- For the art of designing external spaces, see landscape architecture. Landscape architecture involves the investigation and designed response to the landscape For landscape photography, see nature photography. Nature photography refers to a wide range of Photography taken outdoors and devoted to displaying natural elements such as Landscapes Wildlife,
, Strolling About in Spring
, c. Zhan Ziqian (展子虔 was a great painter of ancient China, and from Yangxin county (阳信县 Shandong province
Pieter Brueghel the Elder
, The Harvesters
, 1565: Peace and agriculture in a pre-Romantic ideal landscape, without sublime terrors
Frederic Edwin Church
, The Heart of the Andes
(1859). Pieter Bruegel the Elder (c 1525 &ndash September 9, 1569) was a Netherlandish Renaissance Frederic Edwin Church ( May 4, 1826 &ndash April 7, 1900) was an American landscape painter born in The Heart of the Andes is a large Oil-on-canvas Landscape painting by the American artist Frederic Edwin Church (1826–1900
Church was part of the American Hudson River School
. The Hudson River School was a mid-19th century American art movement by a group of landscape painters whose aesthetic vision was influenced by
(Jane Schenthal Frank, 1918-1986), Aerial Series: Dorado no. Jane Frank (Jane Schenthal Frank the American artist was born Jane Babette Schenthal on July 25, 1918, in Baltimore Maryland 2
, 1970: An example of aerial landscape art
, acrylic and mixed materials on apertured double canvas, 35"x47". (This article concerns painting and other non-photographic media
Notice that in this kind of landscape, there is no horizon and no sky.
Landscape art depicts scenery such as mountains, valleys, trees, rivers, and forests. Sky is almost always included in the view, and weather usually is an element of the composition. In the first century A. D. , Roman frescoes of landscapes decorated rooms that have been preserved at Pompeii and Herculaneum. Pompeii is a ruined and partially buried Roman town-city near modern Naples and Caserta in the Italian region of Campania, in Herculaneum (in modern Italian Ercolano) is an ancient Roman town located in the territory of the current commune of Ercolano. Traditionally, landscape art depicts the surface of the earth, but there are other sorts of landscapes, such as moonscapes, for example. EARTH was a short-lived Japanese vocal trio which released 6 singles and 1 album between 2000 and 2001 A moonscape is an area or vista of the lunar landscape (generally of the Earth 's Moon) or a visual representation of this such as in a Painting.
The word landscape is from the Dutch, landschap meaning a sheaf, a patch of cultivated ground. Dutch ( is a West Germanic language spoken by around 24 million people 22 million of which are from the Netherlands, Belgium and Suriname The word entered the English vocabulary of the connoisseur in the late 17th century.
Early in the fifteenth century, landscape painting was established as a genre in Europe, as a setting for human activity, often expressed in a religious subject, such as the themes of the Rest on the Flight into Egypt, the Journey of the Magi, or Saint Jerome in the Desert. A genre (ˈʒɑːnrə also /ˈdʒɑːnrə/ from French "kind" or "sort" from Latin: genus (stem gener-) is a loose set
The Chinese tradition of "pure" landscape, in which the minute human figure simply gives scale and invites the viewer to participate in the experience, was well established by the time the oldest surviving ink paintings were executed. In Painting, staffage are the human and animal figures depicted in a scene such as a landscape, that are not the primary subject matter of the work
In Europe, as John Ruskin realized, and Sir Kenneth Clark brought to view, landscape painting was the "chief artistic creation of the nineteenth century", with the result that in the following period people were "apt to assume that the appreciation of natural beauty and the painting of landscape is a normal and enduring part of our spiritual activity" In Clark's analysis, underlying European ways to convert the complexity of landscape to an idea were four fundamental approaches: by the acceptance of descriptive symbols, by curiosity about the facts of nature, by the creation of fantasy to allay deep-rooted fears of nature and by the belief in a Golden Age of harmony and order, which might be retrieved. John Ruskin (8 February 1819 &ndash 20 January 1900 is best known for his work as an Art critic, sage writer, and Social critic, but is remembered Kenneth McKenzie Clark Baron Clark, OM, CH, KCB, FBA ( July 13, 1903 &ndash May 21, 1983) was an The term Golden age is best known from Greek mythology and legend but can also be found in other ancient cultures (see below
In the United States, the Hudson River School, prominent in the middle to late nineteenth century, is probably the best known native development in landscape art. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The Hudson River School was a mid-19th century American art movement by a group of landscape painters whose aesthetic vision was influenced by These painters created works of mammoth scale in attempting to capture the epic scope of the landscapes that inspired them. The work of Thomas Cole, the school's generally acknowledged founder, has much in common with the philosophical ideals of European landscape paintings — a kind of secular faith in the spiritual benefits to be gained from the contemplation of natural beauty. Thomas Cole ( February 1, 1801 - February 11, 1848) was a 19th century American artist Some of the later Hudson River School artists, such as Albert Bierstadt, created less comforting works which placed a greater emphasis (with a great deal of romantic exaggeration, to be sure) on the raw, even terrifying power of nature. Albert Bierstadt ( January 8 1830 - February 18 1902) was a German - American painter best known for his large
As explorers, naturalists, mariners, merchants and settlers arrived on the shores of Atlantic Canada in the early centuries of its exploration, they were confronted by what they saw as a hostile and dangerous environment and an unforgiving sea. Atlantic Canada, also known as the Atlantic provinces, is the region of Canada comprising four provinces located on the Atlantic coast: These Europeans tried to cope with the daunting new land by mapping, recording and claiming it as their own. Their understanding of the specific nature of this land and its inhabitants varied greatly, with observations ranging from highly accurate and scientific to outlandish or fantastic. These observations are documented in the landscape artworks they produced. The best examples of Canadian landscape art can be found in the works of the Group of Seven, prominent in the 1920s. The Group of Seven was a group of Canadian landscape painters in the 1920s originally consisting of Franklin Carmichael, Lawren Harris 
- Vedute is the Italian term for view, and generally used for the painted landscape, often cityscapes which were a common 18th century painting thematic. A veduta ( Italian for "view" plural vedute) is a highly detailed usually large-scale Painting of a cityscape or some other
- Skyscapes or Cloudscapes are depictions of clouds, weatherforms, and atmospheric conditions. (This article concerns painting and other non-photographic media (This article concerns painting and other non-photographic media
- Moonscapes show the landscape of a moon. A moonscape is an area or vista of the lunar landscape (generally of the Earth 's Moon) or a visual representation of this such as in a Painting.
- Seascapes depict oceans or beaches. A seascape is a Photograph, Painting, or other Work of art which depicts the Sea.
- Riverscapes depict rivers or creeks. A riverscape or river landscape comprises the features of the Landscape which can be found along a River.
- Cityscapes or townscapes depict cities (urban landscapes). A cityscape is the urban equivalent of a Landscape. Townscape is roughly synonymous with cityscape though it of course implies the same difference in urban
- Hardscapes are paved over areas like streets and sidewalks, large business complexes and housing developments, and industrial areas. Hardscape, in the practice of Landscaping, refers to the paved areas like Streets & Sidewalks large business complexes & Housing developments
- Aerial landscapes depict a surface or ground from above, especially as seen from an airplane or spacecraft. (This article concerns painting and other non-photographic media (When the viewpoint is directly overhead, looking down, there is of course no depiction of a horizon or sky. ) This genre can be combined with others, as in the aerial cloudscapes of Georgia O'Keeffe, the aerial moonscapes of Nancy Graves, or the aerial cityscapes of Yvonne Jacquette. (This article concerns painting and other non-photographic media Georgia Totto O'Keeffe (November 15 1887—March 6 1986 was an American Artist She is associated with the American Southwest where she found artistic inspiration A moonscape is an area or vista of the lunar landscape (generally of the Earth 's Moon) or a visual representation of this such as in a Painting. Nancy Graves ( December 23, 1939 – October 21, 1995) was an American sculptor, painter, Printmaker A cityscape is the urban equivalent of a Landscape. Townscape is roughly synonymous with cityscape though it of course implies the same difference in urban Yvonne Jacquette (born in Pittsburgh Pennsylvania in 1934 is an American painter and Printmaker known in particular for her depictions of aerial
- Inscapes are landscape-like (usually surrealist or abstract) artworks which seek to convey the psychoanalytic view of the mind as a three-dimensional space. Inscape, in Visual art, is a term especially associated with certain works of Chilean artist Roberto Matta, but it is also used in other senses within Surrealism is a cultural movement that began in the early-1920s and is best known for the visual artworks and writings of the group members Abstract art uses a Visual language of form color and line to create a composition which exists independently of visual references to the world [For sources on this statement, see the Inscape (visual art) article. Inscape, in Visual art, is a term especially associated with certain works of Chilean artist Roberto Matta, but it is also used in other senses within ]
- ^ Modern Painters, volume three, contains the relevant section, "Of the novelty of landscape". The American Barbizon School was a group of painters and style partly influenced by the French Barbizon school. The Barbizon school (circa 1830&ndash1870 of painters is named after the village of Barbizon near Fontainebleau Forest, France, where the artists gathered The Heidelberg School was an Australian art movement of the late 19th century Luminism is an American landscape Painting style of the 1850s &ndash 1870s characterized by effects of light in landscapes, through using aerial perspective En plein air is a French expression which means "in the open air" and is particularly used to describe the act of Painting outdoors Shan Shui ( lit "mountain-water" refers to a style of Chinese painting that involves the painting of Scenery or natural landscapes with White Mountain art refers to the body of work created during the 19th century by over four hundred artists who painted landscape scenes within the White Mountains of New Hampshire The Hoosier Group was a group of Indiana Impressionist painters working in the late 19th and early 20th centuries
- ^ Clark, Landscape into Art, preface.
- ^ "Landscapes" in Virtual Vault, an online exhibition of Canadian historical art at Library and Archives Canada
See also Princeton Township New Jersey, Borough of Princeton New Jersey Princeton Borough New Jersey Princeton Township New Jersey this Princeton University is a private Coeducational research university located in Princeton, New Jersey.
- Büttner, Nils. "Landscape Painting. A History", New/York/London 2006
- Clark, Sir Kenneth, Landscape into Art, 1949 : the Slade Lectures. Kenneth McKenzie Clark Baron Clark, OM, CH, KCB, FBA ( July 13, 1903 &ndash May 21, 1983) was an
- Dreikausen, Margret, "Aerial Perception: The Earth as Seen from Aircraft and Spacecraft and Its Influence on Contemporary Art" (Associated University Presses: Cranbury, NJ; London, ; Mississauga, Ontario: 1985) ISBN 0-87982-040-3
- Hirsch, Sharon L. , "Landscape: the Grand tradition"] (Exhibition catalogue text) Dickinson University (on-line text)
- Pavel Machotka, Cezanne : Landscape into Art
- Wilton, Andrew; T J Barringer; Tate Britain (Gallery); Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts. The Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts was founded in 1805 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania by painter and scientist Charles Willson Peale, sculptor ; Minneapolis Institute of Arts. American sublime : landscape painting in the United States, 1820-1880 (Princeton, NJ : Princeton University Press, 2002)
- Virtual Vault, an online exhibition of Canadian historical art at Library and Archives Canada
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