Kosovo
Map of Kosovo
CapitalPristina (also Prishtina, Priština)
42°40′N 21°10′E﻿ / ﻿42.667, 21.167
Ethnic groups (2007)92% Albanians
5. } Albanians (Shqiptarët are an Ethnic group and a Nation, in the sense of sharing a common Albanian culture speaking the Albanian language 3% Serbs
2. Serbs ( Serbian: Срби Srbi) are a South Slavic people living in the Balkans and Central Europe, mainly in Serbia, 7% others [1]
Area
- Total10,908 km²
4,212 sq mi
- Water (%)n/a
Population
- 2007 estimate2,100,000[2]
- 1991 census1,956,1961
- Density220/km²
500/sq mi
GDP (PPP)2007 estimate
- Total\$4 billion[3] (N/A)
- Per capita\$1,800[3] (151st)
GDP (nominal)2007 estimate
- Total\$3. Area is a Quantity expressing the two- Dimensional size of a defined part of a Surface, typically a region bounded by a closed Curve. To help compare Orders of magnitude of different geographical regions  Areas between 10000 km² and 100000 km² are listed here The square mile is an imperial and US unit of Area equal the area of a square of one statute mile. Water is a common Chemical substance that is essential for the survival of all known forms of Life. In Mathematics, a percentage is a way of expressing a number as a Fraction of 100 ( per cent meaning "per hundred" In Biology a population is the collection of inter-breeding organisms of a particular Species; in Sociology Population density (in agriculture standing stock and Standing crop) is a measurement of Population per unit area or unit volume The purchasing power parity ( PPP) theory uses the long-term equilibrium Exchange rate of two currencies to equalize their Purchasing power. There are three lists of Countries of the world sorted by their Gross domestic product (GDP (the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation Per capita is a Latin phrase meaning for each head with Per meaning 'through' or 'by' This article includes three lists of Countries of the world sorted by their Gross domestic product (GDP at Purchasing power parity (PPP Per capita 237 billion[3] (N/A)
- Per capita\$1,500[3] (119th)
CurrencyEuro () (`EUR`)
Time zoneCET (UTC+1)
- Summer (DST)CEST (UTC+2)
Internet TLDNone assigned
Calling code[[+3812]]
1The census is a reconstruction; most of the ethnic Albanian majority boycotted. PLEASE NO RANDOM FIGURES THERE ARE NO FIGURES BASED ON NATIONAL STATISTICS IN THIS ARTICLE Per capita is a Latin phrase meaning for each head with Per meaning 'through' or 'by' This article includes three lists of Countries of the world sorted by their Gross domestic product Per capita at Nominal values, the A currency is a unit of exchange, facilitating the transfer of Goods and/or services It is one form of Money, where money is Please update other articles as well to avoid contradiction within Wikipedia e The euro sign (€ is the Currency sign used for the Euro, the official currency of the European Union (EU ISO 4217 is the International standard describing three-letter codes (also known as the currency code) to define the names of currencies established Central European Time ( CET) is one of the names of the Time zone that is 1 hour ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. Daylight saving time ( DST Central European Summer Time ( CEST) is one of the names of UTC+2 Time zone, 2 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. A country This is a list of country calling codes defined by ITU-T recommendation E
2Officially +381; some mobile phone providers use +377 (Monaco) or +386 (Slovenia) instead.
Republika e Kosovës
Република Косово / Republika Kosovo
Republic of Kosovo
 Flag Coat of arms
AnthemEurope[4]
Location of Kosovo in Europe
Capital
(and largest city)
Pristina (Prishtina, Priština)
Official languagesAlbanian, Serbian
Recognised regional languagesTurkish, Gorani, Romani, Bosnian
GovernmentParliamentary republic
- Special Representative of the Secretary-GeneralJoachim Rücker
- PresidentFatmir Sejdiu (LDK)
- Prime MinisterHashim Thaçi (PDK)
Independence1from Serbia
- Declared17 February 2008
1Independence has only been partially recognised internationally.
Kosovo, UN protectorate
Kosovo within Serbia
CapitalPristina
Government
- Special RepresentativeJoachim Rücker
- PresidentFatmir Sejdiu
UN protectorateUN administration of Kosovo, an autonomous province of Serbia
- UNSCR 124410 June 1999
- EULEX16 February 2008
CurrencyEuro (`EUR`)
History of Kosovo
Early history (before 850)
Prehistoric Balkans
Middle Ages (850 to 1455)
First Bulgarian Empire (850 to 1180)
Medieval Serbia
Battle of Kosovo
Ottoman Kosovo (1455 to 1912)
Eyalet of Rumelia
Vilayet of Kosovo
Albanian nationalism
20th century
First Balkan War
Kosovo in the Kingdoms of Serbia and SHS/Yugoslavia
AP Kosovo and Metohija (1946 to 1974)
SAP Kosovo (1974 to 1990)
Kosovo War (1996 to 1999)
Kosovo (since February 17, 2008)
This box: view  talk  edit
Ethnographic map of the late 19th century Balkans and western Asia Minor, Atlas Général Vidal-Lablache, Paris, 1898

In February 2008, the Assembly of Kosovo declared Kosovo's independence as the Republic of Kosovo (Albanian: Republika e Kosovës). 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common The Assembly of the Republic of Kosovo (Kuvendi i Kosovës Скупштина Косова Skupština Kosova) is an institution within the Provisional Institutions Albanian (sq ''Gjuha shqipe'' ˈɟuha ˈʃcipɛ is an Indo-European language spoken by nearly 6 million peoplewhile others claim that it derives from Daco - Its independence is recognized by some countries and opposed by others, including the Republic of Serbia, which continues to claim sovereignty over it as the Autonomous Province of Kosovo and Metohija (Serbian: Аутономна Покрајина Косово и Метохија / Autonomna Pokrajina Kosovo i Metohija). Serbia (Србија Srbija) officially the Republic of Serbia (Република Србија Republika Srbija) is a Landlocked Country Serbian (sr-Cyrl српски језик sr-Latn ''srpski jezik'' is a South Slavic language,

Kosovo borders Albania to the west, Central Serbia to the north and east, the Republic of Macedonia to the south, and Montenegro to the northwest. This article is about the country in southern Europe For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Albania topics. Political status The region of Central Serbia is not an administrative division of Serbia as such it is under the direct jurisdiction of the republic authorities The Republic of Macedonia (Република Montenegro ( British English) Montenegrin / Serbian: PLEASE DO NOT CHANGE THE LANGUAGES WITHOUT CONSENSUS ON THE TALK PAGE! The largest city and the capital of Kosovo is Pristina (also Prishtina, Priština), while other cities include Peć (Peja), Prizren, and Mitrovica. Peć is a city and municipality in north-western Kosovo. It is also the administrative centre of the homonymous district. Prizren ( Albanian: Prizren or Prizreni, Serbian Cyrillic: Призрен is a historical city located in southern Kosovo.

## Name

Main article: Names of Kosovo

Kosovo (Косово, [ˈkɔsɔvɔ]) is the Serbian possessive adjective of kos (кос) "blackbird",[5][6] an ellipsis for Kosovo Polje "field of the blackbirds", the site of the 1389 Battle of Kosovo Field. Kosovo in English language sources is mostly referred to in this spelling The Blackbird, Common Blackbird or Eurasian Blackbird ( Turdus merula) is a species of true thrush which breeds in Europe, Asia Ellipsis (plural ellipses; from Greek 'omission' in Printing and Writing refers to a mark or series of marks that usually indicate an intentional Kosovo Field ( Serbian: Косово Поље Kosovo Polje, "field of blackbirds") is a Field in Kosovo, some This page is about the Battle of Kosovo of 1389; for other battles see Battle of Kosovo (disambiguation. The name of the field was applied to an Ottoman province created in 1864. The Province of Kosovo (Vilayet of Kosovo (Vilajeti i Kosovës Macedonian: Покраина на Косово Pokraina na Kosovo; Serbian: Косовски

The region currently known as "Kosovo" became an administrative region in 1946, as the Autonomous Province of Kosovo and Metohija. The Autonomous Province of Kosovo and Metohija was an autonomous province of Serbia, within the larger federation of Yugoslavia from 1946 to 1974 when it In 1974, the compositional "Kosovo and Metohija" was reduced to simple "Kosovo" in the name of the Socialist Autonomous Province of Kosovo, but in 1990 was renamed back to Autonomous Province of Kosovo and Metohija. Metohija (Rrafshi i Dukagjinit Serbian: sr-Cyrl Метохија transliterated sr-Latn ''Metohija'' or infrequently sr-Latn ''Metohia'' is a large Socialist Autonomous Province of Kosovo ( Serbo-Croatian: Социјалистичка Аутономна Покрајина Косово Socijalistička Autonomna The Autonomous Province of Kosovo and Metohija is an autonomous province of the Republic of Serbia.

The entire region is commonly referred to in English simply as Kosovo and in Albanian as Kosova. English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States Albanian (sq ''Gjuha shqipe'' ˈɟuha ˈʃcipɛ is an Indo-European language spoken by nearly 6 million peoplewhile others claim that it derives from Daco - In Serbian, a distinction is made between the eastern and western areas; the term Kosovo (Косово) is used for the eastern part, while the western part is called "Metohija" (Метохија). Serbian (sr-Cyrl српски језик sr-Latn ''srpski jezik'' is a South Slavic language, Metohija (Rrafshi i Dukagjinit Serbian: sr-Cyrl Метохија transliterated sr-Latn ''Metohija'' or infrequently sr-Latn ''Metohia'' is a large

## History

The formation of the Republic of Kosovo is a result of the turmoils of the disintegration of Yugoslavia, particularly the Kosovo War of 1996 to 1999, but it is suffused with issues dating back to the rise of nationalism in the Balkans under Ottoman rule in the 19th century, Albanian vs. The Kosovo region in the Balkans in antiquity was known as Dardania, and from the 1st century AD formed part of the Roman province of Moesia 20th century history of Kosovo is filled with wars both civil and world wars and how they have constructed and deconstructed the county in the last one hundred years The term Kosovo War or Kosovo Conflict is often used to describe two sequential and at times parallel armed conflicts in Kosovo: 1996–1999 The rise of the Western notion of Nationalism under the Ottoman Empire eventually caused the break-down of the Ottoman millet The Ottoman Empire (1299–1923 ( Old Ottoman Turkish: دولتْ علیّه عثمانیّه Devlet-i Âliye-yi Osmâniyye, Late Ottoman and Modern Turkish The rise of Albanian nationalism See also Rise of nationalism under the Ottoman Empire The 1877-1878 Russo-Turkish War dealt a decisive blow to Ottoman Serbian nationalisms in particular, the latter notably surrounding the Battle of Kosovo eponymous of the Kosovo region. Serbian nationalism is the Ethnic nationalism of the Serb people This page is about the Battle of Kosovo of 1389; for other battles see Battle of Kosovo (disambiguation.

### Early history

In the 1389 Battle of Kosovo, Ottoman forces defeated a coalition led by Lazar Hrebeljanović. This page is about the Battle of Kosovo of 1389; for other battles see Battle of Kosovo (disambiguation. Stefan Lazar (Стефан Лазар Tzar Lazar Hrebeljanović ( Serbian Cyrillic: Кнез Лазар Хребељановић or Knez Lazar In 1402, a Serbian Despotate was raised and Kosovo became its richest territory, famous for mines. The Serbian Despotate ( Serbian: Српска деспотовина or Srpska despotovina) was among the last Serbian states to be conquered by the The local House of Branković came to prominence as the local lords of Kosovo, under Vuk Branković, with the temporary fall of the Serbian Despotate in 1439. Vuk Branković ( Serbian Cyrillic: Вук Бранковић (died October 6, 1397) was a Serbian medieval nobleman Knez (Prince Vuk Branković ( Serbian Cyrillic: Вук Бранковић (died October 6, 1397) was a Serbian medieval nobleman Knez (Prince One of the first Serbian states Raška, was founded in the first half of the 7th century on Byzantine territory by the Unknown During the first fall of Serbia, Novo Brdo and Kosovo offered last resistance to the invading Ottomans in 1441; in 1455, it was finally and fully conquered by the Ottoman Empire. Novo Brdo ( Cyrillic: Ново Брдо Albanian: Novobërda, Novobërdë) is a town and municipality in the Priština district

### Ottoman Kosovo (1455 to 1912)

Further information: Vilayet of Kosovo and History of Ottoman Serbia

Kosovo was part of the Ottoman Empire from 1455 to 1912, at first as part of the eyalet of Rumelia, and from 1864 as a separate province. Kosovo was part of the Ottoman Empire from 1455 to 1912, at first as part of the Eyalet of Rumelia, and from 1864 as a separate The Province of Kosovo (Vilayet of Kosovo (Vilajeti i Kosovës Macedonian: Покраина на Косово Pokraina na Kosovo; Serbian: Косовски Wars for Serbia (1389 - 1540 The Turks defeated the Serbian army in two crucial battles on the banks of the river Marica in The Ottoman Empire (1299–1923 ( Old Ottoman Turkish: دولتْ علیّه عثمانیّه Devlet-i Âliye-yi Osmâniyye, Late Ottoman and Modern Turkish The subdivisions of the Ottoman Empire were Administrative divisions of the State organisation of the Ottoman Empire based on military administration but Rumelia or Rumeli ( Turkish: Rumeli ("Land of the Romans" from Rum: "Greek" "Roman" and El The Province of Kosovo (Vilayet of Kosovo (Vilajeti i Kosovës Macedonian: Покраина на Косово Pokraina na Kosovo; Serbian: Косовски

Kosovo was briefly taken by the Austrian forces during the Great War of 1683–1699 with help of 6,000 Albanian fighters led by Pjetër Bogdani. Pjetër Bogdani (ca 1630 - 1689 known in Italian as Pietro Bogdano, is the most original writer of early literature in Albania. In 1690, the Serbian Patriarch of Peć Arsenije III led 37,000 predominantly Serbian families out of Kosovo. This is a list of the Archbishops and Patriarchs of Peć and the Serbs from the creation of the church as an archdiocese in 1219 to today's Patriarchate Arsenije III Čarnojević ( Serbian Cyrillic: Арсеније III Чарнојевић 1633 Bajice Cetinje, Montenegro - 1706 Vienna, More migrations of Orthodox Christians from the Kosovo area continued throughout the 18th century. In 1766, the Ottomans abolished the Patriarchate of Peć and the position of Christians in Kosovo deteriorated, including full imposition of jizya (taxation of non-Muslims). The Patriarchate of Peć ( Serbian: Пећка патријаршија or Pećka Patrijaršija; Albanian: Patrikana e Pejës) is a Serbian Under Islamic law, jizya or jizyah (جزْية ʤɪzjæh Ottoman Turkish: cizye both derived from Pahlavi and ultimately from Aramaic In contrast, many Albanian chiefs converted to Islam and gained prominent positions in the Turkish regimen. [7] On the whole, "Albanians had little cause of unrest" and "if anything, grew important in Ottoman internal affairs. "[8] The final result of four and a half centuries of Muslim rule was a marked decline in the previously dominant Slavic Christian demographic element in Kosovo, replaced by a Turko-Albanian [9] stratum.

In the 19th century, there was a "awakening" of ethnic nationalism throughout the Balkans. The rise of the Western notion of Nationalism under the Ottoman Empire eventually caused the break-down of the Ottoman millet Ethnic nationalism is a form of Nationalism wherein the " Nation " is defined in terms of Ethnicity. The ethnic Albanian nationalism movement was centred in Kosovo. The rise of Albanian nationalism See also Rise of nationalism under the Ottoman Empire The 1877-1878 Russo-Turkish War dealt a decisive blow to Ottoman

In 1871, a Serbian meeting was held in Prizren at which the possible retaking and reintegration of Kosovo and the rest of "Old Serbia" was discussed, as the Principality of Serbia itself had already made plans for expansions towards Ottoman territory. Prizren ( Albanian: Prizren or Prizreni, Serbian Cyrillic: Призрен is a historical city located in southern Kosovo. One of the first Serbian states Raška, was founded in the first half of the 7th century on Byzantine territory by the Unknown In 1878, a Peace Accord was drawn that left the cities of Pristina and Kosovska Mitrovica under civil Serbian control, and outside Ottoman jurisdiction, while the rest of Kosovo remained under Ottoman control. As a response, ethnic Albanians formed the League of Prizren, pursuing political aspirations of unifying the Albanian people and seeking autonomy within the Ottoman Empire. The League of Prizren (Lidhja e Prizrenit was an Albanian political organization founded on June 10, 1878 in Prizren, Vilayet of Kosovo

### 20th century

#### Balkan Wars to World War I

The Young Turk movement supported a centralist rule and opposed any sort of autonomy desired by Kosovars, and particularly the Albanians. 20th century history of Kosovo is filled with wars both civil and world wars and how they have constructed and deconstructed the county in the last one hundred years The Young Turks ( Turkish: Jön Türkler (plural from French: Jeunes Turcs) were a coalition of various groups favoring reforming the In 1910, an Albanian uprising spread from Pristina and lasted until the Ottoman Sultan's visit to Kosovo in June of 1911. In 1912, during the Balkan Wars, most of Kosovo was captured by the Kingdom of Serbia, while the region of Metohija (Albanian: Dukagjini Valley) was taken by the Kingdom of Montenegro. The Balkan Wars were two wars in South-eastern Europe in 1912–1913 in the course of which the Balkan League ( Bulgaria, Montenegro, Greece One of the first Serbian states Raška, was founded in the first half of the 7th century on Byzantine territory by the Unknown Metohija (Rrafshi i Dukagjinit Serbian: sr-Cyrl Метохија transliterated sr-Latn ''Metohija'' or infrequently sr-Latn ''Metohia'' is a large Albanian (sq ''Gjuha shqipe'' ˈɟuha ˈʃcipɛ is an Indo-European language spoken by nearly 6 million peoplewhile others claim that it derives from Daco - The History of Montenegro begins in the early Middle Ages, into the former Roman province of Dalmatia that forms present-day Montenegro. An exodus of the local Albanian population occurred. This was described by Leon Trotsky, who was a reporter for the Pravda newspaper at the time. Leon Trotsky ( Russian:, Lev Davidovich Trotsky, also transliterated Leo, Lyev, Trotskii, Trotski, Trotskij Pravda (Правда "The Truth" was a leading Newspaper of the Soviet Union and an official organ of the Central Committee of the The Serbian authorities planned a re-colonization of Kosovo. [10] Numerous colonist Serb families moved into Kosovo, equalizing the demographic balance between Albanians and Serbs. Kosovo's status within Serbia was finalised the following year at the Treaty of London. [11]

In the winter of 1915-1916, during World War I, Kosovo saw a large exodus of the Serbian army which became known as the Great Serbian Retreat, as Kosovo was occupied by Bulgarians and Austro-Hungarians. World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All The History of Bulgaria as a separate country began in 632 AD with the establishment of Old Great Bulgaria, which stretched from east of the Sea In 1918, the Serbian Army pushed the Central Powers out of Kosovo. The Central Powers ( German: "Mittelmächte" Hungarian: "Központi hatalmak" Turkish: "İttifak After World War I ended, the Monarchy was then transformed into the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenians on 1 December 1918. The Kingdom of Yugoslavia (Serbo-Croato-Slovene ie Serbo-Croatian, Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian, Slovene: Kraljevina Jugoslavija Events 800 - Charlemagne judges the accusations against Pope Leo III in the Vatican Year 1918 ( MCMXVIII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common

#### Kosovo in Yugoslavia

The province was first formed in 1945 as the Autonomous Kosovo-Metohian Area to protect its regional Albanian majority within the People's Republic of Serbia as a member of the Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia under the leadership of the former Partisan leader, Josip Broz Tito. The Autonomous Province of Kosovo and Metohija was an autonomous province of Serbia, within the larger federation of Yugoslavia from 1946 to 1974 when it Socialist Autonomous Province of Kosovo ( Serbo-Croatian: Социјалистичка Аутономна Покрајина Косово Socijalistička Autonomna } Albanians (Shqiptarët are an Ethnic group and a Nation, in the sense of sharing a common Albanian culture speaking the Albanian language Socialist Republic of Serbia ( Serbo-Croatian: Социјалистичка Република Србија Socijalistička Republika Srbija) was a Socialist The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia ( Serbo-Croatian, Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian, Slovene, Macedonian: After Yugoslavia's name change to the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and Serbia's to the Socialist Republic of Serbia in 1953, Kosovo gained limited internal autonomy in the 1960s. The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia ( Serbo-Croatian, Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian, Slovene, Macedonian: Socialist Republic of Serbia ( Serbo-Croatian: Социјалистичка Република Србија Socijalistička Republika Srbija) was a Socialist In the 1974 constitution, the Socialist Autonomous Province of Kosovo's government received more powers, including the highest governmental titles – President and Prime Minister and a seat in the Federal Presidency which made it a de facto Republic within the Federation, but remaining a Socialist Autonomous Province within the Socialist Republic of Serbia. Socialist Autonomous Province of Kosovo ( Serbo-Croatian: Социјалистичка Аутономна Покрајина Косово Socijalistička Autonomna (Similar rights were extended to Vojvodina). The Autonomous Province of Vojvodina ( Serbian: Аутономна Покрајина Војводина or Autonomna Pokrajina Vojvodina; Hungarian: Vajdaság In Kosovo Serbo-Croatian, Albanian and Turkish were defined as official languages on the provincial level. The Serbo-Croatian language or Croato-Serbian language (cрпскохрватски језик srpskohrvatski jezik) is a South Slavic Diasystem Albanian (sq ''Gjuha shqipe'' ˈɟuha ˈʃcipɛ is an Indo-European language spoken by nearly 6 million peoplewhile others claim that it derives from Daco - Turkish ( tr Türkçe IPA) is a language spoken by over 63 million people worldwide making it the most commonly spoken of the Turkic languages. Due to very high birth rates, the number of Albanians increased from 75% to over 90%. In contrast, the number of Serbs barely increased, and in fact dropped from 15% to 8% of the total population, since many Serbs departed from Kosovo as a response to the tight economic climate and increased incidents of alleged harassment from their Albanian neighbors. While there was tension, charges of "genocide" and planned harassments have been debunked as an excuse to revoke Kosovo's autonomy. For example in 1986 ""the Serbian Orthodox Church published an official, though false, claim that Kosovo Serbs were being subjected to an Albanian program of 'Genocide'. Even though they were disproven[2] by police statistics, the received wide play in the Serbian press and that lead to further ethnic problems and eventual removal of Kosovo's status. Beginning in March 1981, Kosovar Albanian students of the University of Prishtina organized protests seeking that Kosovo become a republic within Yugoslavia and human rights. The University of Prishtina as well as the University of Pristina (Universiteti i Prishtinës Serbian: Универзитет у Приштини Univerzitet [12] During the 1980s, ethnic tensions continued with frequent violent outbreaks against Yugoslav state authorities resulting in a further increase in emigration of Kosovo Serbs and other ethnic groups. [13][14] The Yugoslav leadership tried to suppress protests of Kosovo Serbs seeking protection from ethnic discrimination and violence. [15]

#### Disintegration of Yugoslavia and Kosovo War

Further information: Disintegration of Yugoslavia

Only after the Bosnian War, drawing considerable international attention, was ended with the Dayton Agreement in 1995, but the situation in Kosovo remained largely unaddressed by the international community, the Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA), an ethnic Albanian guerrilla group, by 1996 had started offering armed resistance to Serbian and Yugoslav security forces, resulting in early stages of the Kosovo War. The War in Bosnia and Herzegovina, commonly known as the Bosnian War, was an international armed conflict that took place between March 1992 and November 1995 The General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina, also known as the Dayton Agreement, Dayton Accords, Paris Protocol The Kosovo Liberation Army or KLA ( Albanian: Ushtria Çlirimtare e Kosovës or UÇK) was a Kosovar Albanian guerilla group which sought } Albanians (Shqiptarët are an Ethnic group and a Nation, in the sense of sharing a common Albanian culture speaking the Albanian language Serbs ( Serbian: Срби Srbi) are a South Slavic people living in the Balkans and Central Europe, mainly in Serbia, See also Kingdom of Yugoslavia, Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Yugoslavia ( Serbo-Croatian The term Kosovo War or Kosovo Conflict is often used to describe two sequential and at times parallel armed conflicts in Kosovo: 1996–1999 [18][21] By 1998, as the violence had worsened and displaced scores of Albanians, Western interest had increased. The Serbian authorities were compelled to sign a ceasefire and partial retreat, monitored by OSCE observers according to an agreement negotiated by Richard Holbrooke. Richard Charles Albert Holbrooke (born April 24, 1941 to a Russian Jewish and German Jewish family in New York City) is an American However, the ceasefire did not hold and fighting resumed in December 1998. The Račak massacre in January 1999 in particular brought new international attention to the conflict. [18] Within weeks, a multilateral international conference was convened and by March had prepared a draft agreement known as the Rambouillet Accords, calling for restoration of Kosovo's autonomy and deployment of NATO peacekeeping forces. The North Atlantic Treaty The Serbian party found the terms unacceptable and refused to sign the draft.

NATO intervention between March 24 and June 10, 1999[22], aimed to force Milošević to withdraw his forces from Kosovo, combined with continued skirmishes between Albanian guerrillas and Yugoslav forces resulted in a further massive displacement of population in Kosovo. The NATO bombing of Yugoslavia (code-named Operation Allied Force) was NATO 's military operation against the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia that Events 1401 - Mongol emperor Timur sacks Damascus. 1603 - James VI of Scotland Events 1190 - Third Crusade: Frederick I Barbarossa drowns in the Sally River while leading an army to Jerusalem Year 1999 ( MCMXCIX) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1999 Gregorian calendar) [23] During the conflict, roughly a million ethnic Albanians fled or were forcefully driven from Kosovo. Altogether, more than 11,000 deaths have been reported to Carla Del Ponte by her prosecutors. Carla Del Ponte (born February 9, 1947 in Lugano, Switzerland) is a former Chief Prosecutor of two United Nations International [24] Some 3,000 people are still missing, of which 2,500 are Albanian, 400 Serbs and 100 Roma. The Romani people (singular Rom, plural Roma as a Noun; also known as Romanies or Roma people) are an ethnic group with origins [25] Ultimately by June Milošević had agreed to a foreign military presence within Kosovo and withdrawal of his troops.

The White Drin river
National Public Library in Pristina

On June 10, 1999, the UN Security Council passed UN Security Council Resolution 1244, which placed Kosovo under transitional UN administration (UNMIK) and authorized KFOR, a NATO-led peacekeeping force. The United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo or UNMIK is the interim civilian administration in Kosovo, under the authority of the United During and after the breakup of Yugoslavia there were increasing ethnic and regional conflicts culminating in the Kosovo War of 1999 The White Drin (Drini i Bardhë Бели Дрим is a river in Kosovo and northern Albania, a -long headstream of the Drin. Events 1190 - Third Crusade: Frederick I Barbarossa drowns in the Sally River while leading an army to Jerusalem Year 1999 ( MCMXCIX) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1999 Gregorian calendar) United Nations Security Council Resolution 1244 authorised an international civil and military presence in Kosovo, then part of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia The United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo or UNMIK is the interim civilian administration in Kosovo, under the authority of the United The Kosovo Force ( KFOR) is a NATO -led international force responsible for establishing a safe and secure environment in Kosovo, the self-proclaimed independent Resolution 1244 provided that Kosovo would have autonomy within the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, and affirmed the territorial integrity of Yugoslavia, which has been legally succeeded by the Republic of Serbia. [26]

Some 200,000-280,000, representing the majority of the Serb population, left when the Serbian forces left. There was also some looting of Serb properties and even violence against some of those Serbs and Roma who remained. [27] The current number of internally displaced persons is disputed,[28][29][30][31] with estimates ranging from 65,000[32] to 250,000. Internally displaced persons (IDPs are people forced to flee their homes but who unlike refugees remain within their country's borders [33][34][35] Many displaced Serbs are afraid to return to their homes, even with UNMIK protection. The United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo or UNMIK is the interim civilian administration in Kosovo, under the authority of the United Around 120,000-150,000 Serbs remain in Kosovo, but are subject to ongoing harassment and discrimination.

Kosovo's political borders don't coincide with ethnic boundaries, and in 2001 an ethnic insurgency surfaced in the neighboring areas with ethnic Albanian majority, Preševo Valley in Central Serbia and the Polog Valley in the Republic of Macedonia, but eased within several months. The insurgency in the Republic of Macedonia ( January - November 2001) was an armed conflict which began when the ethnic Albanian National The Preševo Valley Albanian: Lugina e Preshevës) ( Serbian: Прешевска Долина or Preševska Dolina; is a geographical region Political status The region of Central Serbia is not an administrative division of Serbia as such it is under the direct jurisdiction of the republic authorities Polog ( Macedonian Cyrillic: Полог also known as the Polog Valley (Полошка Котлина Pološka Kotlina) is located in the north-western The Republic of Macedonia (Република

In 2001, UNMIK promulgated a Constitutional Framework for Kosovo that established the Provisional Institutions of Self-Government (PISG), including an elected Kosovo Assembly, Presidency and office of Prime Minister. The Provisional Institutions of Self-Government (Institucionet e përkohshme të vetëqeverisjes Serbian: Привремене институције самоуправе Kosovo held its first free, Kosovo-wide elections in late 2001 (municipal elections had been held the previous year).

In March 2004, Kosovo experienced its worst inter-ethnic violence since the Kosovo War. The unrest in 2004 was sparked by a series of minor events that soon cascaded into large-scale riots. Violent unrest in Kosovo broke out on March 17, 2004. Albanians retaliated to the alleged " Ethnic cleansing " during mass unrest leading [36]

International negotiations began in 2006 to determine the final status of Kosovo, as envisaged under UN Security Council Resolution 1244. United Nations Security Council Resolution 1244 authorised an international civil and military presence in Kosovo, then part of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia The UN-backed talks, lead by UN Special Envoy Martti Ahtisaari, began in February 2006. The United Nations ( UN) is an International organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in International law, International security Martti Oiva Kalevi Ahtisaari ( pronounced) (born on June 23 1937 is a former President of Finland (1994–2000 2008 Nobel Peace Prize winner and Whilst progress was made on technical matters, both parties remained diametrically opposed on the question of status itself. [37]

In February 2007, Ahtisaari delivered a draft status settlement proposal to leaders in Belgrade and Pristina, the basis for a draft UN Security Council Resolution which proposes 'supervised independence' for the province. A draft resolution, backed by the United States, the United Kingdom and other European members of the Security Council, was presented and rewritten four times to try to accommodate Russian concerns that such a resolution would undermine the principle of state sovereignty. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located [38] Russia, which holds a veto in the Security Council as one of five permanent members, had stated that it would not support any resolution which was not acceptable to both Belgrade and Kosovo Albanians. [39] Whilst most observers had, at the beginning of the talks, anticipated independence as the most likely outcome, others have suggested that a rapid resolution might not be preferable. [40]

After many weeks of discussions at the UN, the United States, United Kingdom and other European members of the Security Council formally 'discarded' a draft resolution backing Ahtisaari's proposal on 20 July 2007, having failed to secure Russian backing. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Events 1304 - Wars of Scottish Independence: Fall of Stirling Castle - King Edward I of England takes the last rebel stronghold Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Beginning in August, a "Troika" consisting of negotiators from the European Union (Wolfgang Ischinger), the United States (Frank Wisner) and Russia (Alexander Botsan-Kharchenko) launched a new effort to reach a status outcome acceptable to both Belgrade and Pristina. Troika ( Russian: тройка meaning threesome) is a Committee consisting of three members The European Union ( EU) is a political and economic union of twenty-seven member states, located primarily in The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending Despite Russian disapproval, the U.S., the United Kingdom, and France appeared likely to recognize Kosovar independence. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. [41] A declaration of independence by Kosovar Albanian leaders was postponed until the end of the Serbian presidential elections (4 February 2008). A pre-term presidential election was held in Serbia on January 20 and February 3 2008 Events 211 - Roman Emperor Septimius Severus dies leaving the Roman Empire in the hands of his two quarrelsome sons 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Most EU members and the US had feared that a premature declaration could boost support in Serbia for the ultra-nationalist candidate, Tomislav Nikolić. Tomislav Nikolić ( Томислав Николић,) (born February 15, 1952) is a Serbian politician President of the Serbian Progressive [42]

#### 2008 declaration of independence

States (green) that have recognised Kosovo

The UN Security Council remains divided on the question (as of 25 February 2008). Events 138 - The Emperor Hadrian adopts Antoninus Pius, effectively making him his successor 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Of the five members with veto power, USA, UK, and France recognized the declaration of independence, and Russia and the People's Republic of China consider it illegal. The United Nations Security Council 'power of veto' refers to the Veto power wielded solely by the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending Talk People's Republic of China) PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA ARTICLE GUIDELINES As of 28 March 2008, no member-country of CIS, CSTO or SCO has recognized Kosovo as independent. Events 37 - Roman Emperor Caligula accepts the titles of the Principate, entitled to him by the Senate. 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common The Shanghai Cooperation Organisation ( SCO) is an Intergovernmental mutual-security organization which was founded in 2001 by the leaders of China,

The European Union has no official position towards Kosovo's status, but has decided to deploy the European Union Rule of Law Mission in Kosovo to ensure a continuation of international civil presence in Kosovo. The European Union ( EU) is a political and economic union of twenty-seven member states, located primarily in The European Union Rule of Law Mission in Kosovo, EULEX Kosovo, is a planned deployment of European Union (EU police and civilian resources to Kosovo as As of today, most of member-countries of NATO, EU, WEU and OECD have recognized Kosovo as independent. The North Atlantic Treaty The European Union ( EU) is a political and economic union of twenty-seven member states, located primarily in The Western European Union ( WEU) is a partially dormant European defence and security organization established on the basis of the Treaty of Brussels of 1948

Of Kosovo's immediate neighbour states, only Albania recognizes the declaration of independence. This article is about the country in southern Europe For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Albania topics. Croatia, Bulgaria and Hungary, all neighbours of Serbia, announced in a joint statement that they recognise the declaration. Croatia (Hrvatska ˈxȓvatska officially the Republic of Croatia ( Republika Hrvatska) is a southern Central European country at the crossroads between The state of Bulgaria (България transliterated bg-Latn ''Balgaria'' The country preserves the traditions (in ethnic name language and alphabet of the First Bulgarian Hungary (Magyarország 'mɔɟɔrorsaːg) officially in English the Republic of Hungary ( Magyar Köztársaság, literally Magyar (Hungarian Republic [46]

## Geography

Main article: Geography of Kosovo

Kosovo has an area of 10,908 square kilometers[47] and a population of about 2. Climate Kosovo is located between the Mediterranean Sea and mountainous regions of Southeast Europe, on the Balkan Peninsula. The Junik Mountains are on the border between Albania and Kosovo in the Bjeshkët e Nemuna range Square Kilometre ( US spelling square kilometer) symbol km2, is a decimal multiple of the SI unit of 2 million. The largest cities are Pristina, the capital, with an estimated 170,000 inhabitants, Prizren in the south west with a population of 110,000, Peć in the west with 70,000, and Kosovska Mitrovica in the north with 70,000. Prizren ( Albanian: Prizren or Prizreni, Serbian Cyrillic: Призрен is a historical city located in southern Kosovo. Peć is a city and municipality in north-western Kosovo. It is also the administrative centre of the homonymous district. The climate is continental, with warm summers and cold and snowy winters. Continental climate is a Climate that is characterized by Winter Temperatures cold enough to support a fixed period of Snow cover each Year Most of Kosovo's terrain in mountainous, the highest peak is Đeravica/Gjeravica (2656 m). Đeravica is the highest mountain peak in Kosovo, with an altitude of and is part of the Bjeshkët e Nemuna mountain range which is part of the Dinaric There are two main plain regions, the Metohija basin is located in the western part of the Kosovo, and the Plain of Kosovo occupies the eastern part. Metohija (Rrafshi i Dukagjinit Serbian: sr-Cyrl Метохија transliterated sr-Latn ''Metohija'' or infrequently sr-Latn ''Metohia'' is a large The main rivers of the region are the White Drin, running towards the Adriatic Sea, with the Erenik among its tributaries), the Sitnica, the South Morava in the Goljak area, and Ibar in the north. The White Drin (Drini i Bardhë Бели Дрим is a river in Kosovo and northern Albania, a -long headstream of the Drin. The Erenik ( Albanian: Erenik; Serbian Cyrillic: Ереник is a river in Kosovo. A tributary is a Stream or River which flows into a mainstem (or parent river The Sitnica (Sitnicë Serbian Cyrillic: Ситница is a 90 km long river in Kosovo. South Morava (Јужна Морава/ Južna Morava) is a River in the Republic of Macedonia and Serbia which represents the shorter headwater The Ibar ( Serbian Cyrillic: Ибар Albanian: Lumi i Ibrit) is a River in Serbia and Montenegro, with The biggest lakes are Gazivoda, Radonjić, Batlava and Badovac. Lake Batlava ( Albanian Liqeni i Batllavës, Serbian Batlavsko jezero) refers to both a lake and resort located in Kosovo.

Phytogeographically, Kosovo belongs to the Illyrian province of the Circumboreal Region within the Boreal Kingdom. Phytogeography, also called geobotany is the branch of Biogeography that is concerned with the geographic distribution of Plant Species, or more generally Vaccinium vitis-idaea 20060824 003jpg|thumb|right| Vaccinium vitis-idaea ]]Alnus-viridis Rhododendron-palustreJPG|thumb|right| Rhododendron tomentosum ]]The Boreal Kingdom or Holarctic Kingdom ( Holarctis) is a Floristic kingdom According to the WWF and Digital Map of European Ecological Regions by the European Environment Agency, the territory of Kosovo belongs to the ecoregion of Balkan mixed forests. European Environment Agency (EEA agency of the European Union devoted to establishing a monitoring network for the monitoring of the European environment The Balkan mixed forests constitute a terrestrial Ecoregion of Europe according to both the WWF and Digital Map of European Ecological Regions by the

39. 1% of Kosovo is forested, about 52% is classified as agricultural land, 31% of which is covered by pastures and 69% is arable. [48]

Currently the 39,000 ha Sharr Mountain National Park, established in 1986 in the Šar Mountains along the border with the Republic of Macedonia, is the only national park in Kosovo, although the Bjeshkët e Nemuna National Park in the Albanian Alps along the border with Montenegro has been proposed as another one. The Šar Mountains (Malet e Sharrit, Шар Планина Šar planina) is a Mountain range that extends from southern Kosovo and the northwest A national park is a reserve of land usually declared and owned by a national Government, protected from most Human development and pollution [49]

## Governance and constitutional status

The city of Prizren

Kosovo is under de facto governance of the Republic of Kosovo except for North Kosovo, which remains under de facto governance of Serbia. The political status of Kosovo is the subject of a long-running political and territorial dispute between the Serbian (and previously the Yugoslav) During and after the breakup of Yugoslavia there were increasing ethnic and regional conflicts culminating in the Kosovo War of 1999 Prizren ( Albanian: Prizren or Prizreni, Serbian Cyrillic: Призрен is a historical city located in southern Kosovo. The Patriarchate of Peć ( Serbian: Пећка патријаршија or Pećka Patrijaršija; Albanian: Patrikana e Pejës) is a Serbian North Kosovo or Northern Kosovo (Северно Косово Severno Kosovo; Kosova Veriore is an unofficial name for a region in the northern part of Kosovo The Republic of Kosovo continues to operate with the Provisional Institutions of Self-Government elected in 2007, and the United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo which operates police, justice and civil administration. The Provisional Institutions of Self-Government (Institucionet e përkohshme të vetëqeverisjes Serbian: Привремене институције самоуправе Parliamentary elections to the unicameral Assembly of Kosovo (Kuvendi i Kosovës Serbian: sr-Cyrl Скупштина Косова The United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo or UNMIK is the interim civilian administration in Kosovo, under the authority of the United Serbian provincial elections are pending for 11 May 2008. The 2008 Serbian local elections in Kosovo were held on May 11, 2008 as part of Serbia's parliamentary elections and elections in Vojvodina Events 330 - Byzantium is renamed ''Nova Roma'' during a dedication ceremony but is more popularly referred to as Constantinople 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common

### Autonomous Province under UN administration

In 1999, UN Security Council Resolution 1244 placed Kosovo under transitional UN administration pending a determination of Kosovo's future status. The United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo or UNMIK is the interim civilian administration in Kosovo, under the authority of the United The Provisional Institutions of Self-Government (Institucionet e përkohshme të vetëqeverisjes Serbian: Привремене институције самоуправе United Nations Security Council Resolution 1244 authorised an international civil and military presence in Kosovo, then part of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia This Resolution entrusted the United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK) with sweeping powers to govern Kosovo, but also directed UNMIK to establish interim institutions of self-governance. The United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo or UNMIK is the interim civilian administration in Kosovo, under the authority of the United Resolution 1244 permits Serbia no official role in governing Kosovo and since 1999 Serbian laws and institutions have not been valid in Kosovo. NATO has a separate mandate to provide for a safe and secure environment.

In May 2001, UNMIK promulgated the Constitutional Framework, which established Kosovo's Provisional Institutions of Self-Government (PISG). The Provisional Institutions of Self-Government (Institucionet e përkohshme të vetëqeverisjes Serbian: Привремене институције самоуправе The PISG replaced the Joint Interim Administrative Structure (JIAS) established a year earlier. The Joint Interim Administrative Structure (JIAS was an interim administrative body in Kosovo, established in May 2000 by the United Nations Interim Administration Mission Since 2001, UNMIK has been gradually transferring increased governing competencies to the PISG, while reserving some powers that are normally carried out by sovereign states, such as foreign affairs. Kosovo has also established municipal government and an internationally-supervised Kosovo Police Service.

According to the Constitutional Framework, Kosovo shall have a 120-member Kosovo Assembly. The Assembly includes twenty reserved seats: ten for Kosovo Serbs and ten for non-Serb minorities (Bosniaks, Roma, etc). The Kosovo Assembly is responsible for electing a President and Prime Minister of Kosovo.

However, since 1999, the Serb-inhabited areas of Kosovo, such as North Kosovo have remained de facto independent from the Albanian-dominated government in Priština. North Kosovo or Northern Kosovo (Северно Косово Severno Kosovo; Kosova Veriore is an unofficial name for a region in the northern part of Kosovo They continue to uses Serbian national symbols and participate in Serbian national elections, which are boycotted in the rest of Kosovo. Serb-inhabited regions also boycott Kosovo elections. The municipalities of Leposavić, Zvečan and Zubin Potok are run by local Serbs, while the Kosovska Mitrovica municipality had rival Serb and Albanian governments until a compromise was agreed in November 2002. Leposavić or Leposaviq ( Serbian: Лепосавић or Leposavić) is a town and municipality in the District of Kosovska Mitrovica of Zvečan ( Serbian: Звечан Zvečan, Albanian: Zveçan or Zveçani) is a town and municipality in the Mitrovica District Zubin Potok or Zubin Potoku ( Serbian: Зубин Поток, Zubin Potok; Albanian: Zubin Potoku or Zubin Potok) is a

In February 2003, the Serb areas united to form the Union of Serbian Districts and District Units of Kosovo and Metohija in a meeting in Kosovska Mitrovica, which has since served as the de facto "capital. " The Union's President is Dragan Velić. There is also a central governing body, the Serbian National Council for Kosovo and Metohija (SNV). The President of SNV in North Kosovo is Dr Milan Ivanović, while the head of its Executive Council is Rada Trajković.

Local politics in the Serb areas are dominated by the Serbian List for Kosovo and Metohija. The Serbian List for Kosovo and Metohija ( Serbian: Српска листа за Косово и Метохију Srpska lista za Kosovo i Metohiju) is a Serbian The Serbian List is led by Oliver Ivanović, an engineer from Kosovska Mitrovica.

In February of 2007 the Union of Serbian Districts and District Units of Kosovo and Metohija transformed into the Serbian Assembly of Kosovo and Metohija, presided by Marko Jakšić. The Assembly has strongly criticized the secessionist movements of the Albanian-dominated PISG Assembly of Kosovo. It has demanded unity of the Serb people in Kosovo, boycotted EULEX, and announced massive protests in support of Serbia's sovereignty over Kosovo. On 18 February 2008, day after Kosovo's unilateral declaration of independence, the Assembly declared it "null and void". Events 3102 BC - Epoch (origin of the Kali Yuga. 1229 - The Sixth Crusade: Frederick II Holy 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common

Within Serbia, Kosovo is the concern of the Ministry for Kosovo and Metohija, currently led by Slobodan Samardzic. Slobodan Samardžić ( Serbian Cyrillic: Слободан Самарџић is a Serbian academic and politician and the former Minister for Kosovo-Metohija

### Republic of Kosovo

Further information: Constitution of Kosovo

A new constitution for Republic of Kosovo has been approved by the Parliament of the Republic of Kosovo and is planned to come into force in June 2008. See also Constitutional status of Kosovo The Constitution of the Republic of Kosovo purportedly came into effect on 15 June [50]

#### Foreign relations

There are currently eight countries maintaining embassies to the Republic of Kosovo: Albania,[51] Austria,[52] Germany,[53] the United Kingdom, [54] the United States,[55] Switzerland (also representing Liechtenstein),[56] and Italy. This article is about the country in southern Europe For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Albania topics. Austria (Österreich ( officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Switzerland (English pronunciation; Schweiz Swiss German: Schwyz or Schwiiz Suisse Svizzera Svizra officially the Swiss Confederation The Principality of Liechtenstein (Fürstentum Liechtenstein) is a tiny doubly landlocked Alpine country in Western Europe, bordered by Switzerland Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest [57] As of June 2008, 42 countries recognize Kosovo as independent. Skënder Hyseni is Foreign Minister of the Republic of Kosovo. Skënder Hyseni (born February 17, 1955) is currently the Foreign Minister of the Republic of Kosovo. [58]

#### Military

Main article: Military of Kosovo

The military of Kosovo is still in the process of being organized following the partially recognized declaration of independence of February 17, 2008. The Military of Kosovo is an organisation still in the process of being formed following the self-proclaimed and partially recognized declaration of independence of The Military of Kosovo is an organisation still in the process of being formed following the self-proclaimed and partially recognized declaration of independence of Events 1500 - Battle of Hemmingstedt. 1600 - Philosopher Giordano Bruno is burned alive at Campo de' Fiori 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Following the Kosovo War in 1999, United Nations Security Council Resolution 1244 placed Kosovo under the authority of the United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK), with security provided by the NATO-led Kosovo Force (KFOR). The term Kosovo War or Kosovo Conflict is often used to describe two sequential and at times parallel armed conflicts in Kosovo: 1996–1999 The United Nations ( UN) is an International organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in International law, International security United Nations Security Council Resolution 1244 authorised an international civil and military presence in Kosovo, then part of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia The United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo or UNMIK is the interim civilian administration in Kosovo, under the authority of the United The North Atlantic Treaty The Kosovo Force ( KFOR) is a NATO -led international force responsible for establishing a safe and secure environment in Kosovo, the self-proclaimed independent [59]

### Rule of law

Following the Kosovo War, due to many weapons in hands of civilians, law enforcement inefficiencies and widespread devastation, there was a tremendous surge in revenge killings and ethnic violence. In line with Albania 's ancient social code known as Kanuni i Lekë Dukagjinit or simply Kanun ( English: The Code of Lekë Dukagjini The number of reported murders rose from 136 in 2000 to 245 in 2001. The number of reported arsons rose from 218 to 523 in the same period. UNMIK points out that the rise in reported incidents may correspond to an increased confidence in the police force rather than more crime. The number of noted serious crimes saw an increase between 1999 and 2000, since then it has been "starting to resemble the same patterns of other European cities. "[60] [61] According to Amnesty International, the aftermath of the war resulted in an increase in the trafficking of women for sexual exploitation. Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is a Western based international Non-governmental organization which defines its mission as "to Human trafficking is the recruitment transportation harbouring or receipt of people for the purposes of slavery forced labor (including bonded labor or debt bondage and servitude [62][63][64] Organized crime continues to be a significant problem. "Crime syndicate" redirects here For the DC Comics group of villains see Crime Syndicate. However, there has been tremendous improvement in police action and by 2008, "murder rates in Kosovo have been in steady decline, dropping by 75 percent since 2003 with the current recorded rate today under three per 100,000 people" [3] a rate comparable to that of Switzerland[4], Ireland or Finland[5]. The landmines laid by both the Serbs and KLA during the Kosovo War and unexploded NATO ordnance remain a problem. A land mine is an Explosive device designed to be placed on or in the ground to explode when triggered by an operator or the Proximity of a vehicle person [65]

## Politics

Main article: Politics of Kosovo

The largest political party in Kosovo, the Democratic League of Kosovo (LDK), has its origins in the 1990s non-violent resistance movement to Miloševic's rule. Politics of Kosovo take place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic Republic, whereby the Prime Minister of Kosovo The Democratic League of Kosovo ( Albanian: Lidhja Demokratike e Kosovës, LDK is the 2nd largest Political party in The party was led by Ibrahim Rugova until his death in 2006. Prof Dr Ibrahim Rugova ( December 2, 1944 – January 21, 2006) was a politician of Albanian descent who was the first [66] The two next largest parties have their roots in the Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA): the Democratic Party of Kosovo (PDK) led by former KLA leader Hashim Thaci and the Alliance for the Future of Kosovo (AAK) led by former KLA commander Ramush Haradinaj. The Kosovo Liberation Army or KLA ( Albanian: Ushtria Çlirimtare e Kosovës or UÇK) was a Kosovar Albanian guerilla group which sought Ramush Haradinaj ( Serbo-Croatian: Рамуш Харадинај Ramuš Haradinaj) born 3 July 1968 in the village of Glođane near [67] Kosovo publisher Veton Surroi formed his own political party in 2004 named "Ora. " Kosovo Serbs formed the Serb List for Kosovo and Metohija (SLKM) in 2004, but have boycotted Kosovo's institutions and never taken their seats in the Kosovo Assembly. [68]

In November 2001, the OSCE supervised the first elections for the Kosovo Assembly. [69] After that election, Kosovo's political parties formed an all-party unity coalition and elected Ibrahim Rugova as President and Bajram Rexhepi (PDK) as Prime Minister. Prof Dr Ibrahim Rugova ( December 2, 1944 – January 21, 2006) was a politician of Albanian descent who was the first [70] After Kosovo-wide elections in October 2004, the LDK and AAK formed a new governing coalition that did not include PDK and Ora. This coalition agreement resulted in Ramush Haradinaj (AAK) becoming Prime Minister, while Ibrahim Rugova retained the position of President. Ramush Haradinaj ( Serbo-Croatian: Рамуш Харадинај Ramuš Haradinaj) born 3 July 1968 in the village of Glođane near PDK and Ora were critical of the coalition agreement and have since frequently accused the current government of corruption.

Ramush Haradinaj resigned the post of Prime Minister after he was indicted for war crimes by the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) in March 2005. He was replaced by Bajram Kosumi (AAK). [71] But in a political shake-up after the death of President Rugova in January 2006, Kosumi himself was replaced by former Kosovo Protection Corps commander Agim Çeku. Agim Çeku ( Serbo-Croat: Agim Čeku) (born 29 October 1960 in the village of Ćuška near Pejë/Peć, in Kosovo [72] Çeku has won recognition for his outreach to minorities, but Serbia has been critical of his wartime past as military leader of the KLA and claims he is still not doing enough for Kosovo Serbs. The Kosovo Assembly elected Fatmir Sejdiu, a former LDK parliamentarian, president after Rugova's death. Fatmir Sejdiu ( Serbo-Croat: Fatmir Sejdiju) (born October 23, 1951) is the second and current President of Kosovo. Slaviša Petkovic, Minister for Communities and Returns, was previously the only ethnic Serb in the government, but resigned in November 2006 amid allegations that he misused ministry funds. [73][74] Today three of the total sixteen ministries in Government of the Republic of Kosovo have ministers from the minorities. Minister of Community and Return and Minister of Labour and Social Welfare are ethnic Serbs, while Minister of Environment and Spatial Planning is from Kosovo’s small Turkish minority. [75]

Parliamentary elections were held on 17 November 2007. Parliamentary elections to the unicameral Assembly of Kosovo (Kuvendi i Kosovës Serbian: sr-Cyrl Скупштина Косова Events 284 - Diocletian is proclaimed emperor by his soldiers Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. After early results, Hashim Thaçi who was on course to gain 35 per cent of the vote, claimed victory for PDK, the Albanian Democratic Party, and stated his intention to declare independence. Hashim Thaçi ( Albanian: Hashim Thaçi Serbo-Croat: Hašim Tači, Хашим Тачи born 24 April, 1968 in Drenica The Democratic Party of Kosovo ( Albanian: Partia Demokratike e Kosovës - short PDK) is the largest Political party in Kosovo Thaçi has since formed a coalition with current President Fatmir Sejdiu's Democratic League which was in second place with 22 percent of the vote. Fatmir Sejdiu ( Serbo-Croat: Fatmir Sejdiju) (born October 23, 1951) is the second and current President of Kosovo. The Democratic League of Kosovo ( Albanian: Lidhja Demokratike e Kosovës, LDK is the 2nd largest Political party in [76] The turnout at the election was particularly low with most Serbs refusing to vote. [77]

## Economy

Main article: Economy of Kosovo
Bill Clinton Boulevard in Pristina

Kosovo has one of the most under-developed economies in Europe, with a per capita income estimated at 1,565 (2004). Kosovo (a semi-recognized country is one of the poorest countries in Europe, with Kosovo having a per capita income estimated at 1500 Euro Please update other articles as well to avoid contradiction within Wikipedia e [78] Despite substantial development subsidies from all Yugoslav republics, Kosovo was the poorest province of Yugoslavia. [79] Additionally, over the course of the 1990s a blend of poor economic policies, international sanctions, poor external commerce and ethnic conflict severely damaged the economy. [80]

Kosovo's economy remains weak. After a jump in 2000 and 2001, growth in Gross Domestic Product (GDP) was negative in 2002 and 2003 and is expected to be around 3 percent 2004-2005, with domestic sources of growth unable to compensate for the declining foreign assistance. Inflation is low, while the budget posted a deficit for the first time in 2004. In economics inflation or price inflation is a rise in the general level of prices of goods and services over a period of time Kosovo has high external deficits. In 2004, the deficit of the balance of goods and services was close to 70 percent of GDP. Remittances from Kosovars living abroad accounts for an estimated 13 percent of GDP, and foreign assistance for around 34 percent of GDP.

Most economic development since 1999 has taken place in the trade, retail and the construction sectors. The private sector that has emerged since 1999 is mainly small-scale. The industrial sector remains weak and the electric power supply remains unreliable, acting as a key constraint. Unemployment remains pervasive, at around 40-50% of the labor force. [81]

The euro is the official currency of Kosovo and used by UNMIK and the government bodies. Please update other articles as well to avoid contradiction within Wikipedia e [86] The Serbian dinar is used in the Serbian-populated parts. The dinar (genitive plural dinara, Serbian: динар динара is the currency of Serbia.

The chief means of entry to this landlocked country, apart form the main highway leading to the south to Skopje, Republic of Macedonia, is Pristina International Airport. Skopje (Скопје; Shkup or Shkupi is the Capital and largest city in the Republic of Macedonia, with more than a quarter of the population The Republic of Macedonia (Република Pristina International Airport (Aeroporti Ndërkombëtar i Prishtinës Serbian: Међународни аеродром Приштина Međunarodni aerodrom Priština

Kosovo's 2006 trade balance was total exports(FOB) \$154mil and total imports(CIF) \$1,612mil.

The Republic of Macedonia is Kosovo's largest import and export market (averaging €220 million and €9 million, respectively or 20% of whole Kosovo's trade), followed by Serbia (€111 million and €5 million app 12%), Germany (app 10% of total trade), China (app from 5-9% depending on season) and Turkey (app 6% of total imports). The Republic of Macedonia (Република In total EU's 27 countries are Kosovo's biggest trade partner, 35% of all Kosovo's imports are coming from EU and app 50-60% of Kosovo's \$150 million exports are going in EU27. The European Union ( EU) is a political and economic union of twenty-seven member states, located primarily in [87]

The economy is hindered by Kosovo's still-unresolved international status, which has made it difficult to attract investment and loans. [88] The province's economic weakness has produced a thriving black economy in which smuggled petrol, cigarettes and cement are major commodities. The prevalence of official corruption and the pervasive influence of organised crime gangs has caused serious concern internationally. The United Nations has made the fight against corruption and organised crime a high priority, pledging a "zero tolerance" approach.

Kosovo has a reported foreign debt of 1,264 billion USD that is currently serviced by Serbia.

According to ECIKS from 2001 to 2004 Kosovo received \$3,2 billion of foreign aid. International donnor conference is to be held in Switzerland in June or July 2008. Until now EU pledged 2 billion €, \$350 mil by USA. Serbia also pledged 120 million € to Serb's enclaves in Kosovo.

### Energy sector

At 14,700 Mt, Kosovo has the world’s fifth-largest proven reserves of lignite, a type of coal. Lignite, often referred to as brown coal, or Rosebud coal by Northern Pacific Railroad, is a soft brown fuel with characteristics that put it somewhere The lignite is distributed across the Kosovo, Dukagjin and Drenica basins, although mining has so far been restricted to the Kosovo basin. Coal reserves are found in two main basins and are currently being mined in the coal mines of Bardh open-cast coal mine and Mirash open-cast coal mine. The Mirash and Bardh open-cast coal mines are Lignite coal mines in Kosovo operatied by the Kosovo Energy Corporation (KEK The Mirash and Bardh open-cast coal mines are Lignite coal mines in Kosovo operatied by the Kosovo Energy Corporation (KEK

Energy sector presents a major potential for development of Kosovo's economy. There are two large coal-fired electrical power plants named "Kosovo A" and "Kosovo B" and the project to build a larger 2100-MW coal-fired power plant is underway with expected completion in 2012.

### Mining

Kosovo has lead-zinc-silver mines of Artana (Novo Brdo), Belo Brdo, Stan Terg and Hajvalia mines, and the Crnac mine. Characteristics Lead has a dull luster and is a dense, Ductile, very soft highly Zinc (ˈzɪŋk from Zink is a Metallic Chemical element with the symbol Zn and Atomic number 30 Silver (ˈsɪlvɚ is a Chemical element with the symbol " Ag " (argentum from the Ancient Greek: ἀργήντος - argēntos gen During the lead-zinc-silver exploitation at Farbani Potok (Artana-Novo Brdo), about 3 Mt of high-grade halloysite was discovered. Halloysite is a 11 aluminosilicate Clay Mineral with the Empirical formula Al2Si2O5(OH4 Halloysite is an aluminosilicate clay mineral used as a raw material for porcelain and bone china. Porcelain is a Ceramic material made by heating raw materials generally including Clay in the form of Kaolin, in a Kiln to temperatures Bone china is a type of Porcelain body first developed in Britain in which calcined Cattle bone ( Bone ash) is a major constituent This is only one of five known exploitable deposits of this very high-value (US\$140-450/t) clay, the other four being in New Zealand, Turkey, China and Utah, US. Current world production is estimated at 150,000 t/y. There is also nickel to be found in Kosovo and the largest working mine is in Çikatova (Dushkaja and Suke) and Gllavica (District of Uroševac). Nickel (ˈnɪkəl is a metallic Chemical element with the symbol Ni and Atomic number 28 There are significant deposits of chromium, bauxite and magnesite, but mining has been stalled since 1999. Chromium (ˈkroʊmiəm is a Chemical element which has the symbol Cr and Atomic number 24 Bauxite is the most important Aluminium Ore. It consists largely of the minerals Gibbsite Al(OH3 Boehmite γ-AlO(OH and Magnesite is not to be confused with Magnetite or Magnemite. Magnesite is Magnesium carbonate, Mg[[carbon

### Unemployment

A major issue in Kosovo that is undermining Kosovo's development is unemployment. Official unemployment rate stands at 40%. The World Bank states that even with 6 per cent annual growth (twice what Kosovo manages at the moment), it would take ten years to cut unemployment by half, from 40 to 20 per cent. The World Bank Group (WBG is a family of five International organizations responsible for providing Finance and advice to countries for the purposes of economic Persistent unemployment, in particular among the young, will fuel frustration, which would be bad for political peace. [6] The unemployment rate among young people age under 25, whom account of approximately 50% of Kosovo's population, is much higher, approximately 60%. [89] As such, a system of Kosovars going abroad as migrant workers has emerged. Approximately one out of five Kosovar households report having had a family member search for work abroad. [90] Kosovo has the youngest population in Europe, so in coming years, with significant development of educational sector on Kosovo, the current unemployment situation could be improved.

Kosovo, for administrative reasons, is considered as consisting of seven districts. North Kosovo maintains its own government, infrastructure and institutions by its dominant ethnic Serb population in the District of Kosovska Mitrovica, viz. North Kosovo or Northern Kosovo (Северно Косово Severno Kosovo; Kosova Veriore is an unofficial name for a region in the northern part of Kosovo Serbs ( Serbian: Срби Srbi) are a South Slavic people living in the Balkans and Central Europe, mainly in Serbia, Note this is article about the UNMIK district in Kosovo For the former district of the Serbian government see Kosovska Mitrovica District article in the Leposavić, Zvečan and Zubin Potok municipalities and the northern part of Kosovska Mitrovica. Leposavić or Leposaviq ( Serbian: Лепосавић or Leposavić) is a town and municipality in the District of Kosovska Mitrovica of Zvečan ( Serbian: Звечан Zvečan, Albanian: Zveçan or Zveçani) is a town and municipality in the Mitrovica District Zubin Potok or Zubin Potoku ( Serbian: Зубин Поток, Zubin Potok; Albanian: Zubin Potoku or Zubin Potok) is a

### Municipalities and cities

Kosovo is also divided into 30 municipalities:

## Demographics

Multi ethnic map of Kosovo

According to the Kosovo in Figures 2005 Survey of the Statistical Office of Kosovo,[91][92][93] Kosovo's total population is estimated between 1. Zvečan ( Serbian: Звечан Zvečan, Albanian: Zveçan or Zveçani) is a town and municipality in the Mitrovica District Zvečan ( Serbian: Звечан Zvečan, Albanian: Zveçan or Zveçani) is a town and municipality in the Mitrovica District Kosovo has an estimated population of 21 million (as of 2007 The dominant ethnic group is Albanian (92% with significant minorities of Serbs and others 9 and 2. 2 million with the following ethnic composition: Albanians 92 %, Serbs 4%, Bosniaks and Gorans 2%, Turks 1%, Roma 1%. } Albanians (Shqiptarët are an Ethnic group and a Nation, in the sense of sharing a common Albanian culture speaking the Albanian language Serbs ( Serbian: Срби Srbi) are a South Slavic people living in the Balkans and Central Europe, mainly in Serbia, The Bosniaks or Bosniacs (Bošnjak pl Bošnjaci bɔ'ʃɲaːt͡si are a South Slavic people living mainly in Bosnia and Herzegovina ("Bosnia" The Goran or Gorani are a Balkan Ethnic group characterised by their adherence to Islam and by their dwelling in the border region between Albania The Turkish people (Türk Halkı also known as " Turks " ( Türkler) are defined mainly as being speakers of Turkish as a First language The Romani people (singular Rom, plural Roma as a Noun; also known as Romanies or Roma people) are an ethnic group with origins

Albanians, steadily increasing in number, have constituted a majority in Kosovo since the 19th century, the earlier ethnic composition being disputed. The native dialect of the Kosovar Albanian population is Gheg Albanian, although Standard Albanian is now widely used as an official language. Gheg (or Geg) is one of the two major dialects of the Albanian language. Albanian (sq ''Gjuha shqipe'' ˈɟuha ˈʃcipɛ is an Indo-European language spoken by nearly 6 million peoplewhile others claim that it derives from Daco - [94][95] According to the draft Constitution of Kosovo, Serbian is another official language. See also Constitutional status of Kosovo The Constitution of the Republic of Kosovo purportedly came into effect on 15 June Serbian (sr-Cyrl српски језик sr-Latn ''srpski jezik'' is a South Slavic language, [96] Kosovo's political boundaries don't coincide with ethnic boundaries; Serbs form a local majority in North Kosovo and several smaller enclaves, while there are large areas with Albanian majority outside Kosovo in the neighboring regions of former Yugoslavia, namely in the northwest of the Republic of Macedonia and in Preshevo Valley of Central Serbia. North Kosovo or Northern Kosovo (Северно Косово Severno Kosovo; Kosova Veriore is an unofficial name for a region in the northern part of Kosovo Kosovo Serb Enclaves are the areas of Kosovo where Serbs live The Republic of Macedonia (Република The Preševo Valley Albanian: Lugina e Preshevës) ( Serbian: Прешевска Долина or Preševska Dolina; is a geographical region

Islam (mostly Sunni, with a Bektashi minority[20]) is the predominant religion in Kosovo, brought into the region with the Ottoman conquest in the 15th century and now nominally professed by most of the ethnic Albanians, by the Bosniak, Gorani, and Turkish communities, and by some of the Roma/Ashkali-"Egyptian" community. For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation. Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam. Sunni Islam is also referred to as Ahl as-Sunnah wa’l-Jamā‘h (Arabic Bektashism (Bektaşilik is an Islamic Sufi order ( Tariqat) considered to be a distinct branch of Shi'a Islam A religion is a set of Tenets and practices often centered upon specific Supernatural and moral claims about Reality, the Cosmos Kosovo was part of the Ottoman Empire from 1455 to 1912, at first as part of the Eyalet of Rumelia, and from 1864 as a separate The Romani people (singular Rom, plural Roma as a Noun; also known as Romanies or Roma people) are an ethnic group with origins The Ashkali (also Aschkali, Hashkali, Aškalije (Ашкалије Haškalije (Хашкалије are an Albanian speaking Balkan Egyptians or simply Egyptians (Egjiptian Египћани Egipćani or Ђупци Đupci; Египќанци Egipkjanci or Ѓупци Islam, however, hasn't saturated the Kosovar society, which remains largely secular. [97] The Serb population, estimated at 100,000 to 120,000 persons, is largely Serbian Orthodox. The Serbian Orthodox Church ( Serbian: Српска Православна Црква / Srpska Pravoslavna Crkva; СПЦ / SPC) or the Kosovo is densely covered by numerous Serb Orthodox churches and monasteries. About three percent of ethnic Albanians in Kosovo are Roman Catholic. [98][99][100] Some 80% of the former 150,000 members of the Roma and Ashkali minority were driven out of the country. [101]

At 1. 3% per year, ethnic Albanians in Kosovo have the fastest rate of growth in population in Europe. [102] Over an 82-year period (1921-2003) the population grew to 460% of its original size. If growth continues at such a pace, the population will reach 4. 5 million by 2050. [103]

By contrast, from 1948 to 1991, the Serb population of Kosovo increased by but twelve percent (one third the growth of the population in the rest of Serbia). Kosovo has an estimated population of 21 million (as of 2007 The dominant ethnic group is Albanian (92% with significant minorities of Serbs and others Kosovo has an estimated population of 21 million (as of 2007 The dominant ethnic group is Albanian (92% with significant minorities of Serbs and others The population of Albanians in Kosovo increased by three hundred percent in the same period -- a rate of growth twenty-five times that of the Serbs in Kosovo.

## Society

Ski Resort in the Šar Mountains. The Šar Mountains (Malet e Sharrit, Шар Планина Šar planina) is a Mountain range that extends from southern Kosovo and the northwest

### Cinema and media

Main article: Music of Kosovo

### Sports

Several sports federations have been formed in Kosovo within the framework of Law No. The Olympic Committee of Kosovo (OCK (Komiteti Olimpik i Kosovës (KOK was officially established in 2003 by Law No The Basketball Federation of Kosova ( Albanian: Federata e Basketbollit e Kosovës, officially in English: Basketball Federation of Kosova [http//www The Kosovo Handball Federation (Federata e Hendbollit te Kosoves is the governing body of Team handball in Kosovo, based in Pristina. The Table Tennis Federation of Kosovo (TTFK (Albanian Federata e Pingpongut tė Kosovės) is the governing body responsible for Table tennis in Kosovo 2003/24 "Law on Sport" passed by the Assembly of Kosovo in 2003. The law formally established a national Olympic Committee, regulated the establishment of sports federations and established guidelines for sports clubs. The Olympic Committee of Kosovo (OCK (Komiteti Olimpik i Kosovës (KOK was officially established in 2003 by Law No At present only some of the sports federations established have gained international recognition.

## References

1. ^ Enti i Statistikës së Kosovës
2. ^ See: [1] UN estimate, Kosovo’s population estimates range from 1. The Assembly of the Republic of Kosovo (Kuvendi i Kosovës Скупштина Косова Skupština Kosova) is an institution within the Provisional Institutions The Government of the Republic of Kosovo is the branch of Kosovo state institutions that exercises executive authority in Kosovo. The Prime Minister of Kosovo (Kryeministri i Kosovës Serbian: sr-Cyrl Премијер Косова ''Premijer Kosova'' is the Head of Government for Kosovo. The President of the Republic of Kosovo (Kryetari i Kosovës or Serbian: sr-Cyrl председник Косова is Head of State of the Republic Serbs are currently the largest ethnic minority in Kosovo. Population According to the Statistical Office of Kosovo in 2006 there were 111300 The Albanians are the largest ethnic group in Kosovo. According to the 1991 Serbian census boycotted by Albanians there were 2596072 Albanians in Kosovo Post and Telecom of Kosovo (Posta dhe Telekomi i Kosovës Serbian: sr-Cyrl Пошта и Телекомуникације Косова д The rise of Albanian nationalism See also Rise of nationalism under the Ottoman Empire The 1877-1878 Russo-Turkish War dealt a decisive blow to Ottoman Kosovo has an estimated population of 21 million (as of 2007 The dominant ethnic group is Albanian (92% with significant minorities of Serbs and others Violent unrest in Kosovo broke out on March 17, 2004. Albanians retaliated to the alleged " Ethnic cleansing " during mass unrest leading Metohija (Rrafshi i Dukagjinit Serbian: sr-Cyrl Метохија transliterated sr-Latn ''Metohija'' or infrequently sr-Latn ''Metohia'' is a large North Kosovo or Northern Kosovo (Северно Косово Severno Kosovo; Kosova Veriore is an unofficial name for a region in the northern part of Kosovo List of flags of Kosovo The flag of the Republic of Kosovo was adopted by the Assembly of Kosovo immediately following the declaration of independence of the The 2008 Kosovo declaration of independence was an act of the Provisional Institutions of Self-Government Assembly of Kosovo, adopted on 17 February 2008 which declared 9 to 2. 4 million. The last two population census conducted in 1981 and 1991 estimated Kosovo’s population at 1. 6 and 1. 9 million respectively, but the 1991 census probably undercounted Albanians. The latest estimate in 2001 by OSCE puts the number at 2. 4 Million. The World Factbook gives an estimate of 2,126,708 for the year 2007 (see Kosovo entry at The World Factbook).
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51. ^ Ministry of Foreign Affairs
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101. ^ Society for Threatened Peoples
102. ^ Albanian Population Growth
103. ^ Kosovo-Hotels, Prishtina - Kosovo-Hotels, Prishtinë