until they feel a small burning sensation.
While it is normally only considered cliché that "laughter is the best medicine," specific medical theories attribute improved health, increased life expectancy, and overall improved well-being, to laughter.
A study demonstrated neuroendocrine and stress-related hormones decreased during episodes of laughter, which provides support for the claim that humour can relieve stress. Neuroendocrine nʊəroʊˈɛndəkrɪn cells are cells that release a hormone into the circulating blood in response to a neural stimulus Hormones (from Greek ὁρμή - "impetus" are chemicals released by cells that affect cells in other parts of the body Writer Norman Cousins wrote about his experience with laughter in helping him recover from a serious illness in 1979's Anatomy of an Illness As Perceived by the Patient. Norman Cousins ( June 24, 1915 – November 30, 1990) was a prominent political Journalist, Author, Professor In 1989, the Journal of the American Medical Association published an article, wherein the author wrote that "a humor therapy program can increase the quality of life for patients with chronic problems and that laughter has an immediate symptom-relieving effect for these patients, an effect that is potentiated when laughter is induced regularly over a period". JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association is an international peer-reviewed general Medical journal, published 48 times per year by the American 
Some therapy movements like Re-evaluation Counseling believe that laughter is a type of "bodily discharge", along with crying, yawning and others, which requires encouragement and support as a means of healing. Re-evaluation Counseling, or RC is the best-known and largest organization for Co-Counseling.
There is well documented and ongoing research in this field of study. Psych Nurse 2004This has led to new and beneficial therapies practiced by doctors, psychiatrists, and other mental health professionals using humor and laughter to help patients cope or treat a variety of physical, mental, and spiritual issues. Humour or humor (see spelling differences) is the tendency of particular cognitive experiences to provoke Laughter and provide Amusement The various therapies are not specific to health care professionals or clinicians. Some of the therapies can be practiced individually or in a group setting to aid in a person's well-being. There seems to be something to the old saying "laughter is the best medicine". Or perhaps as stated by Voltaire, "The art of medicine consists of keeping the patient amused while nature heals the disease. François-Marie Arouet ( 21 November 1694 30 May 1778) better known by the Pen name Voltaire, was a French "
Researchers frequently learn how the brain functions by studying what happens when something goes wrong. People with certain types of brain damage produce abnormal laughter. Brain damage, or Acquired brain injury, is the destruction or degeneration of Brain cells. This is found most often in people with pseudobulbar palsy, gelastic epilepsy and, to a lesser degree, with multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) , and some brain tumors. Pseudobulbar palsy is bilateral impairment of the function of the lower Cranial nerves 9 10 11 and 12 which control the muscles of eating swallowing and talking Multiple sclerosis (abbreviated MS also known as disseminated sclerosis or encephalomyelitis disseminata) is an autoimmune condition in which the Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis ( ALS, sometimes called Maladie de Charcot, or in the United States Lou Gehrig's Disease) is a progressive A brain tumor is any intracranial Tumor created by abnormal and uncontrolled cell division, normally either in the Brain itself ( Neurons Inappropriate laughter is considered symptomatic of psychological disorders including dementia and hysteria, but can also be the result of cerebellar lesions causing Pathological Laughter, curable by antidepressants, such as SSRIs or tricyclic antidepressants. Dementia (from Latin de- "apart away" + Mens ( genitive mentis) "mind" is the progressive decline Hysteria in its colloquial use describes a state of Mind, one of unmanageable Fear or Emotional excesses Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors ( SSRIs) are a class of Antidepressants used in the treatment of depression, Anxiety disorders Tricyclic antidepressants (abbreviation TCAs) are a class of Antidepressant drugs first used in the 1950s Some negative medical effects of laughter have been reported as well, including laughter syncope, where laughter causes a person to lose consciousness. 
A number of competing theories have been written. For Aristotle, we laugh at inferior or ugly individuals, because we feel a joy at being superior to them. Aristotle (Greek Aristotélēs) (384 BC – 322 BC was a Greek philosopher a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. Socrates was reported by Plato as saying that the ridiculous was characterized by a display of self-ignorance. SOCRATES is the European Community action programme in the field of Education. Biography Early life Birth and family Plato was born in Athens Greece Francis Hutcheson expressed in Thoughts on Laughter (1725) what became a key concept in the evolving theory of the comic: laughter as a response to the perception of incongruity. Francis Hutcheson ( August 8, 1694 August 8, 1746) was a Philosopher born in Ireland to a family of Scottish  Arthur Schopenhauer wrote that the perceived incongruity is between a concept and the real object it represents. Hegel shared almost exactly the same view, but saw the concept as an "appearance" and believed that laughter then totally negates that appearance. For Sigmund Freud, laughter is an "economical phenomenon" whose function is to release "psychic energy" that had been wrongly mobilized by incorrect or false expectations. Sigmund Freud (ˈziːkmʊnt ˈfʁɔʏt born Sigismund Shlomo Freud (May 6 1856 &ndash September 23 1939 was an Austrian Psychiatrist who founded
Philosopher John Morreall theorizes that human laughter may have its biological origins as a kind of shared expression of relief at the passing of danger. Philosophy is the study of general problems concerning matters such as existence knowledge truth beauty justice validity mind and language John Morreall (b February 1, 1947) is Professor of Religious Studies at the College of William and Mary in Williamsburg Virginia The General Theory of Verbal Humor (GTVH) proposed by Victor Raskin and S. Attardo identifies a semantic model capable of expressing incongruities between semantic scripts in verbal humor; this has been seen as an important recent development in the theory of laughter. Recently Peter Marteinson theorized that laughter is our response to the perception that social being is not real in the same sense that factual states of affairs are true, and that we subconsciously blur the distinctions between cultural and natural truth types, so that we do not normally notice their differing criteria for truth and falsehood. This is an ontic-epistemic theory of the comic (OETC).
Robert A. Heinlein's view of why people laugh is explained in one of his most praised novels, Stranger in a Strange Land, "because it hurts", is empathic but also a release of tension. Robert Anson Heinlein (July 7 1907 – May 8 1988 was an American Novelist and Science fiction Writer. Stranger in a Strange Land is a best-selling 1961 Hugo Award -winning Science fiction Novel by Robert A Laughter can be as a coping mechanism for when one is upset, angry or sad. A coping skill is a behavioral tool which may be used by individuals to offset or overcome Adversity, Disadvantage, or Disability without correcting or Anger is an emotional state that may range from minor irritation to intense rage Sadness is an Emotion characterized by Feelings of disadvantage loss and helplessness It does not necessarily always occur in a humorous or comedic tone. Humour or humor (see spelling differences) is the tendency of particular cognitive experiences to provoke Laughter and provide Amusement Comedy (from the Greek κωμωδίαkomodia has a popular meaning (any discourse generally intended to amuse especially in Television, Film, and
In modern times, the tendency is toward acceptance of incongruity as the most common cause of laughter. Although incongruity-based theories are gaining ground, other schools of thought still hold some favour.
This is the basis of the cognitive model of humour: the joke creates an inconsistency, the sentence appears to be not relevant, and we automatically try to understand what the sentence says, supposes, doesn't say, and implies; if we are successful in solving this 'cognitive riddle', and we find out what is hidden within the sentence, and what is the underlying thought, and we bring foreground what was in the background, and we realize that the surprise wasn't dangerous, we eventually laugh with relief. A cognitive model is an approximation to animal cognitive processes (predominantly human for the purposes of comprehension and prediction See also Mathematics of humor A joke is a short story or ironic depiction of a situation communicated with the intent of being humorous. A riddle is a Statement or Question having a double or veiled meaning put forth as a Puzzle to be solved The surprise factor is a technique used in Storytelling to produce a Visceral reaction from the audience Comic relief is the inclusion of a humorous character or scene or witty dialogue in an otherwise serious work often to relieve tension Otherwise, if the inconsistency is not resolved, there is no laugh, as Mack Sennett pointed out: "when the audience is confused, it doesn't laugh" (this is the one of the basic laws of a comedian, called "exactness"). Mack Sennett ( January 17, 1880 &ndash November 5, 1960) was an Academy Award -winning director and was known as the innovator See also Mathematics of humor A joke is a short story or ironic depiction of a situation communicated with the intent of being humorous. It is important to note that the inconsistency may be resolved, and there may still be no laugh. Due to the fact that laughter is a social mechanism, we may not feel like we are in danger, however, the physical act of laughing may not take place. In addition, the extent of the inconsistency (timing, rhythm, etc) has to do with the amount of danger we feel, and thus how intense or long we laugh. This explanation is also confirmed by modern neurophysiology (see section Laughter and the Brain)
As expected for a common occurrence, laughter is frequently depicted in books and cartoons. Neurophysiology (from Greek grc νεῦρον neuron, "nerve" grc φύσις physis, "nature origin" and grc -λογία The actual language used is listed on the table below.
|Chinese||哇哈哈 (wahaha)||(loud laughter)|
|Hungarian||hahaha||(classical; the length of it depends on how funny we find the thing we are laughing about)|
|ha. . . ha. . . ha. . .||(sarcastic)|
|hehehe||(can be a bit malevolent, especially if it is combined with raised eyebrows and a little smile)|
|ho-ho-ho-hóóó||(a la Santa Claus)|
|Indonesian||huehehehe||(cute way of laughter)|
|bwahahaha||(more satisfied way of laughter)|
|ホホホ (hohoho)||(often by women with mouth covered by one hand; similar to te-hees)|
|ㅋㅋㅋㅋ (kekeke)||(chat laughter)|
|Lithuanian||cha cha cha|
|chi chi chi||(giggle)|
|Kahkahkah||(loud laughter )|
|Ngeh Ngeh Ngeh||(chuckles)|
|Хэхэхэ (hehehe)||(most often used in text and chatting)|
|Polish||hehe||(casual way of expressing laughter)|
|haha||(more crude; can be ironic)|
|хи-хи||(heehee - giggle)|
|хе-хе||(hehe, very mean laughter)|
|xo-xo||(hawhaw, restrained laughter)|
|he, he, he||(can be a bit meanish)|
|hi, hi, hi||(giggling)|
|ho, ho, ho||(rare, Santa Claus laughter)|
|Somali||kkkkkk||(Common in text messages)|
|Spanish||ja ja ja||(Usual laugh)|
|je je je||(Mischievous little laughter)|
|ji ji ji||(Giggle)|
|jo jo jo||(San Nicolás -Santa Claus- laugh)|
|jú jú jú (In a high pitch)||(mean laugh after a prank)|
|úju ja ja ja ja ja jaaaaaa. . . |
buajajaja. . .
|Swedish and Norwegian||haha||(any plain laughter)|
|hoho||(Santa Claus style)|
|höhö||(ironic) (not used in Norway)|
|moahaha||(the evil one)|
|Turkish||hahaha||(very typical laughter, it's usually triple 'ha', not double)|
|hehehe||(sound a bit more 'polite' than hahaha)|
|ha. . . ha. . . ha. . .||(sarcastic)|
|aha-aha-aha (sarcastic)||(became common thanks to popular TV series character who used to laugh this way)|
|eki eki||(used in comics, especially as the oldie way laughter)|
|keh keh/kah kah||(sneaky-ish laughter)|
|puhaha||(used if it's too amusing)|
For fatal hilarity as a figure of speech see Hyperbole. Fatal hilarity refers to Death resulting from the physiological effects An evil laugh is a stock Manic Laugh by a Villain in Fiction. Nervous laughter is Laughter evoked from an audience's expression of embarrassment alarm or confusion rather than Amusement. Although Laughter is considered understudied by some people laughter and humor in literature has received attention in the written word for millennia