Latin American literature rose to particular prominence during the second half of the 20th century, largely thanks to the international success of the style known as magical realism. Magic realism, or magical realism, is an artistic Genre in which magical elements or illogical scenarios appear in an otherwise realistic or even "normal" As such, the region's literature is often associated solely with this style (and its most famous exponent, Gabriel García Márquez). Gabriel José de la Concordia García Márquez (born March 6 1927 is a Colombian This largely obscures a rich and complex tradition of literary production that dates back many centuries.
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Pre-Columbian cultures were primarily oral, though the Aztecs and Mayans, for instance, produced elaborate codices. Literature is the Art of written works Literally translated the word means "acquaintance with letters" (from Latin littera letter An epic is a lengthy Narrative poem, ordinarily concerning a serious subject containing details of heroic deeds and events significant to a culture or nation As a Literary genre of High culture, romance or chivalric romance refers to a style of heroic Prose and verse Narrative A novel (from Italian novella, Spanish novela, French nouvelle for "new" "news" or "short story Comedy (from the Greek κωμωδίαkomodia has a popular meaning (any discourse generally intended to amuse especially in Television, Film, and Drama is the specific mode of Fiction represented in Performance. Satire is often strictly defined as a literary genre or form; although in practice it is also found in the graphic and Performing arts In satire human A performance, in Performing arts, generally comprises an event in which one group of people (the performer or performers behave in a particular way for another group of people A Book is a set or collection of written printed illustrated or blank sheets made of Paper, Parchment, or other material usually fastened together For the Wikipedia guideline regarding editing articles see WikipediaManual of Style. The following is a list of literary terms; that is those words used in discussion classification criticism and analysis of Literature. The history of literature is the historical development of Writings in Prose or Poetry which attempt to provide Entertainment, enlightenment The History of literature in the Modern period in Europe begins with the Age of Enlightenment and the conclusion of the Baroque period in the 18th century This is a list of lists of Books in Wikipedia General lists List of anonymously published works List of books The following are lists of Writers: By name A &ndash B &ndash Y &ndash Z By type of writing This is a list of literary awards from around the world Worldwide in scope Nobel Prize in Literature Neustadt International Prize This is a list of awards that are or have been given out to writers of Poetry, either for a specific poem collection of poems or body of work Literary criticism is the study discussion evaluation and interpretation of Literature. Literary theory in a strict sense is the systematic study of the nature of Literature and of the methods for analyzing literature A literary magazine is a Periodical devoted to Literature in a broad sense Aztec codices (singular Codex) are Books written by Pre-Columbian and colonial-era Aztecs Oral accounts of mythological and religious beliefs were also sometimes recorded after the arrival of European colonizers, as was the case with the Popol Vuh. For other uses see Popol Vuh (disambiguation The Popol Vuh ( K'iche' for "Council Book" or "Book of the Community" Moreover, a tradition of oral narrative survives to this day, for instance among the Quechua-speaking population of Peru and the Quiché of Guatemala. Quechua ( Runa Simi) is a Native American language of South America. This page is about the Native American people for other uses the dish see Quiché (disambiguation.
From the very moment of Europe's "discovery" of the continent, early explorers and conquistadores produced written accounts and crónicas of their experience--such as Columbus's letters or Bernal Díaz del Castillo's description of the conquest of Mexico. This article is about the Spanish explorer soldiers of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuriesfor other uses see Conquistador (disambiguation A Conquistador Christopher Columbus (1451 &ndash May 20 1506 was an Italian Navigator, colonizer Bernal Díaz del Castillo (1496 &ndash 1584 was a Conquistador, who wrote an eyewitness account of the conquest of Mexico by the Spaniards under Hernán At times, colonial practices stirred a lively debate about the ethics of colonization and the status of the indigenous peoples, as reflected for instance in Bartolomé de las Casas's Brevísima relación de la destrucción de las Indias. Bartolomé de las Casas, OP ( August 24 1484 &ndash July 17 1566) was a 16th century Spanish Dominican
During the colonial period, written culture was often in the hands of the church, within which context Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz wrote memorable poetry and philosophical essays. Sor Juana ( November 12, 1651 1648 according to some biographers &ndash April 17, 1695) also known as Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz Towards the end of the 18th Century and the beginning of the 19th, a distinctive criollo literary tradition emerged, including the first novels such as José Joaquín Fernández de Lizardi's El Periquillo Sarniento (1816). Criollo is a term that dates back to the Spanish colonial Casta system ( Caste system) of Latin America José Joaquín Fernández de Lizardi (1776 - 1827 Mexican writer and political Journalist, best known as the author of El Periquillo Sarniento The Mangy Parrot The Life and Times of Periquillo Sarniento Written by himself for his Children (El Periquillo Sarniento by Mexican author José Joaquín Fernández The "libertadores" themselves were also often distinguished writers, such as Simón Bolívar and Andrés Bello. Simón José Antonio de la Santísima Trinidad Bolívar Palacios y Blanco,Venezuelan or commonly known as Simón Bolívar ( July 24, 1783 &ndash Andrés de Jesús María y José Bello López (b Caracas, Venezuela, d
The 19th Century was a period of "foundational fictions" (in critic Doris Sommer's words), novels in the Romantic or Naturalist traditions that attempted to establish a sense of national identity, and which often focused on the indigenous question or the dichotomy of "civilization or barbarism," for which see, say, the Argentine Domingo Sarmiento's Facundo (1845), the Colombian Jorge Isaacs's María, Ecuadorian Juan León Mera's Cumandá (1879), or the Brazilian Euclides da Cunha's Os Sertões (1902). Romanticism is a complex artistic literary and intellectual movement that originated in the second half of the 18th century in Western Europe, and gained strength during the Naturalism is a movement in Theatre, film, and Literature that seeks to replicate a believable everyday reality, as opposed to such Domingo Faustino Sarmiento Albarracín (February 15 1811 &ndash September 11 1888 was an Argentine activist intellectual and writer and the seventh President Facundo Civilization and Barbarism (original Spanish title Facundo Civilización y Barbarie) is a book written in 1845 by Domingo Faustino Jorge Isaacs Ferrer ( 1 April, 1837 &ndash April 17, 1895) was a Colombian Writer, Politician and Soldier María is a novel written by Colombian writer Jorge Isaacs between 1864 and 1867 Juan León Mera Martínez ( June 28, 1832, Ambato &mdash December 13, 1894) was an Ecuadorian Poet, Novelist Euclides (archaic spelling Euclydes) da Cunha ( January 20, 1866 &mdash August 15, 1909) was a Brazilian Os Sertões (translated as Rebellion in the Backlands) (1902 is a book written by the Brazilian author Euclides da Cunha. Such works are still the bedrocks of national canons, and usually mandatory elements of high school curricula.
Another instance of 19th Century Latin American literature is José Hernández's epic poem Martín Fierro (1872). For the astronaut see Jose Hernandez, for the Baseball player see José Hernández. This article deals with Hernández's poem For other things named after it see Martín Fierro (disambiguation Martín Fierro is The story of a poor gaucho drafted to fight a frontier war against Indians, Martín Fierro is an example of the "gauchesque", an Argentine genre of poetry centered around the lives of gauchos. Gaucho ( gaúcho in Portuguese, "gaucho" in Spanish) is a term commonly used to describe residents of the South American Pampas This article deals with Hernández's poem For other things named after it see Martín Fierro (disambiguation Martín Fierro is
In the late 19th Century, modernismo emerged, a poetic movement whose founding text was the Nicaraguan Rubén Darío's Azul (1888). Modernismo is Spanish and Portuguese for Modernism, however the term Modernismo also indicates a more specific art movement Félix Rubén García Sarmiento also known as Rubén Darío (Metapa January 18, 1867 &ndash Leon February 6, 1916) was a This was the first Latin American literary movement to influence literary culture outside of the region, and was also the first truly Latin American literature, in that national differences were no longer so much at issue. José Martí, for instance, though a Cuban patriot, also lived in Mexico and the USA and wrote for journals in Argentina and elsewhere. José Julián Martí Pérez ( January 28, 1853 &ndash May 19, 1895) Born in Havana from Spanish parents his short life was dedicated to gaining And in 1900 the Uruguayan José Enrique Rodó wrote what became read as a manifesto for the region's cultural awakening, Ariel. José Enrique Rodó ( 15 July 1872 – 1 May 1917) was a Uruguayan essayist
Though modernismo itself is often seen as aestheticist and anti-political, some poets and essayists, Martí among them but also the Peruvians Manuel González Prada and José Carlos Mariátegui, introduced compelling critiques of the contemporary social order and particularly the plight of Latin America's indigenous peoples. Manuel González Prada (1844-1918 was a Peruvian politician and Anarchist, Literary critic and director of the National Library of Peru. José Carlos Mariátegui La Chira ( 14 June 1894 16 April 1930) was a Peruvian journalist Political philosopher, and activist So the early twentieth century also saw the rise of indigenismo, a movement dedicated to representing indigenous culture and the injustices that such communities were undergoing, as for instance with the Peruvian José María Arguedas and the Mexican Rosario Castellanos. Indianismo, sometimes Indigenismo, was a movement in Latin American literature that explored the beliefs and lifestyles of the Indigenous peoples during José María Arguedas Altamirano ( 18 January 1911 &ndash 28 November 1969) was a Peruvian novelist poet and anthropologist who wrote Rosario Castellanos ( 25 May 1925 &ndash 7 August 1974) was a Mexican poet and author
The Argentine Jorge Luis Borges invented what was almost a new genre, the philosophical short story, and would go on to become one of the most influential of all Latin American writers. At the same time, Roberto Arlt offered a very different style, closer to mass culture and popular literature, reflecting the urbanization and European immigration that was shaping the Southern Cone. Roberto Arlt ( Buenos Aires, April 2, 1900 &ndash July 26, 1942) was an Argentine short-story writer novelist and playwright
Notable figures in Brazil at this time include the exceptional novelist and short story writer Machado de Assis, whose both ironic view and deep psychological analysis introduced a universal scope in Brazilian prose, the modernist poets Mário de Andrade, Oswald de Andrade (whose "Manifesto Antropófago" praised Brazilian powers of transculturation), and Carlos Drummond de Andrade. Joaquim Maria Machado de Assis, pron. ʒoa'kĩ ma'riɐ ma'ʃadu dʒi a'sis often known as Machado de Assis, Machado, or Bruxo do Cosme Velho For the Angolan politician and writer see Mário Pinto de Andrade. José Oswald de Andrade Souza ( January 11, 1890 – October 22, 1954) was a Brazilian Poet and Polemicist The Manifesto Antropófago ( Cannibal Manifesto in English was published in 1928 by the Brazilian Poet and Polemicist Oswald de Andrade Transculturation is a term coined by Cuban anthropologist Fernando Ortiz in 1947 to describe the phenomenon of merging and converging cultures Carlos Drummond de Andrade ( October 31, 1902 - August 17, 1987) was perhaps the most influential Brazilian Poet of
The Mexican Revolution inspired novels such as Mariano Azuela's Los de abajo, a committed work of social realism and the revolution and its aftermath would continue to be a point of reference for Mexican literature for many decades. The Mexican Revolution (Revolución Mexicana was a major armed struggle that started with an uprising led by Francisco I Mariano Azuela González ( January 1, 1873 &ndash March 1, 1952) was a Mexican author and physician best known for his fictional The Underdogs (Los de abajo is a Novel of the Mexican Revolution by Mariano Azuela. The literature of Mexico has its antecedents in the literatures of the indigenous settlements of Mesoamerica. In the 1940s, the Cuban novelist and musicologist Alejo Carpentier coined the term "lo real maravilloso" and, along with the Mexican Juan Rulfo and the Guatemalan Miguel Ángel Asturias, would prove a precursor of the Boom and its signature style of "magic realism. Alejo Carpentier y Valmont ( December 26, 1904 – April 24, 1980) was a Cuban novelist essay writer and musicologist who greatly Juan Rulfo ( 16 May 1917 &ndash 7 January 1986) was a Mexican Novelist, short story writer and photographer Miguel Ángel Asturias Rosales (October 19 1899 – June 9 1974 was a Nobel Prize –winning Guatemalan Poet, Novelist, and Diplomat "
Twentieth-century poetry in Latin America has often expressed love and political commitment, particularly given the model provided by Chilean Nobel laureate Pablo Neruda, and followed by such poets as the Nicaraguan Ernesto Cardenal and Salvadoran Roque Dalton. Pablo Neruda ( July 12, 1904 – September 23, 1973) was the pen name and later legal name of the Chilean writer and politician Reverend Father Ernesto Cardenal Martínez (born January 20, 1925) is a Nicaraguan Catholic Priest and was one of the most famous Roque Dalton García ( San Salvador, El Salvador, 14 May 1935 &ndash Quezaltepeque, El Salvador, 10 May
Other significant poets include the Cuban Nicolás Guillén, the Puerto Rican Giannina Braschi, and the Uruguayan Mario Benedetti, not to mention the Nobel laureates Gabriela Mistral and Octavio Paz, the latter also a distinguished critic and essayist, famous particularly for his book on Mexican culture, The Labyrinth of Solitude. Nicolás Cristóbal Guillén Batista ( 10 July 1902 &ndash 16 July 1989) was an Afro-Cuban Poet. Poet and novelist Giannina Braschi (b San Juan Puerto Rico, February 5 1953 is credited with writing the first Spanglish novel YO-YO BOING! (1998 and Mario Benedetti (born September 14, 1920) is an Uruguayan journalist novelist and poet Gabriela Mistral ( April 7, 1889 — January 10, 1957) was the Pseudonym of Lucila de María del Perpetuo Socorro Godoy Alcayaga Octavio Peazy Paz " ( March 31, 1914 – April 19, 1998) was a Mexican Writer, Poet, and diplomat The Labyrinth of Solitude (El Laberinto de la soledad one of Octavio Paz ’s most famous works is a collection of nine essays ‘The Pachuco and other extremes’ ‘Mexican
After World War II, Latin America enjoyed increasing economic prosperity, and a new-found confidence also gave rise to a literary boom. The Latin American Boom ( Boom Latinoamericano) was a Literary movement of the 1960s and 1970s when the work of a group of relatively young Latin American novelists World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including The Latin American Boom ( Boom Latinoamericano) was a Literary movement of the 1960s and 1970s when the work of a group of relatively young Latin American novelists From 1960 to 1967, the major works of the boom were published. The Latin American Boom ( Boom Latinoamericano) was a Literary movement of the 1960s and 1970s when the work of a group of relatively young Latin American novelists Many of these novels were somewhat rebellious from the general point of view of Latin America culture. Authors crossed traditional boundaries, experimented with language, and often mixed different styles of writing in their works.
Structures of literary works were also changing. Inspired by North American and European authors such as William Faulkner, James Joyce, and Virginia Woolf, Boom novels were often non-linear, disregarding conventional rules, and introducing techniques such as internal monologues. William Faulkner (born William Cuthbert Falkner) ( September 25, 1897 – July 6, 1962) was an American Author James Augustine Aloysius Joyce (2 February 1882 &ndash 13 January 1941 was an Irish expatriate writer widely considered to be one of the most influential writers of the (Adeline Virginia Woolf (née Stephen; 25 January 1882 – 28 March 1941 was an English Novelist and Essayist, regarded as one of the foremost Latin American authors were also inspired by each others' works; many of the authors knew one another and influenced each other's styles.
The Boom really put Latin American literature on the global map. It was distinguished by daring and experimental novels such as Julio Cortázar's Rayuela (1963), that were frequently published in Spain and quickly translated into English. Julio Cortázar, born Jules Florencio Cortázar ( August 26, 1914 &ndash February 12, 1984) was an Argentine Author Hopscotch (Rayuela is a Novel by Argentine author Julio Cortázar. From 1966 to 1968, Emir Rodríguez Monegal published his influential Latin American literature monthly Mundo Nuevo, with excerpts of unreleased novels from then-new writers such as Guillermo Cabrera Infante or Severo Sarduy, including two chapters of Gabriel García Márquez's Cien años de soledad in 1966. Emir ( 28 July 1921 &ndash 14 November 1985) was a Uruguayan scholar Literary critic, and editor of Latin Mundo Nuevo (1966–1971 Spanish for "the New World " was an influential Spanish-language periodical being a monthly revista de cultura Guillermo Cabrera Infante ( April 22, 1929 &ndash February 21, 2005) was a Cuban Novelist, Essayist, Translator Severo Sarduy ( Camagüey, Cuba; February 25, 1937 – Paris; June 8, 1993) was a Cuban Poet Gabriel José de la Concordia García Márquez (born March 6 1927 is a Colombian One Hundred Years of Solitude (Cien años de soledad is a novel by Nobel Prize winning Colombian author Gabriel García Márquez that was first In 1967, the published book was the Boom's defining novel, which led to the association of Latin American literature with magic realism, though other important writers of the period such as Mario Vargas Llosa and Carlos Fuentes do not fit so easily within this framework. Magic realism, or magical realism, is an artistic Genre in which magical elements or illogical scenarios appear in an otherwise realistic or even "normal" Jorge Mario Pedro Vargas Llosa (born March 28 1936 is a Peruvian writer Politician, Journalist, and Essayist. Carlos Fuentes Macías (born March 11,1928 is a Mexican writer and one of the best-known living novelists and essayists in the Spanish -speaking world Arguably, the Boom's culmination was Augusto Roa Bastos's monumental Yo, el supremo (1974). Augusto Roa Bastos, (June 13 1917 &ndash April 26 2005 was a noted Paraguayan novelist and one of the most important Latin American writers of the 20th century I the Supreme (orig Spanish Yo el supremo) is a Historical novel written by exiled Paraguayan author Augusto Roa Bastos. Other important novelists of the period include the Chilean José Donoso and the Cuban Guillermo Cabrera Infante. José Donoso Yáñez ( October 5 1924 – December 7 1996) was a Chilean writer Guillermo Cabrera Infante ( April 22, 1929 &ndash February 21, 2005) was a Cuban Novelist, Essayist, Translator
Though the literary boom occurred while Latin America was having commercial success, the works of this period tended to move away from the positives of the modernization that was underway. Instead literary works focused on the problems and injustices that people were suffering across Latin America.
Political turmoil in Latin American countries such as Cuba at this time influenced the literary boom as well. The Republic of Cuba (ˈkjuːbə or) consists of the island of Cuba (the largest and second-most populous island of the Greater Antilles) Isla de la Some works anticipated an end to the prosperity that was occurring, and even predicted old problems would resurface in the near future. Their works foreshadowed the events to come in the future of Latin America, with the 1970s and 1980s dictatorships, economic turmoil, and Dirty Wars. This article refers to the Argentine Dirty War for the British film of the same name see Dirty War (film.
Post-Boom literature is sometimes characterized by a tendency towards irony and towards the use of popular genres, as in the case of the work of Manuel Puig. Manuel Puig (born Juan Manuel Puig Delledonne ( General Villegas, Argentina December 28, 1932 - Cuernavaca, Mexico July 22 Some writers felt the success of the Boom to be a burden, and spiritedly denounced the caricature that reduces Latin American literature to magical realism. Hence the Chilean Alberto Fuguet came up with McOndo as an antidote to the Macondo-ism that demanded of all aspiring writers that they set their tales in steamy tropical jungles in which the fantastic and the real happily coexisted. Alberto Fuguet de Goyeneche (born 1964 is a popular Chilean Writer, Playwright, Journalist and Film director who rose to critical McOndo is a Latin American literary movement that seeks to distance itself from Latin America's long-dominant Magical realist literary tradition In a mock diary by post-modernist Giannina Braschi the Narrator of the Latin American Boom is shot by a Macy's make-up artist who accuses the Boom of capitalizing on her solitude.  Other writers, however, have traded on the Boom's success: see for instance Laura Esquivel's pastiche of magical realism in Como agua para chocolate. Laura Esquivel (born September 30, 1950) is a Mexican author making a noted contribution to Latin-American literature.
Overall, contemporary literature in the region is vibrant and varied, ranging from the best-selling Paulo Coelho and Isabel Allende to the more avant-garde and critically acclaimed work of writers such as Diamela Eltit, Giannina Braschi, Luisa Valenzuela, Ricardo Piglia, Jorge Queirolo B., Roberto Ampuero, Jorge Marchant L. Paulo Coelho (ˈpau̯lu ˈko̯eʎu (born August 24, 1947) is a Brazilian Lyricist and Novelist. Isabel Allende Llona, (born in Lima, Peru; 2 August 1942 is a Chilean American Novelist. Diamela Eltit (born 1949 Santiago de Chile) is a writer and a Spanish teacher from Chile. Poet and novelist Giannina Braschi (b San Juan Puerto Rico, February 5 1953 is credited with writing the first Spanglish novel YO-YO BOING! (1998 and Luisa Valenzuela (b November 26, 1938, in Buenos Aires, Argentina) is a postmodern novelist and short story writer Ricardo Piglia (born on November 24, 1941 in Adrogué and raised in Mar del Plata) is one of the foremost contemporary Argentine writers Roberto Ampuero (1953 is a prolific award-winning and best-selling Chilean novelist columnist and professor , Alicia Yánez, Jaime Marchán, Jaime Bayly, Manfredo Kempff, Edmundo Paz S. Jaime Bayly Letts (born February 19, 1965 in Lima, Peru) is a Writer, a Journalist and a host. , Gioconda Belli, Jorge Franco, Mario Mendoza or Roberto Bolaño. Gioconda Belli (born December 9, 1948 in Managua, Nicaragua) is an author novelist and renowned Nicaraguan poet Mario Mendoza (born December 26, 1950 in Chihuahua Chihuahua, Mexico) is a former Major League Baseball Infielder who Roberto Bolaño Ávalos ( April 28, 1953 — July 15, 2003) was a Latin American Other important figures include the Argentine César Aira or the Colombian Fernando Vallejo, whose La virgen de los sicarios depicted the violence in a Medellín under the influence of the drug trade. César Aira (born on February 23, 1949 in Coronel Pringles, Buenos Aires Province) is an Argentine writer and translator considered Fernando Vallejo Rendón (born 1942 in Medellín, Colombia) is a biologist filmmaker and writer born in Colombia
There has also been considerable attention paid to the genre of testimonio, texts produced in collaboration with subaltern subjects such as Rigoberta Menchú. "Testify" redirects here For other uses see Testify (disambiguation and Testimony (disambiguation. Subaltern is a term that commonly refers to the perspective of persons from regions and groups outside of the hegemonic Power structure. Rigoberta Menchú Tum (b 9 January 1959, Chimel Quiché, Guatemala) is an indigenous Guatemalan of the Quiché -
Finally, a new breed of chroniclers is represented by the more journalistic Carlos Monsiváis and Pedro Lemebel, who draw also on the long-standing tradition of essayistic production as well as the precedents of engaged and creative non-fiction represented by, say, the Uruguayan Eduardo Galeano and the Mexican Elena Poniatowska. Carlos Monsiváis Aceves (born May 4, 1938, in Mexico City) is a Mexican Writer and Journalist on the El Pedro Lemebel is a Chilean essayist chronicler and novelist He is known for his cutting critique of authoritarianism and for his humorous depiction of Chilean popular culture Eduardo Hughes Galeano (born September 3, 1940) is an Uruguayan journalist, Writer and one of the most outstanding representatives Elena Poniatowska (born May 19 1932 in Paris France as Princess Hélène Elizabeth Louise Amélie Paula Dolores Poniatowska Amor) is a Polish - Mexican
Arguably the most eminent Latin American author of any century is the Argentine Jorge Luis Borges. Some of the most important writers from Latin America and the Caribbean, organized by Cultural region and nationality According to literary critic Harold Bloom, "Of all Latin American authors in this century, he is the most universal. . . If you read Borges frequently and closely, you become something of a Borgesian, because to read him is to activate an awareness of literature in which he has gone farther than anybody else. "  Perhaps the most important novel to emerge out of Latin America in the 20th century is Gabriel Garcia Marquez's Cien Anos de Soledad; Borges opined that it was "the Don Quixote of Latin America. "  Among the greatest poets of the 20th century is Pablo Neruda; according to Gabriel Garcia Marquez, Neruda "is the greatest poet of the 20th century, in any language. "
The most important literary prize of the Spanish language is widely considered to be the Cervantes Prize of Spain. Premio Miguel de Cervantes (the Miguel de Cervantes Prize is awarded annually to honor the lifetime achievement of an outstanding writer in the Spanish language. Latin American authors who have won this prestigious award include: Juan Gelman (Argentina), Sergio Pitol (Mexico), Gonzalo Rojas (Chile), Álvaro Mutis (Colombia), Jorge Edwards (Chile), Guillermo Cabrera Infante (Cuba), Mario Vargas Llosa (Perú), Dulce María Loynaz (Cuba), Adolfo Bioy Casares (Argentina), Augusto Roa Bastos (Paraguay), Carlos Fuentes (Mexico), Ernesto Sabato (Argentina), Octavio Paz (Mexico), Juan Carlos Onetti (Uruguay), Jorge Luis Borges (Argentina) and Alejo Carpentier (Cuba).
Latin American authors who have won the most prestigious literary award in the world, the Nobel Prize for Literature, include: Octavio Paz (Mexico), Gabriel García Márquez (Colombia), Pablo Neruda (Chile), Miguel Ángel Asturias (Guatemala), and Gabriela Mistral (Chile). The Nobel Prize in Literature (Nobelpriset i litteratur is awarded annually since 1901 to an author from any country who has in the words from the will of Alfred
The Neustadt International Prize for Literature, perhaps the most important international literary award after the Nobel Prize, counts several Latin American authors among its recipients; they include: Claribel Alegría (Nicaragua), Álvaro Mutis (Colombia), João Cabral de Melo Neto (Brazil), Octavio Paz (Mexico), and Gabriel Garcia Marquez (Colombia). The Neustadt International Prize for Literature is a biennial award for literature sponsored by the University of Oklahoma and its international literary publication Candidates for the prize include: Mario Vargas Llosa (Peru), Marjorie Agosin (Chile), Eduardo Galeano (Uruguay), Homero Aridjis (Mexico), Luis Fernando Verissimo (Brazil), Augusto Monterroso (Guatemala), Ernesto Cardenal (Nicaragua), Carlos Fuentes (Mexico), Jorge Luis Borges (Argentina), Jorge Amado (Brazil), Ernesto Sábato (Argentina), Carlos Drummond de Andrade (Brazil), and Pablo Neruda (Chile).
Other important international literary awards are the Jerusalem Prize, whose winners include: Mario Vargas Llosa (Peru), Ernesto Sabato (Argentina), Octavio Paz (Mexico), and Jorge Luis Borges (Argentina); the Romulo Gallegos Prize, whose winners include: Mario Vargas Llosa (Peru), Gabriel Garcia Marquez (Colombia), Carlos Fuentes (Mexico), Fernando del Paso (Mexico), Abel Posse (Argentina), Manuel Mejía Vallejo (Colombia), Arturo Uslar Pietri (Venezuela), Mempo Giardinelli (Argentina), Ángeles Mastretta (Mexico), Roberto Bolaño (Chile), Fernando Vallejo (Colombia), and Elena Poniatowska (Mexico); and the Juan Rulfo Prize: Nicanor Parra (Chile), Juan José Arreola (Mexico), Eliseo Diego (Cuba), Julio Ramón Ribeyro (Peru), Nélida Piñón (Brazil), Augusto Monterroso (Guatemala), Olga Orozco (Argentina), Sergio Pitol (Mexico), Juan Gelman (Argentina), Juan García Ponce (Mexico), Cintio Vitier (Cuba), Rubem Fonseca (Brazil), Tomás Segovia (Mexico), Carlos Monsiváis (Mexico), and Fernando del Paso (Mexico). The Jerusalem Prize for the Freedom of the Individual in Society is a biennial Literary award given to Writers whose work has dealt with themes of human freedom society The Rómulo Gallegos International Novel Prize ( Spanish: Premio internacional de novela Rómulo Gallegos was created on 6 August 1964 by
Winners of Mexico's Alfonso Reyes Prize include: Jorge Luis Borges (Argentina), Alejo Carpentier (Cuba), Carlos Fuentes (Mexico), Ernesto Mejía Sánchez (Nicaragua), José Luis Martínez (Mexico), Rubén Bonifaz Nuño (Mexico), Octavio Paz (Mexico), Alí Chumacero (Mexico), Gutierre Tibón (Mexico), Ramón Xirau (Mexico), Adolfo Bioy Casares (Argentina), Andrés Henestrosa (Mexico), Arnaldo Orfila Reynal (Argentina), Joaquín Diez Canedo (Mexico), Germán Arciniegas (Colombia), Juan José Arreola (Mexico), Arturo Uslar Pietri (Venezuela), Miguel León-Portilla (Mexico), Rafael Gutiérrez Girardot (Colombia), José Emilio Pacheco (Mexico), and Antonio Candido (Brazil). The Alfonso Reyes International Prize (Spanish Premio Internacional Alfonso Reyes) is a Mexican award given for contributions to the world of literature
Latin American authors who figured in prominent literary critic Harold Bloom's The Western Canon list of the most enduring works of world literature include: Rubén Dário, Jorge Luis Borges, Alejo Carpentier, Guillermo Cabrera Infante, Severo Sarduy, Reinaldo Arenas, Pablo Neruda, Octavio Paz, César Vallejo, Miguel Angel Asturias, José Lezama Lima, José Donoso, Julio Cortázar, Gabriel Garcia Márquez, Mario Vargas Llosa, Carlos Fuentes, and Carlos Drummond de Andrade. Harold Bloom' (born July 11, 1930) is a Literary critic. Bloom defended 19th-century Romantic poets at a time when their reputations
Brazilian authors who have won the Camoes Prize, the most prestigious literary award in the Portuguese language, include: João Cabral de Melo Neto, Rachel de Queiroz, Jorge Amado, Antonio Candido, Autran Dourado, Rubem Fonseca, and Lygia Fagundes Telles. The Camões Prize (Portuguese Prémio Camões) named after Luís de Camões (author of the Os Lusíadas) is the most important literary prize for the Some notable authors who have won Brazil's Prêmio Machado de Assis include: Rachel de Queiroz, Cecília Meireles, João Guimarães Rosa, Érico Veríssimo, Lúcio Cardoso, and Ferreira Gullar. The Prêmio Machado de Assis (the Machado de Assis Prize) is a literary prize awarded by the Brazilian Academy of Letters, and possibly the most prestigious
For additional secondary literature bibliographies in English and languages other than English see Further reading on Latin American Literature