The Kingdom of Naples was an informal name of the polity officially known as the Kingdom of Sicily which existed on the mainland of the southern Italian peninsula after the secession of the island of Sicily from the old Kingdom of Sicily after the Sicilian Vespers rebellion of 1282. The Kingdom of Sicily (Regnum Siciliae or Sicilie Regno di Sicilia, commonly abbreviated Regno) was a state that existed in the south of Italy The Kingdom of the Two Sicilies ( Regno delle Due Sicilie) commonly known as just the Two Sicilies, was the name of a Kingdom in Europe. The Flag of Naples is a Vexillological symbol of the city of Naples, the capital of the Southern Italian region of Campania. Throughout the world there are many cities that were once national Capitals but no longer have that status because the country ceased to exist the capital was moved or the capital Naples ( Napoli, Neapolitan: Nàpule) is a historic City in southern Italy, the Capital of the For the government of parliamentary systems see Executive (government. A monarchy is a Form of government in which supreme power is actually or nominally lodged in an individual who is the Head of state, often for life or The following is a list of monarchs of the Kingdom of Naples. Charles II, known as "the Lame" ( French le Boiteux, Italian lo Zoppo; 1254 &ndash 5 May 1309) was Ferdinand I ( Ferdinando Antonio Pasquale Giovanni Nepomuceno Serafino Gennaro Benedetto, January 12, 1751 &ndash January 4, 1825) Polity ( Greek: Πολιτεία or Πολίτευμα transliterated as Politeía or Políteuma) was originally a term used in Ancient Greece Th Italian Peninsula or Apennine Peninsula (Penisola italiana or Penisola appenninica) is one of the three Peninsulas of Southern Europe Sicily ( Italian and Sicilian: Sicilia) is an autonomous region of Italy. The Kingdom of Sicily (Regnum Siciliae or Sicilie Regno di Sicilia, commonly abbreviated Regno) was a state that existed in the south of Italy The Sicilian Vespers is the name given to a rebellion in Sicily in 1282 against the rule of the Angevin king Charles I of Naples, who had taken control
Following the rebellion, King Charles I of Sicily (Charles of Anjou) was forced to leave the island of Sicily by Peter III of Aragon's troops. Charles I ( 21 March 1226 &ndash 7 January 1285) commonly called Charles of Anjou, was the King of Sicily by conquest Sicily ( Italian and Sicilian: Sicilia) is an autonomous region of Italy. Peter the Great ( Catalan: Pere el Gran, Spanish: Pedro el Grande; 1239 &ndash 2 November 1285) was the King of Aragon Charles, however, maintained his possessions on the mainland, customarily known as the "Kingdom of Naples," after its capital city. Naples ( Napoli, Neapolitan: Nàpule) is a historic City in southern Italy, the Capital of the Charles and his Angevin successors maintained a claim to Sicily, warring against the Aragonese until 1373, when Queen Joan I of Naples formally renounced the claim. Angevin (ˈændʒəvɪn ( French, from Old French, from Medieval Latin Andegavinus from Andegavia Anjou, France) is the name applied This is a list of the rulers of Aragon, now a region of north-eastern Spain. Joan I (1328 – May 12, 1382) born Joanna of Anjou, was Queen of Naples from 1343 until her death
Queen Joan I also played a part in the ultimate demise of the first Kingdom of Naples. As she was childless, she adopted Louis I, Duke of Anjou as her heir, in spite of the claims of her cousin, the Prince of Durazzo, effectively setting up a junior Angevin line in competition with the senior line. Louis I of Anjou ( July 23, 1339 &ndash September 20, 1384) was the second son of King John II of France and Bonne of Luxembourg This led to Joan I's murder at the hands of the Prince of Durazzo in 1382, and his seizing the throne as Charles III of Naples. Charles III King of Naples (1345 – February 24, 1386, Visegrad, Hungary) also known as Charles II of Hungary, Charles of The two competing Angevin lines contested each other for the possession of the Kingdom of Naples over the following decades. Charles III's daughter Joan II (r. Joan II (23 June 23 1373 &ndash 2 February 1435 was Queen of Naples from 1414 to her death 1414-1435) adopted Alfonso V of Aragon (whom she later repudiated) and Louis III of Anjou as heirs alternately, finally settling succession on Louis' brother René of Anjou of the junior Angevin line, and he succeeded her in 1435. Alfonso the Magnanimous (also Alphonso; Catalan: Alfons) (1396 &ndash 27 June 1458) was the King of Aragon (as Louis III (1403 &ndash 12 November 1434) was titular King of Naples 1417&ndash1426 Count of Provence, Forcalquier, Piedmont René of Anjou ( January 16, 1409 &ndash July 10, 1480) also known as René I of Naples and Good King René ( French
René of Anjou temporarily united the claims of junior and senior Angevin lines. In 1442, however, Alfonso V conquered the Kingdom of Naples and unified Sicily and Naples once again as dependencies of Aragon. Alfonso the Magnanimous (also Alphonso; Catalan: Alfons) (1396 &ndash 27 June 1458) was the King of Aragon (as Aragon ( Spanish: "Aragón") is an autonomous community of Spain. At his death in 1458, the kingdom was again separated and Naples was inherited by Ferrante, Alfonso's illegitimate son. Ferdinand I of Naples should not be confused with Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies, a latter king of Naples
When Ferrante died in 1494, Charles VIII of France invaded Italy, using the Angevin claim to the throne of Naples, which his father had inherited on the death of King René's nephew in 1481, as a pretext, thus beginning the Italian Wars. Charles VIII, called the Affable (l'Affable 30 June 1470 &ndash 7 April 1498 was King of France from 1483 to his death Charles VIII expelled Alfonso II of Naples from Naples in 1495, but was soon forced to withdraw due to the support of Ferdinand II of Aragon for his cousin, Alfonso II's son Ferrantino. Alfonso II of Naples ( November 4, 1448 &ndash December 18, 1495) also called Alfonso II d'Aragon, though he was King of Naples Ferdinand II of Aragon the Catholic (Fernando II de Aragón y V de Castilla "el Católico" Ferran II d'Aragó "el Catòlic" Ferrando II d'Aragón Ferdinand II or Ferrante II of Naples ( 26 August, 1469 - September 7, 1496) sometimes known as Ferrandino, was King Ferrantino was restored to the throne, but died in 1496, and was succeeded by his uncle, Frederick IV. Frederick IV ( April 19, 1452 &ndash November 9, 1504) sometimes known as Frederick I or Federico d'Aragona, was the last The French, however, did not give up their claim, and in 1501 agreed to a partition of the kingdom with Ferdinand of Aragon, who abandoned his cousin King Frederick. The deal soon fell through, however, and Aragon and France resumed their war over the kingdom, ultimately resulting in an Aragonese victory leaving Ferdinand in control of the kingdom by 1504.
The kingdom continued to be a focus of dispute between France and Spain for the next several decades, but French efforts to gain control of it became feebler as the decades went on, and Spanish control was never genuinely endangered. The French finally abandoned their claims to the kingdom by the Treaty of Cateau-Cambrésis in 1559. The Italian War of 1551 ( 1551 – 1559) sometimes known as the Habsburg-Valois War, began when Henry II of France, who had succeeded
After the War of the Spanish Succession in the early 18th century, possession of the kingdom again changed hands. In the War of the Spanish Succession (1701–1714 several European powers combined to stop French succession to the Spanish throne and what would likely have been a resulting Under the terms of the Treaty of Rastatt in 1714, Naples was given to Charles VI, the Holy Roman Emperor. At the First Congress of Rastatt, which was opened in November 1713 negotiations were carried on between France and Austria for the purpose of ending the Charles VI (German Karl VI) ( October 1, 1685 &ndash October 20, 1740) was Holy Roman Emperor, King of Bohemia The Holy Roman Emperor (Römischer Kaiser or Römisch-Deutscher Kaiser Romanorum Imperator was the elected monarch ruling over the many varying numbers of states He also gained control of Sicily in 1720, but Austrian rule did not last long. Sicily ( Italian and Sicilian: Sicilia) is an autonomous region of Italy. Both Naples and Sicily were conquered by a Spanish army during the War of the Polish Succession in 1734, and Charles, Duke of Parma, a younger son of King Philip V of Spain was installed as King of Naples and Sicily from 1735. The Battle of Bitonto ( May 25, 1734) was a Spanish victory over Austrian forces near Bitonto in southern Italy in the War of Polish Succession The War of the Polish Succession ( 1733 - 1738) was sparked by a Polish Civil war over the succession to Augustus II, King of Poland Charles III ( January 20, 1716 – December 14, 1788) was King of Spain 1700–88 (as Carlos III King of Naples and Philip V of Spain ( December 19, 1683 - July 9, 1746) born Philippe de France, Fils de France and duc d'Anjou When Charles inherited the Spanish throne from his older half-brother in 1759, he left Naples and Sicily to his younger son, Ferdinand IV. Ferdinand I ( Ferdinando Antonio Pasquale Giovanni Nepomuceno Serafino Gennaro Benedetto, January 12, 1751 &ndash January 4, 1825) Despite the two Kingdoms being in a personal union under the Bourbon kings from 1735 onwards, they remained constitutionally separate. A personal union is the combination by which two different States are governed by the same Monarch, while their boundaries their laws and their interests remain distinct
Being a member of the House of Bourbon, Ferdinand IV was natural opponent of the French Revolution and Napoleon. The House of Bourbon is an important European Royal house, a branch of the Capetian dynasty. The French Revolution (1789–1799 was a period of political and social upheaval in the History of France, during which the French governmental structure previously an Napoleon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821 was a French military and political leader who had a significant impact on the History of Europe. In 1798, he briefly occupied Rome, but was expelled from it by French Revolutionary forces within the year. Soon afterwards, in 1801, he was forced to sign the Treaty of Florence and Ferdinand fled to Sicily. The Treaty of Florence was signed on March 18, 1801 between France and the Kingdom of Naples. The French armies installed a Parthenopaean Republic, but this proved short-lived, and a peasant counter-revolution inspired by the clergy allowed Ferdinand to return to his capital early the next year. The Parthenopaean Republic (Italian Repubblica Partenopea) was a French -supported Republic in the territory of the Kingdom of Naples, formed
Ferdinand's decision to ally with the Third Coalition against Napoleon in 1805 proved more damaging. The War of the Third Coalition in 1805 saw the defeat of an alliance of Austria, Portugal, Russia, and others by France and its client states Napoleon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821 was a French military and political leader who had a significant impact on the History of Europe. In 1806, following decisive victories over the allied armies at Austerlitz and over the Neapolitans at Campo Tenese, Napoleon installed his brother, Joseph as King of Naples. The Battle of Austerlitz (Bitva u Slavkova also known as the Battle of the Three Emperors, was one of Napoleon's greatest victories effectively destroying the The Battle of Campo Tenese was a battle on 10 March 1806 between the II Corps of Napoleon 's Army of Naples under General Reynier and the Joseph-Napoléon Bonaparte King of Naples and Sicily, King of Spain (during a time) and the Indies (never de facto and never de iure When Joseph was sent off to Spain two years later, he was replaced by Napoleon's sister Caroline and his brother-in-law Marshal Joachim Murat. Maria Annunziata Carolina (Marie Annonciade Caroline Murat ( Née Bonaparte; 25 March 1782 &ndash 18 May 1839) better Joachim-Napoléon Murat (born Joachim Murat) ( Gioacchino Napoleone Murat) ( March 25 1767 &ndash October 13 1815)
Meanwhile, Ferdinand had fled to Sicily, where he retained his throne, despite successive attempts by Murat to invade the island. The British would defend Sicily for the remainder of the war but despite the Kingdom of Sicily nominally being part of the Fourth, Fifth and Sixth Coalitions against Napoleon, Ferdinand and the British were unable to ever challenge French control of the Italian mainland. The Fourth Coalition against Napoleon's French Empire was defeated in a war spanning 1806&ndash1807 The War of the Fifth Coalition in 1809 pitted a coalition of the Austrian Empire and the United Kingdom against Napoleon 's French Empire and In the War of the Sixth Coalition (1812–1814 a coalition of Austria, Prussia, Russia, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and a number
After Napoleon's defeat in 1814, Murat reached an agreement with Austria and was allowed to retain the throne of Naples, despite the lobbying efforts of Ferdinand and his supporters. However, with most of the other powers, particularly Britain, hostile towards him and dependent on the uncertain support of Austria, Murat's position became less and less secure. Therefore when Napoleon returned to France for the Hundred Days in 1815, Murat once again sided with him. The Hundred Days was the period between Napoleon Bonaparte 's return from exile on Elba to Paris on 20 March 1815 and the restoration Realising the Austrians would soon attempt to remove him, Murat gave the Rimini Proclamation in a hope to save his kingdom by allying himself with Italian nationalists. The ensuing Neapolitan War between Murat and the Austrians was short, ending with a decisive victory for the Austrian forces at the Battle of Tolentino. The Neapolitan War between the Napoleonic Kingdom of Naples and the Austrian Empire, started on 15 March 1815 when Joachim Murat The Battle of Tolentino was the decisive battle in the Neapolitan War, fought by the King of Naples Joachim Murat to keep the throne after the Murat was forced to flee, and Ferdinand IV of Sicily was restored to the throne of Naples. Murat would attempt to regain his throne but was quickly captured and executed by firing squad in Pizzo, Calabria. Pizzo is a seaport and commune in the Province of Vibo Valentia ( Calabria, Italy) situated on a steep cliff overlooking the Gulf of Santa Eufemia The next year, 1816, finally saw the formal union of the Kingdom of Naples with the Kingdom of Sicily into the new Kingdom of the Two Sicilies. The Kingdom of the Two Sicilies ( Regno delle Due Sicilie) commonly known as just the Two Sicilies, was the name of a Kingdom in Europe.
Pre-1738 flag of Naples
Pre-1738 flag of Sicily
This article is about the history of the Italian city of Naples. The following is a list of monarchs of the Kingdom of Naples.