The Kokoda Track campaign or Kokoda Trail campaign was part of the Pacific War of World War II. The Pacific War was the part of World War II —and preceding conflicts—that took place in the Pacific Ocean, its islands and in East Asia, between World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including The campaign consisted of a series of battles fought from July 1942 to January 1943 between Japanese and Allied — primarily Australian — forces in what was then the Australian territory of New Guinea. Year 1942 ( MCMXLII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Year 1943 ( MCMXLIII) was a Common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. The Allies of World War II were the countries officially opposed to the Axis powers during the Second World War. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. New Guinea, located just north of Australia, is the world's second largest island, having become separated from the Australian mainland when the area now known
The Kokoda Track itself is single-file track starting just outside Port Moresby on the Coral Sea and (depending on definition) runs 60–100 kilometres through the Owen Stanley Ranges to Kokoda and the coastal lowlands beyond by the Solomon Sea. The Kokoda Track or Trail is a single-file foot thoroughfare that runs overland &mdash in a straight line &mdash through the Owen Stanley Range in ||-||-||-||-||-||} Port Moresby (ˌpɔrt ˈmɔrzbi or Pot Mosbi in Tok Pisin, population 255000 (2000 is the Capital and largest city of Papua The Coral Sea is a Marginal sea off the north-east coast of Australia. Owen Stanley Range is the south-eastern part of the central mountain-chain in Papua New Guinea. The Solomon Sea is a Sea located within the Pacific Ocean. It lies between New Guinea and the Solomon Islands. The track crosses some of the most rugged and isolated terrain in the world, reaches 2,250 metres at Mount Bellamy, and combines hot humid days with intensely cold nights, torrential rainfall and endemic tropical diseases such as malaria. Tropical diseases are diseases that are prevalent in or unique to tropical and subtropical regions Malaria is a vector -borne Infectious disease caused by Protozoan Parasites It is widespread in tropical and subtropical regions including The track is passable only on foot; this had extreme repercussions for logistics, the size of forces and the type of warfare that could be conducted. Logistics is the management of the flow of Goods, Information and other resources including Energy and people between the point of origin and the point 
Main article: Kokoda Track or Kokoda Trail?
Before World War II, paths in many remote areas of New Guinea were commonly referred to as tracks. The Kokoda Track or Trail is a single-file foot thoroughfare that runs overland &mdash in a straight line &mdash through the Owen Stanley Range in The name Kokoda Trail — which conforms with U.S. English usage — was popularised by Australian wartime reportage. Phonology North American English regional phonology In many ways compared to English English, North American English is conservative in its Phonology. The news media refers to the section of the Mass media that focuses on presenting current News to the public Kokoda Trail is used in Australian Army battle honours. The Australian Army is Australia's military land force It is part of the Australian Defence Force (ADF along with the Royal Australian Navy and the A battle honour is a military tradition practised in the Commonwealth countries of the United Kingdom, Australia, Canada, New Zealand The Australian Macquarie Dictionary states that while both terms are in use, Kokoda Track "appears to be the more popular of the two". The Macquarie Dictionary is a Dictionary of Australian English. 
In 2008 the national government of Papua New Guinea established a Place Names Commission. "On 12th October 1972, they formally gave notice they intended to assign the name 'Kokoda Trail' to the section of the old mail route not accessible to motor vehicles, that is, the 'walking path' from Owen's Corner on the Sogeri Plateau to Kokoda. There was much debate but the name 'Kokoda Trail' was selected. ".
In 2002 the Australian War Memorial published an article in their official magazine 'Wartime'  which advised: "There has been considerable debate about whether the difficult path that crossed the Owen Stanley Range should be called 'Kokoda Trail' or the 'Kokoda Track'. Both terms have been in common use since the war. 'Trail' is probably of American Origin but has been used in many Australian history books, including the official history, and was adopted by the Australian Army as an official 'battle honour'. 'Track' comes from the language of the Australian bush. It too is commonly used by veterans, and is used in some volumes of Australia's official war history.
"Thus both are correct, but 'Trail' appears to be used more widely. The memorial has adopted the term 'trail' because it is favoured by a majority of veterans and because it appears on the battle honours of units which served in Papua in 1942. "
The official name is 'Kokoda Trail'.
As part of their general strategy in the Pacific, the Japanese sought to capture Port Moresby. ||-||-||-||-||-||} Port Moresby (ˌpɔrt ˈmɔrzbi or Pot Mosbi in Tok Pisin, population 255000 (2000 is the Capital and largest city of Papua The port would have given them a base from which they could strike at most of eastern Australia, and control of a major route between the Pacific and Indian Oceans. The first attempt by sea-borne amphibious invasion was thwarted by the Battle of the Coral Sea. The Battle of the Coral Sea, fought from May 4 – May 8, 1942, with most of the action occurring on May 7 and May 8, was A month later, the Battle of Midway destroyed most of the Japanese carrier fleet, and reduced the possibility of major amphibious operations in the south Pacific. The Battle of Midway was a major Naval battle, widely regarded as the most important one of the Pacific Campaign of World War II. An aircraft carrier is a Warship designed with The Japanese now resolved to mount an overland assault across the Owen Stanley Range to capture Port Moresby, which might have succeeded against virtually no resistance, had it been mounted in February. Owen Stanley Range is the south-eastern part of the central mountain-chain in Papua New Guinea. 
Looking for ways to counter the Japanese advance into the South Pacific, the Supreme Allied Commander in the South West Pacific Area, General Douglas MacArthur, decided to build up Allied forces in New Guinea as a prelude to an offensive against the main Japanese base at Rabaul. General MacArthur redirects here for other meanings see General MacArthur (disambiguation. Rabaul is a township in East New Britain province Papua New Guinea. Aware that an enemy landing at Buna could threaten Kokoda and then Port Moresby, MacArthur asked his commander of Allied Land Forces, General Sir Thomas Blamey for details of how he proposed to defend Buna and Kokoda. Field Marshal Sir Thomas Albert Blamey GBE, KCB, CMG, DSO, ED, ( 24 January 1884 – 27 In turn, Blamey ordered Major General Basil Morris, the commander of New Guinea Force, to secure the area and prepare to oppose an enemy advance. Major General or Major-General is a Military rank used in many countries
Morris created a force to defend Kokoda called Maroubra Force, and he ordered the 100-strong B Company of the Australian 39th (Militia) Battalion to travel overland along the track to the village of Kokoda. Maroubra Force was the name given to the Australian Infantry force that defended Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea from the Japanese, A company is a Military unit, typically consisting of 75-200 Soldiers Most companies are formed of three to five Platoons although the exact number may vary Once there, B Company was to secure the airstrip at Kokoda, in preparation for an Allied build-up along the Papuan north coast. The unit was ordered to leave on 26 June but did not depart until 7 July. The rest of the 39th Infantry Battalion stayed on the near side of the Owen Stanley range, improving communications. As the militia company was securing its positions, news reached them of Japanese landings on the north coast of New Guinea. 
The Japanese, having already captured much of the northern part of New Guinea earlier in the year, landed on the northeast coast of Papua on July 21, 1942, and established beachheads at Buna, Gona and Sanananda. The Kokoda Track or Trail is a single-file foot thoroughfare that runs overland &mdash in a straight line &mdash through the Owen Stanley Range in Year 1942 ( MCMXLII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Beachhead is a Military term used to describe the line created when a unit (by sea reaches a beach and begins to defend that area of beach while other reinforcements (it Buna is a village in Oro Province, Papua New Guinea. It was the site of the Battle of Buna-Gona during World War II. 
The first Australian Army unit to make contact with the Japanese on mainland New Guinea was a platoon from the Papuan Infantry Battalion (PIB), made up of indigenous soldiers, under an Australian officer, Lieutenant John Chalk. A platoon is a military unit typically composed of two to four sections or Squads and containing about 30 to 50 soldiers The Royal Pacific Islands Regiment is the primary fighting regiment of the Papua New Guinea Defence Force. The Territory of Papua was a de facto Australian possession comprising the southeastern quarter of the island of New Guinea, existing from roughly 1902  On July 22, Chalk reported the arrival of the Japanese, by sending a runner to his immediate superior; he received a handwritten note later that day, stating simply: "You will engage the enemy. " That night, Chalk and his 40-strong unit made a lightning ambush on Japanese forces from a hill overlooking the Gona–Sangara road, before retreating into the jungle. Sangara was a king of Carchemish, he first appears in Assyrian documents as paying tribute to Ashurnasirpal II in 882
Japanese attempts to build up the force at Buna also had to get past the Allied air forces. One transport got through on 25 July, but another on July 29 was sunk, although most of the troops got ashore. A third was forced to return to Rabaul. Another convoy had to turn back on July 31. However, bad weather and Japanese A6M Zero fighters allowed a convoy under Vice Admiral Gunichi Mikawa to get through on August 14 and land some 3,000 Japanese, Korean and Formosan troops of the 14th and 15th Naval Construction Units. WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout Vice Admiral is a naval rank equivalent to Lieutenant General in seniority Vice Admiral was an admiral in the Imperial Japanese Navy during World War II. On August 17, the 5th Sasebo Special Naval Landing Force, and elements of the 144th Regiment commanded by Lieutenant Colonel Hatsuo Tsukamoto, 55th Mountain Artillery, 47th Anti Aircraft Artillery and 55th Cavalry arrived under the overall command of engineer Colonel Yosuke Yokoyama. The Japanese Special Naval Landing Forces (SNLF (海軍陸戦隊 Kaigun Rikusentai) were the marine troops of the Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN and were Lieutenant Colonel ( Lieutenant-Colonel in English from the French grade 's spelling is a rank of Commissioned officer in the armies Colonel ( RP ˈkɜnəl GA ˈkɜrnəl is a Military rank of a Commissioned officer, with corresponding ranks existing in almost every country On August 21, two battalions of the 41st Regiment arrived. 
Colonel Yokoyama ordered Colonel Tsukamoto to seize the airstrip at Kokoda, and to conduct a reconnaissance-in-force along the Kokoda Track. Encountering the Australian troops deployed near Kokoda, Tsukamoto deployed his infantry and marines for an attack, and quickly moved inland.
At 4pm on July 23, the 39th Battalion made its first contact with the Japanese, when the 30-strong 11th Platoon, along with some PIB soldiers, staged an ambush. Events 1632 - Three hundred colonists bound for New France depart from Dieppe France. 
On the morning of 27 July Lieutenant Colonel Owen, with the remnants of the militia troops and a handful of troops of the Papuan Infantry Battalion, who had had little food or rest for the previous three days and knowing he would be facing some 500 elite Japanese marines, decided to attempt a defence of the Kokoda airstrip and hope that reinforcements would arrive in time to support him. Events 1214 - Battle of Bouvines: In France, Philip II of France defeats John of England. Leaving around 40 troops at Deniki he took the remaining 77 and was deployed in Kokoda by midday on 28 July. Events 1540 - Thomas Cromwell is executed at the order of Henry VIII of England on charges of Treason. Owen then contacted Port Moresby by radio to request reinforcements. Shortly two Douglas transports carrying reinforcements from the 39th Battalion circled the airfield, but the American pilots refused to land for fear that the Japanese would attack while they were still on the ground and returned to Port Moresby. During the afternoon the Japanese poured machinegun fire and mortars on the Australians, Lieutenant Colonel Owen received a fatal wound and Major Watson assumed command. 
The Japanese launched a full-scale assault at 2. 30 a. m. on 29 July. Events 1014 - Byzantine-Bulgarian Wars: Battle of Kleidion: Byzantine emperor Basil II inflicts a decisive defeat Only after his position was completely overrun did Major Watson give the order to his troops to withdraw to Deniki. The Kokoda airstrip was captured by the Japanese who, having achieved their objective, did not pursue the Australians. Although the defenders were poorly trained, outnumbered and under-resourced, the resistance was such that, according to captured documents, the Japanese believed they had defeated a force more than 1,200 strong when, in fact, they were facing 77 Australian troops. 
Next to establishing the strength of the defending forces, and with the strategically vital supply base and airstrip at Kokoda within his grasp, Tsukamoto deemed the track to be practicable for a full-scale overland assault against Port Moresby. The Imperial Japanese Army's 10,000-strong South Seas Force, commanded by Major-General Tomitaro Horii, based at Rabaul, was tasked with the capture of Port Moresby. The Imperial Japanese Army ( IJA) ( Kyūjitai: 大日本帝國陸軍 Shinjitai: ja 大日本帝国陸軍 Romaji: Dai-Nippon Teikoku The South Seas Force, also known as the Japanese Fourth Fleet, was the Empire of Japan 's combined sea land and air formation first used in December 1941 was a Major general in the Imperial Japanese Army during World War II. Rabaul is a township in East New Britain province Papua New Guinea.
The loss of the airstrip at Kokoda forced the Australian commanders to send the other companies of the 39th Infantry Battalion plus the rest of the Militia's 30th Infantry Brigade — the 49th and 53rd Infantry Battalions — over the Track, rather than reinforcing Kokoda by air. Supplies, which had previously been flown in to Kokoda by the United States Army Air Force, would now need to be carried in by Papuan porters. The United States Army Air Forces ( USAAF) was the military aviation arm of the United States of America during and immediately after World War II. Wounded soldiers could no longer be evacuated by air, and would now have to be carried out by Papuans, who were nicknamed fuzzy-wuzzy angels by the Australian soldiers for their hair and for the care they provided to the sick and wounded. The Fuzzy Wuzzy Angels was the name given by Australian troops to a group of Papua New Guinean people who during World War II, assisted and escorted
On 9 August 1942, Lieutenant General Sydney Rowell's I Corps headquarters arrived at Port Moresby. Events 48 BC - Caesar's civil war: Battle of Pharsalus - Julius Caesar decisively defeats Pompey at Pharsalus Year 1942 ( MCMXLII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Lieutenant General is a Military rank used in many countries The rank traces its origins to the Middle Ages where the title of Lieutenant General was held by the I Corps of the Australian Army was the main frontline Corps of the army during World War II. Rowell assumed command of New Guinea Force on 18 August 1942. Blamey ordered Major General Arthur "Tubby" Allen's veteran Australian 7th Division, which had fought in the Middle East, to embark for New Guinea. Major General or Major-General is a Military rank used in many countries Major General Arthur Samuel "Tubby" Allen CB CBE DSO VD (10 March 1894-25 January 1959 was an Australian soldier The 7th Division of the Australian Army was formed to serve in World War II, as part of the Second Australian Imperial Force (2nd AIF The 18th Infantry Brigade was ordered to Milne Bay while the 21st and 25th Infantry Brigades would go to Port Moresby. Milne Bay is a large bay in Milne Bay Province, southeastern Papua New Guinea, at.
The 21st Infantry Brigade, commanded by Brigadier Arnold Potts, was the first to arrive at Port Moresby. This article refers to the military rank For the Doctor Who character known as the Brigadier see Brigadier Lethbridge-Stewart. Brigadier Arnold William Potts DSO, OBE, MC (16 September 1896 – 1 January 1968 was an Australian grazier who served in World War It was composed of the 2/14th, 2/16th, and 2/27th Battalions. The 2/14th and 2/16th immediately began moving north along the Track to reinforce Maroubra Force. The 2/27th Battalion was tasked for the Kokoda Track but following the Japanese landings at Milne Bay, the 2/27th was held in Port Moresby as the divisional reserve. The Battle of Milne Bay ( Operation RE) was a battle of the Pacific campaign of World War II.
Major Cameron who had been ordered to command Maroubra Force, pending the arrival of the 39th Infantry Battalion commander, Lieutenant Colonel Ralph Honner decided to retake Kokoda. Lieutenant Colonel Ralph Hyacinth Honner DSO, MC ( 17 August 1904 - 15 May 1994) was a distinguished Australian This risky attack was carried out using three companies of the 39th battalion attacking along different tracks. Only 'A' company succeeded in reaching Kokoda village and successfully re-took the village, finding it very lightly defended. An attempt to reinforce this small force using fresh troops from Port Moresby (using the 49th Battalion) being flown into Kokoda airstrip failed when the aircrew couldn't establish that the airstrip was in friendly hands. That evening the Japanese attacked with a 300 strong force and succeeded in forcing an Australian withdrawal.
Horii moved the first of his disembarking troops forward, a body of some 2500 soldiers, against the 39th Infantry Battalion and elements of the 49th and 53rd Infantry Battalions, some 400-strong. The Japanese force made contact with the outer positions of Maroubra Force and began frontal attacks against the dug-in defenders with the aid of a mountain gun and mortars manhandled up the Track.
Japanese reconnaissance had revealed a parallel track bypassing Isurava, defended by the Australian 53rd Battalion. A Japanese force was sent to open this route, and met with success, as the 53rd gave ground, retreating to the Track junction behind Isurava. Many senior officers of the 53rd were killed including its commander Lt-Colonel K. H. Ward, leading to further demoralization in the battalion.
During the height of the battle, the first troops of the 2/14 Infantry battalion arrived to reinforce the 39th Infantry Battalion. Potts took command of Maroubra Force, and using the screen provided by the 39th Infantry Battalion, deployed the 2/14th Infantry Battalion at Isurava and sent the 2/16th Infantry Battalion to take over defense of the alternate track from the retreating 53rd Infantry Battalion. By the time the 2/14th Infantry Battalion had deployed, the Japanese were still able to field a force some 5,000 strong, and therefore outnumbered the Australians by at least five-to-one.
Japanese tactics were little-changed from the campaign through Malaya — pin the enemy in place with frontal attacks while feeling for the flanks, with a view to cutting off enemy forces from the rear. However, Horii was on a strict timetable; any delays feeling for flanks meant the gradual debilitation of his force from disease and starvation. As a result, Maroubra Force endured four days of violent frontal attacks. During the fighting, the 39th Infantry Battalion was forced to stay on instead of being relieved, as the Japanese threatened several times to break through the 2/14th's perimeter.
On August 29, Private Bruce Kingsbury of the 2/14th made a unique individual contribution to the campaign and was posthumously awarded the Victoria Cross as a result. Events 708 - Copper coins are minted in Japan for the first time (Traditional Japanese date: August 10, 708) Bruce Steel Kingsbury VC (8 January 1918–29 August 1942 was an Australian soldier and recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious See below the section "Separate Commonwealth awards" Note that since His citation read, in part:
Private Kingsbury, who was one of the few survivors of a platoon which had been overrun . A platoon is a military unit typically composed of two to four sections or Squads and containing about 30 to 50 soldiers . . immediately volunteered to join a different platoon which had been ordered to counterattack. He rushed forward, firing the Bren gun from his hip through terrific machine-gun fire, and succeeded in clearing a path through the enemy. The Bren (from '''Br'''no, the Czechoslovak city of design and '''En'''field, the location of the British Royal Small Arms Factory Continuing to sweep enemy positions with his fire, and inflicting an extremely high number of casualties upon them, Private Kingsbury was then seen to fall to the ground, shot dead by the bullet from a sniper hiding in the wood. READ DISCUSSION PAGE BEFORE MAKING ANY EDITS TO CAPTION BELOW http//en
Eyewitnesses said that Kingsbury's actions had a profound effect on the Japanese, halting their momentum.
However, Australian casualties mounted and ammunition ran low. The Japanese threatened to make a breakthrough on the alternate track and Horii had now deployed several companies on the flanks and near the rear of the 2/14th and 39th Infantry Battalions, threatening an encirclement. Outnumbered, Maroubra Force withdrew towards Nauro and Menari. Potts relieved the exhausted 39th Infantry Battalion and the shattered 49th and 53rd; they were ordered to make their way back to Port Moresby. The 39th subsequently returned to the battle when the forward troops were under pressure.
Tropical diseases in general, and malaria in particular, took a devastating toll in this campaign, outnumbering combat casualties by ten to one. Malaria is a vector -borne Infectious disease caused by Protozoan Parasites It is widespread in tropical and subtropical regions including While the Australian Army had encountered malaria in the Middle East, few doctors with the Militia had seen the disease before. The need for a strict anti-malaria program was not fully understood, and many men wore shorts and short-sleeved shirts after dark. Others failed to take their quinine, which was still the major drug in use, not having yet been supplanted by quinacrine (Atebrin). Quinine (ˈkwaɪnaɪn kwɪˈniːn ˈkwiːniːn is a natural white Crystalline Alkaloid having Antipyretic (fever-reducing antimalarial, Quinacrine (trade name Atabrine) is a drug with a number of different medical applications being initially used in the 1930s as an Antimalarial drug Many officers saw this as a medical rather than a disciplinary issue, and did not compel their men to take their medicine. Moreover, anti-malarial supplies of all kinds were in short supply.
Retreating soldiers, Papuan porters and wounded immediately flooded the Track causing it to become a sea of mud in parts. However, no wounded were left behind — Japanese patrols routinely mutilated and executed any wounded found; sometimes using the corpses as bait to draw Australian soldiers into ambushes.
No suitable defensive terrain existed between Isurava and a feature known as Mission Ridge, which was south of Nauro and Myola. As a result, Brigadier Potts and Maroubra force retreated back through Menari, mounting small delaying actions where possible.
Myola, a dry lake bed, to that time had been used as a supply dump. It was a cleared patch of ground allowing supply drops by United States Army Air Forces (USAAF) "biscuit bombers". The United States Army Air Forces ( USAAF) was the military aviation arm of the United States of America during and immediately after World War II. The USAAF had two transport squadrons in the theatre, the 21st and 22nd Troop Carrier Squadrons, formed in Australia in April 1942. They operated a collection of acquired aircraft, including C-39, C-47, C-53, DC-2, DC-3, DC-5 and L-14. The Douglas DC-2 was a 14 seat twin-propeller Airliner produced by the Douglas Aircraft Corporation starting in 1934. WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout The Douglas DC-2 was a 14 seat twin-propeller Airliner produced by the Douglas Aircraft Corporation starting in 1934. WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout Losses were high.
Due to a shortage of parachutes, many items had to be "free-dropped" — dropped without parachutes. Packaging at this time was primitive and inadequate, even for normal handling under New Guinea conditions, and woefully inadequate for being dropped from a plane, so the rate of breakages was high. Tactics for dropping had not been developed and the recovery rate was correspondingly small. It was also not realised at the time that there was more than one dry lakebed at Myola.
Allen, under significant pressure form Blamey and MacArthur, asked Potts when offensive actions would be resumed now that air-drops were ensuring a regular, if sparse and intermittent flow of supplies. Potts in turn requested the 2/27th Infantry Battalion as reinforcements. In view of the situation at Milne Bay, high command in Brisbane held this force until the situation at Milne Bay was clearer. Under pressure from above, Allen ordered Potts to hold Myola as a forward supply base and to gather sufficient supplies for an offensive against the Japanese advance.
The High Commands orders were stunningly ignorant of the true situation facing Maroubra Force, but Potts knew only too well the overwhelming superiority of numbers fielded against him. Threatened with an outflanking maneuver through a loop of the Track, and insufficient terrain near Myola suitable for a set-piece defence, Potts was forced to retreat through Myola, destroying the supply base behind him.
Maroubra Force withdrew to the next defensible strong point on the Track, a feature known as Mission Ridge. Following the containment of the Japanese at Milne Bay, Allen finally released the 2/27th Infantry Battalion from the divisional reserve at Port Moresby. After advancing along the Track from Port Moresby, the 2/27th Infantry Battalion finally joined Maroubra Force at Mission Ridge, and Brigadier Potts was finally able to commit his entire brigade to the battle.
Taking up positions on a hilltop straddling the Track, which later became known as "Brigade Hill", Maroubra Force awaited the Japanese advance. The usual Japanese frontal attacks began soon after, upon the Australian leading elements. However, the Japanese launched a strong flank attack, aimed at cutting off the lead elements from the rest of Maroubra Force. The flank attack cut Maroubra Force in two, separating the brigade headquarters staff from the three battalions. With Brigade HQ about to be overrun, Brigadier Potts and the rear elements of Maroubra Force were forced to retreat back along the Track to the village of Menari.
When it became clear that they were in danger of being cut-off and destroyed, the remaining soldiers of all three Australian battalions immediately left the Track and "went bush" via an alternate track to the village of Menari. The 2/14th and 2/16th Infantry Battalions managed to re-unite with Brigadier Potts and 21st Brigade headquarters at Menari, but the 2/27th Battalion was unable to reach Menari before the rest of the brigade was again forced to retreat by the advancing Japanese. The 2/27th, along with wounded from the other battalions, were forced to follow paths parallel to the main Track, eventually making their way back to Ioribaiwa, and thence to Imita Ridge. Elements of the 2/14th and 2/16th Infantry Battalions accompanying Potts later managed to regroup for the defence of Imita Ridge, but the 2/27th only managed to regroup much later, after the Japanese retreat began. The result of this action was the shattering of Maroubra Force.
The defeat of the 21st Brigade at Brigade Hill finally ended Maroubra Force's defence of the Kokoda Track as a cohesive fighting unit, and was a decisive victory for the Japanese. The defeat was one of many factors leading later to the infamous "running rabbits" incident at base camp at Koitaki.
On 8 September, Rowell informed Blamey that he had decided to relieve Potts. Rowell ordered Potts to immediately report to Port Moresby "for consultations", replacing him as Maroubra Force commander with Brigadier Selwyn Porter on 10 September. Events 506 - The Bishops of Visigothic Gaul meet in the Council of Agde.
The series of defeats had a depressing effect back in Australia. On 30 August, MacArthur radioed Washington that unless action was taken, New Guinea Force would be overwhelmed. Events 1363 - Beginning date of the Battle of Lake Poyang; the forces of two Chinese rebel leaders— Chen Youliang and General George Vasey wrote that "GHQ is like a bloody barometer in a cyclone — up and down every two minutes". Major General George Alan Vasey CB, CBE, DSO and Bar ( 29 March 1895 – 5 March 1945) was an MacArthur informed General George Marshall that "the Australians have proven themselves unable to match the enemy in jungle fighting. George Catlett Marshall Jr (December 31 1880 &ndash October 16 1959 was an American military leader Chief of Staff of the Army, Secretary of Aggressive leadership is lacking. " He wanted Blamey to go up to New Guinea and "energise" the situation.
Prime Minister John Curtin ordered Blamey up to Port Moresby to take personal command of New Guinea Force, which he did on 23 September. John Joseph Curtin (8 January 1885 &ndash 5 July 1945 Australian politician and 14th Prime Minister of Australia, led Australia when the Australian mainland came under direct Events 1122 - Concordat of Worms. 1459 - Battle of Blore Heath, the first major battle of the English Rowell remained in command of I Corps, but saw this as a supersession. Blamey soon concluded that he could not work with Rowell, and relieved him of his command on 28 September, replacing him with Lieutenant General Edmund Herring. Events 48 BC - Pompey the Great is assassinated on orders of King Ptolemy of Egypt after landing in Egypt. Lieutenant General Sir Edmund Francis Herring KCMG, KBE, DSO, MC, ED, QC ( 2 September 1892
Upon reaching Ioribaiwa, the lead Japanese elements began to celebrate - from their vantage point on the hills around Ioribaiwa, the Japanese soldiers could see the lights of Port Moresby and the Coral Sea beyond. The Coral Sea is a Marginal sea off the north-east coast of Australia. However, Major-General Horii ordered his troops to dig in on the ridgeline. It was becoming clear to General Horii that the logistics trail along the Track from Buna was close to complete collapse. No new supplies had reached the forward Japanese battalions for some days now, and the few meagre supplies captured from the Australians were insufficient for a new offensive. The foodstuffs taken from the former Australian supply dump at Myola were deliberately contaminated by the withdrawing Australians, and hundreds of Japanese soldiers were now succumbing to dysentery as a result, while others were showing the advanced stages of starvation. Dysentery (formerly known as flux or the bloody flux) is an infection of the digestive system that results in severe Diarrhea containing mucus and blood Starvation (also called inanition) is a severe reduction in Vitamin, Nutrient, and Energy intake and is the most extreme form of
Meanwhile, the worn-out soldiers of Maroubra Force were relieved by the 25th Infantry Brigade, commanded by Brigadier Ken Eather, and the 16th Infantry Brigade (of the 6th Division), commanded by Brigadier John Lloyd. The 6th Division of the Australian Army was a unit in the Second Australian Imperial Force (2nd AIF during World War II. John Lloyd may refer to John Lloyd (tennis, British tennis player John Lloyd (rugby coach, former head coach to Wales national The Australian brigades dug in at Imita Ridge, near the start of the Kokoda Track outside Port Moresby, and were supported by an artillery battery of 25 pounders, which had been brought up the Track. The Ordnance QF 25 pounder, or more simply 25-pounder or 25-pdr, was the major British Field gun / Howitzer that was introduced
At this time, Major General Horii received orders from the Japanese commander at Rabaul - that due to the ongoing commitments of the Battle of Guadalcanal, no more reinforcements could be spared for the Kokoda Track offensive, and General Horii was to withdraw to the Buna-Gona beachheads. The Guadalcanal Campaign, also known as the Battle of Guadalcanal, was fought between August 7, 1942, and February 9, 1943, in the The order to withdraw was given, and the Japanese began to rapidly move back towards Kokoda.
MacArthur visited Blamey in Port Moresby on 4 October 1942 and the two agreed to establish a Combined Operations Service Command (COSC) to co-ordinate logistical activities in Papua-New Guinea. Events 610 - Heraclius arrives by ship from Africa at Constantinople, overthrows Byzantine Emperor Phocas Year 1942 ( MCMXLII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. To command it, MacArthur appointed Brigadier General Dwight Johns, the deputy commander of USASOS in SWPA, an expert on airbase construction. The Services Of Supply or 'SOS' branch of the Army was created on February 28, 1942 by Executive Order Number 9082 "Reorganizing the Army and the War Department" He was given an Australian deputy, Brigadier V. C. Secombe, who had directed the rehabilitation of the port of Tobruk in 1941. Tobruk or Tubruq (طبرق also transliterated as Tóbruch, Tobruch, Ţubruq, Tobruck) is a Town, Seaport All Australian and American logistical units were placed under COSC. COSC also controlled a fleet of small craft and luggers. A lugger is a type of small Sailing vessel setting lugsails on two or more masts and perhaps lug Topsails.
The development of the bases at Port Moresby and Milne Bay was now well advanced, and supplies were being built up. At Port Moresby, a T-shaped wharf was constructed on Tatana Island and linked to the mainland by a causeway. Opened in early October, it more than doubled the capacity of the port, allowing it to handle several large ships at a time when previously it had been able to handle only one. 
With two Australian brigades committed to action on the Track, "Tubby" Allen now took operational command of operations on the Kokoda Track. Each brigade in turn kept contact with the withdrawing Japanese until resistance began, just south of Kokoda, and later to the west. Unsatisfied with the speed of his advance, Lieutenant General Edmund Herring relieved Allen of command, and replaced him with Major General George Vasey of the Australian 6th Division. Lieutenant General Sir Edmund Francis Herring KCMG, KBE, DSO, MC, ED, QC ( 2 September 1892 Major General George Alan Vasey CB, CBE, DSO and Bar ( 29 March 1895 – 5 March 1945) was an The 6th Division of the Australian Army was a unit in the Second Australian Imperial Force (2nd AIF during World War II.
Several grisly discoveries by advancing Australian troops starkly illustrated the logistical nightmare of the Track — Japanese corpses were often found with no sign of external trauma, having died from typhoid and dysentery, and several corpses of Australian soldiers were found to have had body parts removed, a result of the starving Japanese resorting to cannibalism. Typhoid fever, also known as enteric fever, bilious fever, Yellow Jack or commonly just typhoid, is an illness caused by the Bacterium Dysentery (formerly known as flux or the bloody flux) is an infection of the digestive system that results in severe Diarrhea containing mucus and blood Cannibalism (from Spanish es ''caníbal'' in connection with cannibalism among the Antillean Caribs, also called anthropophagy (from Greek ἄνθρωπος
In order to try to cut off the Japanese at the Kumusi River crossings, the U.S. 126th Infantry of the 32nd Division set off on an advance from Port Moresby along tracks parallel to the Kokoda Track. The 32nd Infantry Division was a unit of the United States Army in World War I and World War II. However, the Japanese withdrawal was more rapid than expected, and the 126th Infantry emerged near the Buna–Gona beachheads without encountering the Japanese. Unfortunately, tropical diseases and exhaustion took their toll on the 126th, which lost a significant part of its strength for the subsequent Battle of Buna-Gona. The Battle of Buna–Gona was a battle in the New Guinea campaign, a major part of the Pacific campaign of World War II.
In a dramatic and bizarre turn of events, Major General Horii disappeared, presumed drowned, while withdrawing with his troops across the Kumusi River, towards the beachheads. The fierce current of the river swept away a horse on which he was riding; instead, Horii opted to float down the Kumusi River in a canoe with other senior officers, in order to quickly get back to Buna and organize the beachhead defences. The canoe was floated down to the river mouth, but Horii and his staff were swept out to sea in a freak squall. A squall is a sudden sharp increase in wind speed which is usually associated with active weather such as rain showers thunderstorms or heavy snow None were ever seen again.
On 22 October, after the relief of the 21st Brigade by the 25th Infantry Brigade, Blamey visited the remnants of Maroubra Force at Koitaki camp, near Port Moresby. While Rowell had allowed Potts to return to his brigade, Herring, who was unfamiliar with Potts, preferred to have Brigadier Ivan Dougherty, an officer Herring was familiar with from his time in command of Northern Territory Force. Northern Territory Force was an Australian Army force responsible for protecting the Northern Territory during World War II. Blamey relieved Potts of his command, citing Pott's failure to hold back the Japanese, despite commanding "superior forces" and, despite explicit orders to the contrary, Pott's failure to launch an offensive to re-take Kokoda. Blamey explained that Prime Minister John Curtin had told him to say that failures like Kokoda would not be tolerated. John Joseph Curtin (8 January 1885 &ndash 5 July 1945 Australian politician and 14th Prime Minister of Australia, led Australia when the Australian mainland came under direct Blamey replaced Potts with Brigadier Ivan Dougherty, who was to command the 21st Infantry Brigade until the end of the war, while Potts went to the 23rd Infantry Brigade.
Later, Blamey addressed the men of the 21st Infantry Brigade on a parade ground. A military parade is a formation of soldiers whose movement is restricted Maroubra Force expected congratulations for their efforts in holding back the Japanese. However, instead of praising them, Blamey told the brigade that they had been "beaten" by inferior forces, and that "no soldier should be afraid to die". "Remember," Blamey was reported as saying, "it's the rabbit who runs who gets shot, not the man holding the gun. " There was a wave of murmurs and restlessness among the soldiers. Officers and senior NCOs managed to quiet the soldiers and many later said that Blamey was lucky to escape with his life. A non-commissioned officer (sometimes noncommissioned officer) also known as an NCO or Noncom, is an enlisted member of an Armed force Later that day, during a march-past parade, many disobeyed the "eyes right" order. In a later letter to his wife, an enraged Brigadier Potts swore to "fry his [Blamey's] soul in the afterlife" over this incident. According to witnesses, when Blamey subsequently visited Australian wounded in the camp hospital, inmates nibbled lettuce, while wrinkling their noses and whispering "run, rabbit, run" (the chorus of a popular song during the war). Run Rabbit Run is a song written by Noel Gay and Ralph Butler. 
The Japanese withdrew within their formidable defences around the Buna-Gona beachheads, reinforced by fresh Japanese units from Rabaul. A joint Australian-United States Army operation was launched to crush the Japanese beachheads, in the Battle of Buna-Gona. The United States Army is a military organization whose primary mission is to "provide necessary forces and capabilities. The Battle of Buna–Gona was a battle in the New Guinea campaign, a major part of the Pacific campaign of World War II.
Following the conclusion of the action at Buna and Gona, about 30 remaining members of the 39th Infantry Battalion were airlifted out of the front line and the battalion was dissolved, to the regret of some members. Allied operations against Japanese forces in New Guinea continued into 1945. Year 1945 ( MCMXLV) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar
As the Japanese withdrew the Australian soldiers were confronted with evidence of cannibalism. Dead and wounded soldiers who had been left behind in the Australian retreat from Templton Crossing were stripped of flesh. Upon returning during their advance and the Japanese retreat, Australian soldiers saw the evidence of the cannibalism in various locations. Soldiers testified that the Japanese had not run short of rations having uncovered rice dumps and significant amounts of tinned food. The Japanese were also responsible for the execution of three nuns, a priest, layworkers and their children shortly after their arrival on the island. Witnesses stated that the Japanese executed the children last, after beheading their parents.  There was not enough evidence to bring formal charges at the Tokyo War Crimes trial with regards to the claims of cannibalism.
While the Gallipoli Campaign of World War I was Australia's first military test as a new nation, the Kokoda and subsequent New Guinea Campaign was the first time that Australia's security had been threatened directly. World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All The New Guinea campaign ( 1942 – 45) was one of the major Military campaigns of World War II. Given that at the time, Papua was an Australian Protectorate, Kokoda saw Australians fight and die repelling an invader on Australian soil, without the material presence or support of the United Kingdom. In International law, a protectorate is a autonomous territory that is "protected" by a stronger state or entity hense the protector which engages to protect The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located
The Kokoda Track campaign was hampered by the senior military commanders lacking knowledge of the Papuan environment. Both MacArthur and Blamey were unaware of the appalling terrain and the extreme conditions in which the battles were fought. Orders given to the commanders on the ground were sometimes unrealistic given the conditions on the ground. In the end though, their strategy of fighting the enemy in Papua — widely criticised at the time — was proven sound.
The Kokoda Track campaign highlighted the strengths and weaknesses of the individual soldiers and the lower level commanders. The US and Australian Armies would take steps to improve individual and unit training. Logistical infrastructure would be greatly improved. The 39th Infantry Battalion became famous. Ralph Honner summed up the perceived magnitude of his Battalion's achievement when he described the Battle of Isurava as "Australia's Thermopylae". In the Battle of Thermopylae, which occurred in August 480 BC (and was detailed almost entirely by Herodotus) an alliance of Greek City-states fought