|Lafayette Ronald Hubbard|
L. Ron Hubbard
|Born||March 13, 1911|
|Died||January 24, 1986 (aged 74)|
San Luis Obispo County, California
|Occupation||Speculative fiction Author|
|Net worth||> $200,000,000 in 1982|
|Spouse||Margaret "Polly" Grubb|
Sara Northrup (unlawful)
Mary Sue Whipp
Lafayette Ronald Hubbard (March 13, 1911 – January 24, 1986) was the founder of the Church of Scientology, as well as the author of Dianetics and the body of works comprising Scientology doctrine. Events 1138 - Cardinal Gregorio Conti is elected Antipope as Victor IV, succeeding Anacletus II. Year 1911 ( MCMXI) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year Tilden is a city in Antelope and Madison Counties in the US state of Nebraska. Events 41 - Gaius Caesar (Caligula, known for his eccentricity and cruel Despotism, is Assassinated by his disgruntled Year 1986 ( MCMLXXXVI) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar) San Luis Obispo County is a county located along the Pacific Ocean in the Central Coast of the U The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Speculative fiction is a term used as an inclusive descriptor covering a group of Fiction Genres that speculate about worlds that are unlike the real world in Scientology is a body of beliefs and related practices initially created by American Science fiction author L Margaret "Polly" Grubb (b September 22, 1907 - d1963? was the first wife of pulp fiction author and Scientology founder Sara Northrup (b April 8, 1925 in Pasadena California) was the second wife of L Mary Sue Hubbard (born Mary Sue Whipp) ( 17 June 1931 &ndash 25 November, 2002) was the third wife of American pulp fiction Events 1138 - Cardinal Gregorio Conti is elected Antipope as Victor IV, succeeding Anacletus II. Year 1911 ( MCMXI) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year Events 41 - Gaius Caesar (Caligula, known for his eccentricity and cruel Despotism, is Assassinated by his disgruntled Year 1986 ( MCMLXXXVI) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar) The Church of Scientology is the largest organization devoted to the practice and the promotion of the Scientology belief system. Scientology is a body of beliefs and related practices initially created by American Science fiction author L Dianetics The Modern Science of Mental Health (often abbreviated as DMSMH is a book by L  He was also an author in numerous speculative fiction genres for the pulp magazines and, later in life, returned to science fiction. Speculative fiction is a term used as an inclusive descriptor covering a group of Fiction Genres that speculate about worlds that are unlike the real world in Pulp magazines (or pulp fiction; often referred to as "the pulps" were inexpensive Fiction magazines 
Hubbard was a highly controversial public figure during his lifetime. Many details presented by Hubbard of his life and knowledge remain disputed by critics, media, scientists, and even governments. Official Scientology biographies present him as "larger than life, attracted to people, liked by people, dynamic, charismatic and immensely capable in two dozen fields".  In contrast, unofficial biographies (some by former Scientologists) as well as some reports in the press paint a much less flattering picture which often contradicts official Church accounts. 
L. Ron Hubbard was born in 1911 in Tilden, Nebraska to Ledora May Hubbard (née Waterbury) and Harry Ross Hubbard. Tilden is a city in Antelope and Madison Counties in the US state of Nebraska. Harry Hubbard had been born Henry August Wilson in Fayette, Iowa, but had been orphaned as an infant and adopted by the Hubbards, a farming family from Fredericksburg, Iowa; and so the founder of the Roycrofters -- Elbert Hubbard, a Rosicrucian and the author of A Message to Garcia -- would become L. Fayette is a city in Fayette County, Iowa, in the United States. An orphan (from the Greek ὀρφανός) is a child whose natural parents are absent or dead and who are not there to bring him up Fredericksburg is a city in Chickasaw County, Iowa, United States. Roycroft was a reformist community of Craft workers and artists which formed part of the Arts and Crafts movement in the USA Elbert Green Hubbard ( June 19 1856 &ndash May 7 1915) was an American writer publisher artist and philosopher The term Rosicrucian (symbol the Rose Cross) describes a secret society of mystics allegedly formed in late mediaeval Germany, holding a doctrine "built on A Message to Garcia is an inspirational Essay written by Elbert Hubbard that has been made into two Motion pictures. Ron Hubbard's uncle.  Harry Hubbard had joined the United States Navy in 1904, leaving the service in 1908. Harry Hubbard re-enlisted in 1917 when the United States declared war on Germany, and served in the Navy until 1946, reaching the rank of Lieutenant Commander in 1934. World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All Lieutenant Commander ( Lieutenant-Commander in the Royal Navy) is a Commissioned officer rank in many navies Superior  Ledora was a feminist who had trained to become a high school teacher and married Harry in 1909. Feminism is a discourse that involves various movements theories, and Philosophies which are concerned with the issue of Gender difference, advocate High school is the name used in some parts of the world (in particular Scotland, North America and Australia) to describe an institution
The Hubbards moved first to Kalispell, Montana and then to Helena, the state capital. Kalispell is a city in and the County seat of Flathead County, Montana, United States. Helena (ˈhɛlɨnə is the Capital city of the US state of Montana and the County seat of Lewis and Clark County Church biographies have stated that during this period L. Ron Hubbard became the protegé of "Old Tom, a Blackfoot Indian medicine man . The Blackfoot Confederacy or Niitsítapi (meaning "original people" c . . [who] passe[d] on much of the tribal lore to his young friend" and that at the age of four, L. Ron Hubbard was "honored with the status of blood brother of the Blackfeet in a ceremony that is still recalled by tribal elders. " Hubbard's interest in the Blackfeet took literary form in his 1937 novel, Buckskin Brigades, a "novel of one man's courageous struggle to save the Blackfoot Nation from destruction by the Northwestern fur traders". Buckskin Brigades is a Western Novel written by L Ron Hubbard, first published July 30 1937  In 1985, Scientologists claimed that members of Blackfeet Nation, Montana, commemorated "the seventieth anniversary of [L. Ron Hubbard] becoming a blood brother of the Blackfeet Nation. Tree Manyfeathers in a ceremony re-established L. Ron Hubbard as a blood brother to the Blackfeet Tribe. " Contemporary records do not record the existence of "Old Tom". The white Blackfeet historian Hugh Dempsey has commented that the act of blood brotherhood was "never done among the Blackfeet", and Blackfeet Nation officials have disavowed attempts to "re-establish" Hubbard as a "blood brother" of the Blackfeet. Blood brother can refer to one of two things two males related by birth or two or more men not related by Birth, who swear loyalty to one another Former vice president of the tribe's executive committee, John Yellow Kidney has also said of the letter claiming to re-establish Hubbard as a blood brother, "You should not give [the document] very much credibility, I don't. "
Harry's naval career led to the family moving several more times, first to San Diego, then to Oakland, California followed by Puget Sound, Washington, and finally to Washington, D.C.. Oakland (ˈoʊklənd founded in 1852 is the eighth-largest city in the U Puget Sound (ˈpjuːʤᵻt is an arm of the Pacific Ocean, connected to the rest of the Pacific by the Strait of Juan de Fuca, in the Pacific Northwest Washington ( is a state in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States. Washington DC ( formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington, the District, or simply D During this period L. Ron Hubbard joined the Boy Scouts of America and eventually became an Eagle Scout. The Boy Scouts of America ( BSA) is the largest youth organization in the United States with over five million Eagle Scout is the highest rank attainable in the Boy Scouting program of the Boy Scouts of America (BSA Church biographies routinely state that he was "the nation's youngest Eagle Scout, a statement that is based on a March 25, 1930 article appearing in the Washington Evening Star. Events 1199 - Richard I is wounded by a crossbow bolt while fighting France which leads to his death on April 6. Year 1930 ( MCMXXX) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display 1930 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The Washington Star, previously known as the Washington Star-News and the Washington Evening Star, was  and Hubbard's Boy Scout Diary of March 25, 1924. Events 1199 - Richard I is wounded by a crossbow bolt while fighting France which leads to his death on April 6. Year 1924 ( MCMXXIV) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar.  According to the Boy Scouts of America, their documents at the time were only kept in alphabetical order with no reference to their ages and thus there was no way of telling who was the youngest. 
Between 1927 and 1929, Hubbard traveled twice to the Far East to visit his parents during his father's posting to the United States Navy base on Guam. The Far East is a term often used by people in the Western world to refer to the countries of East Asia. Guam ( Chamorro: cha Guåhån) officially the Territory of Guam, is an island in the western Pacific Ocean and is an organized unincorporated Church biographies published from the 1950s to the 1970s stated that with "the financial support of his wealthy grandfather" Hubbard journeyed throughout Asia, "studying with holy men" in northern China, India, and Tibet. China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country Definitions of Tibet See also Definitions of Tibet Name In English The English word Tibet, like the word for Tibet in most European  Hubbard said that on several occasions he visited India.  However, the Church of Scientology's current official account makes no mention of India or Tibet, and according to Jon Atack "a flight change at Calcutta airport in 1959 seems to have been his only direct contact with the land of Vedantic philosophy. Jonathan Caven-Atack (born 5 June, 1955) known as Jon Atack, is a British artist published author and widely recognized as one of the most "Veda" redirects here For other uses see Veda (disambiguation. "
Hubbard sometimes displayed attitudes that were at odds with the picture his followers try to present of him. For instance, during his visit to China at the age of seventeen, he made diary entries such as: "As a Chinaman can not live up to a thing, he always drags it down. Chinaman is a term that refers to a Chinese man It was not defined as offensive by older dictionaries " and "They smell of all the baths they didnt [sic] take. Sic is a Latin word meaning "thus" "so" "as such" or "just as that" The trouble with China is, there are too many chinks here. Chink is an Ethnic slur for any person of Chinese descent It is also commonly used to insult people of general East Asian descent " Similarly, Hubbard described the Tibetan Buddhist temples as "miserably cold and very shabby . . . The people worshiping have voices like bull-frogs and beat a drum and play a brass horn to accompany their singing (?)" and called them "very odd and heathenish".  He also wrote about colored people in Scientology: Fundamentals of Thought : "Unlike the yellow and brown people, the white does not usually believe he can get attention from matter or objects. This article is about the term used for African-Americans You might be looking for Coloured people or Color (disambiguation. The yellow and brown believe for the most part . . . that rocks, trees, walls, etc. , can give them attention" and ". . . so we see the African tribesman, with his complete contempt for the truth, and his emphasis on brutality and savagery. . . . " In the 2007 edition of the book, "African" is replaced by "primitive" in the above passage. Hubbard expressed support for creating townships in South Africa: "Having viewed slum clearance projects in most major cities of the world may I state that you have conceived and created in the Johannesburg townships what is probably the most impressive and adequate resettlement activity in existence. In South Africa, the term Township usually refers to the (often underdeveloped urban living areas that under Apartheid, were reserved for non-whites "
While such attitudes might not be especially surprising for a white teenager born in 1911, they are vastly at odds with the stories he would later tell and his followers would repeat:
Hubbard said that he was made a lama priest himself by Old Mayo the Beijing magician.  Hubbard's "ever-present diaries" were evidence in the Armstrong trial; they make no mention of Old Mayo or nomad bandits and no reflection on Eastern philosophy. Church of Scientology of California v Gerald Armstrong, (specific case citations below was a lengthy series of Lawsuits and other legal actions primarily in 
While in Guam, Hubbard was befriended by Commander Joseph "Snake" Thompson (1874-1943), who had recently returned from Vienna and studies with Sigmund Freud, and was stationed as a member of the Naval Medical Corps. Joseph Cheesman Thompson, M D (1874-1943 was a career medical officer in the United States Navy who attained the rank of commander before retirement in 1929 Sigmund Freud (ˈziːkmʊnt ˈfʁɔʏt born Sigismund Shlomo Freud (May 6 1856 &ndash September 23 1939 was an Austrian Psychiatrist who founded  Through the course of their friendship, the commander spent many afternoons teaching Ron about the human mind.  Thompson is an important figure in official Church accounts of Hubbard's life and was referred to in many of Hubbard's works in support of Hubbard's assertions of possessing expertise in Freudian psychoanalysis. Psychoanalysis is a body of ideas developed by Austrian physician Sigmund Freud and his followers which is devoted to the study of human psychological functioning and behavior 
After studies at Swavely Preparatory School in Manassas, Virginia, and graduating from Woodward School for Boys in 1930, Hubbard enrolled at The George Washington University in September of 1930, where he began studying a major in civil engineering. The George Washington University ( GW or GWU) is a private coeducational university located in Washington D Civil engineering is a professional engineering discipline that deals with the design construction and maintenance of the physical and naturally built There he became one of eight assistant editors of the University newspaper "The University Hatchet" and was a member of several of the university's clubs and societies, including the Twentieth Marine Corps Reserve and the George Washington College Company.  His grades were poor, and university records show that he attended for only two semesters after which he was placed on academic probation "for deficiency in scholarship" in September of 1931, leaving the university without a degree and "entitled to a statement of honorable dismissal. Academic probation is a trial period in which a Student is given time to try to redeem failing grades or bad conduct "
Observers have questioned assertions that Hubbard and the Church of Scientology later made about his study at The George Washington University. In the preface for his 1951 book Science of Survival, Hubbard thanks "my instructors in atomic and molecular phenomena, mathematics and the humanities at George Washington University and at Princeton" (Hubbard attended a four-month course in military government at the Naval Training School, located at Princeton during the Second World War). Science of Survival is a book published in 1951 by L Ron Hubbard, the founder of Dianetics and Scientology. Princeton University is a private Coeducational research university located in Princeton, New Jersey. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including  According to the Church's official account,
|“||Here he studies engineering and atomic and molecular physics and embarks upon a personal search for answers to the human dilemma. His first experiment concerning the structure and function of the mind is carried out while at the university. ||”|
One of his classes was indeed among the nation's first schools offering curriculum in molecular and atomic physics, however he failed the course. Critics and government reports cite his poor performance when evaluating claims to have been a "nuclear physicist". The Church denies that he ever made that claim, however Hubbard asserted expertise in dealing with the problems posed by the effects of radiation exposure on the human body in the book "All About Radiation" (co-authored by Hubbard in 1957). Radioactive contamination is the uncontrolled distribution of radioactive material in a given environment The human body is the entire physical and mental structure of a Human Organism. 
After leaving George Washington University, Hubbard worked as a writer and aviator.  In June 1932 Hubbard headed the "Caribbean Motion Picture Expedition", a two-and-a-half-month, 5,000-mile (8,000 km) voyage aboard a chartered 200-foot (61 m), four-masted schooner called "Doris Hamlin" with over fifty fellow college students. Its purpose was to collect floral and reptilian specimens for the University of Michigan and to film recreations of pirate activity and haunts. The voyage was a disappointment, with only three of the sixteen planned ports of call visited. Hubbard later called it "a two-bit expedition and a financial bust". 
Hubbard's first wife was Margaret "Polly" Grubb whom he married in 1933, and fathered two children; L. Ron, Jr., known as Ronald DeWolf, (1934 – 1991) and Katherine May (born in 1936). Margaret "Polly" Grubb (b September 22, 1907 - d1963? was the first wife of pulp fiction author and Scientology founder Ronald Edward DeWolf ( May 7, 1934 - September 16, 1991) born Lafayette Ron Hubbard Jr They lived in Los Angeles, California and, during the late 1930s, in Bremerton, Washington. Los Angeles (lɑˈsændʒələs los ˈaŋxeles in Spanish) is the largest City in the state of California and the American West Bremerton is a city in Kitsap County, Washington, United States. In a 1983 interview for Penthouse magazine that he later retracted, DeWolf said, "according to him and my mother", he was the result of a failed abortion and recalls at six years old seeing his father performing an abortion on his mother with a coat hanger. Penthouse, a Men 's Magazine founded by Bob Guccione, combines urban lifestyle articles and Soft-core pornographic pictorials In the same interview, he said "Scientology is a power-and-money-and-intelligence-gathering game" and described his father as "only interested in money, sex, booze, and drugs. " Later, in a sworn affidavit, DeWolf stated that he had "weaved" stories about his father's harassment of others, that the charge he had made about drugs was false, and that the Penthouse story was an example of statements that he deeply regretted and that had caused his father and himself much pain. 
Hubbard was accepted as a member of the Explorers Club on 19 February 1940. The Explorers Club was founded in New York, NY in 1904 The club as explained in its charter was formed to further general Exploration, to spread knowledge of the  In December of that year Hubbard was licensed by the United States Department of Commerce to legally operate steam and motor vessels. The United States Department of Commerce is the Cabinet department of the United States government concerned with promoting Economic growth
In 1961 Hubbard carried the Explorers Club flag for his 'Ocean Archaeological Expedition' and in 1966 was awarded custody of the Explorers Club flag for the 'Hubbard Geological Survey Expedition'. 
Hubbard published stories, novellas in aviation, sports, pulp magazines and even a screenplay "The Secret of Treasure Island". Pulp magazines (or pulp fiction; often referred to as "the pulps" were inexpensive Fiction magazines The Secret of Treasure Island ( 1938) is a Columbia movie serial based on Robert Louis Stevenson 's novel Treasure Island  Literature critics have cited Final Blackout, set in a war-ravaged future Europe, and Fear, a psychological horror story, as the best examples of Hubbard's pulp fiction. Final Blackout is a dystopic Science fiction novel by author L  Among his published stories were Sea Fangs, The Carnival of Death, Man-Killers of the Air, and The Squad that Never Came Back; using pseudonyms like Rene Lafayette, Legionnaire 148, Lieutenant Scott Morgan, Morgan de Wolf, Michael de Wolf, Michael Keith, Kurt von Rachen, Captain Charles Gordon, Legionnaire 14830, Elron, Bernard Hubbel, Captain B. A. Northrup, Joe Blitz and Winchester Remington Colt. The name Winchester rifle is frequently used to describe any of the Lever-action rifles manufactured in the U Remington Arms is a major American manufacturer of Rifles Shotguns other Firearms, Revolvers and Ammunition. Colt's Manufacturing Company ( CMC --formerly Colt's Patent Firearms Manufacturing Company) is a United States Firearms manufacturer founded in  He became a well-known author in the science fiction and fantasy genres; he also published westerns and adventure stories. Fantasy is a Genre that uses magic and other Supernatural forms as a primary element of plot, theme, and/or setting The Western is a fiction Genre seen in Film, Television, Radio, Literature, Painting and other Visual arts. His agent was well known science fiction agent and guru Forrest Ackerman. Forrest J Ackerman (born November 24, 1916) is an American collector of Science fiction books and movie memorabilia and a science fiction
Hubbard's metafiction novel Typewriter in the Sky, published in 1940 in two installments in John W. Campbell's Unknown magazine, provides an amusing insight into the New York writing scene within which Hubbard worked. Metafiction is a literary term for a type of Fiction that systematically and self-consciously addresses the devices of fiction including the relationship between fiction and John Wood Campbell Jr (June 8 1910 – July 11 1971 was an important Science fiction editor and writer Unknown (also known as Unknown Worlds) was a pulp Fantasy fiction magazine, edited by John W The novel is centered around a character named Horace Hackett, who is a hyper-productive, multi-genre hack writer desperately trying to finish his latest potboiler to an ever-approaching deadline while (unknown to him) his friend Mike de Wolf is trapped inside the potboiler's action. Hack writer is a Colloquial, usually Pejorative, term used to refer to a Writer who is paid to write low-quality quickly put-together articles or books Potboiler or pot-boiler is a term used to describe a poor quality novel play opera or film or other creative work that was created quickly to make Money to pay Two of Horace's author friends, in Hubbard's novel, are named Winchester Remington Colt and Rene Lafayette after Hubbard's own pseudonyms.
From the summer of 1941 to late 1945, during World War II, Hubbard served in the United States Navy. L Ron Hubbard, creator of Dianetics and founder of Scientology, served twice in the United States Armed Forces World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including Based on the representations of his experience overseas and as a writer, he was able to skip the initial officer rank of Ensign and was commissioned a Lieutenant, Junior Grade for service in the Office of Naval Intelligence. Ensign (ˈɛnsən is a junior rank of commissioned officer in the militaries of some countries normally in the infantry or navy In the United States Navy, the United States Coast Guard, the United States Public Health Service Commissioned Corps, and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric The Office of Naval Intelligence ( ONI) was established in the United States Navy in 1882 He was unsuccessful there, and after some difficulty with other assignments found himself in charge of a 173-foot (53 m) submarine chaser.  In May 1943, while taking the USS PC-815 on her shakedown cruise to San Diego, Hubbard attacked what he believed to be two enemy submarines, ten miles (16 km) off the coast of Oregon. The "jinxed sub-chaser" Possible submarine contact off Cape Lookout In the early hours of May 19, the crew of the PC-815 Shakedown cruise is a Nautical term in which the performance of a Ship is tested The "battle" took two days and involved at least four other US vessels plus two blimps, summoned for reinforcements and resupply.  After reviewing instrument data, battle reports, interviews with the various captains and taking into account the fact that Japanese submarines didn't regularly operate there, Admiral Frank Jack Fletcher, Commander Northwest Sea Frontier concluded; "An analysis of all reports convinces me that there was no submarine in the area. Frank Jack Fletcher (April 29 1885 &ndash April 25 1973 was an admiral in the United States Navy during World War II. . . . The Commanding Officers of all ships except the PC-815 state they had no evidence of a submarine and do not think a submarine was in the area. " In June 1943, Hubbard was relieved of command after anchoring PC-815 off the Coronado Islands, which is Mexican territory. The Coronado Islands are a group of four Islands off the northwest coast of the Mexican state of Baja California. He further erred by conducting gunnery practice there. An official complaint from Mexican authorities, coupled with his failure to return to base as ordered, led to a Board of Investigation. It determined that Hubbard had disregarded orders, admonished him by letter to include in his records and transferred him to other duties. Having been the third leadership position lost in his tenure, the following assignment was one where he was not given command authority.  His service ended with an honorable discharge after resigning his commission in 1950. In all he had one promotion and six decorations to show for his service, however he would claim to have accomplished much more than that in the decades which followed. It would also come out that he was relieved of command twice, and was also the subject of negative reports from his superiors on several occasions. 
After the war, Hubbard met Jack Parsons, an aeronautics professor at Caltech and an associate of the British occultist Aleister Crowley. John Whiteside Parsons (born Marvel Whiteside Parsons on October 2, 1914 &ndash died June 17, 1952) was an American Rocket The California Institute of Technology (commonly referred to as Caltech) is a private, Coeducational research university located in Pasadena The word occult comes from the Latin word occultus (clandestine hidden secret referring to "knowledge of the hidden" Aleister Crowley, born Edward Alexander Crowley (ˈkroʊli (12 October 1875 – 1 December 1947 was a British Occultist Writer, mountaineer  Hubbard and Parsons were allegedly engaged in the practice of ritual magick in 1946, including an extended set of sex magic rituals called the Babalon Working, intended to summon a goddess or "moonchild. Magick, in the broadest sense is any act designed to cause intentional change The Babalon Working was a series of Magick ceremonies or Rituals commenced on March 2, 1946 by Jack Parsons, essentially " The Church says Hubbard was working as an ONI agent on a mission to end Parsons' supposed magical activities and to "rescue" a girl Parsons was "using" for supposedly magical purposes. The Office of Naval Intelligence ( ONI) was established in the United States Navy in 1882 In a 1952 lecture series, Hubbard recommended a book of Crowley's and referred to him as "Mad Old Boy" and as "my very good friend".  Hubbard later married the girl he said that he rescued from Parsons, Sara Northrup. Sara Northrup (b April 8, 1925 in Pasadena California) was the second wife of L  Hubbard also described Parsons as his friend in his Scientology lectures rather than a person he was investigating. Crowley recorded in his notes that he considered Hubbard a "lout" who made off with Parsons' money and girlfriend in an "ordinary confidence trick. "
Sara Northrup became Hubbard's second wife in August 1946. Sara Northrup (b April 8, 1925 in Pasadena California) was the second wife of L  It was an act of bigamy, as Hubbard had abandoned, but not divorced, his first wife and children as soon as he left the Navy (he divorced his first wife more than a year after he had remarried). The term polygamy (a Greek word meaning "the practice of multiple marriage" is used in related ways in Social anthropology, Sociobiology, and  Both women allege Hubbard physically abused them. Domestic violence (also known as domestic abuse or spousal abuse) occurs when a family member partner or ex-partner attempts to physically or psychologically dominate He is also alleged to have once kidnapped Sara's infant, Alexis, taking her to Cuba. The Republic of Cuba (ˈkjuːbə or) consists of the island of Cuba (the largest and second-most populous island of the Greater Antilles) Isla de la Later, he disowned Alexis, claiming he was not her father and that she was actually Jack Parsons' child. John Whiteside Parsons (born Marvel Whiteside Parsons on October 2, 1914 &ndash died June 17, 1952) was an American Rocket  Sara filed for divorce in late 1950, citing that Hubbard was, unknown to her, still legally bound to his first wife at the time of their marriage. Her divorce papers also accused Hubbard of kidnapping their baby daughter Alexis, and of conducting "systematic torture, beatings, strangulations and scientific torture experiments. "
Hubbard returned to writing fiction briefly for a few years, his best-remembered work from this period being the Ole Doc Methuselah series for Campbell's Astounding Science Fiction magazine. Analog Science Fiction and Fact is an American Science fiction Magazine. It was in the pages of this magazine that the first article on Dianetics appeared; while some fiction works appeared after that (including "Masters of Sleep," which promotes Dianetics and features as a villain "a mad psychiatrist, Doctor Dyhard, who persists in rejecting Dianetics after all his abler colleagues have accepted it [and] believes in prefrontal lobotomies for everyone") most of Hubbard's output thereafter was related to Dianetics or Scientology. During Hubbard's transition from science fiction to Dianetics, his story The Professor was a Thief was adapted and aired on the Dimension X radio show, whose writers form a sort of who's-who of luminaries in the golden age of science fiction: Isaac Asimov, Ray Bradbury, Clifford D. Simak, Robert A. Heinlein and Fletcher Pratt, but also newer lights such as Kurt Vonnegut and Robert Bloch. Dimension X was an NBC radio program broadcast on an unsponsored sustaining basis from April 8, 1950 to September 29, Dimension X was an NBC radio program broadcast on an unsponsored sustaining basis from April 8, 1950 to September 29, The first Golden Age of Science Fiction, often recognized as a period from the late 1930s or early 1940s through to the 1950s was an era during which the science fiction genre gained wide Isaac Asimov (c January 2 1920 &ndash April 6 1992 ˈaɪzək ˈæzɪmʌv originally Исаак Озимов but now transcribed into Russian as, was a Russian Ray Douglas Bradbury (born August 22 1920 is an American mainstream, Fantasy, horror, Science fiction and mystery Clifford Donald Simak ( August 3, 1904 - April 25, 1988) was a major American Science fiction writer Robert Anson Heinlein (July 7 1907 – May 8 1988 was an American Novelist and Science fiction Writer. Murray Fletcher Pratt (1897–1956 was a Science fiction and Fantasy Writer; he was also well-known as a writer on Naval history and on the Kurt Vonnegut Jr (November 11 1922 – April 11 2007 (ˈvɒnəgət was a prolific and genre-bending American Novelist known for works blending Satire, Black Robert Albert Bloch (April 5 1917 Chicago – September 23 1994 Los Angeles) was a prolific American Writer, primarily of crime Several of Hubbard's associates during this period have recalled that he made comments about starting a religion to make money rather than writing fiction.  Hubbard did not make a major return to non-Dianetics fiction until the 1980s.
Beginning in late 1949, Hubbard sought to publicize Dianetics, the self-improvement technique. Dianetics is a set of ideas and practices regarding the relationship between the spirit mind and body that were developed by L Dianetics is a set of ideas and practices regarding the relationship between the spirit mind and body that were developed by L Self-help or self-improvement refers to self-guided improvement—economically intellectually or emotionally—most frequently with a substantial psychological or spiritual Unable to elicit interest from mainstream publishers or medical professionals, Hubbard turned to the legendary science fiction editor John W. Campbell, who had for years published Hubbard's science fiction. John Wood Campbell Jr (June 8 1910 – July 11 1971 was an important Science fiction editor and writer The first article on Dianetics was published in Astounding Science Fiction. Analog Science Fiction and Fact is an American Science fiction Magazine. The science fiction community was divided about the merits of Hubbard's offering. Campbell's star author Isaac Asimov criticized Dianetics' unscientific aspects, and veteran author Jack Williamson described Dianetics as "a lunatic revision of Freudian psychology" that "had the look of a wonderfully rewarding scam. Isaac Asimov (c January 2 1920 &ndash April 6 1992 ˈaɪzək ˈæzɪmʌv originally Исаак Озимов but now transcribed into Russian as, was a Russian John Stewart Williamson ( April 29, 1908 – November 10, 2006) who wrote as Jack Williamson (and occasionally under the Pseudonym Sigmund Freud (ˈziːkmʊnt ˈfʁɔʏt born Sigismund Shlomo Freud (May 6 1856 &ndash September 23 1939 was an Austrian Psychiatrist who founded " But Campbell and novelist A. E. van Vogt enthusiastically embraced Dianetics: Campbell became Hubbard's treasurer, and van Vogt—convinced his wife's health had been transformed for the better by auditing—interrupted his writing career to run the first Los Angeles Dianetics center. Alfred Elton van Vogt (April 26 1912 – January 26 2000 was a Canadian -born Science fiction author who was one of the most prolific Auditing was developed by L Ron Hubbard, and is described by the Church of Scientology as "spiritual counseling which is the central practice of Dianetics 
In April 1950, Hubbard and several others established the Hubbard Dianetic Research Foundation in Elizabeth, New Jersey to coordinate work related for the forthcoming publication of a book on Dianetics. Elizabeth is a city in Union County, New Jersey, in the United States. The book, entitled Dianetics: The Modern Science of Mental Health, was published in May 1950 by Hermitage House, whose head was also on the Board of Directors of the Hubbard Dianetic Research Foundation. Dianetics The Modern Science of Mental Health (often abbreviated as DMSMH is a book by L  With Dianetics, Hubbard introduced the concept of "auditing," a two-person question-and-answer therapy that focused on painful memories. Auditing was developed by L Ron Hubbard, and is described by the Church of Scientology as "spiritual counseling which is the central practice of Dianetics According to Hubbard, dianetic auditing could eliminate emotional problems, cure physical illnesses, and increase intelligence. In his introduction to Dianetics, Hubbard declared that "the creation of dianetics is a milestone for man comparable to his discovery of fire and superior to his inventions of the wheel and arch. "
Dianetics sold 150,000 copies within a year of publication.  Upon becoming more widely available, Dianetics became an object of critical scrutiny by the press and the medical establishment. In September 1950, The New York Times published a cautionary statement on the topic by the American Psychological Association that read in part, "the association calls attention to the fact that these claims are not supported by empirical evidence," and went on to recommend against use of "the techniques peculiar to Dianetics" until such time it had been validated by scientific testing. The American Psychological Association (APA is a professional organization representing psychologists in the U Consumer Reports, in an August 1951 assessment of Dianetics, dryly noted "one looks in vain in Dianetics for the modesty usually associated with announcement of a medical or scientific discovery," and stated that the book had become "the basis for a new cult. Consumer Reports is an American Magazine published monthly by Consumers Union. " The article observed "in a study of L. Ron Hubbard's text, one is impressed from the very beginning by a tendency to generalization and authoritative declarations unsupported by evidence or facts. " Consumer Reports warned its readers against the "possibility of serious harm resulting from the abuse of intimacies and confidences associated with the relationship between auditor and patient," an especially serious risk, they concluded, "in a cult without professional traditions. "
The Hubbard Dianetic Research Foundation was incorporated in Elizabeth, New Jersey. Elizabeth is a city in Union County, New Jersey, in the United States. Branch offices were opened in five other US cities before the end of 1950 (though most folded within a year). Hubbard soon abandoned the Foundation, denouncing a number of his former associates as communists to the FBI. Communism is a Socioeconomic structure that promotes the establishment of an egalitarian, classless, stateless Society based 
In March of 1952, Hubbard moved to Phoenix, Arizona. Scientology is a body of beliefs and related practices initially created by American Science fiction author L Hubbard started the Scientology religion while he was living in Phoenix. 
In mid-1952, Hubbard expanded Dianetics into an "applied religious philosophy" which he called Scientology. Scientology is a body of beliefs and related practices initially created by American Science fiction author L That year, Hubbard also married his third wife, Mary Sue Whipp, to whom he remained married until his death (though separated by the early 70s, when Mary Sue was incarcerated for her involvement in Operation Snow White). Mary Sue Hubbard (born Mary Sue Whipp) ( 17 June 1931 &ndash 25 November, 2002) was the third wife of American pulp fiction Operation Snow White was the Church of Scientology 's name for a project during the 1970s to purge unfavorable records about Scientology and its founder L With Mary Sue, Hubbard fathered four more children—Diana, Quentin, Suzette and Arthur—over the next six years. Geoffrey Quentin McCaully Hubbard ( 6 January[[ 954]] – 12 November[[ 976]] was the son of Scientology founder L
Quentin Hubbard, born in 1954, was groomed to one day replace him as head of the Scientology organization. Geoffrey Quentin McCaully Hubbard ( 6 January[[ 954]] – 12 November[[ 976]] was the son of Scientology founder L  Quentin was uninterested in his father's plans and had preferred to become a pilot. He was also deeply depressed, allegedly because he was homosexual.  Quentin attempted suicide in 1974, then in 1976 died under circumstances that might have been suicide or murder. 
On February 10, 1953 Hubbard was awarded an honorary Ph.D. by Sequoia University, California, "in recognition of his outstanding work and contributions in the fields of Dianetics and Scientology. An honorary degree or a degree honoris causa ( Latin: 'for the sake of the honour' is an Academic degree for which a university (or other degree-awarding "PhD" redirects here for other uses see PhD (disambiguation. Sequoia University was an unaccredited Higher education institution in Los Angeles, California which acquired a reputation as a prolific " " (This non-accredited body was closed by the California state courts 30 years later after it was investigated by California authorities on the grounds of being a mail-order "degree mill. A diploma mill (also known as a degree mill) is an organization that awards Academic degrees and Diplomas with substandard or no academic study and without ") In December of that year, Hubbard declared Scientology a religion and the first Church of Scientology was founded in Camden, New Jersey. The Church of Scientology is the largest organization devoted to the practice and the promotion of the Scientology belief system. The City of Camden is the County seat of Camden County, New Jersey, in the United States. He moved to England at about the same time, and during the remainder of the 1950s he supervised the growing organization from an office in London. England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. In 1959, he bought Saint Hill Manor near the Sussex town of East Grinstead, a Georgian manor house owned by the Maharajah of Jaipur. Saint Hill Manor is a Country house at Saint Hill Green near East Grinstead, West Sussex, England that serves as the location of the Sussex is a historic county in South East England corresponding roughly in area to the ancient Kingdom of Sussex. East Grinstead (archaically spelt Grimstead) is a town and Civil parish in the northeastern corner of Mid Sussex, West Sussex in England Georgian architecture is the name given in most English -speaking countries to the set of Architectural styles current between 1720 and 1840 The word Mahārāja (also spelled maharajah) is Sanskrit for "great king" or " High king " (a Karmadharaya from mahānt Jaipur ( Hindi: जयपुर also popularly known as the Pink City, is the capital of Rajasthan state, India. This became the world headquarters of Scientology. Hubbard says he conducted years of intensive research into the nature of human existence; to describe his findings, he developed an elaborate vocabulary with many newly coined terms.  He codified a set of Scientology axioms and an "applied religious philosophy" that promised to improve the condition of the human spirit, which he called the "Thetan. The English word " spirit " comes from the Latin " spiritus " (breath In Scientology, the concept of thetan (pronounced THAY-tan /'θeɪtən/ is similar to the concept of Spirit or Soul found in other belief systems " The bulk of Scientology focuses on the "rehabilitation" of the thetan.
Hubbard's followers believed his "technology" gave them access to their past lives, the traumas of which led to failures in the present unless they were audited. By this time, Hubbard had introduced a biofeedback device to the auditing process, which he called a "Hubbard Electropsychometer" or "E-meter. An E-meter is an electronic device used as an aid in some forms of Dianetics and Scientology auditing. " It was invented in the 1940s by a chiropractor and Dianetics enthusiast named Volney Mathison. Chiropractic is a Health care profession that focuses on diagnosis treatment and prevention of mechanical disorders of the Musculoskeletal system, with special emphasis Volney G Mathison was an American experimenter/hobbyist in early Biofeedback, Galvanic skin response technology and This machine is used by Scientologists in auditing to evaluate "mental masses" surrounding the thetan. These "masses" are said to impede the thetan from realizing its full potential.
Hubbard also said a good deal of physical disease was psychosomatic, and one who, like himself, had attained the enlightened state of "clear" and become an "Operating Thetan" would be relatively disease free. Psychosomatic medicine is an interdisciplinary medical field studying psychosomatic illness, now more commonly referred to as psychophysiologic illness or disorder In Scientology, the state of Operating Thetan (OT is a spiritual state above Clear. It is widely believed that achieving an Operating Thetan Level of III or higher enables the person to utilize a limited form of flight, although this has never been confirmed by Hubbard or anyone who has achieved that level. According to biographers, Hubbard went to great lengths to suppress his recourse to modern medicine, attributing symptoms to attacks by malicious forces, both spiritual and earthly. Hubbard insisted humanity was imperiled by such forces, which were the result of negative memories (or "engrams") stored in the unconscious or "reactive" mind, some carried by the immortal thetans for billions of years. Thus, Hubbard asserts, the only possibility for spiritual salvation was a concerted effort to "clear the planet," that is, to bring the benefits of Scientology to all people everywhere, and attack all forces, social and spiritual, hostile to the interests of the movement.
Church members were expected to pay fixed donation rates for courses, auditing, books and E-meters, all of which proved very lucrative for the Church, which paid emoluments directly to Hubbard and his family.  In a case fought by the Founding Church of Scientology of Washington, D. C. over its tax-exempt status (revoked in 1958 because of these emoluments) the findings of fact in the case included that Hubbard had personally received over $108,000 from the Church and affiliates over a four-year period, over and above the percentage of gross income (usually 10%) he received from Church-affiliated organizations. Gross income is commonly defined as the amount of a Company 's or a Person 's income before all deductions or any taxpayer’s income except that which is specifically  However, Hubbard denied such emoluments many times in writing, proclaiming he never received any money from the Church. 
L. Ron Hubbard's philosophy, Scientology, and the Church of Scientology that he founded are controversial. Some documents written by Hubbard himself suggest he regarded Scientology as a business, not a religion. In one letter dated April 10, 1953, he says calling Scientology a religion solves "a problem of practical business," and status as a religion achieves something "more equitable. . . with what we've got to sell. " In a 1962 official policy letter, he said "Scientology 1970 is being planned on a religious organization basis throughout the world. This will not upset in any way the usual activities of any organization. It is entirely a matter for accountants and solicitors. " The allegation from his 1940s colleagues that he saw religion as a way to become rich has cast further doubt on his motives. 
According to The Visual Encyclopedia of Science Fiction, ed. Brian Ash, Harmony Books, 1977: ". . . [Hubbard] began making statements to the effect that any writer who really wished to make money should stop writing and develop [a] religion, or devise a new psychiatric method. Harlan Ellison's version (Time Out, UK, No 332) is that Hubbard is reputed to have told John W. Campbell, 'I'm going to invent a religion that's going to make me a fortune. Harlan Jay Ellison (born May 27, 1934) is a prolific American Writer of Short stories, Novellas, Teleplays Time Out is a Publishing company based in London, England. The company's best known product is the Time Out weekly listings Magazine John Wood Campbell Jr (June 8 1910 – July 11 1971 was an important Science fiction editor and writer I'm tired of writing for a penny a word. ' Sam Moskowitz, a chronicler of science fiction, has reported that he himself heard Hubbard make a similar statement, but there is no first-hand evidence. Sam Moskowitz ( June 30, 1920 - April 15, 1997) was an early fan and organizer of interest in Science fiction and later a writer critic " Hubbard himself was also quoted as driving his people toward financial results. For example, in one of his bulletins to officials Hubbard implored:
"Make money. Make more money. Make others produce so as to make money . . . However you get them in or why, just do it. " and "Make sure that lots of bodies move through the shop,"
– L. Ron Hubbard
Scientology became a focus of controversy across the English-speaking world during the mid-1960s, with the United Kingdom, New Zealand, South Africa, the Australian state of Victoria and the Canadian province of Ontario all holding public inquiries into Scientology's activities. Scientologists and the Church of Scientology have been involved in many scandals and controversies Scientologists and the Church of Scientology have been involved in many scandals and controversies The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located New Zealand is an Island country in the south-western Pacific Ocean comprising two main landmasses (the North Island and the South Island The Republic of South Africa (also known by other official names) is a country located at the southern tip of the continent of Africa For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page Ontario (ɒnˈtɛrioʊ is a province located in the central part of Canada, the largest by population and second largest after Quebec  Hubbard left this unwanted attention behind in 1966, when he moved to Rhodesia, following Ian Smith's Unilateral Declaration of Independence. Rhodesia was the name adopted when the formerly British colony of Southern Rhodesia declared itself independent ( Unilateral Declaration of Independence Ian Douglas Smith GCLM ID ( 8 April 1919 &ndash 20 November 2007) served as the Prime Minister of the British The Unilateral Declaration of Independence ( UDI) of Rhodesia from the United Kingdom was signed on November 11, 1965 by the administration Attempting to ingratiate himself with the white minority government, he offered to invest large sums in Rhodesia's economy, then hit by UN sanctions, but was asked to leave the country. In 1967, L. Ron Hubbard further distanced himself from the controversy attached to Scientology by resigning as executive director of the church and appointing himself "Commodore" of a small fleet of Scientologist-crewed ships that spent the next eight years cruising the Mediterranean Sea. Commodore is a Military rank used in many navies for officers whose position exceeds that of a navy captain, but is less than Here, Hubbard formed the religious order known as the "Sea Organization" or "Sea Org," with titles and uniforms. The Sea Organization or Sea Org is an association of Scientologists established in 1968 by L The Sea Org subsequently became the management group within Hubbard's Scientology empire.
He was attended by "Commodore's Messengers," teenage girls dressed in white hot pants who waited on him hand and foot, fixing his shower and dressing him and even catching the ash from his cigarettes. "Hot Pants" redirects here For the James Brown song see Hot Pants (song Shorts are a Garment worn by both men and women over  He had frequent screaming tantrums and instituted brutal punishments such as incarceration in the ship's filthy chain-locker for days or weeks at a time and "overboarding," in which errant crew members were blindfolded, bound and thrown overboard, dropping up to 40 ft (12 m) into the cold sea, hoping not to hit the side of the ship with its sharp barnacles on the way down. A barnacle is a type of Arthropod belonging to infraclass Cirripedia in the subphylum Crustacea, and is hence distantly related to  Some of these punishments, such as imprisonment in the chain-locker, were applied to children as well as to adults.  A letter Hubbard wrote to his third wife, Mary Sue, when he was in Las Palmas around 1967: "I’m drinking lots of rum and popping pinks and greys. . . " The author of an unauthorized Hubbard biography also says that "John McMasters told me that on the flagship Apollo in the late sixties he witnessed Hubbard's drug supply. 'It was the largest drug chest I had ever seen. He had everything!'".  This was confirmed by Gerry Armstrong through Virginia Downsborough who said in 1967 Hubbard returned to Las Palmas totally debilitated from drugs. Gerry Armstrong is a former member of the Church of Scientology who is now one of the most active critics of the Church 
|“||We found him a hotel in Las Palmas and the next day I went back to see if he was all right, because he did not seem to be too well. When I went in to his room, there were drugs of all kinds everywhere. He seemed to be taking about sixty thousand different pills. I was appalled, particularly after listening to all his tirades against drugs and the medical profession. There was something very wrong with him. . . My main concern was to try and get him off all the pills he was on and persuade him that there was still plenty for him to do.||”|
"He was existing almost totally on a diet of drugs. For three weeks Hubbard was bedridden, while she weaned him off his habit. " His drug use appears to pre-date the 1967 accounts.  A letter written by Hubbard to his ex-wife was given special attention in the Church of Scientology v. Armstrong case,
I do love you, even if I used to be an opium addict.
– L. Ron Hubbard
In March of 1969, the Greek Government branded L. Ron Hubbard and his group of 200 disciples "undesirables". The group had been living aboard the 3,300 ton Panamanian ship Apollo and had been docked in the harbor of Corfu island since August. Corfu (Κέρκυρα Kérkyra, ˈkʲe̞ɾkʲiɾa Κέρκυρα or Κόρκυρα Corcyra Corfù is a Greek island in the Ionian Sea On March 18th, local authorities issued a 24-hour ultimatum to the scientologists, but Hubbard was granted an extension due to engine problems. The expulsion order was the result of mounting pressure from American, British, and Australian diplomats to examine the activities of the Apollo occupants. Most of the occupants were American, some were British, Australian, and South African. 
In 1977, Scientology offices on both coasts of the United States were raided by FBI agents seeking evidence of Operation Snow White, a church-run espionage network. Operation Snow White was the Church of Scientology 's name for a project during the 1970s to purge unfavorable records about Scientology and its founder L Hubbard's wife Mary Sue and a dozen other senior Scientology officials were convicted in 1979 of conspiracy against the United States federal government, while Hubbard himself was named by federal prosecutors as an "unindicted co-conspirator. Mary Sue Hubbard (born Mary Sue Whipp) ( 17 June 1931 &ndash 25 November, 2002) was the third wife of American pulp fiction The federal government of the United States is the central United States Governmental body established by the United States Constitution. " At this time the IRS also had evidence that he had skimmed millions of dollars from church accounts and secreted the funds to destinations overseas. The  Facing intense media interest and many subpoenas, he secretly retired to a ranch in tiny Creston, California, north of San Luis Obispo. San Luis Obispo (sænˈluːɪs əˈbɪspoʊ Spanish for St Louis the Bishop) is a city in California, located roughly midway between San Francisco
In 1978, as part of a case against three French Scientologists, Hubbard was convicted of "making fraudulent promises" and given a four year prison sentence and a 35,000₣ fine by a French court.  Hubbard was not in the country at the time of the trial, and didn't retain legal assistance. The case was subsequently appealed by one of the other convicts in 1980. During this appeal, the court indicated that all those who had been convicted could be pardoned, if they filed their own appeals against the original ruling. A second defendant did in 1981, and the fraud charges were canceled by judgment on November 9, 1981. Hubbard himself never took any action, and the fine was never enforced. 
Hubbard's refusal to speak with British immigration officials about this conviction is said to have later caused the British Home Office to re-affirm an earlier decision to bar him from the UK. The Home Office is the United Kingdom government department responsible for security and order  In 1989 however the then Home Office Minister of State, Tim Renton, confirmed in writing that from 1980 until the date of his death, Hubbard had been free to apply for entry to the United Kingdom under the ordinary immigration rules and that any ban had been lifted on July 16, 1980. Ronald Timothy Renton Baron Renton of Mount Harry, PC (b 28 May 1932) is a British Conservative Party politician 
The accuracy of Hubbard's self-representations were challenged in court during a 1984 custody case of a Scientologist and his former wife about two of their children. The judgment of the High court of London (Family Division) quotes the single judge, Latey, that Scientology is "dangerous, immoral, sinister and corrupt" and "has its real objective money and power for Mr. For the Cameroonian court by this name see High Court of Justice (Cameroon, for the Israeli court of this name see Supreme Court of Israel. Hubbard. "
The 1965 Anderson Report, an inquiry on Hubbard and Scientology held in Australia, presented Hubbard as a man who made "pretentious and completely misleading pronouncements on scientific matters of which he is ignorant" based on knowledge that was "fragmentary and inaccurate and sometimes positively incorrect. This article refers to a Report on Scientology For the Anderson Report into UK Higher Education see Anderson Report. "
All that he writes and says is either accepted by his followers or, at the very least, it is not rejected. They are taught that they are entitled to question his pronouncements, but they are conditioned to the belief that whatever he says is right. 
A later finding in the report addresses his assertion of medical knowledge and ability by saying:
Hubbard's claims to have found the only known cure for atomic radiation effects is not only unsubstantiated, but, in view of its obvious military value, hardly likely to have been left uninvestigated by military authorities if it was of any value whatever. 
"Fair Game" was introduced by Hubbard as a policy against people or groups that "actively seeks to suppress or damage Scientology or a Scientologist by Suppressive Acts. The term Fair Game is used to describe various aggressive policies and practices carried out by the Church of Scientology towards people and groups it perceives as its enemies " He defined it as: ENEMY — SP Order. Fair game. May be deprived of property or injured by any means by any Scientologist without any discipline of the Scientologist. May be tricked, sued or lied to or destroyed. 
In July 1968, Hubbard revised this definition to a somewhat milder wording: ENEMY — Suppressive Person order. Suppressive Person, often abbreviated SP, is a term used in Scientology to describe the "antisocial personalities" who according to Scientology's founder May not be communicated with by anyone except an Ethics Officer, Master at Arms, a Hearing Officer or a Board or Committee. May be restrained or imprisoned. May not be protected by any rules or laws of the group he sought to injure as he sought to destroy or bar fair practices for others. May not be trained or processed or admitted to any org.  The use of the expression "Fair Game" was canceled altogether in October 1968, with Hubbard stating that
The practice of declaring people FAIR GAME will cease. FAIR GAME may not appear on any Ethics Order. It causes bad public relations. This P/L does not cancel any policy on the treatment or handling of an SP.
– L. Ron Hubbard
Hubbard later explained that:
There was never any attempt or intent on my part by the writing of these policies (or any others for that fact), to authorize illegal or harassment type acts against anyone. As soon as it became apparent to me that the concept of 'Fair Game' as described above was being misinterpreted by the uninformed, to mean the granting of a license to Scientologists for acts in violation of the law and/or other standards of decency, these policies were canceled. "
– L. Ron Hubbard
While the number of incidents involving so-called dirty tricks or unethical actions dropped in the years that followed, several judges and juries have through their decisions or comments asserted that the tactics continued beyond Hubbard's order canceling use of the term Fair Game in 1968. 
In the mid-1970s Hubbard decided to end his life at sea and covertly returned to the United States, living for a while in Florida. Florida ( is a state located in the southeastern region of the United States, bordering Alabama to the northwest and Georgia to the 
During the 1980s Hubbard returned to science fiction, publishing Battlefield Earth and Mission Earth, both of which were very long works, the latter being published as a ten volume series. Battlefield Earth is a Science fiction novel written by Scientology founder L He also wrote an unpublished screenplay called Revolt in the Stars in 1977, which dramatizes Scientology's OT III teachings. See also Pre-production Screenwriting A screenplay or script is a written plan authored by a Screenwriter, for a Film or Television Revolt in the Stars is a Science fiction film Screenplay written by Scientology founder and Science fiction writer L The year 1977 in film involved some significant events Events In the Academy Awards, Peter Finch, Faye Dunaway In Scientology, the state of Operating Thetan (OT is a spiritual state above Clear.  Hubbard's later science fiction sold well and received mixed reviews, but some press reports describe how sales of Hubbard's books were inflated by Scientologists purchasing large numbers of copies in order to manipulate the bestseller charts.  While claiming to be entirely divorced from the Scientology management, Hubbard continued to draw income from the Scientology enterprises; Forbes magazine estimated "at least $200 million gathered in Hubbard's name through 1982". Forbes is an American Publishing and media company Its flagship publication Forbes magazine is published bi-weekly 
Hubbard died at his ranch on January 24, 1986, aged 74, reportedly from a stroke. Events 41 - Gaius Caesar (Caligula, known for his eccentricity and cruel Despotism, is Assassinated by his disgruntled Year 1986 ( MCMLXXXVI) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar) A stroke is the rapidly developing loss of brain functions due to a disturbance in the blood vessels supplying blood to the brain  Scientology attorneys arrived to claim his body, which they sought to have cremated immediately per his will. Cremation is the act of reducing a Corpse by burning, generally in a crematorium furnace or crematory fire They were blocked by the San Luis Obispo County medical examiner, who ordered a drug toxicology test of a blood sample from Hubbard's corpse. San Luis Obispo County is a county located along the Pacific Ocean in the Central Coast of the U A coroner is an official responsible for investigating deaths particularly some of those happening under unusual circumstances and determining the cause of death The examination revealed a trace amount of the drug hydroxyzine (brand name Vistaril). Hydroxyzine (haɪˈdrɒksɨziːn is a first-generation antihistamine of the Piperazine class that is an H1 receptor antagonist  Vistaril is an antihistamine and mild sedative sometimes used for symptomatic treatment of anxiety, neurosis or as an adjunct in non-related diseases in which anxiety is apparent. Hydroxyzine (haɪˈdrɒksɨziːn is a first-generation antihistamine of the Piperazine class that is an H1 receptor antagonist A histamine antagonist is an agent which serves to inhibit the release or action of Histamine. This article describes the term in psychology For the experimental metal band see Neurosis (band. It is also useful as an anti-emetic (to prevent nausea), and in treating allergic pruritus such as chronic urticaria and atopic and contact dermatoses. An anti-emetic is a drug that is effective against Vomiting and Nausea. Nausea ( Latin: Nausea, Greek:, " Sea-sickness " also called wamble) is the sensation of unease and discomfort Itch ( Latin: pruritus) is an unpleasant Sensation that evokes the desire or Reflex to scratch Atopy (/ˈætəpi/ Greek ἀτοπία - placelessness or atopic syndrome is an allergic Hypersensitivity affecting parts of the body In Medicine, a dermatosis is a generic term for disease of the skin.  After the blood was taken, Hubbard's remains were cremated.
The Church of Scientology announced Hubbard had deliberately discarded his body to do "higher level spiritual research," unencumbered by mortal confines, and was now living "on a planet a galaxy away. Official Scientology views on sex are based on the written works of Church of Scientology founder L " In May 1987, David Miscavige, one of Hubbard's former personal assistants, assumed the position of Chairman of the Religious Technology Center (RTC), a corporation that owns the trademarked names and symbols of Dianetics and Scientology ("L. David Miscavige (born April 30 1960 is Chairman of the board of Religious Technology Center (RTC a corporation that controls the trademarked names The Religious Technology Center (RTC is a Californian 501(c(3 Non-profit corporation. Ron Hubbard" is now a trademark of the RTC     ). Although Religious Technology Center is a separate corporation from the Church of Scientology International, Miscavige is also the ecclesiastical leader of the religion. Ecclesiology (from Greek grc ἐκκλησίᾱ ekklēsiā, "congregation church" and grc -λογία -logia) is the study of the  Heber Jentzsch is the President of Church of Scientology International. Heber Carl Jentzsch (born 1935 has served as president of the Church of Scientology International since 1982 
Publicly, Hubbard was sociable and charming.  Privately, he wrote entries in his notebook like "All men are your slaves," and "You can be merciless whenever your will is crossed and you have the right to be merciless. " After a 1940 sailing trip that ended with engine trouble on his yacht, he began a three-month stay in Ketchikan, Alaska. Ketchikan (ˈkɛtʃɪkæn is a city in Ketchikan Gateway Borough, Alaska, United States and the southeasternmost sizable city in that state Hubbard worked as the host of a popular maritime radio show where he was known as a "charismatic storyteller". He also incurred a debt from First National Bank in the amount of $350 which was not repaid. . Hubbard was also apparently interested in and talented at hypnosis. Hypnosis is often thought to be a wakeful state of focused attention and heightened suggestibility with diminished peripheral awareness  In a 1948 demonstration for a gathering of science fiction buffs in Los Angeles, Hubbard successfully convinced one person he was cradling a baby kangaroo. 
But during this same period, Hubbard was financially destitute, and suffered from feelings of depression as well as suicidal thoughts, according to a letter he wrote in 1947 requesting assistance from Veterans Affairs. The United States Department of Veterans Affairs ( VA) is a government-run military Veteran benefit system with Cabinet -level status 
Toward the end of my (military) service, I avoided out of pride any mental examinations, hoping that time would balance a mind which I had every reason to suppose was seriously affected. . . . I cannot account for nor rise above long periods of moroseness and suicidal inclinations, and have newly come to realize that I must first triumph above this before I can hope to rehabilitate myself at all.
– L. Ron Hubbard
Hubbard was prone to self-aggrandizement and exaggeration, and in 1938, he wrote a letter to then-wife Margaret "Polly" Grubb reading, "I have high hopes of smashing my name into history so violently that it will take a legendary form, even if all the books are destroyed. That goal is the real goal as far as I am concerned. " In 1984, during the Church of Scientology's lawsuit against Gerry Armstrong, Judge Paul G. Gerry Armstrong is a former member of the Church of Scientology who is now one of the most active critics of the Church Breckenridge Jr. described Hubbard as "charismatic and highly capable of motivating, organizing, controlling, manipulating and inspiring his adherents. " However, the judge ruled against the Church, and in so doing said, "The evidence portrays a man who has been virtually a pathological liar when it comes to his history, background and achievements. "
Hubbard was regarded as abusive by some family members and former associates. He married his second wife, Sara Northrup, on August 10, 1946, without revealing his existing marriage and children.  This was one reason for her later divorce from Hubbard. During those legal proceedings, Northrup alleged abuse by Hubbard, and produced a letter she received from Margaret "Polly" Grubb during the proceedings recounting her treatment by him.  It reads, in part,
|“||Ron is not normal. . . I had hoped you could straighten him out. Your charges probably sound fantastic to the average person – but I've been through it – the beatings, threats on my life, all the sadistic traits which you charge – 12 years of it. ||”|
And several of those trusted to be near him say Hubbard was prone to emotional fits when he became upset, using insults and obscenities. Former Scientologist Adelle Hartwell once described such an outburst: "I actually saw him take his hat off one day and stomp on it and cry like a baby. "
But the financial windfall that came with the success of Scientology allowed Hubbard to hide this and other aspects of his personality that contrasted with the image of himself currently celebrated by Scientologists, who regard Hubbard as "mankind's greatest friend".  The few who worked at his side saw personality flaws and quirks not reflected in the staged photographs or in Hubbard's church-produced biographies. 
Hubbard was an unusually prolific author and lecturer. This is an incomplete bibliography of Scientology and Scientology-related books produced within the Church of Scientology and its related organizations Because the majority of Hubbard's writings of the 1950s through to the 1970s were aimed exclusively at Scientologists, the Church of Scientology founded its own companies to publish his works - Bridge Publications for the US and Canadian market and New Era Publications, based in Denmark, for the rest of the world. Bridge Publications Inc (BPI is a Californian 501(c(3 Non-profit corporation. Bridge Publications Inc (BPI is a Californian 501(c(3 Non-profit corporation. The Kingdom of Denmark ( ˈd̥ænmɑɡ̊ (archaic ˈd̥anmɑːɡ̊ commonly known as Denmark, is a country in the Scandinavian region of northern Europe New volumes of his transcribed lectures continue to be produced; that series alone will ultimately total a projected 110 large volumes. Hubbard also wrote a number of works of fiction during the 1930s and 1980s, which are published by the Scientology-owned Galaxy Press. Galaxy Press is a trade name set up to publish and promote the fiction worksof L All three of these publishing companies are subordinate to Author Services Inc., another Scientology corporation. Author Services Inc (ASI is a Literary agency in Hollywood California that represents only one author the late Scientology founder L
Hubbard was awarded the 1994 Ig Nobel Prize in Literature (a parody of the Nobel -- the name derives from the word "ignoble") for "his crackling Good Book, Dianetics, which is highly profitable to mankind—or to a portion thereof. The Ig Nobel Prizes are a Parody of the Nobel Prizes and are given each year in early October — around the time the recipients of the genuine Nobel Prizes are "
In 2006, Guinness World Records declared Hubbard the world's most published and most translated author, having published 1,084 fiction and non-fiction works that have been translated into 71 languages. Guinness World Records, known until 2000 as The Guinness Book of Records (and in previous U 
A selection of Hubbard's best-known titles are below; a bibliography of Hubbard's more popular work is available in a separate article.
Fictional versions of L. Ron Hubbard have appeared in countless novels, motion pictures, television cartoons, video games and other media, particularly in the form of parodies. A parody (ˈpɛɹədiː US, [ˈpaɹədiː] UK) in contemporary usage is a work created to mock comment on or poke fun at an original work its subject (See Scientology in popular culture. Scientology has been referenced in Popular culture in many different forms of media including Fiction, Film, Music, Television and )