|ສາທາລະນະລັດ ປະຊາທິປະໄຕ ປະຊາຊົນລາວ|
Sathalanalat Paxathipatai Paxaxon Lao
Lao People's Democratic Republic
|Motto: ສັນຕິພາບ ເອກະລາດ ປະຊາທິປະໄຕ ເອກະພາບ ວັດທະນາຖາວອນ|
"Peace, Independence, Democracy, Unity and Prosperity"
|Anthem: Pheng Xat Lao|
(and largest city)
|-||President||Lt. The flag of Laos was adopted on December 2, 1975. The flag had previously been used by the short-lived Lao nationalist government of 1945 The Coat of arms of Laos shows the national shrine Pha That Luang. A motto (from the Italian word motto, meaning witticism sentence is a phrase meant to formally describe the general motivation or intention of a social group A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history traditions and struggles of its people recognized either by a nation's "Pheng Xat Lao" was composed by Dr Thongdy Sounthonevichit (1905-1968 in 1941 and adopted as the National anthem of the Kingdom of Laos Laos ' population was estimated at about 6 million in July 2004 dispersed unevenly across the country Vientiane (vjɛnˈtjɑːn Lao ວຽງຈັນ Viang-chan) is the Capital city of Laos An official language is a Language that is given a special legal status in a particular Country, State, or other territory Lao or Laotian (BGN/PCGN phasa lao IPA: pʰaːsaː laːw is a Tonal Language of the Tai-Kadai language family A demonym or gentilic is a word that denotes the members of a People or the inhabitants of a place The Lao (Lao ລາວ IPA laːw are an ethnic subgroup of Tai/Dai in Southeast Asia. The Lao (Lao ລາວ IPA laːw are an ethnic subgroup of Tai/Dai in Southeast Asia. For the government of parliamentary systems see Executive (government. The term socialist state (or socialist republic, or workers' state) can carry one of several different (but related meanings In strictly speaking any The office of the President of Laos was created in 1975 after the takeover of the country by the Pathet Lao, which abolished the monarchy. Gen. Choummaly Sayasone|
|-||Prime Minister||Bouasone Bouphavanh|
|-||Date||19 July 1949|
|-||Total||236,800 km² (83rd)|
91,429 sq mi
|-||2007 estimate||6,521,998 (106th)|
|GDP (PPP)||2006 estimate|
|-||Total||$13. Lieutenant General Choummaly Sayasone (born March 6, 1936 in Attapu) is President of the Lao People's Democratic Republic The Prime Minister of Laos is head of the Government of the People's Democratic Republic of Laos. Bouasone Bouphavanh (born June 3, 1954 in Ban Tao Poun Muang Salavan Salavan Province) is the prime minister of Laos. Independence is the Self-government of a Nation, Country, or State by its residents and population or some portion thereof generally exercising This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Events 711 - Muslim forces under Tariq ibn Ziyad defeat the Visigoths led by their king Roderic. Year 1949 ( MCMXLIX) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Area is a Quantity expressing the two- Dimensional size of a defined part of a Surface, typically a region bounded by a closed Curve. To help compare Orders of magnitude of different geographical regions we list here Surface areas between 100000 km² and 1000000 km² This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by total area. The square mile is an imperial and US unit of Area equal the area of a square of one statute mile. Water is a common Chemical substance that is essential for the survival of all known forms of Life. In Mathematics, a percentage is a way of expressing a number as a Fraction of 100 ( per cent meaning "per hundred" In Biology a population is the collection of inter-breeding organisms of a particular Species; in Sociology List of countries by population in 2005|List of countries by population in 1907This is a list of countries ordered according to Population. Population density (in agriculture standing stock and Standing crop) is a measurement of Population per unit area or unit volume List of countries and dependencies by Population density in inhabitants/km² The purchasing power parity ( PPP) theory uses the long-term equilibrium Exchange rate of two currencies to equalize their Purchasing power. 75 billion (129th)|
|-||Per capita||$2,200 (138th)|
|Gini (2002)||34. There are three lists of Countries of the world sorted by their Gross domestic product (GDP (the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation Per capita is a Latin phrase meaning for each head with Per meaning 'through' or 'by' This article includes three lists of Countries of the world sorted by their Gross domestic product (GDP at Purchasing power parity (PPP Per capita The Gini coefficient is a measure of statistical dispersion most prominently used as a measure of inequality of income distribution or inequality of wealth 6 (medium)|
|HDI (2007)||▲ 0. The Human Development Index ( HDI) is an index combining normalized measures of Life expectancy, Literacy, Educational attainment, and GDP 601 (medium) (130th)|
Laos (pronounced /ˈlɑːoʊs/ or /ˈlaʊs/), officially the Lao People's Democratic Republic, is a landlocked country in southeast Asia, bordered by Burma (Myanmar) and China to the northwest, Vietnam to the east, Cambodia to the south, and Thailand to the west. This is a list of countries by Human Development Index as included in the United Nations Development Program 's Human Development Report 2007 A currency is a unit of exchange, facilitating the transfer of Goods and/or services It is one form of Money, where money is ISO 4217 is the International standard describing three-letter codes (also known as the currency code) to define the names of currencies established A country This is a list of country calling codes defined by ITU-T recommendation E Events By Place Asia The Year of the Fire Rat (Chinese Zodiac begins in January A landlocked country is commonly defined as one enclosed or nearly enclosed by land Burma, officially the Union of Myanmar ( pjìdàunzṵ mjàmmà nàinŋàndɔ̀ is the largest country by geographical area in mainland Southeast Asia. Talk People's Republic of China) PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA ARTICLE GUIDELINES Vietnam (ˌviːɛtˈnɑːm Việt Nam) officially The Kingdom of Cambodia ( formerly known as Kampuchea (, transliterated: Preăh Réachéanachâkr Kâmpŭchea) is a country in South East The Kingdom of Thailand (ˈtaɪlænd ราชอาณาจักรไทย, râːtɕʰa-ʔaːnaːtɕɑ̀k-tʰɑj Laos traces its history to the Kingdom of Lan Xang or Land of a Million Elephants, which existed from the fourteenth to the eighteenth century. The Lao kingdom of Lan Xang or Lan Ch'ang ( Pali: Sisattanakhanahut ລ້ານຊ້າງ lâansâang - ລ້ານ "million" After a period as a French protectorate, it gained independence in 1949. France was a dominant empire in the world from the 1600s to the late 1960s possessing many colonies in various locations around the world A long civil war ended officially when the communist Pathet Lao movement came to power in 1975 but the protesting between factions continued for several years. The Laotian Civil War ( 1962 - 1975) was an internal fight between the Communist Pathet Lao and the Royal Lao Government in which Communism is a Socioeconomic structure that promotes the establishment of an egalitarian, classless, stateless Society based The Pathet Lao ( Lao ປະເທດລາວ, "Land of Laos" was a communist, Nationalist Political movement and
Private enterprise has increased since the late 1990s when economic reforms including rapid business licensing were introduced. Capitalism is the Economic system in which the Means of production are owned by private Persons and operated for Profit and where Laos is still ranked among the lowest countries in terms of economic and political freedom.  The economy of Laos grew at 7. Laos is a Landlocked country with an inadequate infrastructure and a largely unskilled work force 2% in 2006, 35th fastest in the world. The list of Countries of the world sorted by their Gross domestic product (real growth rate shows the increase in value of all final goods and services produced Eighty percent of the employed practice subsistence agriculture. Subsistence agriculture is self-sufficient farming in which farmers grow only enough food to feed the family and to pay taxes or feudal dues  The country's ethnic make-up is diverse, with around 70% belonging to the largest ethnic group, the Lao. The Lao (Lao ລາວ IPA laːw are an ethnic subgroup of Tai/Dai in Southeast Asia. 
In the Lao language, the country's name is "Meuang Lao". Lao or Laotian (BGN/PCGN phasa lao IPA: pʰaːsaː laːw is a Tonal Language of the Tai-Kadai language family The Imperial French, who made the country part of French Indochina in 1893, spelled it with a final silent "s", i. First French interventions See also France-Vietnam relations France-Vietnam relations started as early as the 17th century with the mission of the Jesuit e. "Laos" (The Lao language itself has no final 's' sound, so Lao people do not pronounce the word Laos). The usual adjectival form is "Lao", e. g. "the Lao economy", not the "Laotian" economy--although "Laotian" is used to describe the people of Laos to avoid confusion with the Lao ethnic group. The Lao (Lao ລາວ IPA laːw are an ethnic subgroup of Tai/Dai in Southeast Asia.
Laos traces its history to the kingdom of Lan Xang, founded in the fourteenth century by Fa Ngum, himself descended from a long line of Lao kings, tracking back to Khun Borom. Earliest known history and the founding of Lan Xang The earliest Lao legal document (and the earliest sociological evidence about the existence of the Lao people is known as "the The Mekong is one of the world’s major Rivers It is the 11th-longest river in the world and 7th longest in Asia Luang Prabang, or Louangphrabang (Lao ຫລວງພະບາງ, IPA /luaŋ pʰabaːŋ/ is a city located in north central Laos, on the The Lao kingdom of Lan Xang or Lan Ch'ang ( Pali: Sisattanakhanahut ລ້ານຊ້າງ lâansâang - ລ້ານ "million" Lan-Xang prospered until the eighteenth century, when the kingdom was divided into three principalities, which eventually came under Siamese suzerainty. The 18th century lasted from 1701 to 1800 in the Gregorian calendar, in accordance with the Anno Domini / Common Era numbering system In the 19th century, Luang Prabang was incorporated into the 'Protectorate' of French Indochina, and shortly thereafter, the kingdom of Champassack and the territory of Vientiane were also added to the protectorate. First French interventions See also France-Vietnam relations France-Vietnam relations started as early as the 17th century with the mission of the Jesuit The French saw Laos as a useful buffer state between the two expanding empires of France and Britain. Under the French, Vientiane once again became the capital of a unified Lao state. Vientiane (vjɛnˈtjɑːn Lao ວຽງຈັນ Viang-chan) is the Capital city of Laos Following a brief Japanese occupation during World War II, the country declared its independence in 1945, but the French under De Gaulle re-asserted their control and only in 1950 was Laos granted semi-autonomy as an "associated state" within the French Union. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including Charles André Joseph Marie de Gaulle ( ( 22 November 1890 – 9 November 1970) was a French General and statesman who led the Free French The French Union (Union française was a political entity created by the French Fourth Republic to replace the old French colonial system the " French Empire Moreover, the French remained in de facto control until 1954, when Laos gained full independence as a constitutional monarchy. Under a special exemption to the Geneva Convention, a French military training mission continued to support the Royal Laos Army. The Geneva Conventions consist of four Treaties formulated in Geneva, Switzerland, that set the standards for International law for humanitarian The Royal Lao Army was the armed forces of the Kingdom of Laos. In 1955, the U.S. Department of Defense created a special Programs Evaluation Office to replace French support of the Royal Lao Army against the communist Pathet Lao as part of the U. The United States Department of Defense ( DOD or DoD) is the federal department charged with coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government The Programs Evaluation Office was a military mission to Laos, established in 1955 by the United States Department of Defense. The Pathet Lao ( Lao ປະເທດລາວ, "Land of Laos" was a communist, Nationalist Political movement and S. containment policy. Containment refers to a Foreign policy of the United States in the early years of the Cold War.
Laos was dragged into the Vietnam War, and the eastern parts of the country were invaded and occupied by the North Vietnamese Army (NVA), which used Laotian territory as a staging ground and supply route for its war against the South. The Vietnam War, also known as the Second Indochina War, or the Vietnam Conflict, occurred in Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia The Vietnam People's Army ( VPA) (Quân Đội Nhân Dân Việt Nam is the official name of the Armed forces of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam. "RVN" redirects here RVN is also the former callsign of a TV station in Wagga Wagga New South Wales Australia In response, the United States initiated a bombing campaign against the North Vietnamese, supported regular and irregular anticommunist forces in Laos and supported a South Vietnamese invasion of Laos. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The Army of the Republic of Vietnam ( ARVN) was a military component of the armed forces of the Republic of Vietnam (commonly known as South Vietnam The result of these actions were a series of coups d'état and, ultimately, the Laotian Civil War between the Royal Laotian government and the communist Pathet Lao. The Laotian Civil War ( 1962 - 1975) was an internal fight between the Communist Pathet Lao and the Royal Lao Government in which
In the Civil War, the NVA, with its heavy artillery and tanks, was the real power behind the Pathet Lao insurgency. In 1968, the North Vietnamese Army launched a multi-division attack against the Royal Lao Army. The attack resulted in the army largely demobilizing and leaving the conflict to irregular forces raised by the United States and Thailand.
Massive aerial bombardment by the United States followed as it attempted to eliminate North Vietnamese bases in Laos in order to disrupt supply lines on the Ho Chi Minh/Trường Sơn Trail. The Ho Chi Minh trail was a logistical system that ran from the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam to the Republic of Vietnam (South Vietnam through Between 1971 and 1973 the USAF dropped more ordnance on Laos than was dropped worldwide during World War II (1939−45). In total more than 2 million tonnes of bombs were dropped (almost 1/2 a tonne per head of population at the time).
In 1975, the communist Pathet Lao, backed by the Soviet Union and the North Vietnamese Army (justified by the communist ideology of "proletarian internationalism"), overthrew the royalist government, forcing King Savang Vatthana to abdicate on December 2, 1975. Communism is a Socioeconomic structure that promotes the establishment of an egalitarian, classless, stateless Society based The Pathet Lao ( Lao ປະເທດລາວ, "Land of Laos" was a communist, Nationalist Political movement and The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 Savang or Sisavang Vatthana (full name Samdach Brhat Chao Mavattaha Sri Vitha Lan Xang Hom Khao Phra Rajanachakra Lao Parama Sidha Khattiya Suriya Varman Brhat Maha Sri Savangsa Events 1409 - The University of Leipzig opens 1755 - The second Eddystone Lighthouse is destroyed by fire Year 1975 ( MCMLXXV) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. He later died in captivity.
After taking control of the country, Pathet Lao's government renamed the country as the "Lao People's Democratic Republic" and signed agreements giving Vietnam the right to station military forces and to appoint advisers to assist in overseeing the country. Laos was ordered in the late 1970s by Vietnam to end relations with the People's Republic of China which cut the country off from trade with any country but Vietnam. Talk People's Republic of China) PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA ARTICLE GUIDELINES Control by Vietnam and socialization were slowly replaced by a relaxation of economic restrictions in the 1980s and admission into ASEAN in 1997. The Association of Southeast Asian Nations, commonly referred to as ASEAN, ˈɑːsiːɑːn AH-see-ahn in English (the Official language
The Tai Dam are an ethnic group from Laos that escaped the country as a group. Tai Dam is a Tai language spoken in Vietnam, Laos, Thailand, and China (mostly in Jinping 金平 After thousands of years of political oppression, the Tai Dam people vowed to unite as one group and find a country they could call their own. The Tai Dam are known as "the people without a country. " More than 90 percent of Tai Dam refugees emigrated to the state of Iowa after the governor agreed to take the Tai Dam as a group and have organizations sponsor families. In 2005, the United States established Normal Trade Relations with Laos, ending a protracted period of punitive import taxes. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Permanent Normal Trade Relations (PNTR 
Laos is divided into sixteen provinces (qwang) and Vientiane Capital (Na Kone Luang Vientiane):
1. ||} Laos is divided into 16 provinces ( Lao ແຂວງ khoueng) 1 municipality (ນະຄອນຫລວງ kampheng nakhon) and formerly Laos is divided into 16 provinces ( Lao ແຂວງ Khoueng) 1 municipality (ນະຄອນຫລວງ kampheng Nakhon ||} Laos is divided into 16 provinces ( Lao ແຂວງ khoueng) 1 municipality (ນະຄອນຫລວງ kampheng nakhon) and formerly Attapu
2. Administrative divisions The province is made up of the following districts Phouvong District (17-05 Samakkhixay District (17-02 Bokeo
3. Administrative divisions The province is made up of the following districts Houayxay (5-01 Meung (5-03 Paktha (5-05 Pha Oudom (5-04 Bolikhamxai
5. Administrative divisions The province is made up of the following districts Bachiangchaleunsook District (16-03 Champassack District Houaphan
6. Administrative divisions The province is made up of the following districts Huameuang District (7-05 Muang Et District (7-08 Khammouan
7. Loung Namtha
8. Administrative divisions The province is made up of the following districts Long (3-03 Nale (3-05 Namtha (3-01 Sing (3-02 Viangphoukha Louangphabang
9. Geography Luang Prabang is strikingly situated on a narrow peninsula that bisects the conjunction of the Mekong River, flowing south along the west side of the city Oudomxai
10. Administrative divisions The province is made up of the following districts Beng District (4-05 Houn District (4-06 Phongsali
11. Administrative divisions The province is made up of the following districts Boun Nua District (2-05 Boun Tai District (2-07 Salavan
12. Administrative divisions The province is made up of the following districts Khongxedone District (14-06 Lakhonepheng District (14-04 Savannakhet
13. Administrative divisions The province is made up of the following districts Atsaphangthong (13-03 Atsaphone (13-13 Champhone (13-09 Vientiane Capital
14. Vientiane (vjɛnˈtjɑːn Lao ວຽງຈັນ Viang-chan) is the Capital city of Laos Vientiane Province
15. Administrative divisions The province is made up of the following districts Feuang (10-06 Hinhurp (10-09 Hom (10-11 Kasy (10-04 Xaignabouli
16. Xaignabouli ( Lao ໄຊຍະບູລີ is a province of Laos, located in the northwest of the country Xiangkhoang
17. Administrative divisions The province is made up of the following districts Kham (9-02 Khoune (9-04 Morkmay (9-05 Nonghed (9-03 Pek Xekong
The country is further divided into districts (muang). Isolation Xekong is among the most remote areas of Laos even some of its largest villages are virtually inaccessible by road for at least half of the year Laos is divided into 16 provinces ( Lao ແຂວງ Khoueng) 1 municipality (ນະຄອນຫລວງ kampheng Nakhon
Laos is a landlocked country in Southeast Asia and the thickly forested landscape consists mostly of rugged mountains, the highest of which is Phou Bia at 2,817 m (9,242 feet), with some plains and plateaus. Laos is a landlocked nation in Southeast Asia, northeast of Thailand, west of Vietnam, that covers 236800 Square kilometers in the Phou Bia is the highest mountain in Laos and is located in the Annamese Cordillera, in the Phou Ane Plateau in Xiangkhouang Province. A foot (plural feet or foot; symbol or abbreviation ft or sometimes &prime – the prime symbol) is a non-SI unit The Mekong River forms a large part of the western boundary with Thailand, whereas the mountains of the Annamite Chain form most of the eastern border with Vietnam. The Mekong is one of the world’s major Rivers It is the 11th-longest river in the world and 7th longest in Asia The Kingdom of Thailand (ˈtaɪlænd ราชอาณาจักรไทย, râːtɕʰa-ʔaːnaːtɕɑ̀k-tʰɑj The Annamite Range is a mountain range of eastern Indochina, which extends approximately 1100 km (700 miles through Laos, Vietnam, and a small area in Vietnam (ˌviːɛtˈnɑːm Việt Nam) officially
The climate is tropical and monsoonal. Vang Vieng (ວັງວຽງ is a town in Laos, located in Vientiane Province. Climate encompasses the temperatures humidity rainfall atmospheric particle count and numerous other meteorogical factors in a given region over long periods of A monsoon is a seasonal prevailing wind which lasts for several months There is a distinct rainy season from May to November, followed by a dry season from December to April. Local tradition holds that there are three seasons (rainy, cold and hot) as the latter two months of the climatologically defined dry season are noticeably hotter than the earlier four months. The capital and largest city of Laos is Vientiane, and other major cities include Luang Prabang, Savannakhet and Pakxe. Vientiane (vjɛnˈtjɑːn Lao ວຽງຈັນ Viang-chan) is the Capital city of Laos Luang Prabang, or Louangphrabang (Lao ຫລວງພະບາງ, IPA /luaŋ pʰabaːŋ/ is a city located in north central Laos, on the Kaysone Phomvihane (ໄກສອນ ພົມວິຫານ (population 120000 is the capital of the Savannakhet Province in Laos, previously know as Khanthabouli Pakxe or Pakse (French Paksé) (population 70000 is a city in southern Laos, situated at the confluence of the Xedone and Mekong
In 1993, the government set aside 21% of the nation's land area as National Biodiversity Conservation Areas (NBCA), which may be developed into a national park system. A National Biodiversity Conservation Area is an environmentally protected area in Laos.
Laos is the home to the Indochinese tiger, the giant gaur, and the Asian elephant. The Indochinese tiger or Corbett's tiger ( Panthera tigris corbetti) is a Subspecies of Tiger found in Cambodia, Laos, The gaur (ˈɡaʊɚ ( Bos gaurus, previously Bibos gauris) is a large dark-coated bovine animal of South Asia and Southeast Asia. The Asian or Asiatic Elephant ( Elephas maximus) sometimes known by the name of one of its subspecies &ndash the Indian Elephant, is one of A number of animal species have been discovered or re-discovered in Laos in recent years. These include the striped or Annamite rabbit, the saola, and most recently the Laotian rock rat or kha-nyou. The Annamite Striped Rabbit ( Nesolagus timminsi) is a species of Rabbit native to the Annamite mountain range on the Laos - Vietnam The Saola or Vu Quang ox, also infrequently Vu Quang bovid ( Pseudoryx nghetinhensis) one of the world's rarest Mammals is a Forest The Laotian rock rat or kha-nyou ( Laonastes aenigmamus) sometimes called the "rat-squirrel" is a Rodent Species of the Khammouan
The country is one of four in the opium poppy growing region known as the "Golden Triangle". The Golden Triangle is one of Asia 's two main illicit Opium -producing areas According to the October 2007 UNODC fact book "Opium Poppy Cultivation in South East Asia", the poppy cultivation area was 15 square kilometres (3,700 acres), down from 18 square kilometres (4,400 acres) in 2005.
The government of Laos — one of the few remaining official communist states — began decentralising control and encouraging private enterprise in 1986. Communist state is a term used by many Political scientists to describe a Form of government in which the State operates under a one-party system The results, starting from an extremely low base, were striking: growth averaged 6% in 1988-2004 except during the short drop caused by the Asian financial crisis beginning in 1997. The Asian Financial Crisis was a period of Financial crisis that gripped much of Asia beginning in July 1997 and raised fears of a worldwide economic meltdown ( Major urban centers have experienced the most growth. The economies of Vientiane, Luang Prabang and Savannakhet in particular have experienced significant booms in recent years. Vientiane (vjɛnˈtjɑːn Lao ວຽງຈັນ Viang-chan) is the Capital city of Laos Luang Prabang, or Louangphrabang (Lao ຫລວງພະບາງ, IPA /luaŋ pʰabaːŋ/ is a city located in north central Laos, on the Kaysone Phomvihane (ໄກສອນ ພົມວິຫານ (population 120000 is the capital of the Savannakhet Province in Laos, previously know as Khanthabouli The Lao economy is heavily dependent on investment and trade with its larger and richer neighbors, Thailand, Vietnam, and, especially in the north, China. Pakxe has also experienced growth based on cross-border trade with Thailand and Vietnam. Pakxe or Pakse (French Paksé) (population 70000 is a city in southern Laos, situated at the confluence of the Xedone and Mekong
Much of the country, however, lacks adequate infrastructure. Laos has no railways, although a short link to connect Vientiane with Thailand over the Thai-Lao Friendship Bridge is currently under construction. The First Thai–Lao Friendship Bridge (สะพานมิตรภาพ ไทย-ลาว แห่งที่ 1 mít The major roads connecting the major urban centres, in particular Route 13 South, have been significantly upgraded in recent years, but villages far from major roads are accessible only through unpaved roads that may not be accessible year-round. There is limited external and internal telecommunication, particularly of the wire line sort, but mobile cellular phone use has become widespread in urban centres. In many rural areas electricity is unavailable or offered only during scheduled periods. Songthaews (pick-up trucks with benches) are used in the country for long-distance and local public transport. A songthaew ( Thai สองแถว literally "two rows" also known in English as a baht bus, is a passenger vehicle in Thailand and
Subsistence agriculture still accounts for half of GDP and provides 80% of total employment. Agriculture refers to the production of goods through the growing of plants and fungi and the raising of domesticated Animals The study of agriculture Laos has the lowest percentage of arable land and permanent crop land in the Greater Mekong Subregion. Greater Mekong Subregion (abbreviation GMS) is a geological region that includes nations and territories located in Mekong River basin namely Vietnam  Only 4. 01% of Laos is arable land, and only 0. 34% of the country is planted with permanent crops.  Rice dominates agriculture, with about 80% of the arable land area used for growing rice.  Approximately 77% of Lao farm households are self-sufficient in rice.  Through the development, release and widespread adoption of improved rice varieties, and through economic reforms, Lao PDR achieved a net balance of rice imports and exports for the first time in 1999.  Between 1990 and 2005, rice production increased from 1. 5 million tons to 2. 5 million tons  : an average annual growth rate of more than 5%.  This increase in production has been valued at $8 million to $19 million per year.  Lao PDR may have the greatest number of rice varieties in the Greater Mekong Subregion. Since 1995 the Lao government has been working with the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) to collect seed samples of each of the thousands of rice varieties found in Laos. The International Rice Research Institute (IRRI is an autonomous Non-profit, Agricultural Research and training organization with offices in more 
The economy receives aid from the IMF and other international sources and from new foreign investment in food processing and mining, most notably of copper and gold. The International Monetary Fund ( IMF) is an International organization that oversees the Global financial system by following the Macroeconomic Mining is the extraction of valuable Minerals or other geological materials from the earth usually (but not always from an Ore body Tourism is the fastest-growing industry in the country. Tourism is Travel for Recreational or Leisure purposes The World Tourism Organization defines tourists as people who "travel However, economic development in general is hampered by a serious case of brain drain. A brain drain or human capital flight is a large emigration of individuals with technical skills or knowledge, normally due to conflict, lack of opportunity A 2005 World Bank study reported that 37% of educated Laotians lived abroad, putting the country in fifth place for worst brain drain. The World Bank is an internationally supported Bank that provides financial and technical assistance to developing countries for development programs (e A brain drain or human capital flight is a large emigration of individuals with technical skills or knowledge, normally due to conflict, lack of opportunity
In late 2004, Laos gained Normal Trade Relations status with the US, allowing Laos-based producers to face lower tariffs on their exports; this may help spur growth.
69% of the country's people are ethnic Lao, the principal lowland inhabitants and the politically and culturally dominant group. The Lao (Lao ລາວ IPA laːw are an ethnic subgroup of Tai/Dai in Southeast Asia. The Lao belong to the Tai linguistic group who began migrating southward from China in the first millennium AD. The Tai languages (ภาษาไต are a subgroup of the Tai-Kadai Language family. China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National A further 8% belong to other "lowland" groups, which together with the Lao people make up the Lao Loum. The Lao Loum (Lao ລາວລຸ່ມ) are an Ethnic group of Tai people (not to be confused with Thai people who are also included in this
Hill people and minority cultures of Laos such as the Hmong (Miao), Yao (Mien), Tai dumm, Dao, Shan, and several Tibeto-Burman speaking peoples have lived in isolated regions of Laos for many years. The terms Hmong (m̥ɔ̃ŋ and Mong ( both refer to an Asian ethnic group in the mountainous regions of southern China. The Yao nationality ( Traditional Chinese: 瑤族 Simplified Chinese: 瑶族 Pinyin: Yáo zú; Vietnamese: người Dao Tai Dam is a Tai language spoken in Vietnam, Laos, Thailand, and China (mostly in Jinping 金平 The Shan (ရှမ်းလူမျိုး ʃán lùmjóʊ) are a Tai Ethnic group of The Tibeto-Burman family of languages (often considered a sub-group of the Sino-Tibetan Language family) is spoken in various central and south Asian countries including Mountain/hill tribes of mixed ethno/cultural-linguistic heritage are found in northern Laos which include the Lua (Lua) and Khammu people who are indigenous to Laos. Today, the Lua people are considered endangered. Collectively, they are known as Lao Soung or highland Laotians. Lao Sung or more commonly Lao Soung are an ethnic group in East and Southeast Asia. In the central and southern mountains, Mon-Khmer tribes, known as Lao Theung or mid-slope Laotians, predominate. The Mon ( Mon language: မန် or မည် မွန်လူမျိုး mùn lùmjóʊ Thai: มอญ are an Ethnic group from The Khmer people are the predominant Ethnic group in Cambodia, accounting for approximately 90% of the 14 The Lao Theung or Lao Thoeng (Lao ລາວເທິງ) is one of the traditional divisions of Ethnic groups living in Laos (the others being Some Vietnamese and Chinese minorities remain, particularly in the towns, but many left in two waves; after independence in the late 1940s and again after 1975. The Vietnamese people (người Việt or vi ''người Kinh'' are an Ethnic group originating from what is now northern Vietnam and southern China.
The term "Laotian" does not necessarily refer to the ethnic Lao language, ethnic Lao people, language or customs, but is a political term that also includes the non-ethnic Lao groups within Laos and identifies them as "Laotian" because of their political citizenship. In a similar vein, the word "Lao" can also describe the people, cuisine, language and culture of the people of Northeast Thailand (Isan) who are ethnic Lao. Isan ( Isan /อีสาน also written as Isaan Isarn Issan or Esarn is the northeast region of Thailand. Isan ( Isan /อีสาน also written as Isaan Isarn Issan or Esarn is the northeast region of Thailand.
The predominant religion in Laos is Theravada Buddhism which, along with the common Animism practiced among the mountain tribes, coexists peacefully with spirit worship. The country has an area of 85000 square miles and a population of 6 History Origin of the school The Theravāda school is ultimately derived from the Vibhajjavāda (or 'doctrine of analysis' grouping which was a continuation Animism (from Latin anima ( Soul, Life) commonly refers to a religious belief that Souls or Spirits exist in Animals There also are a small number of Christians, mostly restricted to the Vientiane area, and Muslims, mostly restricted to the Myanmar border region. Christianity ( Greek Χριστιανισμός from the word Xριστός ( Christ)is a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation. Christian missionary work is regulated by the government.
The official and dominant language is Lao, a tonal language of the Tai linguistic group. Lao or Laotian (BGN/PCGN phasa lao IPA: pʰaːsaː laːw is a Tonal Language of the Tai-Kadai language family The Tai languages (ภาษาไต are a subgroup of the Tai-Kadai Language family. Midslope and highland Lao speak an assortment of tribal languages. French, still common in government and commerce, has declined in usage, while knowledge of English, the language of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), has increased in recent years. The Association of Southeast Asian Nations, commonly referred to as ASEAN, ˈɑːsiːɑːn AH-see-ahn in English (the Official language
Theravada Buddhism is a dominant influence in Lao culture. The culture of Laos has been highly influenced by Theravada Buddhism. The art of Laos could refer to Lao ceramics Lao Buddhist sculpture Lao music Lao cuisine is the Cuisine of the Lao ethnic group of Laos and Northeast Thailand ( Isan) The Dance and theater of Laos are closely intertwined They focus on Theravada Buddhism and the Pra Lak Pra Lam. Laotian Festivals are usually based on Theravada Buddhism. Notable festivals Vixakha Bouxa Boun Bang Fay Laos is dominated by the Lao but includes minorities of Hmong, Mien, Kmhmu among many others History Origin of the school The Theravāda school is ultimately derived from the Vibhajjavāda (or 'doctrine of analysis' grouping which was a continuation Buddhism is a family of beliefs and practices It is reflected throughout the country from language to the temple and in art, literature, performing arts, etc. Many elements of Lao culture predate Buddhism, however. For example, Laotian music is dominated by its national instrument, the khaen, a type of bamboo pipe that has prehistoric origins. Music is an Art form in which the medium is Sound organized in Time. A musical instrument is a device constructed or modified for the purpose of making Music. Bamboo is a group of Woody perennial Evergreen Plants in the True grass family Poaceae, subfamily The pan flute or pan pipe (also known as panflute or panpipes) is an ancient Musical instrument based on the principle of the Closed The khaen traditionally accompanied the singer in lam, the dominant style of folk music. Mor lam ( Thai / Isan: หมอลำ) is an ancient Lao form of Song in Laos and Isan. Folk music can have a number of different meanings including Traditional music: The original meaning of the term "folk music" was synonymous Among the various lam styles, the lam saravane is probably the most popular. Lam Saravane (ลำสาละวัน Thai spellingis a popular folksong originally from the southern province of Saravane Province of Laos, but popular throughout
The country has two World Heritage Sites: Luang Prabang and Vat Phou. A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a site (such as a Forest, Mountain, Lake, Desert, Monument, Building, complex Luang Prabang, or Louangphrabang (Lao ຫລວງພະບາງ, IPA /luaŋ pʰabaːŋ/ is a city located in north central Laos, on the Wat Phou (Vat Phu is a ruined Khmer temple complex in southern Laos. The government is seeking the same status for the Plain of Jars. The Plain of Jars is a large group of historic cultural sites in Laos containing thousands of stone jars which lie scattered throughout the Xieng Khouang plain in
The People's Republic of China has recently allowed its citizens to travel more freely to Laos. Talk People's Republic of China) PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA ARTICLE GUIDELINES As such, Chinese tourists are expected to account for 25% of the total number of visitors to Laos (up from only a few percent) in 2006. Tourism is Travel for Recreational or Leisure purposes The World Tourism Organization defines tourists as people who "travel Pressures to modernize tourist infrastructure, particularly to cater to package tourism, are expected to significantly impact Luang Prabang and other culturally important Laotian cities. The people of Laos have a reputation for being very kind and welcoming to all visitors.
Rice is the staple food and has cultural and religious significance. There are many traditions and rituals associated with rice production in different environments, and among many ethnic groups. For example, Khammu farmers in Luang Prabang plant the rice variety Khao Kam in small quantities near the hut in memory of dead parents, or at the edge of the rice field to indicate that parents are still alive. 
All newspapers are published by the government, including two foreign language papers: the English-language Vientiane Times and the French-language Le Rénovateur. The Vientiane Times is an English language Newspaper, published daily in Vientiane, Laos. Le Rénovateur is the only French-language Newspaper in the Lao PDR ( Laos) Additionally, the Khao San Pathet Lao, the country's official news agency, publishes English and French versions of its eponymous paper. Internet cafes, serving the tourist market, are now common in the major urban centres. However, the government strictly censors content and controls access.
Satellite television dishes, beaming content from Thailand, are common throughout Laos. The Kingdom of Thailand (ˈtaɪlænd ราชอาณาจักรไทย, râːtɕʰa-ʔaːnaːtɕɑ̀k-tʰɑj Many Laotians access the outside world through Thai television programs.
|Heritage Foundation/The Wall Street Journal||Index of Economic Freedom||149 out of 157|
|Reporters Without Borders||Worldwide Press Freedom Index||156 out of 167|
|Transparency International||Corruption Perceptions Index||111 out of 163|
|United Nations Development Programme||Human Development Index||130 out of 177|
Leaders of ethnic minorities in Laos
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