Kurdish Music (Kurdish: Muzîk û strana kurdî) refers to music performed in Kurdish language. The Kurdish language (Kurdish Kurdî or کوردی is a term used for the language spoken by Kurds.
Traditionally, there are three types of Kurdish Classical performers - storytellers (çîrokbêj), minstrels (stranbêj) and bards (dengbêj). Storytelling is the ancient art of conveying events in Words Images and Sounds often by Improvisation or embellishment minstrel was a medieval European Bard who performed songs whose lyrics told stories about distant places or about real or imaginary historical events Etymology The word is a Loanword from descendant languages of Proto-Celtic *bardos, ultimately from Proto-Indo-European *gwerh2 There was no specific music related to the Kurdish princely courts, and instead, music performed in night gatherings (şevbihêrk) is considered classical. Several musical forms are found in this genre. Many songs and are epic in nature, such as the popular Lawiks which are heroic ballads recounting the tales of Kurdish heroes of the past like Saladin. An epic is a lengthy Narrative poem, ordinarily concerning a serious subject containing details of heroic deeds and events significant to a culture or nation Salahadin Ayyubi ( Arabic:صلاح الدين يوسف بن أيوب Kurdish: سهلاحهدین ئهیوبی Selah'edînê Eyubî; c Heyrans are love ballads usually expressing the melancholy of separation and unfulfilled love. Lawje is a form of religious music and Payizoks are songs performed specifically in autumn. Love songs, dance music, wedding and other celebratory songs (dîlok/narînk), erotic poetry and work songs are also popular. A work song is typically a Rhythmic A cappella Song sung by people working on a physical and often repetitive task
Musical instruments include the tembûr (tembûr, saz), biziq (bozuk), qernête (Duduk) and bilûr (Kaval) in northern and western Kurdistan, şimşal (long flute), cûzele, kemençe (a spike fiddle that some musicologists have credited the Kurds with its invention) and def (frame drum) in the south and east. The tembûr, a Fretted String instrument, is a form of tanbūr. The saz (from Persian:) is a family of Plucked string instruments popular in Iran, Turkey, Azerbaijan, Armenia and the Qernête is a double reed Musical instrument of ancient origin (it is often asserted that the design is several thousand years old used in Kurdistan in The duduk (duˈduk is a traditional woodwind instrument of Armenian origins The kaval is a chromatic End-blown flute traditionally played throughout Azerbaijan, Turkey, Bulgaria, Republic of Macedonia Zirne (wooden shawm) and dahol (drum) are found in all parts of Kurdistan. The shawm was a Medieval and Renaissance Musical instrument of the Woodwind family made in Europe from the late 13th century until
The most frequently used song form has two verses with ten syllable lines. A syllable ( Greek:) is a unit of organization for a sequence of speech sounds Kurdish songs (stran or goranî) are characterized by their simple melodies, with a range of only four or five notes. In Music, a melody (from Greek μελῳδία - melōidía, "singing chanting" also tune, voice, or
Historically, Kurdish Music has very ancient roots that go back to the Hurrian period of Kurdish history. The Hurrians (also Khurrites; cuneiform Ḫu-ur-ri 𒄷𒌨𒊑 were a people of the Ancient Near East, who lived in northern Mesopotamia The Hurrians - the ancestors of the modern Kurds - were an ancient people that inhabited present-day Kurdistan and established several kingdoms before their aryanization by the coming Medes. Aryan is an English word derived from the Sanskrit " Ārya " meaning "noble" or "honorable" The Medes were an ancient Iranian people who lived in the northwestern portions of present-day Iran. A Hurrian tablet dating back to the 13th century B. C. was discovered in Ugaret; it contains in its upper portion the text of a Hurrian hymn. In the lower portion, it contains a series of numbers and technical terms that have been interpreted as a score rendering the tune to which the hymn would have been sung. This is then the earliest known musical score in history. Interestingly, the meqam in which the hymn was composed corresponds with the modern meqam "Kurd".
Kurdish musicians had a great role in the musical life of the Islamic caliphate. Zeryab was one among the absolutely greatest musicians in the Islamic era. He brought the Middle Eastern musical tradition to Muslim Spain and trained local musicians in his style. He also invented many maqams and musical forms and improved the design of the 'ûd. Ibrahim Mûsili and Is'haq Mûsili were considered among the greatest musicians of the Abbasid court. They wrote several first-rate works on local Iranic and Mesopotamian styles. Musicologists like Safi al-Din Ûrmawi - the founder of the systematist school of music (Wright 1978) - and Muhammad al-Khatib Arbîlî who wrote some of the most seminal works on Middle Eastern musicology.
For most of the 20th century, songs in Kurdish Language were banned in Turkey. Şivan Perwer (pron Shivân Parwar (born on September 23 1955 in Sarıdam (Sorî Siverek as İsmail Aygün) is a Kurdish poet writer musical The Kurdish language (Kurdish Kurdî or کوردی is a term used for the language spoken by Kurds. Some singers sang in Turkish, while others violated the ban and were imprisoned or fled to various countries, especially Germany. Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. A black market, however, has long existed in Turkey, and pirate radio stations and underground recordings have always been available. In the 2000s the ban has been lifted due to the falling activities of PKK. The Kurdistan Workers' Party (Partiya Karkerên Kurdistan or PKK, also called KADEK, Kongra-Gel, and KGK It is listed as a terrorist
Some of the foremost figures in Kurdish classical music of the past century from this part include Mihemed 'Arif Cizrawî (1912 - 1986), who is considered the greatest Kurdish classical composer and vocalist, Hesen Cizrawî, Şeroyê Biro, 'Evdalê Zeynikê, Si'îd Axayê Cizîrî and the female singers Miryem Xanê and Eyşe Şan.
Şivan Perwer, the most famous Kurdish musician of all time, came from the Kurds of Turkey. Şivan Perwer (pron Shivân Parwar (born on September 23 1955 in Sarıdam (Sorî Siverek as İsmail Aygün) is a Kurdish poet writer musical He came to fame in 1972 during a Kurdish revolt in Iraqi Kurdistan, and became a superstar before fleeing to Germany in 1976. Şivan Perwer is a superb composer, vocalist and tembûr player. He concentrates mainly on political and nationalistic music - of which he is considered the founder in Kurdish music - as well as classical and folk music. Şivan's innovative style, passionate melodies and highly expressive and powerful voice, in addition to his masterful use of various instrumental combinations has made him the inspiration of a whole generation of musicians and given him an international reputation.
Another important Kurdish musician from Turkey is Nîzammetîn Arîç - also known as "Feqiyê Teyra". He began with singing in Turkish, but rejected becoming a star at the cost of debasing his language and culture. As a result of singing in Kurdish, he was imprisoned, and then obliged to flee to Syria and eventually to Germany. Arîç, also a film director and actor, is greatly talented in performing Kurdish classical music and folk songs with brilliant mastery, dynamism and taste. He also has a unique and elegant style in musical composition.
Other noted musicians from this part include Kazo, Ali Baran, Birader and Beytocan. Ali Baran (b 1956 Tunceli -) is a Turkish singer of Kurdish origin Famous groups of music are: Koma Amed, Koma Denge Azadi, Carnewa and Agire Jiyan. Koma Denge Azadi (Voice of Liberty was one of the most popular Kurdish music bands in Turkey.
Zazaki musicians mostly sing traditional ballads of Dersim such musicians not only have influenced contemporary Turkish music but also Kurdish music in general. Tunceli ( Zazaki: Dêrsım, is a province in the Eastern Anatolia region of Turkey. Such artists include the Metin & Kemal Kahraman, Ahmet Aslan and Mikail Aslan.
In Iran, Kurdish language, radio stations and newspapers have generally been allowed, but music has long been carefully scrutinized for political references. Bijan Kamkar ( Kurdish: بیژن کامکار,, born 1949 is an Iranian Kurdish musician Kurdish music from Iranian Kurdistan has a rather distinctive form with its ancient native instruments such as the Def and the tembûr and with a shadow of Persian influence. The tembûr, a Fretted String instrument, is a form of tanbūr. The sacred sufi music of the Yarsanî sect (Ahli Haqq) with its 72 meqams is thought to be one of the most authentic and deep-rooted musical traditions in the world. Qawwali ( Urdu / Persian: قوٌالی; Punjabi / Multani: ਖ਼ਵ੍ਵਾਲੀ قوٌالی Brajbhasha / Hindi The Ahl-e Haqq or Yârsân ( Kurdish: ﯼاڔﮦساﻥ Yâresân اهل حق Ahl-e Haqq "People of Truth" are members of a religion founded
Some of the most famous classical musicians - composers and singers - of the past century from this part include Hasan Zirak (1921 - 1972) who performed and recorded more than thousand songs, Muhammad Mamlê (1925 - 1998) who was known for his beautiful voice, Abbas Kamandi, Aziz Shahrokh, Hesen Derzi, Shehên Talabani, Sey Heme Sefayi, Usman Hewrami and Mazhar Xaliqi. Hesen Zîrek or Hasan Zirak (1921–1972 was born in Hermêle (also Harmila a small village in Bukan region in the province of West Azerbaijan Mazhar Khaleghi (مه زهه ری خالقی (born August 1938 is a Kurdish singer famous for his folklore Kurdish music
The Kamkars (Koma Kamkaran) from the city of Sine is a leading ensemble in Kurdish music today. The Kamkars ( Kurdish: کامکاران are an Kurdish family of seven brothers and a sister are undeniably one of the leading musical ensembles in Iran today They are internationally renowned for their performance of Kurdish folk music and with great dynamism and innovation. Some members of the group, including Arsalan and Hooshang Kamkar, have also worked individually and produced successful works. Arsalan Kamkar ( Kurdish: Erselan Kamkar, born in 1960 is a Kurdish musician from Iran. Hooshang Kamkar ( Persian: هوشنگ کامکار Kurdish: Hoşeng Kamkar (born in 1946 is an Iranian Kurdish musician
Nasir Rezazî, who resides in Sweden, performs Kurdish music from all genres. Ali Akbar Moradi is the greatest master of the religious tembûr music of the Yarsan sect to which he belongs. Ali Akbar Moradi,( Kurdish علی أکبیر مۆرادی born 1957 is a well known Kurdish Iranian musician and composer The term tanbūr ( Persian: تنبور) can refer to various long-necked Fretted Lutes originating in the Middle East Female singers include the late Marziye Fariqi and her sister, Leila who is known for performing pop-Westernized songs.
Several Kurds have also been influential in classical Persian music, including Said Ali Asghar Kordestani (1882 - 1936), Shahram Nazeri, Kayhan Kalhor ,Mohammad Jalil Andalibi, Mojtaba Mirzadeh, and Jamshid Andalibi. Shahram Nazeri ( is a contemporary Iranian Kurdish Tenor who sings classical Persian and Kurdish music. Kayhan Kalhor ( born 1963 is a Kurdish Iranian Kamancheh player composer and master of classical Persian music
Morad Kaveh is living in Sweden and is a new successful singer and musician.
Until Saddam Hussein rose to power later in the 20th century, Kurds in Iraq were allowed to perform as they wished, so long as music did not encroach on politics. Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti ( Arabic: ar صدام حسين عبد المجيد التكريتي --> April 28 1937 &ndash December 30 Ali Merdan (1904 - 1981), a well known singer and composer, arose during this period. Ali Merdan (1904-1981 ( عهلی مهردان) was born in Kirkuk, widely regarded as the man who revolutionized the Maqam. Restrictions on recording grew slowly, and censors banned anything with a hint of subversion. A black market flourished, and some of the Kurds' most popular musicians were executed, including Erdewan Zaxolî. Year 1974 saw a degree of autonomy being achieved for the Kurds, but it was short-lived. After siding with Iran during a war, many Kurds were murdered with chemical weapons by Hussein's government, and the Kurds became highly repressed until the Gulf War and US invasion of Iraq. When the Kurds restored their autonomy in 1991, they started rebuilding their region. Artists now enjoy a good support from the regional government in Iraqi Kurdistan, and Kurdish artists and writers are encouraged to move and work there.
Aras Ibrahim-violinist, built Martyr Karzan's music group (tipi muziki shehid Karzan) in 1981 which was the only group who could record revolutionary songs in the mountain in the PUK released areas of Kurdistan. The group recorded 5 cassets and published them. In 1990, the group participated in the First festival of Halabja & Nawroz (arranged by Kurdistan Arts Union) in Saqz-Iran with the famous coral of Halabja which was about the chemical weapon used against the Kurds there. Some members of the group: Aras Ibrahim, Dler Ibrahim, Azad Khanaqini, Shwan Kaban, Idris Issa (Rzgar), Salari gitar, Twana Sulaiman, Hushiar Baba, Salam Ahmed Fars, Soran Jalal Aziz, Aso Kakaiy, Hama Jaza, Abdulkadir Hasan, Siyar, Saleem, Hakm Farhad, Qubad Gorun, Ashti Said, Jwan, Bahar,. . . .
Kurdish singers from Iraqi Kurdistan had sometimes the opportunity of performing and recording with Arab orchestras, which is the reason why Kurdish music from this part is somewhat influenced by Arabian music. Some of the best-known classical musicians of the past generations here are Tehsîn Taha, who was renowned for his beautiful voice, Ali Merdan, Anwer karadaghi, Karim Kaban, Eyaz Yûsif, 'Îsa Berwarî, Kawîs Axa, Shamal Sayib and violin players Anwer karadaghi, Dilşad. Ali Merdan (1904-1981 ( عهلی مهردان) was born in Kirkuk, widely regarded as the man who revolutionized the Maqam.
Zakaria Abdulla have been particularly famous in pop, he's the Kurdish King of Pop. Zakaria Abdulla (Kurdish Zekeriya is a Sweden -based Kurdish pop music star
Despite the lack of any musical educational infrastructure, several famous Kurdish musicians arose from Syria.
Gerabêtê Xaço was a great classical stranbêj, Muradê Kinê (Miradko) was another great stranbêj and kemençe player. Se'îd Yûsif (known as "prince of the biziq") is acclaimed for his unparalleled virtuosity on the biziq and his authentic teqsîms and beautiful song melodies. Mihemed Şêxo was a master of symbolic nationalistic lyrics who was imprisoned several times for expressing his political opinion through his songs. Some other important figures are Aram Tîgran, Mehmûd Ezîz - along with his brother Mihemed Elî Şakir -, Faris Bavê Fîras, Bangîn (Hikmet Cemîl), vocalist Miço Kendes and biziq player Ehmedê Çep. Ciwan Haco has been famous in pop/Westernized Kurdish music, "Şeyda" is locally known for his love songs, Nizar is known for its special texts, music and poetry. Ciwan Haco (born 1957 is a Kurdish singer He was born near Qamishlo in Syria Nȗhat is known for his soul music. Adnan babê Hêco is a singer of the many articles written about love.
Saber Meho is a Kurdish singer who lives in Lebanon. He works in promoting the Kurdish music and culture in Lebanon. He Participated in big concert with top lebanese singer. He has been interviewed by Lebanese TVs and Radios. His songs relfects the multi cultural society in Lebanon. He works with Armenian songers and traditional lebanese songers to promote the middle eastern music ( oriental music). His songs have become popular in Lebanon in recent years. His songs give a different flavour to the oriental music.
The earliest study of Kurdish music was initiated by an Armenian priest, Vartapet Komitas in 1904. Armenia (Հայաստան transliterated: Hayastan,) officially the Republic of Armenia (Հայաստանի Հանրապետություն Hayastani Biography Soghomon (Gevorki Soghomonyan was born into a family whose members were deeply involved in music and were monolingual in Turkish. Year 1904 ( MCMIV) was a Leap year starting on Friday (link will display calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap year starting on The first academic center for Kurdish music was founded in Yerevan, called The Malikian School of Music, which studied the old dengbêj. Yerevan (Երևան Երեւան or Երեվան ˌjɛrəˈvɑːn sometimes written as Erevan, Iravan, Erewan, Ayrivan, and Erivan Kurdish academic, Cemîlê Celîl published two collections of popular Kurdish songs in 1964 and 1965. Year 1965 ( MCMLXV) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. In Iraq, a center for study of Kurdish music was founded in 1958. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iraq topics. Year 1958 ( MCMLVIII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. An academic study of Kurdish music, dance and musical instruments in Hakkari was published by Dr. Hakkâri is a city in the far southeast of Turkey. The name Hakkâri comes from the Aramaic Akkare (ܐܟܪ̈ܐ meaning 'farmers' D. Christensen in 1963. Year 1963 ( MCMLXIII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The music of Kurdish Jews has also been studied in the 70s, and published by the Jewish Music Research Centre in Jerusalem . Jerusalem (יְרוּשָׁלַיִם, he-Latn Yerushaláyim; Arabic: ar القُدس, ar-Latn al-Quds) is the
Assyrian music is divided into three main sections or periods The music of Iran or Persian music has thousands of years of history dating back to the Neolithic age as seen in the archeological