|LGBT and Queer studies series|
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LGBT (also GLBT) is an acronym referring collectively to lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender/transsexual people. " Queer studies " is the study of issues relating to Sexual orientation and Gender identity. A lesbian is a Woman who is romantically or sexually attracted only to other women In the English language, gay is an Adjective that in modern usage refers to Homosexuality. Bisexuality refers to sexual behavior with or attraction to people of both sexes or to a bisexual orientation Transgender (trænzˈdʒɛndɚ from ( Latin) derivatives Homosexuality refers to sexual behavior with or attraction to people of the same sex or to a Homosexual orientation. LGBT history refers to the History of Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and Transgender peoples and cultures around the world dating back Timeline of Lesbian, Gay, bisexual and Transgender ( LGBT) history Homosexual rights during the 20th century Gay Liberation is the name used to describe the radical Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender movement of the late 1960s and early to mid 1970s Lesbian Gay Bisexual and Transgender social movements share related goals of social acceptance of Homosexuality, Bisexuality and Transgenderism Lesbian This is a Timeline of AIDS, including some discussion of early AIDS cases (especially those before 1980 Poliamory pride in San Francisco 2004jpg|thumb|Representatives of the Polyamory community at a San Francisco parade Gay community or LGBT community is a term used to describe the Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender subculture LGBT pride or gay pride refers to a world wide movement and philosophy asserting that LGBT ( Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Closeted Coming out (that is " coming out of the closet " describes the voluntary public announcement of one's Sexual orientation and/or Gender identity A gay village (also known as a gay neighborhood or by the slang gayborhood) is an urban geographic location with generally recognized boundaries Queer theory is a field of Gender Studies that emerged in the early 1990s out of the fields of gay and Lesbian studies and feminist studies the relationship between homosexuality and religion can vary greatly across time and place within and between different Religions and Sects and regarding different Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender ( LGBT) communities have adopted certain Symbols and symbolates for Queer has traditionally meant odd or unusual but is now also used to refer to anyone who is not heteronormative. Questioning is a term that can refer to a person who is questioning their Gender, Sexual identity or Sexual orientation. The countries of the world have a wide variety of laws relating to sexual relations between people of the same sex - everything from full legal recognition of Same-sex marriage Same-sex marriage (also referred to as gay marriage) is a term for a legally or Socially recognized Marriage between two people of the same A civil union is a legally recognized union similar to Marriage. LGBT adoption refers to the Adoption of children by Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, or Transgendered people A sodomy law is a Law that defines certain Sexual acts as sex crimes. The militaries of the world have a variety of responses to Gays Lesbians and Bisexuals Most Western military forces have now removed policies excluding sexual Hate crimes (also known as bias motivated crimes) occur when a perpetrator targets a victim because of his or her membership in a certain Social group, usually defined The countries of the world have a wide variety of laws relating to sexual relations between people of the same sex - everything from full legal recognition of Same-sex marriage Heterosexism is a term that applies to attitudes, Bias, and Discrimination in favor of opposite-sex sexuality and relationships BenPhelpsJPG|thumb|right|Westboro Baptist Church picket signs with Ben Phelps grandson of Fred Phelps Lesbophobia (sometimes Lesbiphobia) comprises various forms of negativity toward Lesbian women as individuals as a couple or as a social group Biphobia is a term used to describe the fear of aversion to or discrimination against Bisexuality or LGBT people who are bisexual or perceived to be bisexual Acronyms, initialisms, and alphabetisms are Abbreviations that are formed using the initial components in a phrase or name A lesbian is a Woman who is romantically or sexually attracted only to other women Homosexuality refers to sexual behavior with or attraction to people of the same sex or to a Homosexual orientation. Bisexuality refers to sexual behavior with or attraction to people of both sexes or to a bisexual orientation Transgender (trænzˈdʒɛndɚ from ( Latin) derivatives Transsexualism is a condition in which a person identifies with a physical Sex different from the one with which they were born In use since the 1990s, the term LGBT is an adaptation of the initialism LGB. The 1990s collectively refers to the years between and including 1990 and 1999 In modern use, the acronym relates to the diversity of gay culture. Poliamory pride in San Francisco 2004jpg|thumb|Representatives of the Polyamory community at a San Francisco parade
Each term in the initialism is used to refer to members of the specific group and to the community (subculture) that surrounds them. For the term in biology see Subculture (biology. For the song by New Order see Sub-culture (song. This can include rights advocates, artists, authors, etc.
In this context, lesbian refers to females with a sexual orientation or affectional orientation towards other females. Sexual orientation is believed to refer to "an enduring pattern of emotional romantic and/or sexual attractions to men women or both sexes Affectional orientation (or romantic orientation is used both alternatively and side-by-side with Sexual orientation.
In this context, gay refers specifically to males with a sexual orientation or affectional orientation predominantly (not necessarily exclusively) towards other males. In the English language, gay is an Adjective that in modern usage refers to Homosexuality.
Bisexual refers to people who are attracted to more than just one sex or gender. An organism's sex is defined by the gametes it produces males produce male gametes (spermatozoa or Sperm) while females produce female gametes (ova or Egg cells; individual Gender comprises a range of differences between men and women extending from the biological to the social While traditionally bisexuality has been defined as 'an attraction to both males and females', it also encompasses Pansexuality, 'an attraction where the sex of the partner is of little or no relevance' (i. Pansexuality or anthrosexuality ( anthro- literally meaning human human sexual (sometimes referred to as omnisexuality) is a Sexual orientation e. to male, female, and any other gender identity). Transgender (trænzˈdʒɛndɚ from ( Latin) derivatives Bisexuality covers anywhere between the sexual orientations of asexuality, homosexuality, and heterosexuality. Asexuality is a Sexual orientation that describes individuals who do not experience Sexual attraction.
Transgender is generally used as a catch-all umbrella term for a variety of individuals, behaviours, and groups centered around the partial reversal of gender roles. An umbrella term is a word that provides a Superset or grouping of related concepts also called a Hypernym. A common definition is "People who feel that the gender they were assigned (usually at birth) is a false or incomplete description of themselves. " Included in this definition are a number of well known sub-categories such as transvestite and sometimes genderqueers. This article deals with the history of the word 'transvestite' Genderqueer and intergender are catchall terms for gender identities other than man and woman (See also cross-dressing. Cross-dressing is the act of wearing clothing commonly associated with another gender within a particular Society. )
Up until the sexual revolution of the 1960s, there were no widely known terms for describing the people in these groups other than the derogatory terms used by the straight community; third gender was in use before the second world war, but fell out of use afterwards. LGBT history refers to the History of Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and Transgender peoples and cultures around the world dating back The sexual revolution refers to the well-documented changes in social thought and codes of behaviour related to sexuality throughout the Western world that continues to evolve Heterosexuality refers to sexual behavior with or attraction to people of the opposite sex or to a heterosexual orientation The terms third gender and third sex describe individuals who are considered to be neither women nor men as well as the social category present in those societies who recognize As people began organizing for their sexual rights, they needed a term that would say who they were in a positive way. (Compare heteronormativity)
The first term used, homosexual, was thought to carry negative connotations and has tended to be replaced by gay. Heteronormativity is a term to describe the marginalization of Non-heterosexual lifestyles and the view that Heterosexuality is the normal Sexual orientation Homosexuality refers to sexual behavior with or attraction to people of the same sex or to a Homosexual orientation. As lesbians forged their own identity, the term gay and lesbian became more common. This was soon followed by bisexual and transgender people also asking for recognition as legitimate categories within the larger community. However, after the initial euphoria of the beginnings of the Stonewall riots wore off, starting in the late 1970s and early 1980s, there was a change in perception and some gays and lesbians were not very accepting of bisexual or transgender people. The Stonewall riots were a series of spontaneous violent demonstrations against a police raid that took place in the early morning hours of June 28 1969 at the Stonewall Inn
It was thought that transsexual people were acting out stereotypes; and bisexuals were simply gay men or lesbian women who were simply afraid to "come out" and be honest about their identity. A stereotype (from Greek: stereo + týpos = "solid impression" is a generalized perception of first impressions behaviors presumed by a group Closeted Coming out (that is " coming out of the closet " describes the voluntary public announcement of one's Sexual orientation and/or Gender identity Like many organisations, the movement underwent growing pains, and these are seen even today in the fact that there is no agreement as to whether the acronym should be GLBT or LGBT.
Not until the 1990s did it become common to speak of "gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgender people" with equal respect within the movement. Although the LGBT community has seen some controversy regarding universal acceptance of different members (transgender individuals, in particular, have sometimes been marginalized by the larger LGBT community), the term LGBT has been a positive symbol of inclusion. Despite the fact that LGBT does not nominally encompass all individuals in the queer communities (see Variants below), the term is generally accepted to include those not identified in the standard, four letter acronym. Overall, the use of the term LGBT has, over time, largely aided in bringing otherwise marginalized individuals into the general community.
Many variants exist, including variations which merely change the order of the letters; but LGBT or GLBT are the most common terms and the ones most frequently seen in current usage. Although identical in meaning, LGBT may have more feminist and queer connotations than "GLBT. Feminism is a discourse that involves various movements theories, and Philosophies which are concerned with the issue of Gender difference, advocate Queer has traditionally meant odd or unusual but is now also used to refer to anyone who is not heteronormative. " When not inclusive of transgender people it is sometimes shortened to LGB. It may also include additional Qs for queer and/or questioning (sometimes abbreviated with a question mark) (LGBTQ, LGBTQQ, GLBTQ?). Queer has traditionally meant odd or unusual but is now also used to refer to anyone who is not heteronormative. Other variants may add a U for "unsure", an I for intersex, another T for transsexual, another T (or TS or the numeral 2) for two-spirited people, an A or SA for allies, or an A for asexual. Intersexuality is the state of a living thing of a gonochoristic species whose Sex chromosomes, Genitalia, and/or Secondary sex characteristics Transsexualism is a condition in which a person identifies with a physical Sex different from the one with which they were born Two-Spirit (also two spirit or twospirit) people are Native Americans who fulfill one of many mixed Gender roles found traditionally among many Straight ally is a colloquial term that describes a heterosexual person who supports equal Civil rights, Gender equality, and LGBT social movements Asexuality is a Sexual orientation that describes individuals who do not experience Sexual attraction. Some may also add a P for pansexual or polyamorous, and an O for omnisexual or other. Pansexuality or anthrosexuality ( anthro- literally meaning human human sexual (sometimes referred to as omnisexuality) is a Sexual orientation Polyamory (from Greek el πολυ meaning many or several and Latin la amor “love” is the desire practice or acceptance of having more than one Pansexuality or anthrosexuality ( anthro- literally meaning human human sexual (sometimes referred to as omnisexuality) is a Sexual orientation The order of the letters is also not standardized; in addition to the uses that reverse the initial L and G, the extended letters, if used, may appear in almost any order.
Variant terms do not typically represent political differences within the community, however, but arise simply from the usage preferences of individuals and groups.
The magazine Anything That Moves coined the acronym FABGLITTER (from Fetish, Allies, Bisexual, Gay, Lesbian, Intersexed, Transgender, Transsexual Engendering Revolution), although this term has not made its way into common usage. Anything That Moves was a literary journalistic and topical magazine published in the United States from 1990 to 2002. Sexual fetishism, or erotic fetishism, is the Sexual attraction to materials and objects not conventionally viewed as being sexual in nature A revolution (from the Latin revolutio, "a turnaround" is a fundamental change in power or organizational structures that takes place in a relatively
The terms transsexual and intersex are regarded by some people as falling under the umbrella term transgender, though many transsexual and intersex people object to this (both for different reasons). Gay-straight alliance (GSA) organizations often use LGBTQA for LBGT, questioning and allies. Gay–straight alliances are student organizations found primarily in North American High schools and universities, that are intended to provide a safe and
SGL (for same gender loving) is often favored by African-American homosexuals as a way of distinguishing themselves from what they regard as white-dominated LGBT communities. Same gender loving, or SGL, a term coined for African American use by activist Cleo Manago, is a description for Homosexuals particularly in the African-American African Americans or Black Americans are citizens or residents of the United States who have origins in any of the black populations of Africa White People is the second album by Handsome Boy Modeling School.
LUG (for lesbian until graduation), GUG (gay until graduation) and BUG (bisexual until graduation) are facetious terms for young people (most commonly female) who experiment with same-sex relationships on a temporary basis, particularly while attending college or university. The slang terms lesbian until graduation (LUG gay until graduation (GUG or bisexual until graduation (BUG are terms used to describe women primarily
MSM (for Men who have sex with men), is clinically used to describe men who have sex with other men without referring to their sexual orientation. Men who have sex with men or males who have sex with males ( MSM) refers to men who engage in sexual activity with other men whether
The terms LGBT or GLBT are not agreed upon by everyone. For example, it may be argued that the transgender and transsexual causes are not the same as that of LGB people. This argument centers on the idea that transgender and transsexuality have to do with gender identity, or a person's understanding of being male or female, irrespective of their sexual orientation. Gender identity (or core gender identity) is a person's own sense of Identification as Male or Female. Sexual orientation is believed to refer to "an enduring pattern of emotional romantic and/or sexual attractions to men women or both sexes Meanwhile LGB issues may be seen as a matter of sexual orientation, or attraction. These distinctions have been made in the context of political action in which GLB goals may be perceived to differ from transgender and transsexual goals (e. g. , same sex marriage legislation; the work of the Human Rights Campaign). Same-sex marriage (also referred to as gay marriage) is a term for a legally or Socially recognized Marriage between two people of the same
Similarly, some intersex people want to be included in LGBT groups and would prefer LGBTI; others insist that they are not a part of the LGBT community and would rather not be included in the term.
A reverse to the above situations is evident in the belief of 'lesbian & gay separatism' (not to be confused with the related, Lesbian Separatism) which holds that lesbians and gay men form (or should form) a community distinct and separate from other groups normally included in the LGBTQ sphere. Separatist feminism is a form of Feminism that does not support Heterosexual relationships due to a belief that sexual disparities between Men While not always appearing of sufficient number or organization to be called a 'movement', this group persists as a significant, and often vocal and active, element within most parts of the LGBT community. Social movements are a type of group action. They are large informal groupings of Individuals and/or Organizations focused on specific This is particularly noticeable in UK political and campaign organisations. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located People of this opinion will commonly also deny the existence or right-to-equality of non-monosexual orientations and of transsexuality. A monosexual is someone who is sexually attracted to one Sex (or Gender) only monosexuality being the corresponding Sexual orientation Transsexualism is a condition in which a person identifies with a physical Sex different from the one with which they were born This can extend to public biphobia and transphobia. Biphobia is a term used to describe the fear of aversion to or discrimination against Bisexuality or LGBT people who are bisexual or perceived to be bisexual
Many people have looked for a generic term to replace the initialisms, acronyms, and abbreviations. Words like "queer" and "rainbow" have been tried but most have not been widely adopted. Queer has traditionally meant odd or unusual but is now also used to refer to anyone who is not heteronormative. "Queer" has many negative connotations to older people who remember the word as a taunt and insult, a usage of the term that has continued. Many younger people also understand "queer" to be more politically charged than "LGBT". "Rainbow" has connotations that recall the hippies, New Age movements and politics (Jesse Jackson's Rainbow Coalition. The Hippie Subculture was originally a Youth movement that began in the United States during the early 1960s and spread around the world New Age ( New Age Movement and New Age Spirituality) is a Social Collective Phenomenon and a Spiritual Nature Jesse Louis Jackson Sr (born October 8 1941 is an American Civil rights activist and Baptist minister. )
Other gay people also do not care for the term as the lettering comes across as being overly "politically correct", or as an attempt to categorize the various groups of people into one grey area word. Political correctness (adjectivally politically correct; both forms commonly abbreviated to PC) is a term applied to Language, ideas policies or behavior Categorization is the process in which ideas and objects are recognized, differentiated and understood. A grey area is a term for a border in-between two or more things that is unclearly defined a border that is hard to define or even impossible to define or a definition where the distinction
It is also worth noting that there are some lesbian, gay, bi people as well as ontologists who are against an "LGBT community", or "LGB community". Some are also against the political and social solidarity, and visibility and human rights campaigning that normally goes with it (including pride marches and events). LGBT pride or gay pride refers to a world wide movement and philosophy asserting that LGBT ( Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Some of them believe that grouping together people with non-heterosexual orientations perpetuates the myth that being gay/lesbian/bi makes a person deficiently different than other people. On the political landscape, this fraction of gay/lesbian/bi people may seem less visible compared to LGBT activists.
Since this fraction are difficult to distinguish from the heterosexual majority, it is common for people to assume all gay/lesbian/bi people support LGBT liberation and the visibility of LGBT people in society, including the right to live one's life in a different way from the majority.