Landscape architecture is the art, planning, design, management , preservation and rehabilitation of the land and the design of human-made constructs. Art refers to a diverse range of Human activities creations and expressions that are appealing to the Senses or Emotions of a human individual Planning in Organizations and Public policy is both the organizational process of creating and maintaining a Plan; and the psychological process of Design is used both as a Noun and a Verb. The term is often tied to the various Applied arts and Engineering (See design disciplines Management (covering theory practice and scope of management and Manager' (covering the people who manage might help clarify and systematise Historic preservation or heritage conservation is a professional endeavor that seeks to preserve the ability of older (e Land rehabilitation is the process of returning the land in a given area to some degree of its former state after some process ( Industry, Natural disasters etc The scope of the profession includes architectural design, site planning, housing estate development, environmental restoration, town or urban planning, urban design, parks and recreation planning, regional planning, landscape urbanism, and historic preservation. Site planning in Landscape architecture and Architecture refers to the organizational stage of the landscape design process A housing estate is a group of buildings built together as a single development See also Nature The natural environment, commonly referred to simply as the environment, is a terminology that is comprised of all living and Restoration ecology is the study of renewing a degraded damaged or destroyed Ecosystem through active human intervention Urban design concerns the arrangement appearance and functionality of towns and cities and in particular the shaping and uses of urban Public space. A park is a protected area of Land and Water, usually in its natural or semi-natural (landscaped state and set aside for some purpose often to do with human Regional planning is a branch of Land use planning and deals with the efficient placement of land use activities infrastructure and settlement growth across a significantly Landscape Urbanism is a theory of Urbanism arguing that Landscape, rather than Architecture, is more capable of organizing the city and enhancing the urban Historic preservation or heritage conservation is a professional endeavor that seeks to preserve the ability of older (e A practitioner in the field of landscape architecture is called a landscape architect. A landscape architect is a person involved in the planning design and sometimes oversight of an exterior landscape or space
The history of landscape architecture is related to the history of gardening but is not coextensive. The discussion of the history of landscape architecture is a complex endeavor as it shares much of its history with that of Landscape gardening and Architecture This entry concerns the history of ornamental gardening considered as an amenity of civilized life as a vehicle for style for conspicuous show and even an expression of philosophy Both arts are concerned with the composition of planting, landform, water, paving and other structures but:
The Romans undertook landscape architecture on an extensive scale, and Vitruvius wrote on many topics (eg the layout of towns) which still concern landscape architects. Ancient Rome was a Civilization that grew out of a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 10th century BC Marcus Vitruvius Pollio (born c 80–70 BC died after c 15 BC was a Roman Writer, Architect and Engineer (possibly praefectus fabrum As with the other arts, it was not until the Renaissance that garden design was revived, with outstanding examples including the pleasure grounds at the Villa d'Este, Tivoli. The Renaissance (from French Renaissance, meaning "rebirth" Italian: Rinascimento, from re- "again" and nascere The Villa d'Este is a Villa situated at Tivoli, near Rome. Listed as a UNESCO world heritage site, it is a masterpiece of Italian Tivoli, the classical Tibur, is an ancient Italian town in Lazio, about 30 km from Rome, at the falls of the Aniene river where it The renaissance garden developed through the 16th and 17th centuries, reaching an ultimate grandeur in the work of André le Nôtre at Vaux-le-Vicomte and Versailles. André Le Nôtre ( March 12, 1613 &ndash September 15 1700) was a Landscape architect and the gardener of King Louis XIV The Château de Vaux-le-Vicomte is a classical French Chateau located in Maincy, near Melun, 55 km southeast of Paris in the Seine-et-Marne Versailles (vɛʀsaj in French) formerly de facto capital of the kingdom of France, is now a wealthy suburb of Paris and is still an important
In the 18th century, England became the focus of a new style of landscape design. Figures such as William Kent, Humphry Repton, and most famously Lancelot 'Capability' Brown remodelled the great estate parks of the English gentry to resemble a neat and tidy version of nature. William Kent (born in Bridlington, Yorkshire, c 1685 &ndash 12 April 1748) was an eminent English Architect, Landscape Humphry Repton ( 21 April 1752 &ndash 24 March 1818) was the last great English landscape designer of the eighteenth century Many of these parks remain today. The term 'landscape architecture' was first used by the Scotsman Gilbert Laing Meason in the title of his book on The Landscape Architecture of the Great Painters of Italy (London, 1828). It was about the type of architecture found in landscape paintings. The term "landscape architecture" was then taken up by JC Loudon and AJ Downing.
Through the 19th century, urban planning became more important, and it was the combination of modern planning with the tradition of landscape gardening that gave Landscape Architecture its unique focus. In the second half of the century, Frederick Law Olmsted completed a series of parks which continue to have a huge influence on the practices of Landscape Architecture today. Frederick Law Olmsted ( April 25, 1822 &ndash August 28, 1903) was an American landscape designer and father of American Among these were Central Park in New York, Prospect Park in Brooklyn, and Boston's so called Emerald Necklace park system. Central Park is a large public Urban park in New York City, with about twenty-five million visitors annually New York ( is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States and is the nation's third most populous Prospect Park is a 585 acre (24 km² public Park in the New York City borough of Brooklyn located between Park Slope, Brooklyn (named after the Dutch town Breukelen) is one of the five boroughs of New York City. The Emerald Necklace consists of an 1100-acre chain of parks linked by parkways and waterways in Boston and Brookline Massachusetts.
Landscape architecture continues to develop as a design discipline, and has responded to many of the movements of design and architecture through the 20th century. Today, a healthy level of innovation continues to provide challenging design solutions for streetscapes, parks and gardens. The work of Martha Schwartz in the US, and in Europe designs such as Schouwburgplein in Rotterdam by the Dutch design group West 8 are just two examples. Martha Schwartz is an American Landscape architect. Her background is in the Fine arts as well as landscape architecture and her projects range from Schouwburgplein is situated in the heart of the city of Rotterdam, and is flanked by the municipal theatre concert hall central station restaurants and shopping malls Rotterdam (pronounced) is the 2nd-largest City by population in the Netherlands, located in the province of
Ian McHarg is considered an important influence on the modern Landscape Architecture profession and land planning in particular. Ian L McHarg ( November 20[[ 920]] - March 5[[ 001]]) was born in Glasgow Scotland and became a landscape architect and a renowned writer on regional planning With his book "Design with Nature", he popularized a system of analyzing the layers of a site in order to compile a complete understanding of the qualitative attributes of a place. This system became the foundation of todays Geographic Information Systems (GIS). McHarg would give every qualitative aspect of the site a layer, such as the history, hydrology, topography, vegetation, etc. GIS software is ubiquitously used in the landscape architecture profession today to analyze materials in and on the earth's surface and is similarly used by Urban Planners, Geographers, Forestry and Natural Resources professionals, etc.
Landscape architecture is a multi-disciplinary field, which includes: geography, mathematics, science, engineering, art, horticulture, technology, social sciences, politics, history, philosophy and occasionally zoology. Geography (from Greek γεωγραφία - geografia) is the study of the Earth and its lands features inhabitants and phenomena Mathematics is the body of Knowledge and Academic discipline that studies such concepts as Quantity, Structure, Space and Science (from the Latin scientia, meaning " Knowledge " or "knowing" is the effort to discover, and increase human understanding Engineering is the Discipline and Profession of applying technical and scientific Knowledge and Art refers to a diverse range of Human activities creations and expressions that are appealing to the Senses or Emotions of a human individual Horticulture is the art and science of plant cultivation Horticulturists (or horticuluralists) work and conduct research in the fields of Plant propagation Technology is a broad concept that deals with a Species ' usage and knowledge of Tools and Crafts and how it affects a species' ability to control and adapt The social sciences comprise academic disciplines concerned with the study of the social life of human groups and individuals including Anthropology, Communication studies Politics Politics is the process by which groups of people make decisions History is the study of the past particularly the written record Those who study history as a Profession are called Historians Etymology Philosophy is the study of general problems concerning matters such as existence knowledge truth beauty justice validity mind and language Zoology (from Greek ζῷον, zoon, "animal" + λόγος, " Logos " "knowledge" is the branch of The activities of a landscape architect can range from the creation of public parks and parkways to site planning for corporate office buildings, from the design of residential estates to the design of civil infrastructure and the management of large wilderness areas or reclamation of degraded landscapes such as mines or landfills. Landscape architects work on all types of structures and external space - large or small, urban or rural, and with "hard"/"soft" materials, hydrology and ecological issues. Rural areas can be large and isolated (also referred to as "the country" and/or "the countryside over the course of time Hydrology (from Greek Yδωρ hudōr, "water" and λόγος logos, "study" is the study of the movement distribution and quality of Ecology (from Greek grc οἶκος oikos, "house(hold" and grc -λογία -logia) is the scientific study of
The breadth of the professional task that landscape architects collaborate on is very broad, but some examples of project types include:
The most valuable contribution is often made at the earliest stage of a project in generating ideas and bringing flair and creativity to the use of space. The landscape architect can contribute to the overall concept and prepare an initial master plan, from which detailed designs can subsequently be prepared. He or she can also let and supervise contracts for construction work, prepare design impact assessments, conduct environmental assessments or audits and act as an expert witness at inquiries on land use. He or she can also support or prepare applications for capital or revenue funding grants.
For the period before 1800 (see section on History, below), the history of landscape architecture is largely that of master planning. The first person to write of "making" a landscape was Joseph Addison in 1712. Joseph Addison (May 1 1672 – June 17 1719 was an English essayist and Poet. Year 1712 ( MDCCXII) was a Leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap The term "landscape gardener" was invented by William Shenstone in 1754 but the first professional designer to use this term was Humphry Repton in 1794. William Shenstone ( November 18, 1714 &ndash February 11, 1763) was an English Poet and one of the earliest practitioners Year 1754 ( MDCCLIV) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or Humphry Repton ( 21 April 1752 &ndash 24 March 1818) was the last great English landscape designer of the eighteenth century Year 1794 ( MDCCXCIV) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a The term "landscape architecture" was invented by Gilbert Laing Meason in 1828 and was first used as a professional title by Frederick Law Olmsted in 1863. Gilbert Laing Meason was a Scottish gentleman, best remembered as the originator of the term Landscape architecture. The year 1828 ( MDCCCXXVIII) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Leap Frederick Law Olmsted ( April 25, 1822 &ndash August 28, 1903) was an American landscape designer and father of American Year 1863 ( MDCCCLXIII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Lancelot Brown, (also known as "Capability" Brown), who remains one of the best known "landscape gardeners" actually called himself a "place maker". During the nineteenth century, the term "landscape gardener" became applied to people who build (and sometimes design) landscapes and the term "landscape architect" became reserved for people who design (and sometimes build) landscapes. This use of "landscape architect" became established after the American Society of Landscape Architects was founded in 1899 and the International Federation of Landscape Architects (IFLA) in 1948. The American Society of Landscape Architects (ASLA is the national professional association representing landscape architects, with more than 17000 members and 48 chapters Year 1899 ( MDCCCXCIX) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common The International Federation of Landscape Architects ( IFLA) represents the landscape architectural profession globally providing leadership and networks to support Year 1948 ( MCMXLVIII) was a Leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar of the Gregorian calendar.
Landscape designers and Landscape technicians or engineers are employed with landscape construction and service companies or may be independent professionals. Landscape designers, like garden designers, design all types of planting and green spaces - and are not registered. The term Garden designer can refer either to an amateur or a professional Many landscape engineers work in public offices in central and local government while others work for landscape architecture firms. "Landscaping" is the application of mathematics and science to create useful land- and waterscapes
Landscape managers use their knowledge of plants and the natural environment to advise on the long-term care and development of the landscape. Landscape managers work in horticulture, estate management, forestry, nature conservation and agriculture. Landscape managers are professionally qualified experts in landscaping management for conservation and recreation Horticulture is the art and science of plant cultivation Horticulturists (or horticuluralists) work and conduct research in the fields of Plant propagation Forestry is the Art and Science of managing forests tree Plantations and related Natural resources. Conservation can be confused with Conversation and vice versa Agriculture refers to the production of goods through the growing of plants and fungi and the raising of domesticated Animals The study of agriculture
Landscape scientists have specialist skills such as soil science, hydrology, geomorphology or botany that they relate to the practical problems of landscape work. Soil science is the study of Soil as a Natural resource on the surface of the Earth including soil formation, classification and mapping Hydrology (from Greek Yδωρ hudōr, "water" and λόγος logos, "study" is the study of the movement distribution and quality of Geomorphology (from Greek: γη ge, "earth" μορφή morfé, "form" and λόγος Logos, "knowledge" Botany, plant science(s, phytology, or plant biology is a branch of Biology and is the scientific study of plant Life Their projects can range from site surveys to the ecological assessment of broad areas for planning or management purposes. They may also report on the impact of development or the importance of particular species in a given area. In Biology, a species is one of the basic units of Biological classification and a Taxonomic rank.
Landscape planners are concerned with landscape planning for the location, scenic, ecological and recreational aspects of urban, rural and coastal land use. Planning in Organizations and Public policy is both the organizational process of creating and maintaining a Plan; and the psychological process of Their work is embodied in written statements of policy and strategy, and their remit includes masterplanning for new developments, landscape evaluations and assessments, and preparing countryside management or policy plans. Some may also apply an additional specialism such as landscape archaeology or law to the process of landscape planning.
Garden designers are concerned with the design of small gardens and outdoor spaces and also with historic garden conservation. Historic garden conservation is a specialised type of Historic preservation concerned with gardens
Green roof designers design extensive and intensive roof gardens for storm water management, sustainable architecture, aesthetics, and habitat creation. A green roof is a Roof of a Building that is partially or completely covered with vegetation and soil or a growing medium planted over a waterproofing membrane A roof garden is any Garden on the Roof of a Building. Humans have grown Plants atop structures since antiquity. Stormwater is a term used to describe water that originates during precipitation events Sustainable architecture, is a general term that describes environmentally-conscious design techniques in the field of architecture
In many countries, a professional institute, comprised of members of the professional community, exists in order to protect the standing of the profession and promote its interests, and sometimes also regulate the practice of landscape architecture. An institute is a permanent Organizational body created for a certain purpose The standard and strength of legal regulations governing HI landscape architecture practice varies from nation to nation, with some requiring licensure in order to practice; and some having little or no regulation.
In the United States, Landscape Architecture is regulated by individual state governments, with only 1 requiring no regulation at all (Vermont). For a landscape architect, obtaining licensure or membership of a professional institute requires advanced education and/or continuing training and work experience. Full membership or licensure often depends on the outcome of examinations in professional practice matters, and/or an interview with senior members of the profession. To examine somebody or something is to inspect it closely hence an examination is a detailed inspection or analysis of an object or person In the U. S. licensing is overseen both at the state level, and nationally by the Council of Landscape Architectural Registation Boards (CLARB). Landscape architecture has been identified as an above average growth profession by the US Bureau of Labor Statistics and was listed in US News and World Report's list of Best Jobs to Have in 2006. Landscape architects are considered professionals because they are often required to obtain specialized education and professional licensure.
In Canada, Landscape architecture is regulated by provincial or territorial components. These components are then governed by a national organization, the Canadian Society of Landscape Architects / L'Association des Architectes Paysagistes du Canada. Membership in the CSLA/AAPC  is obtained through joining one of the provincial or territorial components. Two provinces, British Columbia and Ontario, require successful completion of the L. A. R. E (Landscape Architecture Registration Examination), a series of exams that aims to determine whether potential landscape architects have sufficient knowledge to practice the profession without endangering the public, in order to acquire full membership in the CSLA/AAPC. Quebec has an innovative mentor system HI in which experienced landscape architects mentor new intern members toward gaining full membership after at least two years of practice, of which six months should be under the direct supervision of the mentor.
Known as Canada's Premier Landscape Architect, Cornelia Hahn Oberlander , works on many significant sites, such as the Vancouver Public Library Central Branch including rooftop garden, the National Gallery, the NY Times Building, and the Law Courts at Robson Square in Vancouver. She was raised in connection with Rudolf_Steiner, and has crossed paths with John_Todd_(biologist). Rudolf Steiner ( 25 February 1861 – 30 March 1925) was an Austrian philosopher literary scholar educator artist playwright Dr John Todd (born 1939) is a Buckminster Fuller 2008 Challenge-winning Biologist working in the field of ecological design Her work on the C. K Choi  Building at UBC includes similar designs. He is a biologist working with functional landscape architecture, such as cleaning water using plants. Wastewater treatment .
The Australian Institute of Landscape Architects (AILA) provides professional recognition for landscape architects. Once recognised, landscape architects use the title ‘Registered Landscape Architect’.
Across the eight states and territories within Australia, there is a mix of requirements for landscape architects to be ‘Registered’. Generally there is no clear legislative registration requirement in place. Any regulations or requirements are state based, not national.
The AILA’s system of professional recognition is a national system overseen by AILA’s National Office in Canberra.
Most agencies require AILA professional recognition or registration as part of the pre-requisite for contracts. Landscape architects within Australia find that many contracts and competitions require the AILA recognition or ‘registration’ as the basis of demonstrating a professional status.
To apply for AILA Registration, an applicant usually needs to satisfy the following pre-requisites:
1. A university qualification from an AILA accredited program.
2. At least two years of practice.
3. A record of Continuing Professional Practice (CPD).
The application is in two stages:
1. First Stage: A minimum 6 months (12 months preferred) period of mentoring and assessment.
2. Second Stage: Oral assessment/interview.
Professional recognition includes a commitment to continue professional development. AILA Registered Landscape Architects are required to report annually on their Continuing Professional Development.
The AILA has in place processes to recognise equivalent qualifications and experience, which when combined with a number of years of recognised practice as a landscape architect, may provide the basis of recognition as a Registered Landscape Architect.