|Kingston and St. Andrew Corporation|
Downtown Kingston and the Port of Kingston.
|Motto: A City Which Hath Foundations|
Location of Kingston shown within Jamaica
|- Mayor||Desmond McKenzie|
|- Total||453 km² (174. A motto (from the Italian word motto, meaning witticism sentence is a phrase meant to formally describe the general motivation or intention of a social group Jamaica (ˈdʒəˈmeɪkə} is an Island nation of the Greater Antilles, in length and as much as in width situated in the Caribbean Sea. Wikipedia talkFeatured lists for an explanation of this and other inclusion tags below -->This list of countries, arranged alphabetically Jamaica (ˈdʒəˈmeɪkə} is an Island nation of the Greater Antilles, in length and as much as in width situated in the Caribbean Sea. A county is a Land area of Regional Government within a larger State. Surrey is the easternmost and the smallest by area of the three counties into which Jamaica is divided Administratively Jamaica is divided into fourteen parishes They are grouped into three historic counties, which have no administrative relevance (traditional capitals Kingston is a parish of Jamaica. Together with neighboring St Saint Andrew ( Capital Half Way Tree) is a parish, situated in the southeast of Jamaica in the County of Surrey A mayor (from the Latin māior, meaning "greater" is a modern title used in many countries for the highest ranking officer in a municipal government Desmond A McKenzie, JP (born December 1, 1952) is a Jamaican politician currently the Mayor of the Kingston and Area is a Quantity expressing the two- Dimensional size of a defined part of a Surface, typically a region bounded by a closed Curve. Square Kilometre ( US spelling square kilometer) symbol km2, is a decimal multiple of the SI unit of 9 sq mi)|
|Elevation||9 m (30 ft)|
|- Density||1,439/km² (3,727/sq mi)|
|- Kingston Parish||96,052|
|- St. The square mile is an imperial and US unit of Area equal the area of a square of one statute mile. The elevation of a Geographic location is its height above a fixed reference point often the mean sea level. The metre or meter is a unit of Length. It is the basic unit of Length in the Metric system and in the International A foot (plural feet or foot; symbol or abbreviation ft or sometimes &prime – the prime symbol) is a non-SI unit Population density (in agriculture standing stock and Standing crop) is a measurement of Population per unit area or unit volume Andrew Parish||555,828|
|Time zone||EST (UTC-5)|
The City of Kingston is the capital and largest city of Jamaica and is located on the southeastern coast of the island country. The Eastern Time Zone ( ET) of the Western Hemisphere falls mostly along the east coast of North America and the west coast of South America UTC−5 is the Time offset used in the North American Eastern Time Zone during Standard time and in the North American Central Time Zone during Jamaica (ˈdʒəˈmeɪkə} is an Island nation of the Greater Antilles, in length and as much as in width situated in the Caribbean Sea. It faces a natural harbour protected by the Palisadoes, a long sand spit which connects Port Royal and the Norman Manley International Airport to the rest of the island. A harbor or harbour (see spelling differences) or haven, is a place where ships may shelter from the Weather or are stored Palisadoes (word apparently of Portuguese origin is the thin tombolo of sand that serves as a natural protection for the Harbour of Kingston Jamaica A spit is a deposition Landform found off Coasts. At one end spits connect to land while at the far end they exist in open water Port Royal, Jamaica was the centre of Shipping Commerce in the Islands of the Greater Antilles which make up the northeastern Norman Manley International Airport, formerly Palisadoes Airport, is an airport serving Kingston in Jamaica. In the Western Hemisphere, Kingston is the largest predominantly English-speaking city south of the United States, with a population of 651,880 (2001 census). The Western Hemisphere, also Western hemisphere or western hemisphere, is a geographical term for the half of the Earth that lies West English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States The United States of America —commonly referred to as the 
The local government bodies of the parishes of Kingston and St. Andrew were amalgamated by the Kingston and St. Saint Andrew ( Capital Half Way Tree) is a parish, situated in the southeast of Jamaica in the County of Surrey Andrew Corporation Act of 1923, to form the Kingston and St. Andrew Corporation (KSAC). Greater Kingston, or the "Corporate Area" refers to the KSAC; however, it does not solely refer to Kingston Parish, which only consists of the old downtown and Port Royal. Kingston is a parish of Jamaica. Together with neighboring St Kingston Parish had a population of 96,052, and St. Andrew had a population of 555,828 in 2001. 
Even though Greater Kingston properly refers to the entire area of the parishes of Kingston and St. Andrew, it should be noted that the significant rural areas of St. Andrew are not referred to as Kingston by Jamaicans. The area commonly referred to as Kingston is bounded by Six Miles to the west, Stony Hill to the north, Papine to the northeast and Harbour View to the east. Communities in rural St. Andrew such as Gordon Town, Mavis Bank, Lawrence Tavern, Mt. Airy and Bull Bay would not be described as being in Kingston.
Two parts make up the central area of Kingston: the historic but troubled Downtown, and New Kingston. Several reggae stars, including Buju Banton, Sean Paul, Bounty Killer, and Beenie Man, hail from Kingston. Buju Banton (born Mark Anthony Myrie) is a Jamaican Dancehall, Ragga, and Reggae musician Sean Paul Henriques (born January 8 1973) in Upper Saint Andrew Parish, a few miles north of his birthplace Bounty Killer (born Rodney Basil Price June 12, 1972 in Kingston, Jamaica) is a Jamaican Reggae and Dancehall Anthony Moses Davis (born August 22 1973 in Kingston, Jamaica) better known by his Stage name Beenie Man, is a popular Reggae Attractions include the nearby Hellshire and Lime Cay beaches, the National Gallery of Jamaica, the ruins of Port Royal, and Devon House, a mansion with adjoining park that once belonged to Jamaica's first black millionaire. Hellshire Beach, Jamaica, is located near Portmore, and famed for its fried fish and safe swimming The National Gallery of Jamaica in Kingston Jamaica, is Jamaica 's premier art collection Several annual and well-visited festivals are held in Kingston.
Kingston is served by Norman Manley International Airport and also by the smaller and primarily domestic Tinson Pen Aerodrome. Norman Manley International Airport, formerly Palisadoes Airport, is an airport serving Kingston in Jamaica. Tinson Pen Aerodrome in Kingston Jamaica is the largest of Jamaica's four domestic Airports.
Kingston was founded on July 22, 1692, as a place for refugees for survivors of the 1692 earthquake that destroyed Port Royal. An earthquake is the result of a sudden release of energy in the Earth 's crust that creates Seismic waves Earthquakes are recorded with a Seismometer Port Royal, Jamaica was the centre of Shipping Commerce in the Islands of the Greater Antilles which make up the northeastern Before the earthquake, Kingston’s functions were purely agricultural. The earthquake survivors set up a refugee camp on the sea front. Approximately two thousand people died due to mosquito borne diseases. Initially the refugees lived in a tented camp on Colonel Barry's Hog Crawle. The town did not begin to grow until after the further destruction of Port Royal by the Nick Catania Pirate Fleet's fire in 1703. Surveyor John Goffe drew up a plan for the town based on a grid bounded by North, East, West and Harbour Streets. By 1716 it had become the largest town and the centre of trade for Jamaica. Jamaica (ˈdʒəˈmeɪkə} is an Island nation of the Greater Antilles, in length and as much as in width situated in the Caribbean Sea. The government sold land to people with the regulation that they would purchase no more than the amount of the land that they owned in Port Royal, and only land on the sea front. Port Royal, Jamaica was the centre of Shipping Commerce in the Islands of the Greater Antilles which make up the northeastern Gradually wealthy merchants began to move their residences from above their businesses to the farm lands to the north on the plains of Liguanea. Liguanea is a historically significant area in the island of Jamaica in the West Indies.
The first free school, Wolmer's, was founded in 1729  and there was a theatre, first one in Harbour Street and then moved in 1774 to North Parade. Both are still in existence. In 1755 the governor had decided to transfer the government offices from Spanish Town to Kingston. This is a list of viceroys in Jamaica from its initial occupation by Spain in 1509 to its independence from the United Kingdom in 1962 Spanish Town is the former Spanish and English capital of Jamaica. It was thought by some to be an unsuitable location for the Assembly in close proximity to the moral distractions of Kingston, and the next governor rescinded the Act. However, by 1780 the population of Kingston was 11,000, and the merchants began lobbying for the administrative capital to be transferred from Spanish Town, which was by then eclipsed by the commercial activity in Kingston.
At the end of the 18th century, more than 3000 brick buildings were in the city. The harbor fostered trade and naval wars of the 18th century. Kingston took over the functions of Spanish Town (the capital at the time). These functions included, agriculture, commercial, processing, and a main transportation hub to and from Kingston and other sections of the island. The government passed an act to transfer the government offices to Kingston from Spanish Town, and in 1872 the capital was transferred from Spanish Town to Kingston. It kept this status when the island was granted independence in 1962.
In 1907, 800 people died in another earthquake known as the 1907 Kingston earthquake, destroying nearly all the historical buildings south of Parade in the city. That was when a restriction of no more than 60 feet was instated on buildings in the central business district. These three story high buildings were built with reinforced concrete. Construction on King Street in the city was the first area to breach this building code. During the 1930s, island wide riots lead to the development of trade unions and political parties to represent workers. A trade union or labour union is an organization of workers who have banded together to achieve common goals in key areas such as wages hours and working conditions forming
The city became home to the Mona campus of the University of the West Indies founded in 1948 with 24 medical students. Mona is a neighbourhood in the southeastern Saint Andrew Parish, approximately five miles from Kingston, Jamaica. The University of the West Indies, also known as UWI, is an autonomous regional institution supported by and serving 16 English-speaking Countries and territories
It wasn’t till the 1960s that major change occurred in the redevelopment of Kingston’s central business district. The international attention of reggae music at that time coincided with the expansion and development of 95 acres of the Downtown Kingston water front area. Reggae is a Music genre first developed in Jamaica in the late 1960s
These developments lead to an influx of shops and offices, and the development of a new financial center – New Kingston, which replaced the Knutsford Racetrack. New Kingston is the second largest Central business district in the city of Kingston (behind Downtown Kingston Multi-story buildings and boulevards were placed within that section.
In 1966 Kingston was the host city to the Commonwealth Games. The 1966 British Empire and Commonwealth Games were held in Kingston Jamaica from 4 August to 13 August 1966
The westward section of the city was not the focus of development, and that area proved to be a tense area in political times. The 1970s then saw deteriorating economic conditions that led to recurrent violence and a drop off in tourism which later affected the island.
In the 1980 general elections, the democratic socialist People's National Party (PNP) government was outvoted. Democratic socialism is a description used by various socialist movements tendencies and organizations to emphasize the democratic character of their political orientation List of party presidents Norman Manley (1938-1969 Michael Manley (1969-1992 P The subsequent governments have been open market oriented since the 1980s. Within a global urban era, the 1990s saw that Kingston has made efforts to modernize and develop its city structure and functions. Various organizations such as The Kingston Restoration Company, the Urban Development Corporation (UDC) and the Port Authority of Jamaica, along with the Port Royal Development Company, among others sought to develop the urban structure of the city. Port Royal, Jamaica was the centre of Shipping Commerce in the Islands of the Greater Antilles which make up the northeastern
Today, the city of Kingston sees that the original waterfront area along Harbour Street, once redolent with the aromas of colonial West Indian trade in rums and spices, has been re-developed and shipping has moved out to Newport West, adjacent to the extensive Kingston Industrial Estate. 
A great deal of Kingston is pure shanty town, but again one sees striking contrasts, especially in New Kingston, situated between the teeming downtown and mid town areas and the fading but still gracious suburbs of St. Andrew. New Kingston is the second largest Central business district in the city of Kingston (behind Downtown Kingston Saint Andrew ( Capital Half Way Tree) is a parish, situated in the southeast of Jamaica in the County of Surrey
The city’s wealthy is situated in the suburbs to the northern section of Kingston, closer to the hills and Mountains of the Blue Mountains range. The Blue Mountains are a mountainous region of Jamaica. It is the largest mountain range in Jamaica The functions of the wealthy are met with in the New Kingston, Manor Park and Barbican / Liguanea areas, thus the downtown is now used mostly used by the low-income population. New Kingston is the second largest Central business district in the city of Kingston (behind Downtown Kingston 
New Kingston is a business area which embodies the best of modern tropical town planning, graciously combining high rise buildings and well-groomed gardens with the soaring Blue Mountains as a backdrop. New Kingston is the second largest Central business district in the city of Kingston (behind Downtown Kingston The Blue Mountains are a mountainous region of Jamaica. It is the largest mountain range in Jamaica
The majority of the population is of African heritage. East Indians are the second largest racial group, followed by Chinese, White, Arab (primarily Lebanese). A small number of Hispanics, mostly from Latin America, also reside in the city. Hispanic (hispano hispánico hispânico Hispānus adjective from ''Hispānia'', the Roman name for the Iberian Peninsula) is a term that historically
There is a wide variety of Christian churches in the city. Christianity ( Greek Χριστιανισμός from the word Xριστός ( Christ)is a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings Most are Protestant, a legacy of British colonization of the island. Protestantism refers to the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated in the 16th century Protestant Reformation. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located The chief denominations are Church of God, Baptist, Anglican, Methodist, Roman Catholic, Seventh-day Adventist, and Pentecostal. Baptist is a term describing individuals belonging to a Baptist church or a Baptist denomination. Anglicanism is a tradition of Christian faith Churches in this tradition either have historical connections to the Church of England or have similar beliefs Methodism is a movement within Protestant Christianity represented by a number of denominations and organizations The Seventh-day Adventist (abbreviated " Adventist " Church is a Christian denomination which is distinguished mainly by its observance Pentecostalism is a renewalist religious movement within Christianity that places special emphasis on the direct personal experience of God through the Baptism Afro-Christian syncretic religions are also widespread. Syncretism consists of the attempt to reconcile disparate or contradictory beliefs often while melding practices of various schools of thought
There is a Jewish synagogue in the city as well as a large number of Buddhists and Muslims. Judaism (from the Greek Ioudaïsmos, derived from the Hebrew יהודה Yehudah, " Judah " in Hebrew יַהֲדוּת Yahedut A synagogue (from Greek: grc συναγωγή transliterated synagogē, "assembly" he בית כנסת beit knesset, "house of Buddhism is a family of beliefs and practices A Muslim (مسلم pronounced Muslim, not Muzlim) is an adherent of the Religion
Kingston is surrounded by the Blue Mountains, Red Hills, Long Mountain and the Kingston Harbour. The Blue Mountains are a mountainous region of Jamaica. It is the largest mountain range in Jamaica Kingston Harbour is the seventh largest natural Harbour in the world The city is sited on the Liguanea Plain, an alluvial plain located next to the Hope River. Liguanea is a historically significant area in the island of Jamaica in the West Indies. Kingston experiences frequent earthquakes, including the 1907 earthquake. Year 1907 ( MCMVII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year
Kingston has a tropical climate, characterized by a wet season from May to November, which coincides with the hurricane season, and a dry season from December to April. During the dry season, there is not much rainfall, however, cold and stationary fronts occur at this time, and often bring heavy showers, especially in March. Kingston is located in the rain shadow of the Blue Mountains, therefore, little to none of the moisture the Northeast Trade Winds carry falls over Kingston, causing Kingston to be very dry in comparison to Portland and Saint Mary on the windward side of the Blue Mountains. The Blue Mountains are a mountainous region of Jamaica. It is the largest mountain range in Jamaica The trade winds (also called trades) are the prevailing pattern of easterly winds found in the Tropics near the Earth's Equator. Geography and demography The parish is situated at Latitude 18°10' N and Longitude 75°27'W Brief history There are a few traces of Taíno / Arawak presence in the parish The Blue Mountains are a mountainous region of Jamaica. It is the largest mountain range in Jamaica Kingston is on a coastal location, hence it comes under the influence of the sea, though dense urban development can negate this effect. In the 21st century, Kingston has experienced temperatures as high as 34°C (93. 2°F) and temperatures as low as 25°C (77°F). Between 1895 and 1990, the total average rainfall was recorded at 909. 7 mm (35. 8 inches), the highest monthly average rainfall recorded in October at 181. 1 mm (7. 1 inches), and the lowest monthly average rainfall recorded in March at 22. 7 mm (0. 9 inches).  
The Jamaica Constabulary Force, Jamaica's police force, is based on Old Hope Road near Liguanea. Liguanea is a historically significant area in the island of Jamaica in the West Indies. New Kingston is the second largest Central business district in the city of Kingston (behind Downtown Kingston The Jamaica Constabulary Force (JCF is the Police force of the island nation of Jamaica. Liguanea is a historically significant area in the island of Jamaica in the West Indies. Smaller police stations, such as Hunt's Bay, Matilda's Corner and Half-Way-Tree, are dispersed across the Corporate Area. The Supreme Court of Jamaica is also located in Kingston. Other courts, such as the Half-Way-Tree Resident Magistrate's Court, Gun Court, Traffic Court and Family Court, make Kingston their home. The Jamaica Defence Force (JDF) has its headquarters at Up Park Camp near New Kingston and Cross Roads. The Jamaica Defence Force (JDF is the overall name given to the combined military forces of Jamaica. Up-Park Camp (often Up Park Camp) was the headquarters of the British Army in Jamaica from the late 18th century to independence in 1962 New Kingston is the second largest Central business district in the city of Kingston (behind Downtown Kingston The JDF also operates a major naval base at Port Royal.
The Gleaner Company, the Jamaica Observer and the Sunday Herald, three of Jamaica's large newspaper companies, make their home in Kingston. The Gleaner Company, established in 1834 by Joshua and Jacob deCordova is a Newspaper publishing enterprise in Jamaica Sunday is the day of the week between Saturday and Monday. In the Jewish law it is the first day of the Hebrew calendar week Several television and radio stations including Television Jamaica (TVJ), CVM TV, RJR 94 FM, Hitz 92 FM, FAME 95 FM, LOVE TV, ZIP 103, Kool 97 FM and LOVE FM, are all based in Kingston. Kingston generally has an adequate telecommunications service, administered by either Cable and Wireless or Flow Jamaica. Cable & Wireless (West Indies Ltd is a leading wholly owned telecommunications subsidiary of the British -based parent company Cable & Wireless plc. Columbus Communications is a Cable television and Broadband speed Internet service provider. Cellular phone service is also very strong in Kingston, especially since Cable & Wireless, Digicel and MiPhone, Jamaica’s three cellular providers, are all based in the city. Cable & Wireless ( is a British Telecommunications company In the mid-1980s it became the first company in the UK to offer an alternative Telephone Digicel is a Mobile phone network provider in the Caribbean region
Kingston, as the capital, is the financial, cultural, economic and industrial centre of Jamaica. Many financial institutions are based in Kingston, and the city boasts the largest number of hospitals, schools and cultural attractions of any urban area on the island.
Hope Valley Experimental
Kingston has five sister cities: