|Anthem: National Anthem of the Kyrgyz Republic|
(and largest city)
|Official languages||Kyrgyz, Russian|
|-||Prime Minister||Igor Chudinov|
|Independence||from the Soviet Union|
|-||Declared||31 August 1991|
|-||Completed||25 December 1991|
|-||Total||199,900 km² (86th)|
77,181 sq mi
|-||Water (%)||3. The Flag of Kyrgyzstan was adopted on March 3, 1992. It consists of a red field with a yellow sun in the center having 40 rays representing the The Coat of arms of Kyrgyzstan was adopted following the dissolution of the Soviet Union on 2 June, 1992. A motto (from the Italian word motto, meaning witticism sentence is a phrase meant to formally describe the general motivation or intention of a social group A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history traditions and struggles of its people recognized either by a nation's The National Anthem of the Kyrgyz Republic ( Kyrgyz: Кыргыз Республикасынын Мамлекеттик Гимни Transliteration: Kyrgyz Respublikasynyn The World Almanac 2005 reported that Kyrgyzstan's population is slightly more than five million estimating it at 5081429 An official language is a Language that is given a special legal status in a particular Country, State, or other territory Kyrgyz or Kirghiz (Кыргыз тили Kyrgyz tili, قىرعىز ٴتىلى is a Turkic language, and together with Russian, an official Russian ( transliteration:,) is the most geographically widespread language of Eurasia, the most widely spoken of the Slavic languages A demonym or gentilic is a word that denotes the members of a People or the inhabitants of a place For the government of parliamentary systems see Executive (government. A republic is a State or Country that is not led by a hereditary Monarch, but in which the people (or at least a part of its people have impact on its The President of Kyrgyzstan is the Head of state and the highest official of Kyrgyzstan. Kurmanbek Saliyevich Bakiyev ( Kyrgyz: Курманбек Сали уулу Бакиев Russian: Курманбек Салиевич Бакиев born 1 August The prime minister of Kyrgyzstan is the head of government of Kyrgyzstan. Igor Vitalyevich Chudinov ( Cyrillic: Игорь Витальевич Чудинов born August 21, 1961) is the current Prime Minister of Kyrgyzstan The Soviet Union 's collapse into independent nations began early in 1985 The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 Events 1056 - Byzantine Empress Theodora becomes ill dying suddenly a few days later without children to succeed the Throne Year 1991 ( MCMXCI) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar. Events 274 - Roman Emperor Aurelian Year 1991 ( MCMXCI) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar. Area is a Quantity expressing the two- Dimensional size of a defined part of a Surface, typically a region bounded by a closed Curve. To help compare Orders of magnitude of different geographical regions we list here Surface areas between 100000 km² and 1000000 km² This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by total area. The square mile is an imperial and US unit of Area equal the area of a square of one statute mile. Water is a common Chemical substance that is essential for the survival of all known forms of Life. In Mathematics, a percentage is a way of expressing a number as a Fraction of 100 ( per cent meaning "per hundred" 6|
|-||July 2005 estimate||5,264,000 (111th)|
|GDP (PPP)||2005 estimate|
|-||Total||$10. In Biology a population is the collection of inter-breeding organisms of a particular Species; in Sociology List of countries by population in 2005|List of countries by population in 1907This is a list of countries ordered according to Population. Population density (in agriculture standing stock and Standing crop) is a measurement of Population per unit area or unit volume List of countries and dependencies by Population density in inhabitants/km² The purchasing power parity ( PPP) theory uses the long-term equilibrium Exchange rate of two currencies to equalize their Purchasing power. 764 billion (134th)|
|-||Per capita||$2,150 (140th)|
|Gini (2003)||30. There are three lists of Countries of the world sorted by their Gross domestic product (GDP (the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation Per capita is a Latin phrase meaning for each head with Per meaning 'through' or 'by' This article includes three lists of Countries of the world sorted by their Gross domestic product (GDP at Purchasing power parity (PPP Per capita The Gini coefficient is a measure of statistical dispersion most prominently used as a measure of inequality of income distribution or inequality of wealth 3 (medium)|
|HDI (2007)||▼ 0. The Human Development Index ( HDI) is an index combining normalized measures of Life expectancy, Literacy, Educational attainment, and GDP 696 (medium) (116th)|
|Time zone||KGT (UTC+6)|
Kyrgyzstan (pronounced /ˈkɻ̩gɪztɑn/ (AmE) or /'kɝgəztan/ (BrE), Kyrgyz: Кыргызстан [qɯrʀɯzˈstɑn]; Russian: Киргизия [kirˈgizija] or Киргизстан [ˈkirgistan] or Кыргызстан [ˈkˠɨrgˠɨz. This is a list of countries by Human Development Index as included in the United Nations Development Program 's Human Development Report 2007 A currency is a unit of exchange, facilitating the transfer of Goods and/or services It is one form of Money, where money is The som ( Kyrgyz: сом sometimes transliterated as "sum" or "soum" is the Currency of the Kyrgyz Republic in Central Asia ISO 4217 is the International standard describing three-letter codes (also known as the currency code) to define the names of currencies established A country This is a list of country calling codes defined by ITU-T recommendation E Kyrgyz or Kirghiz (Кыргыз тили Kyrgyz tili, قىرعىز ٴتىلى is a Turkic language, and together with Russian, an official Russian ( transliteration:,) is the most geographically widespread language of Eurasia, the most widely spoken of the Slavic languages stan], variously transliterated, also Kirgizia or Kirghizia), officially the Kyrgyz Republic, is a country in Central Asia. Transliteration is the practice of Transcribing a Word or text written in one Writing system into another writing system or system of rules for such practice Central Asia is a region of Asia from the Caspian Sea in the west to central China in the east and from southern Russia in the north to northern Pakistan in the south Landlocked and mountainous, it is bordered by Kazakhstan to the north, Uzbekistan to the west, Tajikistan to the southwest and China to the east. A landlocked country is commonly defined as one enclosed or nearly enclosed by land Kazakhstan, also Kazakstan ( Қазақстан, Qazaqstan, qɑzɑqˈstɑn Казахстан, Kazakhstán,) officially the Uzbekistan, officially the Republic of Uzbekistan ( Uzbek: O‘zbekiston Respublikasi or Ўзбекистон Республикаси is a doubly Tajikistan (təˈdʒɪkɨstæn or /təˈdʒiːkɨstæn/ Тоҷикистон tɔʤikɪsˈtɔn or, Persian تاجیکستان taajikestaan officially the Republic of Talk People's Republic of China) PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA ARTICLE GUIDELINES
According to recent historical findings, Kyrgyz history dates back to 201 BC. Early history Stone implements found in the Tian Shan mountains indicate the presence of human society in what is now Kyrgyzstan as many as 200000 to 300000 The Kyrgyz (also spelled Kirgiz, Kirghiz) are a Turkic Ethnic group found primarily in Kyrgyzstan. The early Kyrgyz lived in the upper Yenisey River valley, central Siberia. The Kyrgyz (also spelled Kirgiz, Kirghiz) are a Turkic Ethnic group found primarily in Kyrgyzstan. Yenisei (Енисе́й is the greatest River system flowing to the Arctic Ocean, and at 5539 km (3445 mi is the fifth longest river in the world Siberia (Сиби́рь Sibir) is the name given to the vast region constituting almost all of Northern Asia and for the most part currently serving The discovery of the Pazyryk and Tashtyk cultures show them as a blend of Turkic nomadic tribes. The Pazyryk (Пазарык is the name of an ancient Nomadic people who lived in the Altai Mountains lying in Siberian Russia south of the modern city Tashtyk culture was an archaeological culture that flourished in the Yenisei valley ( Minusinsk Depression environs of modern Krasnoyarsk, eastern part Chinese and Muslim sources of the 7th–12th centuries AD describe the Kyrgyz as red-haired, in addition, blond-haired with a fair complexion and green or blue eyes.
The descent of the Kyrgyz from the indigenous Siberian population is confirmed on the other hand by recent genetic studies. The Kyrgyz (also spelled Kirgiz, Kirghiz) are a Turkic Ethnic group found primarily in Kyrgyzstan. The term Indigenous Peoples or autochthonous peoples can be used to describe any Ethnic group who inhabit a geographic region with which they have the earliest historical Siberia (Сиби́рь Sibir) is the name given to the vast region constituting almost all of Northern Asia and for the most part currently serving  Remarkably, 63% of the modern Kyrgyz men share Haplogroup R1a1 (Y-DNA) with Tajiks (64%), Ukrainians (54%), Poles (56%) and even Icelanders (25%). A Subclade of R1, R1a is a Y-chromosome haplogroup found at high frequency in the extreme north of India among the Kashmiri Pandits Tajik ( - Tādjīk; UniPers: Tâjik; Cyrillic: Тоҷик is a term generally applied to Persian-speaking people of Ukrainians (Українці Ukrayintsi,) are an East Slavic Ethnic group primarily living in Ukraine, or more broadly— Citizens The Polish people, or Poles, (Polacy) are a Western Slavic Ethnic group of Central Europe, living predominantly in Poland. Icelanders are the Nation or Ethnic group of Iceland descended primarily from Norsemen of Scandinavia. Haplogroup R1a1 (Y-DNA) is believed to be a marker of the Proto-Indo-European language speakers. A Subclade of R1, R1a is a Y-chromosome haplogroup found at high frequency in the extreme north of India among the Kashmiri Pandits
The Kyrgyz state reached its greatest expansion after defeating the Uyghur Khanate in 840 A. The Kyrgyz (also spelled Kirgiz, Kirghiz) are a Turkic Ethnic group found primarily in Kyrgyzstan. The Uyghur (also spelled Uygur, Uighur, Uigur, Uyghur: ئۇيغۇر) are a Turkic people of Central Asia. D. Then Kyrgyz quickly moved as far as the Tian Shan range and maintained their dominance over this territory for about 200 years. The Kyrgyz (also spelled Kirgiz, Kirghiz) are a Turkic Ethnic group found primarily in Kyrgyzstan. The Tian Shan (天山 Pinyin: Tiān Shān "celestial mountains" also commonly spelled Tien Shan, is a Mountain range located in Central In the 12th century, however, the Kyrgyz domination had shrunk to the Altay Range and the Sayan Mountains as a result of the rising Mongol expansion. The Kyrgyz (also spelled Kirgiz, Kirghiz) are a Turkic Ethnic group found primarily in Kyrgyzstan. The Sayan Mountains (Саяны Sayany; Kokmen Mountains during the period of the Göktürks) are a Mountain range in southern With the rise of the Mongol Empire in the 13th century, the Kyrgyz migrated south. The Mongol Empire ( Mongolyn Ezent Güren or mn Их Mонгол улс Ikh Mongol Uls; 1206–1368 was the largest contiguous Empire The Kyrgyz (also spelled Kirgiz, Kirghiz) are a Turkic Ethnic group found primarily in Kyrgyzstan.
In the early 19th century, the southern part of what is today Kyrgyzstan came under the control of the Khanate of Kokand. The Khanate of Kokand ( Uzbek: Qo'qon Xonligi) was a state in Central Asia that existed from 1709&ndash1876 within the territory of modern Uzbekistan The territory, then known in Russian as "Kirgizia", was formally incorporated into the Russian Empire in 1876. The Russian Empire ( Pre-reform Russian: Pоссійская Имперія Modern Russian: Российская Империя translit: Rossiyskaya The Russian takeover was met with numerous revolts against tsarist authority, and many of the Kyrgyz opted to move to the Pamirs and Afghanistan. The Pamir Mountains are located in Central Asia and are formed by the junction or Knot of the Tian Shan, Karakoram, Kunlun, and Afghanistan /æfˈgænɪstæn/ officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan ( Pashto: د افغانستان اسلامي جمهوریت, In addition, the suppression of the 1916 rebellion in Central Asia caused many Kyrgyz to migrate to China. Central Asia is a region of Asia from the Caspian Sea in the west to central China in the east and from southern Russia in the north to northern Pakistan in the south China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National Since many ethnic groups in the region were (and still are) split between neighbouring states, at a time when borders were more porous and less regulated, it was common to move back and forth over the mountains, depending on where life was perceived as better; this might mean better rains for pasture or better government after oppression.
Soviet power was initially established in the region in 1919 and the Kara-Kyrgyz Autonomous Oblast was created within the Russian SFSR (the term Kara-Kirghiz was used until the mid-1920s by the Russians to distinguish them from the Kazakhs, who were also referred to as Kirghiz). The Kara-Kirghiz Autonomous Oblast (Кара-Киргизская АО in the former region of Soviet Central Asia, was created on 14 October 1924 within the Russian SFSR On December 5, 1936, the Kirghiz Soviet Socialist Republic was established as a full republic of the Soviet Union. Events 63 BC - Cicero reads the last of his Catiline Orations. Year 1936 ( MCMXXXVI) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Kirghiz Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic redirects here For the Kazakh entity of that name see Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991
During the 1920s, Kyrgyzstan developed considerably in cultural, educational, and social life. Literacy was greatly improved, and a standard literary language was introduced by imposing Russian on the populace. traditional definition of literacy is considered to be the ability to read and write or the ability to use Language to read, write, listen, Economic and social development also was notable. Many aspects of the Kyrgyz national culture were retained despite the suppression of nationalist activity under Stalin, and, therefore, tensions with the all-Union authorities were constant. Joseph Stalin ( ნამდვილი გვარი ჯუღაშვილი|Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili; March 5 1953 was General Secretary of the Communist Party
The early years of glasnost had little effect on the political climate in Kyrgyzstan. (Гла́сность)is literally defined as publicity and sometimes figuratively interpreted as "tipping a vase to let someone see into the vase but not the bottom of the vase" However, the Republic's press was permitted to adopt a more liberal stance and to establish a new publication, Literaturny Kirghizstan, by the Union of Writers. Unofficial political groups were forbidden, but several groups that emerged in 1989 to deal with the acute housing crisis were permitted to function.
In June 1990, ethnic tensions between Uzbeks and Kyrgyz surfaced in the Osh Oblast, where Uzbeks form a majority of the population. The Uzbeks (Self designation sg O‘zbek, pl O‘zbeklar) are a Turkic people of Central Asia. Osh Province ( Kyrgyz: Ош областы) is a Province ( Oblast) of Kyrgyzstan. Violent confrontations ensued, and a state of emergency and curfew were introduced. Order was not restored until August 1990.
The early 1990s brought considerable change to Kyrgyzstan. By then, the Kyrgyzstan Democratic Movement (KDM) had developed into a significant political force with support in Parliament. In an upset victory, Askar Akayev, the liberal President of the Kyrgyz Academy of Sciences, was elected to the Presidency in October 1990. Askar Akayevich Akayev ( Аскар Акаевич Акаев) (born 10 November 1944 in Kyzyl-Bairak, Kirghiz SSR) served as the The following January, Akayev introduced new government structures and appointed a new government composed mainly of younger, reform-oriented politicians.
In December 1990, the Supreme Soviet voted to change the republic's name to the Republic of Kyrgyzstan. (In 1993, it became the Kyrgyz Republic. ) In February 1991, the name of the capital, Frunze, was changed back to its prerevolutionary name of Bishkek. Despite these aesthetic moves toward independence, economic realities seemed to work against secession from the Soviet Union. In a referendum on the preservation of the Soviet Union in March 1991, 88. 7% of the voters approved the proposal to retain the Soviet Union as a "renewed federation. "
On August 19, 1991, when the State Emergency Committee assumed power in Moscow, there was an attempt to depose Akayev in Kyrgyzstan. Events 43 BC - Octavian, later known as Augustus compels the Roman Senate to elect him Consul. Year 1991 ( MCMXCI) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar. The 1991 Soviet coup d'état attempt ( August 19 - August 21, 1991) also known as the August Putsch or August Coup was a three-day Moscow (Москва́ romanised: Moskvá, IPA: see also other names) is the Capital and the largest city of After the coup collapsed the following week, Akayev and Vice President German Kuznetsov announced their resignations from the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU), and the entire bureau and secretariat resigned. This was followed by the Supreme Soviet vote declaring independence from the Soviet Union on August 31, 1991. Events 1056 - Byzantine Empress Theodora becomes ill dying suddenly a few days later without children to succeed the Throne Year 1991 ( MCMXCI) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar.
In October 1991, Akayev ran unopposed and was elected president of the new independent Republic by direct ballot, receiving 95% of the votes cast. Together with the representatives of seven other Republics that same month, he signed the Treaty of the New Economic Community. Finally, on December 21, 1991, Kyrgyzstan joined with the other four Central Asian Republics to formally enter the new Commonwealth of Independent States. Events 69 - The end of the Year of the four emperors: Following Galba, Otho and Vitellius, Vespasian Year 1991 ( MCMXCI) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar. In 1992, Kyrgyzstan joined the UN and the CSCE. The United Nations ( UN) is an International organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in International law, International security
The "Tulip Revolution," after the parliamentary elections in March 2005, forced President Akayev's resignation on April 4, 2005. The Tulip Revolution (sometimes called the Pink Revolution) refers to the overthrow of President Askar Akayev and his government in the Central Asian Events 1581 - Francis Drake completes a circumnavigation of the world and is knighted by Elizabeth I. Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Opposition leaders formed a coalition and a new government was formed under President Kurmanbek Bakiyev and Prime Minister Feliks Kulov. Kurmanbek Saliyevich Bakiyev ( Kyrgyz: Курманбек Сали уулу Бакиев Russian: Курманбек Салиевич Бакиев born 1 August Felix Sharshenbayevich Kulov (Russian Феликс Шаршенбаевич Кулов - variously transliterated born 29 October 1948) served as The nation's capital was also looted during the protests.
Political stability appears to be elusive, however, as various groups and factions allegedly linked to organized crime are jockeying for power. "Crime syndicate" redirects here For the DC Comics group of villains see Crime Syndicate. Three of the 75 members of Parliament elected in March 2005 were assassinated, and another member was assassinated on 10 May 2006 shortly after winning his murdered brother's seat in a by-election. Events 1291 - Scottish Nobles recognize the authority of Edward I of England. Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. All four are reputed to have been directly involved in major illegal business ventures.
Current concerns in Kyrgyzstan include: privatization of state-owned enterprises, expansion of democracy and political freedoms, inter-ethnic relations, and terrorism.
The 1993 constitution defines the form of government as a democratic republic. The Politics of Kyrgyzstan take place in a framework of a semi-presidential representative democratic Republic, whereby the President is Kurmanbek Saliyevich Bakiyev ( Kyrgyz: Курманбек Сали уулу Бакиев Russian: Курманбек Салиевич Бакиев born 1 August The executive branch includes a president and prime minister. The parliament currently is unicameral. The judicial branch comprises a Supreme Court, a Constitutional Court, local courts, and a Chief Prosecutor.
In March 2002, in the southern district of Aksy, five people protesting the arbitrary arrest of an opposition politician were shot dead by police, sparking nationwide protests. Aksy is a small town in southern Kyrgyzstan which gained notoriety in 2002 when police and militia fired into a crowd of unarmed demonstrators killing six President Akayev initiated a constitutional reform process which initially included the participation of a broad range of government, civil, and social representatives in an open dialogue, leading to a February 2003 referendum marred by voting irregularities. The amendments to the constitution approved by the referendum resulted in stronger control by the president and weakened the parliament and the Constitutional Court. Parliamentary elections for a new, 75-seat unicameral legislature were held on February 27 and March 13, 2005, but were widely viewed as corrupt. The subsequent protests led to a bloodless coup on March 24, after which Akayev fled the country and was replaced by acting president Kurmanbek Bakiyev. Kurmanbek Saliyevich Bakiyev ( Kyrgyz: Курманбек Сали уулу Бакиев Russian: Курманбек Салиевич Бакиев born 1 August (see: Tulip Revolution). The Tulip Revolution (sometimes called the Pink Revolution) refers to the overthrow of President Askar Akayev and his government in the Central Asian
Interim government leaders are developing a new governing structure for the country and working to resolve outstanding constitutional issues. On July 10, 2005, acting president Bakiyev won the presidential election in a landslide, with 88. Events 48 BC - Battle of Dyrrhachium, Julius Caesar barely avoids a catastrophic defeat to Pompey in Macedonia. Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Kyrgyzstan held a presidential election on 10 July 2005. It saw a Landslide victory for acting President Kurmanbek 9% of the vote, and was inaugurated on 14 August. Events 1183 - Taira no Munemori and the Taira clan take the young Emperor Antoku and the three sacred treasures However, initial public support for the new administration substantially declined in subsequent months as a result of its apparent inability to solve the corruption problems that have plagued the country since its independence from the Soviet Union, along with the murders of several members of parliament. Largescale protests against president Bakiyev took place in Bishkek in April and November of 2006, with opposition leaders accusing the president of failing to live up to his election promises to reform the country's constitution and transfer many of his presidential powers to parliament. 
Kyrgyzstan is divided into seven provinces (sing. |||} Kyrgyzstan is divided into seven Provinces (singular област - Oblast, plural областтар - oblasttar) |||}The provinces of Kyrgyzstan are divided into raions (districts administered by government-appointed officials A province is a territorial unit almost always an Administrative division. oblast (область), pl. Oblast (во́бласць oblast о́бласт oblast о́бласть област/ oblast; oblasť област о́бласть is a type of Administrative division oblasttar (областтар)) administered by appointed governors. The capital, Bishkek, and the second large city Osh are administratively the independent cities (shaar) with a status equal to a province. Osh ( Kyrgyz: Ош) is the second largest city in Kyrgyzstan located in the Fergana Valley in the south of the country and often referred An independent city is a City that does not form part of another general-purpose Local government entity
The provinces, and independent cities, are as follows:
Each province comprises a number of districts (raions), administered by government-appointed officials (akim). Batken Province ( Kyrgyz: Баткен областы, Batken oblast; Баткенская область is a Province ( Oblast Districts of the Chuy Province Chuy province is divided administratively into 8 districts and the district-level city of Tokmok:: Gallery Jalal-Abad Province, also know as Jalalabat ( Kyrgyz: Жалалабат областы) is a Province ( Oblast) of Naryn Province ( Kyrgyz: Нарын областы) is a Province ( Oblast) of Kyrgyzstan. Osh Province ( Kyrgyz: Ош областы) is a Province ( Oblast) of Kyrgyzstan. Talas Province ( Kyrgyz: Талас областы) is a Province ( Oblast) of Kyrgyzstan. Issyk Kul Province ( Kyrgyz: Ысык-Көл областы) is a Province ( Oblast) of Kyrgyzstan. Osh ( Kyrgyz: Ош) is the second largest city in Kyrgyzstan located in the Fergana Valley in the south of the country and often referred For the manufactured regenerated fiber see Rayon A raion (or rayon) (райо́н ra'jon rayon раён რაიონი Rural communities (ayıl ökmötü), consisting of up to twenty small settlements, have their own elected mayors and councils. A mayor (from the Latin māior, meaning "greater" is a modern title used in many countries for the highest ranking officer in a municipal government Local governments are administrative offices that are smaller than a State.
Kyrgyzstan is a landlocked country in Central Asia, bordering Kazakhstan, China, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. The Ala Archa National Park is an alpine National park in Kyrgyzstan, established in 1976 and located approximately 40 km south of the capital city of Bishkek Kyrgyzstan is a landlocked nation in Central Asia, west of the People's Republic of China. Central Asia is a region of Asia from the Caspian Sea in the west to central China in the east and from southern Russia in the north to northern Pakistan in the south Kazakhstan, also Kazakstan ( Қазақстан, Qazaqstan, qɑzɑqˈstɑn Казахстан, Kazakhstán,) officially the Talk People's Republic of China) PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA ARTICLE GUIDELINES Tajikistan (təˈdʒɪkɨstæn or /təˈdʒiːkɨstæn/ Тоҷикистон tɔʤikɪsˈtɔn or, Persian تاجیکستان taajikestaan officially the Republic of Uzbekistan, officially the Republic of Uzbekistan ( Uzbek: O‘zbekiston Respublikasi or Ўзбекистон Республикаси is a doubly The mountainous region of the Tian Shan covers over 80% of the country (Kyrgyzstan is occasionally referred to as "the Switzerland of Central Asia", as a result ), with the remainder made up of valleys and basins. The Tian Shan (天山 Pinyin: Tiān Shān "celestial mountains" also commonly spelled Tien Shan, is a Mountain range located in Central Switzerland (English pronunciation; Schweiz Swiss German: Schwyz or Schwiiz Suisse Svizzera Svizra officially the Swiss Confederation Lake Issyk-Kul in the north-western Tian Shan is the largest lake in Kyrgyzstan and the second largest mountain lake in the world after Titicaca. Issyk Kul (also Ysyk Köl, Issyk-kol; Ысыккөл Иссык-Куль is an Endorheic Lake in the northern Tian Shan mountains Lake Titicaca is a lake located on the border of Bolivia and Peru. The highest peaks are in the Kakshaal-Too range, forming the Chinese border. Peak Jengish Chokusu, at 24,400 feet (7,439 m), is the highest point and is considered by geologists (though not mountaineers) to be the northernmost 23,000 foot (7,000 m) peak in the world. Pobeda Peak is the highest Mountain in the Tian Shan Mountain range. A foot (plural feet or foot; symbol or abbreviation ft or sometimes &prime – the prime symbol) is a non-SI unit Heavy snowfall in winter leads to spring floods which often cause serious damage downstream. The runoff from the mountains is also used for hydro-electricity. Hydroelectricity is electricity generated by Hydropower, ie the production of power through use of the gravitational force of falling water
The climate varies regionally. The south-western Fergana Valley is subtropical and extremely hot in summer, with temperatures reaching 40°C (104°F. The Fergana Valley or Farghana Valley (Farg‘ona vodiysi Kyrgyz: Фергана өрөөнү Tajik: водии Фaрғонa Ферганская долина The subtropics are the zones of the Earth immediately north and south of the tropic zone which is bounded by the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of ) The northern foothills are temperate and the Tian Shan varies from dry continental to polar climate, depending on elevation. Continental climate is a Climate that is characterized by Winter Temperatures cold enough to support a fixed period of Snow cover each Year Regions with a polar climate are characterized by a lack of warm summers (specifically no month having an average temperature of 10 °C or higher In the coldest areas temperatures are sub-zero for around 40 days in winter, and even some desert areas experience constant snowfall in this period.
Kyrgyzstan has significant deposits of metals including gold and rare earth metals. Gold (ˈɡoʊld is a Chemical element with the symbol Au (from its Latin name aurum) and Atomic number 79 Rare earth elements and rare earth metals are according to IUPAC, the collection of seventeen Chemical elements in the Periodic table, namely Due to the country's predominantly mountainous terrain, less than 8% of the land is cultivated, and this is concentrated in the northern lowlands and the fringes of the Fergana Valley.
Bishkek in the north is the capital and largest city, with approximately 900,000 inhabitants (as of 2005). The second city is the ancient town of Osh, located in the Fergana Valley near the border with Uzbekistan. Osh ( Kyrgyz: Ош) is the second largest city in Kyrgyzstan located in the Fergana Valley in the south of the country and often referred The principal river is the Naryn, flowing west through the Fergana Valley into Uzbekistan, where it meets another of Kyrgyzstan's major rivers, the Kara Darya, forming the Syr Darya which eventually flows into the Aral Sea — although the massive extraction of water for irrigating Uzbekistan's cotton fields now causes the river to dry up long before reaching the Sea. The Naryn River (Нарын rises in the Tien Shan mountains in Kyrgyzstan, Central Asia, flowing west through the Fergana Valley into The Kara Darya or Qaradaryo (Kapaдарья is a river in Central Asia, flowing through the Fergana Valley, where it is used for Irrigation Syr Darya (Сырдария Сирдарё Sirdaryoسيردريا also transliterated Syrdarya or Sirdaryo) is a River in Central Asia The Aral Sea ( Kazakh: Арал Теңізі Aral Tengizi, Orol dengizi Russian: Аральскοе мοре Tajik / Persian: Daryocha-i The Chu River also briefly flows through Kyrgyzstan before entering Kazakhstan. The Chu (or Chui or Chuy) (Чу Чүй Шу is a river in northern Kyrgyzstan and southern Kazakhstan.
There is one exclave, the tiny village of Barak, Kyrgyzstan, (population 627) in the Fergana valley. Fergana or Farghana ( Uzbek: Farg'ona, Persian فرغانه, UniPers "Farqāna", Russian: Фергана The village is surrounded by Uzbek territory and located between the towns of Margilan and Fergana. Margilan (Marg‘ilon or Margelan is a city (1999 pop 143600 in Fergana Province in eastern Uzbekistan.
There are four Uzbek enclaves within Kyrgyzstan. Two of them are the towns of Sokh (area 125 sq. mi/325 km² and a population of 42,800 in 1993, although some estimates go as high as 70,000; 99% are Tajiks, the remainder Uzbeks), and Shakhrimardan (also known as Shakirmardon or Shah-i-Mardan, area 35 sq. mi/90 km² and a population of 5,100 in 1993; 91% are Uzbeks, the remainder Kyrgyz); the other two are the tiny territories of Chuy-Kara (or Kalacha, roughly 3 km long by 1 km wide or 2 mi by 0. A mile is a unit of Length, usually used to measure Distance, in a number of different systems including Imperial units United States 6 mi) and Dzhangail (a dot of land barely 2 or 3 km across). Chuy-Kara is on the Sokh river, between the Uzbek border and the Sokh enclave.
There also are two enclaves belonging to Tajikistan: Vorukh (exclave area between 95 and 130 km² [37–50 sq. Tajikistan (təˈdʒɪkɨstæn or /təˈdʒiːkɨstæn/ Тоҷикистон tɔʤikɪsˈtɔn or, Persian تاجیکستان taajikestaan officially the Republic of Vorukh is an enclave of Tajikistan within Kyrgyzstan. There are several such enclaves and they all come from Stalin's drawing of borders in the 1930s mi], population estimated between 23,000 and 29,000, 95% Tajiks and 5% Kyrgyz, distributed among 17 villages), located 45 kilometres (28 mi) south of Isfara on the right bank of the Karafshin river, and a small settlement near the Kyrgyz railway station of Kairagach. Isfara (Исфара is a city in the Sughd province in northern Tajikistan. Kayragach is a Village in the Batken Province of Kyrgyzstan. Nearby towns and villages include Tagan (4 miles Beshkent
Despite the backing of major Western lenders, including the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the World Bank and the Asian Development Bank, Kyrgyzstan has had economic difficulties following independence. The economy of Kyrgyzstan was severely affected by the collapse of the Soviet trading block The International Monetary Fund ( IMF) is an International organization that oversees the Global financial system by following the Macroeconomic The World Bank is an internationally supported Bank that provides financial and technical assistance to developing countries for development programs (e Asian Development Bank (ADB is a regional development bank established in 1966 to promote economic and social development in Asian and Pacific countries through loans and technical Initially, these were a result of the breakup of the Soviet trading bloc and resulting loss of markets, which impeded the republic's transition to a free market economy. The government has reduced expenditures, ended most price subsidies, and introduced a value-added tax. Value added tax ( VAT) or goods and services tax ( GST) is a consumption Tax levied on value added. Overall, the government appears committed to the transition to a market economy. A market economy is a realized Social system based on the Division of labour in which the prices of Goods and Services are determined in a Through economic stabilization and reform, the government seeks to establish a pattern of long-term consistent growth. Reforms led to Kyrgyzstan's accession to the World Trade Organization (WTO) on December 20, 1998. Events 69 - Vespasian, formerly a general under Nero, enters Rome to claim the title of Emperor.
The Kyrgyz economy was severely affected by the collapse of the Soviet Union and the resulting loss of its vast market. In 1990, some 98% of Kyrgyz exports went to other parts of the Soviet Union. Thus, the nation's economic performance in the early 1990s was worse than any other former Soviet republic except war-torn Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Tajikistan, as factories and state farms collapsed with the disappearance of their traditional markets in the former Soviet Union. Armenia (Հայաստան transliterated: Hayastan,) officially the Republic of Armenia (Հայաստանի Հանրապետություն Hayastani Azerbaijan ( English; Azərbaycan officially the Republic of Azerbaijan (Azərbaycan Respublikası is the largest and most populous country in the South Tajikistan (təˈdʒɪkɨstæn or /təˈdʒiːkɨstæn/ Тоҷикистон tɔʤikɪsˈtɔn or, Persian تاجیکستان taajikestaan officially the Republic of While economic performance has improved considerably in the last few years, and particularly since 1998, difficulties remain in securing adequate fiscal revenues and providing an adequate social safety net. Fiscal policy, taking the scope of Budgetary policy, refers to government policy that attempts to influence the direction of the economy through changes in government taxes The social safety net is a term used to describe a collection of services provided by The state, such as welfare, Unemployment benefit, Universal healthcare
Agriculture is an important sector of the economy in Kyrgyzstan (see agriculture in Kyrgyzstan). Agriculture refers to the production of goods through the growing of plants and fungi and the raising of domesticated Animals The study of agriculture Agriculture in Kyrgyzstan is a significant sector of the economy. By the early 1990s, the private agricultural sector provided between one-third and one-half of some harvests. In 2002 agriculture accounted for 35. 6% of GDP and about half of employment. Kyrgyzstan's terrain is mountainous, which accommodates livestock raising, the largest agricultural activity, so the resulting wool, meat, and dairy products are major commodities. Livestock is the term used to refer (singularly or plurally to a Domesticated Animal intentionally reared in an agricultural setting to produce such as Food Wool is the fiber derived from the specialized skin cells called follicles of animals in the Caprinae family principally sheep, but the hair of certain species In modern English usage meat most often refers to Animal tissue used as food mostly Skeletal muscle and associated Fat, but it may also refer Dairy products are generally defined as Foodstuffs produced from Milk. Main crops include wheat, sugar beets, potatoes, cotton, tobacco, vegetables, and fruit. Wheat ( Triticum spp is a worldwide cultivated grass from the Levant area of the Middle East. Sugar beet ( Beta vulgaris L a member of the Chenopodiaceae family is a plant whose root contains a high concentration of Sucrose. The potato is a Starchy Tuberous crop Vegetable from the perennial Solanum tuberosum of the Solanaceae Cotton is a soft staple Fibre that grows around the seeds of the cotton plant ( Gossypium sp Tobacco is an Agricultural product recognized as an addictive drug processed from the fresh Leaves of plants in the genus Nicotiana. The term " vegetable " generally means the edible parts of Plants The definition of the word is traditional rather than Scientific, however The term fruit has different meanings dependent on context and the term is not synonymous in Food preparation and Biology. As the prices of imported agrichemicals and petroleum are so high, much farming is being done by hand and by horse, as it was generations ago. Agrichemical (or agrochemical) a contraction of agricultural chemical, is a generic term for the various Chemical products used in Petroleum ( L petroleum, from Greek πετρέλαιον, lit Agricultural processing is a key component of the industrial economy, as well as one of the most attractive sectors for foreign investment.
Kyrgyzstan is rich in mineral resources but has negligible petroleum and natural gas reserves; it imports petroleum and gas. Petroleum ( L petroleum, from Greek πετρέλαιον, lit Natural gas is a Gaseous Fossil fuel consisting primarily of Methane but including significant quantities of Ethane, Propane, Among its mineral reserves are substantial deposits of coal, gold, uranium, antimony, and other valuable metals. Gold (ˈɡoʊld is a Chemical element with the symbol Au (from its Latin name aurum) and Atomic number 79 Uranium (jʊˈreɪniəm is a silvery-gray Metallic Chemical element in the Antimony (IPA (Received Pronunciation, /ˈæntɪmoʊni/ (US is a Chemical element with the symbol Sb (stibium meaning "mark" and Metallurgy is an important industry, and the government hopes to attract foreign investment in this field. Metallurgy is a domain of Materials science that studies the physical and chemical behavior of metallic elements, their intermetallic compounds, and their The government has actively encouraged foreign involvement in extracting and processing gold. The country's plentiful water resources and mountainous terrain enable it to produce and export large quantities of hydroelectric energy. Hydroelectricity is electricity generated by Hydropower, ie the production of power through use of the gravitational force of falling water
On a local level, the economy is primarily kiosk in nature. A large amount of local commerce occurs at bazaars and small village kiosks. Commodities such as gas (petrol) are often sold road-side in gallon jugs. A significant amount of trade is unregulated. There is also a scarcity of common everyday consumer items in remote villages. Thus a large number of homes are quite self-sufficient with respect to food production. There is a distinct differentiation between urban and rural economies.
The principal exports are nonferrous metals and minerals, woolen goods and other agricultural products, electric energy, and certain engineering goods. Imports include petroleum and natural gas, ferrous metals, chemicals, most machinery, wood and paper products, some foods, and some construction materials. Its leading trade partners include Germany, Russia, and neighboring China, Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan. Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending Talk People's Republic of China) PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA ARTICLE GUIDELINES Kazakhstan, also Kazakstan ( Қазақстан, Qazaqstan, qɑzɑqˈstɑn Казахстан, Kazakhstán,) officially the Uzbekistan, officially the Republic of Uzbekistan ( Uzbek: O‘zbekiston Respublikasi or Ўзбекистон Республикаси is a doubly
The World Almanac 2005 reported that Kyrgyzstan's population is slightly more than five million, estimating it at 5,081,429. The World Almanac 2005 reported that Kyrgyzstan's population is slightly more than five million estimating it at 5081429 Of those, 34. 4% are under the age of 15 and 6. 2% are over the age of 65. The country is rural; only about one-third (33. Rural areas can be large and isolated (also referred to as "the country" and/or "the countryside over the course of time 9%) of Kyrgyzstan's population live in urban areas. The average population density is 69 people per square mile (29 people per km²). Population density (in agriculture standing stock and Standing crop) is a measurement of Population per unit area or unit volume
The nation's largest ethnic group is the Kyrgyz, a Turkic people. The Kyrgyz (also spelled Kirgiz, Kirghiz) are a Turkic Ethnic group found primarily in Kyrgyzstan. The Turkic peoples are Eurasian peoples residing in northern central and western Eurasia who speak languages belonging to the Turkic language family The Kyrgyz comprise 69. 5% of the population and have historically been semi-nomadic herders, living in round tents called yurts and tending sheep, horses and yaks. Nomadic people, (from the νομάδες nomádes, "those who let pasture herds" also known as nomads, are communities of people that A yurt is a portable Felt -covered wood lattice -framed dwelling structure used by Nomads in the Steppes of Central Asia. The horse ( Equus caballus) is a hoofed ( Ungulate) Mammal, one of eight living species of the family Equidae. The yak ( Bos grunniens) is a long-haired Bovine found throughout the Himalayan region of south Central Asia, the Qinghai - This nomadic tradition continues to function seasonally (see transhumance) as herding families return to the high mountain pasture (or jailoo) in the summer. Transhumance is a term with two accepted usages Older sources use transhumance for vertical seasonal Livestock movement typically to higher The retention of this nomadic heritage and the freedoms that it assumes continue to have an impact on the political atmosphere in the country. The name Kyrgyz, both for the people and for the nation itself, is said to mean "forty girls", a reference to the Manas of folklore unifying forty tribes against the Mongols. History The concept of folklore developed as part of the 19th century ideology of Romantic nationalism, leading to the reshaping of oral traditions to serve modern ideological
Other ethnic groups include ethnic Russians (9. The Russian people (Русские— Russkie) are an East Slavic Ethnic group, primarily living in Russia and neighboring countries 0%) concentrated in the North and Uzbeks (14. The Uzbeks (Self designation sg O‘zbek, pl O‘zbeklar) are a Turkic people of Central Asia. 5%) living in the South. Small but noticeable minorities include Tatars (1. Tatars ( Tatar: Tatarlar/Татарлар sometimes spelled Tartars, are a Turkic -speaking ethnic group or multiple ethnic groups 9), Uyghurs (1. The Uyghur (also spelled Uygur, Uighur, Uigur, Uyghur: ئۇيغۇر) are a Turkic people of Central Asia. 1%), Tajiks (1. Tajik ( - Tādjīk; UniPers: Tâjik; Cyrillic: Тоҷик is a term generally applied to Persian-speaking people of 1%),Kazakhs (0. The Kazakhs (also spelled Kazaks, Qazaqs; Kazakh: Қазақтар qɑzɑqtɑr Russian: Казахи the English name is transliterated 7%) and Ukrainians (0. Ukrainians (Українці Ukrayintsi,) are an East Slavic Ethnic group primarily living in Ukraine, or more broadly— Citizens 5%), and other smaller ethnic minorities (1. 7%). Of the formerly sizable Volga German community, exiled here by Stalin from their earlier homes in the Volga German Republic, most have returned to Germany, and only a few small groups remain. The Volga Germans (Wolgadeutsche or Russlanddeutsche) were Ethnic Germans living along the Volga River in the region of southern European Russia Joseph Stalin ( ნამდვილი გვარი ჯუღაშვილი|Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili; March 5 1953 was General Secretary of the Communist Party The Volga German Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic ( German: Autonome Sozialistische Sowjetrepublik der Wolgadeutschen, abbreviated A Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. A small percentage of the population are also Soviet Koreans, meaning descendents of the former Korean residents of Vladivostok, whom Stalin had exiled to Central Asia (and the Caucasus) during the Second World War. Koryo-saram (Корё сарам Hangul: 고려사람 is the name which ethnic Koreans in the Post-Soviet states use to refer to themselves Korea is a geographic area composed of two sovereign countries a civilization and a former state situated on the Korean Peninsula in East Asia. Vladivostok ( is Russia 's largest port city on the Pacific Ocean and the administrative center of Primorsky Krai. Joseph Stalin ( ნამდვილი გვარი ჯუღაშვილი|Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili; March 5 1953 was General Secretary of the Communist Party The Caucasus ( also referred to as North Caucasus) is a geopolitical region located between Europe Asia & Middle East World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including
Kyrgyzstan is one of two of the five former Soviet republics in Central Asia to retain Russian as an official language (Kazakhstan is the other). Russian ( transliteration:,) is the most geographically widespread language of Eurasia, the most widely spoken of the Slavic languages An official language is a Language that is given a special legal status in a particular Country, State, or other territory Kazakhstan, also Kazakstan ( Қазақстан, Qazaqstan, qɑzɑqˈstɑn Казахстан, Kazakhstán,) officially the It added the Kyrgyz language to become an officially bilingual country in September 1991. Kyrgyz or Kirghiz (Кыргыз тили Kyrgyz tili, قىرعىز ٴتىلى is a Turkic language, and together with Russian, an official This sent a clear signal to the ethnic Russians that they were welcome in the new independent state, in an effort to avoid a brain drain. A brain drain or human capital flight is a large emigration of individuals with technical skills or knowledge, normally due to conflict, lack of opportunity Kyrgyz is a member of the Turkic group of languages and was written in the Arabic alphabet until the 20th century. Kyrgyz or Kirghiz (Кыргыз тили Kyrgyz tili, قىرعىز ٴتىلى is a Turkic language, and together with Russian, an official The Turkic languages constitute a Language family of some thirty languages spoken by Turkic peoples across a vast area from Eastern Europe and the The Arabic alphabet is the script used for writing several languages of Asia and Africa such as Arabic, Persian, and Urdu. The twentieth century of the Common Era began on Latin script was introduced and adopted in 1928, and was subsequently replaced by Cyrillic script in 1941. The Cyrillic alphabet (səˈrɪlɪk also called azbuka, from the old name of the first two letters is actually a family of Alphabets, subsets of which are used by
Generally, people all over the country understand and speak Russian, except for some remote mountain areas. Russian is the mother tongue of the majority of Bishkek dwellers, and most business and political affairs are carried out in this language. Until recently, Kyrgyz remained a language spoken at home, and was rarely used during meetings or other events. However, most parliamentary meetings today are conducted in Kyrgyz, with simultaneous interpretation available for those not speaking Kyrgyz.
Illegal, but still practiced, is the tradition of bride kidnapping. Kyrgyzstan has a wide mix of ethnic groups and cultures with the Kyrgyz being the majority group The Epic of Manas is a traditional epic poem of the Kyrgyz people An epic is a lengthy Narrative poem, ordinarily concerning a serious subject containing details of heroic deeds and events significant to a culture or nation The komuz ( Kyrgyz: комуз koˈmuz is an ancient Fretless String instrument used in Kyrgyz music closely related to other Tush kyiz are large elaborately embroidered wall hangings traditionally made in Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan by elder women to commemorate the marriage A textile is a flexible material comprised of a network of natural or artificial Fibres often referred to as thread or Yarn. Felt is a non-woven cloth that is produced by matting condensing and pressing fibers Falconry or hawking is an Art or Sport which involves the use of trained raptors (birds of prey to hunt or pursue game for humans Bride kidnapping, also known as marriage by abduction or marriage by capture, is a form of Marriage practiced in some traditional cultures in countries 
It is debatable whether bride kidnapping is actually traditional. Some of the confusion may stem from the fact that arranged marriages were traditional, and one of the ways to escape an arranged marriage was to arrange a consensual "kidnapping. Arranged marriage (also called prearranged marriage) is a Marriage arranged by someone other than the persons getting married curtailing or avoiding the process " 
During Soviet times, state atheism was encouraged. The vast majority of today's Kyrgyz are Muslims of the Sunni branch which came into the region during the 8th century Karakol ( Kyrgyz: Каракол formerly Przhevalsk, is a city of about 75000 near the eastern tip of Lake Issyk-Kul in Kyrgyzstan, about Dungan (Дунгане is a term used in territories of the former Soviet Union to refer to a Muslim people of Chinese origin State atheism is the official promotion of Atheism by a Government, typically by active suppression of Religious freedom and practice Today, however, Kyrgyzstan is a secular state though Islam has exerted growing influence in politics. A secular state is a State or Country that is officially neutral in matters of Religion, neither supporting nor opposing any particular religious beliefs For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation. . For instance, there have been various attempts to decriminalize polygamy, and to arrange for officials to travel on hajj (the pilgrimage to Mecca) under a tax-free arrangement. The term polygamy (a Greek word meaning "the practice of multiple marriage" is used in related ways in Social anthropology, Sociobiology, and The Hajj (حج is a pilgrimage to Mecca (Makkah It is the largest annual pilgrimage in the world Mecca ˈmɛkə also spelled Makkah ˈmækə (in full Makkah Al-Mukarramah (Arabic mækːæ(t ælmʊkarˑamæ مكّة المكرمة, literally Honored  Kyrgyzstan is an overwhelmingly Sunni Muslim nation, and adheres to the Hanafi school of thought. Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam. Sunni Islam is also referred to as Ahl as-Sunnah wa’l-Jamā‘h (Arabic The Hanafi ( Arabic حنفي school is the oldest of the four schools of thought ( Madhhabs 
While Islam in Kyrgyzstan is more of a cultural background than a devout daily practice for many, public figures have expressed support for restoring religious values. The vast majority of today's Kyrgyz are Muslims of the Sunni branch which came into the region during the 8th century For example, human rights ombudsman Tursunbay Bakir-Ulu noted, "In this era of independence, it is not surprising that there has been a return to spiritual roots not only in Kyrgyzstan, but also in other post-communist republics. Human rights refers to the "basic Rights and freedoms to which all humans are entitled It would be immoral to develop a market-based society without an ethical dimension. " Additionally, Bermet Akayeva, the daughter of Askar Akayev, the former President of Kyrgyzstan, stated during a July 2007 interview that Islam is increasingly taking root across the nation. Bermet Akayeva (Бермет Акаева (born June 3, 1972 in Leningrad) is a Kyrgyz politician and former MP. Askar Akayevich Akayev ( Аскар Акаевич Акаев) (born 10 November 1944 in Kyzyl-Bairak, Kirghiz SSR) served as the  She emphasized that many mosques have been built and that the Kyrgyz are increasingly devoting themselves to Islam, which she noted was "not a bad thing in itself. A "mosque" in English refers to all types of buildings dedicated for Islamic worship although there is a distinction in Arabic between the smaller privately owned mosque and the larger It keeps our society more moral, cleaner. "
The other faiths practiced in Kyrgyzstan include Russian Orthodox and Ukrainian Orthodox versions of Christianity, practiced primarily by Russians and Ukrainians respectively. See also Eastern Orthodox Church Structure and organization The Slavic Orthodox Church is organized in a hierarchical structure Christianity ( Greek Χριστιανισμός from the word Xριστός ( Christ)is a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings The Russian people (Русские— Russkie) are an East Slavic Ethnic group, primarily living in Russia and neighboring countries Ukrainians (Українці Ukrayintsi,) are an East Slavic Ethnic group primarily living in Ukraine, or more broadly— Citizens A small minority of Germans are Protestant Christians, mostly Lutherans and Baptists. Lutheranism is a major branch of Western Christianity that identifies with the teachings of the sixteenth-century German reformer Martin Luther Baptist is a term describing individuals belonging to a Baptist church or a Baptist denomination.  A few Animistic traditions survive, as do influences from Buddhism such as the tying of prayer flags onto sacred trees, though some view this practice rooted within Sufi Islam. Animism (from Latin anima ( Soul, Life) commonly refers to a religious belief that Souls or Spirits exist in Animals Buddhism is a family of beliefs and practices Prayer flags are colorful panels or rectangular cloths often found strung along mountain ridges and peaks high in the Himalayas to bless the surrounding countryside or for other Sufism ( تصوّف - taṣawwuf, Persian: صوفیگری sufigari, Turkish: tasavvuf, Urdu: تصوف  There are also a small number of Bukharian Jews living in Kyrgyzstan, but during the collapse of the Soviet Union most fled to other countries, mainly the United States and Israel. Bukharan Jews, also Bukharian Jews or Bukhari Jews, ( בוכרים, Bukharim) are Jews from Central Asia who speak The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 The United States of America —commonly referred to as the For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Israel topics.
The 40-rayed yellow sun in the center of the flag represents 40 warriors of the mythical hero Manas. The lines inside the sun represent the crown or tündük (Kyrgyz түндүк) of a yurt, a symbol replicated in many facets of Kyrgyz architecture. A yurt is a portable Felt -covered wood lattice -framed dwelling structure used by Nomads in the Steppes of Central Asia. The red portion of the flag represents peace and openness of Kyrgyzstan.
Educational institutions in Kyrgyzstan include:
The traditional national sports reflect the importance of horse riding in Kyrgyz culture. This article is about the university in Bishkek For the university in Naryn see University of Central Asia. This article is about the university in Bishkek For the university in Naryn see University of Central Asia. Osh State University is the largest and the oldest university in southern Kyrgyzstan. For the Roman class see Equestrian (Roman Equestrianism refers to the skill of riding or driving Horses This broad description
Very popular, as in all of Central Asia, is Ulak Tartysh, a team game resembling a cross between polo and rugby in which two teams of riders wrestle for possession of the headless carcass of a goat, which they attempt to deliver across the opposition's goal line, or into the opposition's goal: a big tub or a circle marked on the ground. Buzkashi, Kok-boru or Oglak Tartis ( Persian: بزکشی bozkæšī, Tajik: бузкашӣ buzkašī: "goat Team sport refers to Sports that are practiced between opposing teams where the players interact directly and simultaneously between them to achieve an objective Polo is a team sport played outdoors on Horseback in which the objective is to score goals against an opposing team Rugby football (usually just " rugby " may refer to a number of sports through history descended from a common form of Football developed at Rugby School
Other popular games on horseback include:
Transport in Kyrgyzstan is severely constrained by the country's alpine topography. Transport in Kyrgyzstan is severely constrained by the country's alpine topography Roads have to snake up steep valleys, cross passes of 3,000 metre (9,000 feet) altitude and more, and are subject to frequent mud slides and snow avalanches. Winter travel is close to impossible in many of the more remote and high-altitude regions. Additional problems are due to the fact that many roads and railway lines built during the Soviet period are today intersected by international boundaries, requiring time-consuming border formalities to cross where they are not completely closed. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 Horses are still a much-used transport option, especially in more rural areas; Kyrgyzstan's road infrastructure is not extensive, so horses are able to reach locations that motor vehicles cannot, and they do not require expensive, imported fuel. The horse ( Equus caballus) is a hoofed ( Ungulate) Mammal, one of eight living species of the family Equidae. Fuel is any material that is burned or altered in order to obtain energy
At the end of the Soviet period there were about 50 airports and airstrips in Kyrgyzstan, many of them built primarily to serve military purposes in this border region so close to China. Only a few of them remain in service today.
The Chui valley in the north and the Ferghana valley in the south were endpoints of the Soviet Union's rail system in Central Asia. Kant is a city in the Chui Valley of northern Kyrgyzstan, some 20 km from the capital of Bishkek. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 Following the emergence of independent post-Soviet states, the rail lines which were built without regard for administrative boundaries have been cut by borders, and traffic is therefore severely curtailed. The small bits of rail lines within Kyrgyzstan, about 370 km (1,520 mm broad gauge) in total, have little economic value in the absence of the former bulk traffic over long distances to and from such centers as Tashkent, Almaty and the cities of Russia. Almaty ( Алматы; formerly known as Alma-Ata ( Алма-Ата) also Verniy, (Верный is the largest city in Kazakhstan
There are vague plans about extending rail lines from Balykchy in the north and/or from Osh in the south into the People's Republic of China, but the cost of construction would be enormous. Balykchy (Балыкчы is a town with a population about 40000 people located at the western end of Lake Issyk-Kul in Kyrgyzstan, at and an elevation of Osh ( Kyrgyz: Ош) is the second largest city in Kyrgyzstan located in the Fergana Valley in the south of the country and often referred Talk People's Republic of China) PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA ARTICLE GUIDELINES
With support from the Asian Development Bank, a major road linking the north and southwest from Bishkek to Osh has recently been completed. Railways total 14400 km in common carrier service does not include industrial lines broad gauge 14400 km 1 Because of low investment and poor maintenance Uzbekistan 's overland transportation Infrastructure has declined significantly in the post-Soviet era Osh ( Kyrgyz: Ош) is the second largest city in Kyrgyzstan located in the Fergana Valley in the south of the country and often referred Most of Tajikistan 's Transportation system was built during the Soviet era, and since that time the system has deteriorated badly because of insufficient investment With railways a break-of-gauge is where a line of one gauge meets a line of a different gauge Asian Development Bank (ADB is a regional development bank established in 1966 to promote economic and social development in Asian and Pacific countries through loans and technical Osh ( Kyrgyz: Ош) is the second largest city in Kyrgyzstan located in the Fergana Valley in the south of the country and often referred This considerably eases communication between the two major population centers of the country -- the Chui Valley in the north and the Fergana Valley in the South. The Fergana Valley or Farghana Valley (Farg‘ona vodiysi Kyrgyz: Фергана өрөөнү Tajik: водии Фaрғонa Ферганская долина An offshoot of this road branches off across a 3,500 meter pass into the Talas Valley in the northwest. In a range of hills or especially of mountains, a pass (also gap, notch, col, saddle, bwlch, Plans are now being formulated to build a major road from Osh into the People's Republic of China. Talk People's Republic of China) PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA ARTICLE GUIDELINES
total: 30,300 km (including 140 km of expressways)
paved: 22,600 km (includes some all-weather gravel-surfaced roads)
unpaved: 7,700 km (these roads are made of unstabilized earth and are difficult to negotiate in wet weather) (1990)
Natural gas 200 km
Water transport exists only on Lake Issyk Kul, and has drastically shrunk since the end of the Soviet Union. Natural gas is a Gaseous Fossil fuel consisting primarily of Methane but including significant quantities of Ethane, Propane, Issyk Kul (also Ysyk Köl, Issyk-kol; Ысыккөл Иссык-Куль is an Endorheic Lake in the northern Tian Shan mountains
Balykchy (Ysyk-Kol or Rybach'ye), on Lake Issyk Kul. Balykchy (Балыкчы is a town with a population about 40000 people located at the western end of Lake Issyk-Kul in Kyrgyzstan, at and an elevation of