|Lake type||Rift Valley Lake|
|Primary inflows||Ruzizi River|
|Primary outflows||Lukuga River|
|Catchment area||231,000 km²|
|Max. A lake (from Latin lacus) is a Terrain feature (or Physical feature) a body of Liquid on the surface of a world that is localized to the The Rift Valley lakes are a group of lakes in the Great Rift Valley formed by the East African Rift which runs through the whole eastern side of the African In Hydrology, the inflow of a Body of water is the source of the Water in the body of water The Ruzizi River flows from Lake Kivu to Lake Tanganyika in Central Africa, descending rapidly from about 1500 metres above sea level to about The Malagarasi River is Tanzania 's second longest river It empties into the eastern side of Lake Tanganyika about 25 miles south of Kigoma, and is one The Kalambo River forms part of the border between Zambia and Tanzania. In Hydrology, the discharge or outflow of a River is the volume of Water transported by it in a certain amount of time The Lualaba River is the greatest Headstream of the Congo River by volume of water A drainage basin is an extent of Land where Water from Rain or Snow melt drains downhill into a body of water such as a River, A drainage basin is an extent of Land where Water from Rain or Snow melt drains downhill into a body of water such as a River, Burundi (buˈɾundi officially the Republic of Burundi, is a small country in the Great Lakes region of Eastern Africa bordered by Rwanda The Democratic Republic of the Congo (République démocratique du Congo often referred to as DR Congo, DRC or RDC, and formerly known or referred to Tanzania ˌtænzəˈniːə officially the United Republic of Tanzania (Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania is a country in East Africa bordered by Kenya The Republic of Zambia (ˈzæmbɪə is a Landlocked country in Southern Africa. length||673 km|
|Max. width||72 km|
|Surface area||32,900 km²|
|Average depth||570 m|
|Max. depth||1,470 m|
|Water volume||18,900 km³|
|Shore length1||1,828 km|
|Surface elevation||773 m|
|1 Shore length is not a well-defined measure. Kigoma is a town and lake port in western Tanzania, on the eastern shore of Lake Tanganyika and close to the border with Burundi. Kalemie, formerly Albertville / Albertstad, is a town on the western shore of Lake Tanganyika in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.|
Lake Tanganyika is a large lake in central Africa (3° 20' to 8° 48' South and from 29° 5' to 31° 15' East). A lake (from Latin lacus) is a Terrain feature (or Physical feature) a body of Liquid on the surface of a world that is localized to the It is estimated to be the second largest freshwater lake in the world by volume, and the second deepest, in both cases after Lake Baikal in Siberia. This article lists Lakes with a water volume of more than 100 km³ ranked by volume This page lists the world's deepest Lakes Lakes ranked by maximum depth Currently this list contains all lakes whose maximum depth is reliably known to exceed Lake Baikal (о́зеро Байка́л Ozero Baykal, ˈozʲɪrə bʌjˈkɑl Байгал нуур Baygal nuur) is in Southern Siberia in Russia Siberia (Сиби́рь Sibir) is the name given to the vast region constituting almost all of Northern Asia and for the most part currently serving  The lake is divided between four countries – Burundi, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), Tanzania and Zambia, with the DRC (45%) and Tanzania (41%) possessing the majority of the lake. Burundi (buˈɾundi officially the Republic of Burundi, is a small country in the Great Lakes region of Eastern Africa bordered by Rwanda The Democratic Republic of the Congo (République démocratique du Congo often referred to as DR Congo, DRC or RDC, and formerly known or referred to Tanzania ˌtænzəˈniːə officially the United Republic of Tanzania (Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania is a country in East Africa bordered by Kenya The Republic of Zambia (ˈzæmbɪə is a Landlocked country in Southern Africa. The water flows into the Congo River system and ultimately into the Atlantic Ocean. The Congo River (for a time known as the Zaire River) is the largest River in Western Central Africa.
The lake is situated within the Western Rift of the geographic feature known as the Great Rift Valley formed by the tectonic East African Rift, and is confined by the mountainous walls of the valley. The Great Rift Valley is a name given in the late 19th century by English explorer John Walter Gregory to the continuous geographic trough approximately in length that runs This article discusses the geologic usage for the philosophical or architectural usage see Architectonics ' Or see Plate tectonics. The East African Rift is part of the larger Great Rift Valley. It is the largest rift lake in Africa and the second largest lake by surface area on the continent. It is the deepest lake in Africa and holds the greatest volume of fresh water. It extends for 673 km in a general north-south direction and averages 50 km in width. The lake covers 32,900 km², with a shoreline of 1,828km and a mean depth of 570 m and a maximum depth of 1,470 m (4,823 ft) (in the northern basin) it holds an estimated 18,900 km³ (4500 cubic miles).  It has an average surface temperature of 25 °C and a pH averaging 8. pH is the measure of the acidity or alkalinity of a Solution. 4. Additionally, beneath the 500 m of water there is circa 4,500 metres of sediment laying over the rock floor.
The enormous depth and tropical location of the lake prevent 'turnover' of watermasses, which means that much of the lower depths of the lake are so-called 'fossil water' and are anoxic (lacking oxygen). Fossil water or paleowater is Groundwater that has remained in an Aquifer for millennia The catchment area of the lake covers 231,000 km², with two main rivers flowing into the lake, numerous smaller rivers and streams (due to the steep mountains that keep drainage areas small), and one major outflow, the Lukuga River, which empties into the Congo River drainage. The Lualaba River is the greatest Headstream of the Congo River by volume of water The Congo River (for a time known as the Zaire River) is the largest River in Western Central Africa.
The major inflows are the Ruzizi River, entering the north of the lake from Lake Kivu, and the Malagarasi River, which is Tanzania's second largest river, entering in the east side of Lake Tanganyika. The Ruzizi River flows from Lake Kivu to Lake Tanganyika in Central Africa, descending rapidly from about 1500 metres above sea level to about Lake Kivu is one of the Great Lakes of Africa. It lies on the border between the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Rwanda, and is in the Albertine The Malagarasi River is Tanzania 's second longest river It empties into the eastern side of Lake Tanganyika about 25 miles south of Kigoma, and is one The Malagarasi pre-dates Lake Tanganyika and was formerly continuous with the Congo river. The Congo River (for a time known as the Zaire River) is the largest River in Western Central Africa.
The lake holds at least 250 species of cichlid fish and 150 non-cichlid species, most of which live along the shore line down to a depth of approximately 600 feet (180 m). Cichlids (ˈsɪklɪd are Fish from the family Cichlidae in the order Perciformes. Lake Tanganyika is thus an important biological resource for the study of speciation in evolution.  The largest biomass of fish, however, is in the pelagic zone (open waters) and is dominated by six species - two species of "Tanganyika sardine" and four species of predatory Lates (related to, but not the same as, the Nile Perch that has devastated Lake Victoria cichlids). The Tanganyika sardine, known as Kapenta in Zambia and Zimbabwe or Dagaa or Ndgaa elsewhere is really two species ( Lake Tanganyika Lake Victoria or Victoria Nyanza (also known as Ukerewe and Nalubaale) is one of the Great Lakes of Africa. Almost all (98%) of the Tanganyikan cichlid species are endemic (exclusively native) to the lake and many, such as fish from the brightly coloured Tropheus genus, are prized within the aquarium trade. Endemism is the Ecological state of being unique to a place Endemic species are not naturally found elsewhere Tropheus is a small Genus of six Species of Cichlid Fish endemic to Lake Tanganyika in East Africa. This kind of elevated endemism also occurs among the numerous invertebrates in the lake, most especially the molluscs (which possess similar forms to that of many marine molluscs), crabs, shrimps, copepods, jellyfishes, leeches, etc.
It is estimated that 25–40% of the protein in the diet of the people living around the lake comes from lake fish, and that population amounts to around one million. Currently there are around 100,000 people directly involved in the fisheries operating from almost 800 sites. The lake is also vital to the estimated 10 million people living in the basin.
Lake Tanganyika fish can be found exported throughout East Africa. Commercial fishing began in the mid-1950s and has had an extremely heavy impact on the pelagic fish species, in 1995 the total catch was around 180,000 tonnes. Former industrial fisheries, which boomed in the 1980s, have subsequently collapsed.
There are two ferries which carry passengers and cargo along the eastern shore of the lake - the MV Liemba between Kigoma and Mpulungu and the MV Mwongozo, which runs between Kigoma and Bujumbura. History Early history The Graf von Götzen was built in 1913 at the Meyer-Werft Shipyard in Papenburg, Germany and named after Count See also Transport in Tanzania
The first known Westerners to find the lake were the Great British explorers Richard Burton and John Speke, in 1858. Captain Sir Richard Francis Burton KCMG FRGS (19 March 1821 &ndash 20 October 1890 was an English Explorer, Translator, writer John Hannington Speke ( May 4 1827 &ndash September 15 1864) was an officer in the British Indian army who made three voyages of exploration They located it while searching for the source of the Nile River. The Nile (النيل, Ancient Egyptian iteru or Ḥ'pī, Coptic piaro or phiaro) is a major north-flowing River Speke continued and found the actual source, Lake Victoria. Lake Victoria or Victoria Nyanza (also known as Ukerewe and Nalubaale) is one of the Great Lakes of Africa.
The Lake was the scene of two famous battles during World War I. The East African Campaign was a series of battles and guerilla actions which started in German East Africa and ultimately impacted portions of Mozambique, Northern World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All
With the aid of the Graf von Götzen (named after Count Gustav Adolf Graf von Götzen), the former governor of German East Africa, the Germans had complete control of the lake in the early stages of the war. Count Gustav Adolf von Götzen ( 12 May 1866 – 2 December 1910) was a German explorer and Governor of German East German East Africa (Deutsch-Ostafrika was a German Colony in East Africa, including what is now Burundi, Rwanda and Tanganyika The ship was used both to ferry cargo and personnel across the lake, and as a base from which to launch surprise attacks on Allied troops. 
It therefore became essential for the Allied forces to gain control of the lake themselves. Under the command of Geoffrey Spicer-Simson the Royal Navy achieved the monumental task of bringing two armed motor boats Mimi and Toutou from England to the lake by rail, road and river to Kalemie on the western shore of Lake Tanganyika. Geoffrey Spicer-Simson (1876–1947 was a Commander in the Royal Navy. The Royal Navy of the United Kingdom is the oldest of the British armed services (and is therefore known as the Senior Service) Geoffrey Spicer-Simson (1876–1947 was a Commander in the Royal Navy. Kalemie, formerly Albertville / Albertstad, is a town on the western shore of Lake Tanganyika in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The two boats waited until December 1915, and mounted a surprise attack on the Germans, with the capture of the gunboat Kingani. Another German vessel, the Hedwig, was sunk in February 1916, leaving the Götzen as the only German vessel remaining to control the lake. 
As a result of their strengthened position on the lake, the Allies started advancing towards Kigoma by land, and the Belgians established an airbase on the western shore at Albertville. Kalemie, formerly Albertville / Albertstad, is a town on the western shore of Lake Tanganyika in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. It was from there, in June 1916, that they launched a bombing raid on German positions in and around Kigoma. It is unclear whether or not the Götzen was hit (the Belgians claimed to have hit it but the Germans denied this), but German morale suffered and the ship was subsequently stripped of its gun since it was needed elsewhere. 
The war on the lake had reached a stalemate by this stage, with both sides refusing to mount attacks. However, the war on land was progressing, largely to the advantage of the Allies, who cut off the railway link in July 1916 and threatened to isolate Kigoma completely. This led the German commander, Gustav Zimmer, to abandon the town and head south. In order to avoid his prize ship falling into Allied hands, Zimmer scuttled the vessel on July 26 1916. The vessel was later resurrected and renamed as the MV Liemba (see transport). History Early history The Graf von Götzen was built in 1913 at the Meyer-Werft Shipyard in Papenburg, Germany and named after Count 
In 1965 Argentinian revolutionary Che Guevara used the western shores of Lake Tanganyika as a training camp for guerrilla forces in the Congo. Ernesto "Che" Guevara (June 14 Following the Cuban revolution,Guevara reviewed Ernesto "Che" Guevara (June 14 Following the Cuban revolution,Guevara reviewed From his camp, Che and his forces attempted to overthrow the government, but ended up pulling out in less than a year since the National Security Agency (NSA) had been monitoring him the entire time and aided government forces in ambushing his guerrillas. The National Security Agency/ Central Security Service ( NSA/CSS) is a cryptologic intelligence agency of the United States government
In 1992 Lake Tanganyika featured in the documentary series Pole to Pole. Pole to Pole is an eight-part Television documentary travel series made for the BBC and released in 1992 The BBC documentarian Michael Palin stayed on board the MV Liemba and traveled across the lake. Michael Edward Palin, CBE (born 5 May 1943 is an English Comedian, actor writer and Television presenter best known for being one of the members History Early history The Graf von Götzen was built in 1913 at the Meyer-Werft Shipyard in Papenburg, Germany and named after Count
Since 2004 the lake has been the focus of a massive Water and Nature Initiative by the IUCN. The project is scheduled to take five years at a total cost of US$ 27 million. The initiative is attempting to monitor the resources and state of the lake, set common criteria for acceptable level of sediments, pollution, and water quality in general, and design and establish a lake basin management authority.
The lake has been identified as a place where man-eating crocodile Gustave has been seen. Gustave is a massive Nile crocodile living in Burundi. Estimated to be at least in length and weighing around 1 Ton, he is the largest crocodile ever Gustave has killed many humans over the years, and many scientists are interested in studying him.