|Léopold Sédar Senghor|
6 September 1960 – 31 December 1980
|Preceded by||French Government|
|Succeeded by||Abdou Diouf|
|Born||October 9, 1906|
|Died||December 20, 2001 (aged 95)|
|Political party||Senegalese Democratic Bloc|
Léopold Sédar Senghor (9 October 1906 – 20 December 2001) was a Senegalese poet, politician, and cultural theorist who served as the first president of Senegal (1960–1980). Events 3114 BC - According to the Proleptic Julian calendar the current era in the Maya Long Count Calendar started Year 1960 ( MCMLX) was a Leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Events 406 – Vandals, Alans and Suebians cross the Rhine, beginning an invasion of Gallia. Year 1980 ( MCMLXXX) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar) The government of France is a Semi-presidential system determined by the French Constitution of the fifth Republic, in which the nation declares Abdou Diouf (Abdu Juuf (born September 7, 1935) was the second President of Senegal, serving from 1981 to 2000 Events 768 - Carloman I and Charlemagne are crowned Kings of The Franks. Year 1906 ( MCMVI) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year starting Joal-Fadiouth is a village at the southern end of the Petite Côte of Senegal. Senegal (le Sénégal officially the Republic of Senegal, is a country south of the Sénégal River in western Africa. Events 69 - Vespasian, formerly a general under Nero, enters Rome to claim the title of Emperor. Year 2001 ( MMI) was a Common year starting on Monday according to the Gregorian calendar. Normandy (Normandie Norman: Normaundie) is a geographical region corresponding to the former Duchy of Normandy. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. The Socialist Party of Senegal ( Parti Socialiste du Sénégal, PS is a Political party in Senegal. Events 768 - Carloman I and Charlemagne are crowned Kings of The Franks. Year 1906 ( MCMVI) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year starting Events 69 - Vespasian, formerly a general under Nero, enters Rome to claim the title of Emperor. Year 2001 ( MMI) was a Common year starting on Monday according to the Gregorian calendar. Senegal (le Sénégal officially the Republic of Senegal, is a country south of the Sénégal River in western Africa. A poet is a person who writes Poetry. Etymology From the Ancient greek: ποιέω, poieō: "I make or compose" Elections Presidents of Senegal 1960-present Léopold Sédar Senghor: 6 September 1960 - 31 December 1980 Senegal (le Sénégal officially the Republic of Senegal, is a country south of the Sénégal River in western Africa. Year 1960 ( MCMLX) was a Leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Year 1980 ( MCMLXXX) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar) Senghor was the first African to sit as a member of the Académie française. L'Académie française, or the French Academy, is the pre-eminent French learned body on matters pertaining to the French language. He was also the founder of the political party called the Senegalese Democratic Bloc. Senegalese Democratic Bloc (in French: Bloc Démocratique Sénégalais) was a Political party in Senegal, founded on October 27 He is regarded by many as one of the most important African intellectuals of the 20th century.
Léopold Sédar Senghor was born on 9 October 1906 in the small coastal city of Joal, some one hundred kilometres south of Dakar. Events 768 - Carloman I and Charlemagne are crowned Kings of The Franks. Year 1906 ( MCMVI) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year starting Joal-Fadiouth is a village at the southern end of the Petite Côte of Senegal. For the Dakar Rally see Dakar Rally. For the Israeli submarine see INS Dakar. Basile Diogoye Senghor, Léopold's father, was a businessman belonging to the bourgeois tribe Serer, a minority group in Senegal. Gnilane Ndiémé Bakhou, Léopold's mother, and the third wife of his father, was Muslim of Peul origin belonging to the Tabor tribe. She gave birth to six children, including two sons. Senghor had also inherited from the Serers, apart his first name, his two last names: his father's name, Senghor (derived from the Portuguese for Lord, Senhor ) and the Serere's name Sedar (meaning "One that shall not be humiliated"). Portuguese ( or língua portuguesa) is a Romance language that originated in what is now Galicia (Spain and northern Portugal. Senhor (abbreviation Sr; plural Senhores, abbreviation Srs) from the Latin Senior (comparative of Senex
At the age of eight Senghor began his studies in Senegal in the Ngasobil boarding school of the Fathers of the Holy Spirit. In 1922 he entered a seminary in Dakar. When he was told the religious life was not for him, he attended a secular institution. By then, he was already passionate about French literature. He distinguished himself in French, Latin, Greek and Algebra. With his Baccalaureate completed, he was awarded a scholarship to continue his studies in France.
In 1928 Senghor sailed from Senegal for France, beginning in his words, "sixteen years of wandering. " Starting his post-secondary studies at the Sorbonne, he quickly quit and went on to Louis-Le-Grand to finish his prep course for entrance at the École Normale Supérieure. The Lycée Louis-le-Grand (sometimes nicknamed LLG) is a public Secondary school located in Paris, widely regarded as one of the most demanding in École Normale de Musique de ParisThe École normale supérieure (also known as Normale Sup’, Normale, ENS, ENS-Paris, ENS-Ulm or He was there while Paul Guth, Henri Queffélec, Robert Verdier and Georges Pompidou were also studying at this establishment. Paul Guth ( March 5, 1910 &mdash 1997 was a French Humorist, Journalist and Writer, and the President of the Académie Georges Jean Raymond Pompidou (5 July 1911 2 April 1974 was President of the French Republic from 1969 until his death in 1974 After failing the entrance exam, he decided to prepare for his grammar Aggregation. He was granted his aggregation in 1935 after a failed first attempt. Year 1935 ( MCMXXXV) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar.
He graduated from the University of Paris, where he received the Agrégation in French Grammar. The historic University of Paris (Université de Paris first appeared in the second half of the 13th century In France, the agrégation is a civil service Competitive examination for some positions in the Public education system Subsequently, he was designated professor at the Universities of Tours and Paris, during the period 1935-1945. The meaning of the word professor ( Latin: professor, person who professes to be an expert in some art or science teacher of highest rank) varies Year 1935 ( MCMXXXV) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Year 1945 ( MCMXLV) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar
Senghor started his teaching years at the Lycee Rene-Descartes in Tours and taught with the Lycee Marcelin Berthelot in Saint-Maur-des-Fosses the environs of Paris. Tours is a city in France the Préfecture (capital city of the Indre-et-Loire département, on the lower reaches of the river Saint-Maur-des-Fossés is a Francilienne commune of the Val-de-Marne, located 11 Besides his teaching career, Senghor attended Linguistics classes taught by Lilias Homburger at the Ecole pratique des hautes etudes, and studied also with prominent social scientists such as Marcel Cohen, Marcel Mauss and Paul Rivet (director of the Institut d'ethnologie de Paris). École pratique des hautes études is a University in Paris, France. Marcel Samuel Raphaël Cohen ( February 6, 1884 – November 5, 1974) was a French linguist Marcel Mauss ( May 10, 1872 &ndash February 10, 1950) was a French Sociologist. Paul Rivet (1876 &ndash 1958) was a French Ethnologist, who founded the Musée de l'Homme in 1937 It was at this time that Senghor, along with other intellectuals of the African diaspora who had come to study in the colonial capital, coined the term, and conceived the notion of "négritude," which was in effect a response to the racism still prevalent in France, turning the racial slur "nègre" into a positively connoted celebration of African culture and character. The idea of négritude would inform not only Senghor's cultural criticism and literary work, but also became a guiding principle for his political thought in his career as a statesman.
In 1939, Senghor was enrolled as a French army officer within the 59th Colonial Infantry division. Year 1939 ( MCMXXXIX) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. A year later he was made prisoner by the Germans in la Charite-sur-Loire. La Charité-sur-Loire is a town and commune of the Nièvre département, in France. He was interned in different camps but finally interned in Front Stalag 230, in Poitiers. Poitiers is a town on the Clain River in west central France. This later camp was reserved for colonial troops captured during the war. German soldiers wanted to execute him and the other black POWs the same day they were captured, but they escaped this fate by yelling "Vive la France, vive l'Afrique noire!" The soldiers decided against executing them after being told by a French officer that this entirely racist act would dishonour the Aryan race and the German Army. In total, Senghor spent two years in different prison camps, where he spent most of his time writing poems. In 1942 he was released for medical reasons. He resumed his teaching career while staying involved in the resistance with the Front national universitaire. Resistance during World War II occurred in every occupied country by a variety of means ranging from non-cooperation disinformation and propaganda to hiding crashed pilots
Once the war was over, he took over the position of Dean of the Linguistics Department with the École Nationale de la France d'Outre-Mer, a position he would hold until Senegal's independence in 1960. The École Nationale de la France d'Outre-Mer (National School of Overseas France; ENFOM) was a French grande école, providing training While travelling on a research trip for his poetry, the local socialist leader, Lamine Gueye, suggested he become a member of the Assemblée nationale française. Lamine Guèye (born 1891 Médine (now in Mali) died 1968 was a Senegalese politician who became leader of the Senegalese Party of Socialist The French National Assembly. The other is the Senate ( “Sénat”) Senghor accepted and became député for the riding of Senegal-Mauritanie, when colonies were granted the right to be represented by elected individuals. One occasion when Senghor showed his difference from Lamine Gueye, was when the train conductors on the line Dakar-Niger went on strike. The latter voted against the strike arguing the movement would paralyse the colony, while Senghor supported the workers, gaining him great support among Senegalese.
In 1946, Senghor married the AEF governor's daughter with whom he had two sons: Francis (1947-) and Guy (1948-1983). Year 1946 ( MCMXLVI) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar of the Gregorian calendar.
The following year he left the African Division of the French Section of the Workers International (SFIO) that had given enormous financial support to the social movement. With Mamadou Dia, Senghor founded the Bloc démocratique sénégalais (1948). Mamadou Dia (born July 18 1910) was the first prime minister of Senegal. Senegalese Democratic Bloc (in French: Bloc Démocratique Sénégalais) was a Political party in Senegal, founded on October 27 They won the legislative elections of 1951, and Lamine Gueye lost his seat. Year 1951 ( MCMLI) was a Common year starting on Monday. Events of 1951 January
Re-elected depute in 1951 as an independent overseas member, he was state secretary to the Council's president in Edgar Faure's government from 1 March 1955 to 1 February 1956. Secretary of State is a commonly used title for a Government Official. Edgar Faure (18 August 1908 30 March 1988 was a French politician essayist historian and memoirist Events 86 BC - Lucius Cornelius Sulla, at the head of a Roman Republic army enters in Athens, removing the Tyrant Year 1955 ( MCMLV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1955 Gregorian calendar) Events 1327 - Teenaged Edward III is crowned King of England, but the country is ruled by his mother Queen Year 1956 ( MCMLVI) was a Leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. He became mayor of the city of Thies, Senegal in November 1956 and then advisory minister in the Michel Debre's government from 23 July 1959 to 19 May 1961. Thiès (pronounced “chess" Wolof: Cès) is the third largest city in Senegal with a population officially estimated at 320000 in 2005 Michel Debré (15 January 1912 2 August 1996 was a French Gaullist politician Events 1632 - Three hundred colonists bound for New France depart from Dieppe France. The year 1959 ( MCMLIX) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Events 1535 - French explorer Jacques Cartier sets sail on his second voyage to North America with three ships 110 men and Year 1961 ( MCMLXI) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. He was also a member of the commission responsible for drafting the Fifth Republic's constitution, general councillor for Senegal, member of the Grand Conseil de l'Afrique Occidentale Francaise and member for the parliamentary assembly of the European Council. See also Government of France The Fifth Republic is the fifth and current republican constitution of France, which was introduced on The European Council (referred to as a European Summit) is the highest political body of the European Union.
Meanwhile, he divorced his first wife and in 1957 married Colette Hubert, a French national from Normandy with whom he had a son, Philippe Maguilien (-1981). Year 1957 ( MCMLVII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar) Normandy (Normandie Norman: Normaundie) is a geographical region corresponding to the former Duchy of Normandy. In 1964 he published the first volume of a series of five titled Liberté. The book contains a variety of speeches, allocutions, essays and prefaces.
Senghor was a supporter of federalism for newly independent African states, a type of "French Commonwealth". Federalism not being favoured by the African countries, he decided to form, along with Modibo Keita, the Mali Federation with former French Sudan (modern Mali). Modibo Keita (or Kéïta) ( 4 June[[ 915]] - 16 May[[ 977]] was the first President of Mali (1960 - 1968 and the Prime Minister French Sudan (Soudan was a Colony in French West Africa that had two separate periods of existence first from 1890 to 1899 then from 1920 to 1960 when the Mali, officially the Republic of Mali (République du Mali is a Landlocked nation in Western Africa. Senghor was president of the Federal Assembly until its failure in 1960. Afterwards, Senghor became the first President of the Republic of Senegal, elected on 5 September 1960. Events 1590 - Alexander Farnese 's army forces Henry IV of France to raise the siege of Paris. Year 1960 ( MCMLX) was a Leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. He is the author of the Senegalese national anthem, le Lion rouge (the red lion). A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history traditions and struggles of its people recognized either by a nation's "Pincez tous vos koras frappez les balafons" is the National anthem of Senegal, adopted in 1960. The prime minister, Mamadou Dia was in charge of executing Senegal's long-term development plan, while Senghor was in charge of foreign relations. Mamadou Dia (born July 18 1910) was the first prime minister of Senegal. The two men quickly disagreed. In December 1962, Mamadou Dia was arrested and suspected of fomenting a coup. He remained in jail for twelve years. Following this, Senghor created a presidential regime. On 22 March 1967, Senghor escaped an attempt on his life. Events 238 - Gordian I and his son Gordian II are proclaimed Roman emperor. Year 1967 ( MCMLXVII) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. The suspect was sentenced to death.
He resigned his position before the end of his fifth term in December 1980. Abdou Diouf replaced him at the head of the country. Abdou Diouf (Abdu Juuf (born September 7, 1935) was the second President of Senegal, serving from 1981 to 2000 Under his presidency, Senegal started a multy-party regime (limited to three: socialist, communist and liberal) as well as a performing education system. Senghor is often falsely seen as a democrat; however, he imposed a one-party regime and violently crushed several student protest movements. Despite the end of official colonialism, the value of Senegalese currency continued to be fixed by France, the language of learning remained French, and Senghor ruled the country with French political advisors.
He supported the creation of the la Francophonie and was elected vice-president of the High Council of the Francophonie. La Francophonie is an international organisation of French-speaking countries and governments and in French, the community of French-speaking peoples
In 1982, he was one of the founders of the Association France and developing countries whose objectives were to bring attention to the problems of developing countries, in the wake of the changes affecting the latter.
He was elected a member of l'Académie française on 2 June 1983, at the 16th seat where he succeeded the Duke of Levis-Mirepoix. L'Académie française, or the French Academy, is the pre-eminent French learned body on matters pertaining to the French language. Events 455 - The Vandals enter Rome, and plunder the city for two weeks Year 1983 ( MCMLXXXIII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1983 Gregorian calendar) This is a list of members of the Académie française (French Academy by seat number He was the first African to sit at the Academie. The entrance ceremony in his honor took place on March 29th, 1984, in presence of then French President François Mitterrand. This was considered as a further step towards greater openness in the Académie, after the previous election of a woman, Marguerite Yourcenar. Marguerite Yourcenar was the Pseudonym of French Novelist Marguerite Antoinette Jeanne Marie Ghislaine Cleenewerck de Crayencour ( Brussels
In 1993, the last and fifth book of the Liberté series was published: Liberté 5: le dialogue des cultures.
"Je ne suis pas sûr de mourir. Et si c'était ça l'enfer?" ("I'm not sure that I will die. Maybe this is hell?") said Senghor, post-retirement, in 1996.
He spent the last years of his life with his wife in Verson, near the city of Caen Normandy, where he passed away on 20 December 2001. Verson is a commune in the département of Calvados in the Basse-Normandie region of France. Caen (kɑ̃ is a commune in northwestern France. It is the Prefecture of the Calvados department and the capital of the Normandy (Normandie Norman: Normaundie) is a geographical region corresponding to the former Duchy of Normandy. Events 69 - Vespasian, formerly a general under Nero, enters Rome to claim the title of Emperor. Year 2001 ( MMI) was a Common year starting on Monday according to the Gregorian calendar. His funeral was held on 29 December 2001 in Dakar. Events 1170 - Thomas Becket: Thomas Becket Archbishop of Canterbury is assassinated inside Canterbury Cathedral by followers of King Henry II Year 2001 ( MMI) was a Common year starting on Monday according to the Gregorian calendar. For the Dakar Rally see Dakar Rally. For the Israeli submarine see INS Dakar. Officials attending the ceremony included Raymond Forni, president of the Assemblée nationale and Charles Josselin, state secretary for the minister of foreign affairs, in charge of the Francophonie. Raymond Forni ( May 20, 1941 &ndash January 5, 2008) was a French Socialist politician The French National Assembly. The other is the Senate ( “Sénat”) Jacques Chirac (who said, upon hearing of Senghor's death: "Poetry has lost one of its masters, Senegal a statesman, Africa a visionary and France a friend" ) and Lionel Jospin, respectively president of the French Republic and the prime minister did not attend. Lionel Jospin (born 12 July 1937 is a French politician who served as Prime Minister of France, during the third " cohabitation " The President of the French Republic (Président de la République française colloquially referred to in English as the President of France, is France 's elected The Prime Minister of France ( Premier ministre français) in Fifth Republic is the functional Head of the government and Council of Ministers Their failure to attend Senghor's funeral made waves as it was deemed a lack of acknowledgement for what the politician had been in his life. The analogy was made with the Senegalese Tirailleurs who, after having contributed to the liberation of France, had to wait more than forty years to receive an equal pension (in terms of buying power) to their French counterparts. The scholar Erik Orsenna wrote in the newspaper Le Monde an editorial titled: "J'ai honte" (I am ashamed). Érik Orsenna is the pen-name of Érik Arnoult (born March 22, 1947 in Paris a French politician and Novelist After studying philosophy Le Monde (The World is a 
Although a socialist, Senghor avoided the Marxist and anti-Western ideology that had become popular in post-colonial Africa, favouring the maintenance of close ties with France and the western world. Socialism refers to a broad set of economic theories of social organization advocating state or collective ownership and administration of the Means of production and distribution Marxism is the political philosophy and practice derived from the work of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. This is seen by many as a contributing factor to Senegal's political stability: it remains one of the few African nations never to have had a coup, and to have always had a peaceful transfer of power.
Senghor's tenure as president was characterized by the development of African socialism, which was created as an indigenous alternative to Marxism, drawing heavily from the négritude philosophy. African socialism is a belief in sharing economic resources in a "traditional" African way as distinct from classical Socialism. Marxism is the political philosophy and practice derived from the work of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. In developing this, he was assisted by Ousmane Tanor Dieng. Ousmane Tanor Dieng (born 1948 is the First Secretary of the Socialist Party of Senegal. On 31 December 1980, he retired in favour of his prime minister, Abdou Diouf. Events 406 – Vandals, Alans and Suebians cross the Rhine, beginning an invasion of Gallia. Year 1980 ( MCMLXXX) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar) Abdou Diouf (Abdu Juuf (born September 7, 1935) was the second President of Senegal, serving from 1981 to 2000
Seat number 16 of the Académie was vacant after the Senegalese poet's death. He was ultimately replaced by another former president, Valéry Giscard d'Estaing. Valéry Marie René Georges Giscard d'Estaing (born 2 February 1926 is a French centre - right politician who was President of the French
Senghor received several honours in the course of his life. He was made Grand-Croix of the Légion d'honneur, Grand-Croix of the l'Ordre national du Mérite, commander of arts and letters. The The National Order of Merit (in French Ordre national du Mérite) is an Order of Chivalry awarded by the President of the French Republic. He also received academic palms and the Grand-Croix of the l'Ordre du lion du Sénégal. His war exploits earned him the medal of Reconnaissance franco-alliée 1939-1945 and the combattant cross 1939-1945. He was named honorary doctor of thirty-seven universities.
The French Language International University in Alexandria was officially open in 1990 and was named after him. Year 1990 ( MCMXC) was a Common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar)
The airport of Dakar, Dakar-Yoff-Léopold Sédar Senghor International Airport, is named after him, and the Passerelle Solférino in Paris was renamed after him in 2006, on the centenary of his birth. For the Dakar Rally see Dakar Rally. For the Israeli submarine see INS Dakar. Dakar-Yoff-Léopold Sédar Senghor International Airport is an international air facility in Dakar, Senegal. The passerelle Léopold-Sédar-Senghor, formerly known as passerelle Solférino (or pont de Solférino) is a footbridge over the River Seine in the Paris (ˈpærɨs in English; in French) is the Capital of France and the country's largest city
His poetry was widely acclaimed, and in 1978 he was awarded the Prix mondial Cino Del Duca. The Prix mondial Cino Del Duca (Cino Del Duca World Prize is a major international Literary award established in 1969 in France by Simone Del Duca (1912-2004 His poem A l'appel de la race de Saba published in 1936 was inspired by the entry of Italian troops in Abbis Abeba. In 1948, Senghor compiled and edited a volume of Francophone poetry called Anthologie de la nouvelle poésie nègre et malgache for which Jean-Paul Sartre wrote an introduction, titled "Orphée Noir" (Black Orpheus). Year 1948 ( MCMXLVIII) was a Leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Jean-Paul Charles Aymard Sartre (21 June 1905 &ndash 15 April 1980 commonly known simply as Jean-Paul Sartre (ʒɑ̃ pol saʁtʁə was a French
For his epitaph was a poem he had written, namely:
With Aimé Césaire and Léon Damas, Senghor created the concept of Négritude, an important intellectual movement that sought to assert and to valorize what they believed to be distinctive African characteristics, values, and aesthetics. Aimé Fernand David Césaire (26 June 1913 &ndash 17 April 2008 was a Afro-[[Martinique Martinican]] Francophone Poet, Author and Politician Léon-Gontran Damas ( March 28, 1912 - January 22, 1978) was a French Poet and Politician. This was a reaction against the too strong dominance of French culture in the colonies, and against the perception that Africa did not have culture developed enough to stand alongside that of Europe. Building upon historical research identifying ancient Egypt with black Africa, Senghor argued that sub-Saharan Africa and Europe are in fact part of the same cultural continuum, reaching from Egypt to classical Greece, through Rome to the European colonial powers of the modern age. Négritude was by no means - as it has in many quarters been perceived - an anti-white racism, but rather emphasized the importance of dialogue and exchange among different cultures (e. g. , European, African, Arab, etc. )
A related concept later developed in Mobutu's Zaire is that of authenticité or Authenticity. Mobutu Sese Seko Nkuku Ngbendu wa Za Banga ( October 14, 1930 September 7, 1997) known commonly as Mobutu, or Mobutu The Republic of Zaire (pronunciation; République du Zaïre was the name of the present Democratic Republic of the Congo between October 27, 1971
none (French colony)
|President of Senegal|
6 September 1960 – 31 December 1980