Lübeck ( pronunc.; Danish: Lybæk) is the second largest city in Schleswig-Holstein, in northern Germany, and one of the major ports of Germany. Danish ( d̥ænsɡ̊ is one of the North Germanic languages (also called Scandinavian languages a sub-group of the Germanic branch of the A city is an Urban area with a large Population and a particular Administrative, Legal, or Historical status is the northernmost of the 16 ''Bundesländer'' in Germany. The former English name was Sleswick-Holsatia the Danish name is Northern Germany is the geographic area in the north of Germany. ||-||-|-||-||-||-||-||-||-|} A port is a facility for receiving Ships and transferring cargo Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. It was for several centuries the "capital" of the Hanseatic League ("Queen of the Hanse") and because of its Brick Gothic architectural heritage is on UNESCO's list of World Heritage Sites. The Hanseatic League (also known as the Hansa) was an alliance of trading cities and their Guilds that established and maintained trade Brick Gothic (Backsteingotik is a reduced style of Gothic architecture common in Northern Europe, especially in Northern Germany and the regions around United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization ( UNESCO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established on November 16 A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a site (such as a Forest, Mountain, Lake, Desert, Monument, Building, complex In 2005 it has a population of 213,983.
Situated at the Trave River, Lübeck is the largest German port on the Baltic Sea. For other meanings see ''trave'' in Wiktionary The Trave (ˈtʁaːvə is a River of Schleswig-Holstein in northern Germany The old part of the town is an island enclosed by the Trave. The Elbe-Lübeck Canal connects the Trave with the Elbe River. The Elbe-Lübeck Canal (also known as "Elbe-Trave Canal" is an artificial waterway in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany. The Elbe ( die Elbe Low German: de Ilv) is one of the major Rivers of Central Europe. Another important river near the town center is the Wakenitz. The Wakenitz is a River in southeastern Schleswig-Holstein whose source is the Ratzeburger See in Ratzeburg. Autobahn 1 connects Lübeck with Hamburg and Denmark (Vogelfluglinie). is an Autobahn in Germany. It runs from Oldenburg in Holstein to Saarbrücken, a distance of 730km (456 miles but is incomplete between Cologne Hamburg (English, German: ˈhambʊɐk local pronunciation Low German / Low Saxon: Hamborg) is the second-largest city in Germany The Kingdom of Denmark ( ˈd̥ænmɑɡ̊ (archaic ˈd̥anmɑːɡ̊ commonly known as Denmark, is a country in the Scandinavian region of northern Europe The Vogelfluglinie (German or Fugleflugtslinien (Danish is a Transport corridor between Copenhagen, Denmark, and Hamburg, Germany The borough Travemünde is a sea resort and ferry port at the coast of the Baltic Sea. Travemünde is a borough of Lübeck, Germany, located at the mouth of river Trave in Lübeck Bay. The Baltic Sea is a Brackish inland sea located in Northern Europe, from 53°N to 66°N Latitude and from 20°E to 26°E Longitude.
The area around Lübeck was settled after the last Ice Age. Liubice, also known by the German name Alt-Lübeck ("Old Lübeck" was a medieval West Slavic settlement near the site of modern Lübeck The Free and Hanseatic City of Lübeck was a city-state that existed from 1226 to 1937 in the present-day German states of Schleswig-Holstein and Mecklenburg-Vorpommern Several Neolithic dolmens can be found in the area. The Neolithic (from Greek νεολιθικός — neolithikos from νέος neos, "new" + λίθος lithos A dolmen (also known as cromlech, anta, Hünengrab, Hunebed, Goindol, quoit, and portal dolmen) is a type of
In addition, around 700 AD Slavic peoples started to come into the eastern parts of Holstein which had been left by many Germanic inhabitants in the course of the Migration Period. The Germanic peoples are a historical group of Indo-European -speaking peoples originating in Northern Europe and identified by their use of the Germanic The Migration Period, also called Barbarian Invasions, or sometimes Völkerwanderung ( German for "wandering of peoples" is the English name By the early 9th century Charlemagne, whose Christianisation attempts were opposed by Saxons, moved Saxons out and brought in Polabian Slavs, who were allied to Charlemagne, in their stead. Charlemagne (ˈʃɑrlɨmeɪn Carolus Magnus or Karolus Magnus meaning Charles the Great) (747 – 28 January 814 was King of the Franks from 768 to his The historical phenomenon of Christianization (or Christianisation &mdash see spelling differences) the conversion of individuals to Christianity The Saxons or Saxon people were a Confederation of Old Germanic tribes. Liubice ("lovely") was founded on the Trave banks about four kilometres north of the present-day city centre of Lübeck. Liubice, also known by the German name Alt-Lübeck ("Old Lübeck" was a medieval West Slavic settlement near the site of modern Lübeck In the 10th century it became the most important settlement of the Obotrite confederacy and a castle was built. The Obotrites (Abodriten also commonly known as the Obodrites, Abotrites, or Abodrites, were a confederation of medieval West Slavic tribes The settlement was burned down in 1128 by pagan Rani from Rügen. The Rani or Rujani (Ranen Rujanen) were a West Slavic Tribe based on the island of Rugia and the southwestern mainland across the Rügen (ˈʁyːgən or Rugia is Germany 's largest Island. It is located in the Baltic Sea off the coast of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern
The modern town was founded by Adolf II, Count of Schauenburg and Holstein, in 1143 as a German settlement on the river island Bucu. Adolf II (c 1128 &ndash 6 July 1164) was the Count of Schauenburg and Holstein from 1130 until his death though he was briefly out of Holstein Bucu or Buku is a hill Island surrounded by the Trave and Wakenitz Rivers in Lübeck, Germany. He established a new castle which was first mentioned by Helmold in 1147. Helmold of Bosau (ca 1120 &ndash after 1177 was a Saxon Historian of the 12th century and a Priest at Bosau near Plön. Adolf had to cede the castle to Henry the Lion in 1158. Henry the Lion ( German: Heinrich der Löwe; 1129 &ndash 6 August 1195) was a member of the Guelph dynasty and Duke of Saxony After Henry's fall in 1181, the town became an Imperial city for eight years. In the Holy Roman Empire, a free imperial city (in German: freie Reichsstadt) was a City formally ruled by the Emperor only &mdash Emperor Barbarossa gave the city a ruling council with twenty members that survived into the 19th century. Frederick I Barbarossa (1122 &ndash 10 June 1190) was elected King of Germany at Frankfurt on 4 March 1152 and crowned This council was dominated by merchants and caused Lübeck's politics to be dominated by trade interests for centuries to come.
The town and castle changed ownership for a period afterwards and was part of the Duchy of Saxony until 1192, of the County of Holstein until 1217 and part of Denmark until the Battle of Bornhöved in 1227. The mediæval Duchy of Saxony was a late Early Middle Ages "Carolingian Stem duchy " covering the greater part of Northern Germany. Holstein (ˈhɔlʃtain ( Low German: Holsteen, Danish: Holsten, Latin and historical English: Holsatia) The Kingdom of Denmark ( ˈd̥ænmɑɡ̊ (archaic ˈd̥anmɑːɡ̊ commonly known as Denmark, is a country in the Scandinavian region of northern Europe The (second Battle of Bornhöved took place on 22 July 1227 near Bornhöved in Holstein.
Around 1200 the port became the main point of departure for colonists leaving for the Baltic territories conquered by the Livonian Order and, later, Teutonic Order. The Livonian Order was autonomous Livonian branch of the Teutonic Order and a member of the Livonian Confederation from 1418&ndash1561 The Teutonic Order is a German Roman Catholic religious order. In 1226 Emperor Frederick II elevated the town to an Imperial Free City, becoming the Free City of Lübeck. Frederick II ( December 26, 1194 &ndash December 13, 1250) of the Hohenstaufen dynasty was a Pretender to the title In the Holy Roman Empire, a free imperial city (in German: freie Reichsstadt) was a City formally ruled by the Emperor only &mdash The Free and Hanseatic City of Lübeck was a city-state that existed from 1226 to 1937 in the present-day German states of Schleswig-Holstein and Mecklenburg-Vorpommern In the 14th century Lübeck became the "Queen of the Hanseatic League", being by far the largest and most powerful member of this mediaeval trade organization. The Hanseatic League (also known as the Hansa) was an alliance of trading cities and their Guilds that established and maintained trade In 1375, Emperor Charles IV. named Lübeck one of the five "Glories of the Empire", a title shared with Venice, Rome, Pisa and Florence. Charles IV ( Czech: Karel IV, German: Karl IV, Hungarian: IV Károly; 14 May 1316 &ndash Venice ( Italian: Venezia, Venetian: Venesia or Venexia) is a city in Northern Italy, the capital of the Rome ( Roma ˈroma Roma is the capital city of Italy and Lazio, and is Italy's largest and most populous city with more than 2 Pisa is a city in Tuscany, central Italy, on the right bank of the mouth of the Arno River on the Ligurian Sea. Florence ( Italian: Firenze Florentia and Fiorenza) is the Capital City of the Italian region of Tuscany Several conflicts about trade privileges were fought by Lübeck and the Hanseatic League against Denmark and Norway with varying outcomes. While Lübeck and the Hanseatic League prevailed in conflicts in 1435 and 1512, Lübeck lost when it became involved in the Count's Feud, a civil war that raged in Denmark from 1534 to 1536. The Hanseatic League (also known as the Hansa) was an alliance of trading cities and their Guilds that established and maintained trade The Count's Feud (Grevens Fejde also called the Count's War, was a Civil war that raged in Denmark in 1534&ndash1536 and brought about the Reformation Lübeck also joined the Schmalkaldic League. The Schmalkaldic League (Schmalkaldischer Bund was a defensive alliance of Lutheran princes within the Holy Roman Empire during the mid- 16th
After defeat in the Count's Feud, Lübeck's power slowly declined. The Count's Feud (Grevens Fejde also called the Count's War, was a Civil war that raged in Denmark in 1534&ndash1536 and brought about the Reformation Lübeck managed to remain neutral in the Thirty Years' War, but with the devastation caused by the decades-long war and the new transatlantic orientation of European trade, the Hanseatic League and thus Lübeck lost importance. For the Mauritanian Thirty Years' War see Char Bouba war. For the band see The 30 Years War. After the Hanseatic League was de facto disbanded in 1669, Lübeck remained an important trading town on the Baltic Sea.
The great composer, Dieterich Buxtehude became organist at the Marienkirche in Lübeck in 1668 and remained at the post until at least 1703. Dieterich Buxtehude ( Dietrich, Diderich) (c 1637 &ndash 9 May 1707 was a German-Danish Organist, Lutenist The Protestant Marienkirche ( St Mary's church in Lübeck ( German: Lübecker Marienkirche or officially Marien zu Lübeck
In course of the war of the Fourth Coalition against Napoleon, troops under Bernadotte occupied the neutral Lübeck after a battle against Blücher on November 6th, 1806. The Fourth Coalition against Napoleon's French Empire was defeated in a war spanning 1806&ndash1807 Napoleon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821 was a French military and political leader who had a significant impact on the History of Europe. Charles XIV John ( Karl XIV Johan) born Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte, later renamed Jean-Baptiste Jules Bernadotte (26 January 1763 &ndash 8 March 1844 Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher Fürst (Prince von Wahlstatt (gɛphaɐt lebəʁɛçt fɔn blyçɐ December 16 1742 - September 12 1819 Under the Continental System, the bank went into bankruptcy and from 1811 to 1813 Lübeck was formally annexed as part of France until the Vienna Congress of 1815. The Continental System was the Foreign policy of Napoleon I of France in his struggle against the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland during the This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. The Congress of Vienna was a conference of ambassadors of the major powers of Europe, chaired by the Austrian statesman Clemens Wenzel von Metternich
During World War II, Lübeck was the first German city to be attacked in substantial numbers by the Royal Air Force. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including The attack on 28 March 1942 created a firestorm, that caused severe damage to the historic centre and the Bombing of Lübeck in World War II destroyed three of the main churches and greater parts of the built-up area. Events 37 - Roman Emperor Caligula accepts the titles of the Principate, entitled to him by the Senate. Year 1942 ( MCMXLII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. A firestorm is a Conflagration which attains such intensity that it creates and sustains its own wind system Lübeck was bombed for the first time by the Royal Air Force on the night of 28 / 29 March 1942. A POW camp for officers, Oflag X-C, was located near the city from 1940 until April 1945. A prisoner-of-war camp is a site for the containment of enemy combatants captured by the enemy in time of war and is similar to an Internment camp which is used for civilian Oflag X-C was a World War II German Prisoner-of-war camp for officers located near Lübeck in northern Germany Lübeck was occupied without resistance by the Second Army on May 2, 1945. The British Second Army existed in both the First and Second World Wars World War I During World War I, the army was formed on Events 1194 - King Richard I of England gives Portsmouth its first Royal Charter. Year 1945 ( MCMXLV) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar
On May 3, 1945, one of the biggest disasters in naval history happened in the Bay of Lübeck when Allied bombers sank three ships which, unknown to them, were packed with concentration-camp inmates presumably being transported to an execution site. Events 1491 - Kongo monarch Nkuwu Nzinga is baptised by Portuguese missionaries adopting the baptismal name of João Year 1945 ( MCMXLV) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar The Bay of Lübeck (Lübecker Bucht is a basin in the southwestern Baltic Sea, off the shores of German lands of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern and Schleswig-Holstein History The 27561 gross ton Cap Arcona, named after Cape Arkona on the island of Rügen in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, was About 7,000 people were killed.
Lübeck's population grew considerably from about 150,000 in 1939 to more than 220,000 after the war, owing to an influx of refugees expelled from the former Eastern provinces of Germany. The former eastern territories of Germany (ehemalige deutsche Ostgebiete describes collectively those Provinces or Regions east of the current eastern
Lübeck remained part of Schleswig-Holstein after the war and was situated directly at the inner German border during the division of Germany into two rival states in the Cold War period. The inner German border ( German: Innerdeutsche Grenze or Deutsch-Deutsche Grenze, informal Zonengrenze) was an extensive system of fortifications Cold War is the state of conflict tension and competition that existed between the United States and the Soviet Union (USSR and their respective allies from the South of the city the border followed the path of the river Wakenitz that separated both countries by less than 10 m in many parts. The northernmost border crossing was in Lübeck's district of Schlutup.
Lübeck's restored historic city centre became a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1987. United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization ( UNESCO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established on November 16 A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a site (such as a Forest, Mountain, Lake, Desert, Monument, Building, complex
Much of the old town has kept a medieval look with old buildings and narrow streets. A Crow-stepped gable is a stair-step type of design at the top of the triangular Gable -end of a building The town once could only be entered by passing one of four town gates, of which two remain today, the well-known Holstentor (1478) and the Burgtor (1444). A city gate is a Gate which is or was set within a City wall. The Holstentor ("Holsten Gate" is a late Brick Gothic City gate, the only still existing one beside the Burgtor and part of the medieval The Burgtor, built 1444 in late Gothic style was the northern City gate of Hanseatic Lübeck, now in Germany.
The old town centre is dominated by seven church steeples. The oldest ones are the Lübecker Dom (the city's cathedral) and the Marienkirche (Saint Mary's), both from the 13th and 14th centuries. The Lübeck Cathedral ( German: Dom zu Lübeck, or colloquially Lübecker Dom) is a large Brick Lutheran cathedral in Lübeck The Protestant Marienkirche ( St Mary's church in Lübeck ( German: Lübecker Marienkirche or officially Marien zu Lübeck
Other sights include:
Lübeck has many smaller museums like the St. Annen Museum, the Behnhaus and the Holstentor. St Annen Museum ( St Anne's Museum) is a museum and art exhibition hall in Lübeck, Germany. The Behnhaus is an art museum in the Hanseatic city of Lübeck, Germany, and part of its World heritage site The Holstentor ("Holsten Gate" is a late Brick Gothic City gate, the only still existing one beside the Burgtor and part of the medieval Lübeck Museum of Theatre Puppets is a privately run museum. The Lübeck Museum of Theatre Puppets (in German: " TheaterFigurenMuseum Lübeck " is a museum of international Puppetry in the Hanseatic Waterside attractions are a lightvessel that served Fehmarnbelt and Lisa von Lübeck, a reconstruction of a Hanseatic 15th century caravel. A lightvessel, or lightship, is a Ship which acts as a Lighthouse. Fehmarn Belt ( Danish: Femern Bælt, formerly also spelled Femer Bælt) is a Strait connecting the Bay of Kiel and the Bay Lisa von Lübeck is the reconstruction of a 15th century Caravel with homeport Lübeck, Germany. This article is about the Caravel boat type For the carvel type of boat building see Carvel (boat building.
Lübeck is very famous for its excellent marzipan industry, and according to local legend, Marzipan was first made in Lübeck possibly in response to either a military siege of the city, or a famine year. For the character in the animated internet cartoon see Homestar Runner. The story, perhaps apocryphal, is that the town ran out of all foods except stored almonds and sugar, and used these to make loaves of marzipan "bread". Others believe that marzipan was actually invented in Persia a few hundred years before Lübeck claims to have invented it. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iran topics. The best known producer is Niederegger, which tourists often visit while in Lübeck, especially during Christmas time. JG Niederegger GmbH & Co KG is a worldwide acknowledged producer of Marzipan and sweets based in Lübeck, Germany.
Like many other places in Germany, Lübeck has a long tradition with Christmas market in December, which includes the famous handicrafts market inside the Heiligen-Geist-Hospital (Hospital of the Holy Spirit), located at the north end of Königstrasse.
The Lübeck wine trade, dates back to Hanseatic times. One Lübeck specialty is Rotspon, wine made from grapes processed and fermented in France and transported in wooden barrels to Lübeck, where it is stored, aged and bottled.
Lübeck's only newspaper is Lübecker Nachrichten. The Lübecker Nachrichten ( LN; German for Lübeck News) is a regional daily Newspaper in Germany, covering
The industrial Lübeck-Herrenwyk area, houses the static inverter plant of the HVDC Baltic-Cable. Herrenwyk is a part of Lübeck. Herrenwyk is a part of Lübeck dominated by industrial facilities A static inverter station is the terminal equipment for a high voltage direct current transmission line in which direct current is converted to three-phase alternating current HVDC or high-voltage Direct current Electric power transmission systems contrast with the more common Alternating current systems as a means The Baltic Cable is a HVDC power line running beneath the Baltic Sea that interconnects the Electric power grids of Germany and
Lubec, Maine, the easternmost town in the United States, is named for Lübeck. Lubec is a town in Washington County, Maine, United States. The population was 1652 at the 2000 census The State of Maine ( is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States of America, bordering the Atlantic Ocean The United States of America —commonly referred to as the
Lübeck has three universities, Lübeck University of Applied Sciences, University of Lübeck and Musikhochschule Lübeck. The Fachhochschule Lübeck is a university in the city of Lübeck in the German state of Schleswig-Holstein. The University of Lübeck (in German Universität zu Lübeck is located in Lübeck, Germany. The Musikhochschule Lübeck in Lübeck, Germany, is the only College or university school of music in the northern most state Schleswig-Holstein The Graduate School for Computing in Medicine and Life Sciences is a central facility of the University and is founded by the German Excellence Initiative. The International School of New Media is an affiliated institute at the University. International School of New Media (short ISNM) in Lübeck, Germany was an international affiliated private institute at the University of Lübeck
The city of Lübeck is divided into 10 zones. Hans Blumenberg was born on July 13, 1920 in Lübeck, Germany. Willy Brandt, born Herbert Ernst Karl Frahm (18 December 1913 - 8 October 1992 was a German politician Chancellor of West Germany 1969&ndash1974 Ephraim Carlebach ( March 12, 1879 in Lübeck - 1936 in Ramat Gan, Eretz Israel) was a German -born Orthodox Felix Falk Carlebach ( 15 April 1911 in Lübeck - 23 January 2008 in Manchester) was a German-born British Rabbi Dr Joseph Hirsch (Tzvi Carlebach (Karlebach ( January 30, 1883, Lübeck - March 26, 1942, was an Orthodox Rabbi Björn Engholm (born November 9 1939) is a Lübeck born German SPD Politician. Christian Friedrich Heinecken ( February 6, 1721 – June 27, 1725) also known as "the Infant of Lübeck," is a legendary Luiz (Ludwig Heinrich Mann ( 27 March 1871 &ndash 12 March 1950) was a German novelist who wrote works with social themes whose Paul Thomas Mann ( June Sandra Völker (born April 1, 1974 in Lübeck, Schleswig-Holstein) is a freestyle and Backstroke Swimmer These again are arranged into altogether 35 urban districts. The 10 zones with their official numbers, their associated urban districts and the numbers of inhabitants of the quarters: