The Kingdom of Italy (Italian: Regno d'Italia) was a state forged in 1861 by the unification of Italy under the influence of the Kingdom of Sardinia; it existed until 1946 when the Italians opted for a republican constitution. A currency is a unit of exchange, facilitating the transfer of Goods and/or services It is one form of Money, where money is The lira (plural lire) was the Currency of Italy between 1861 and 2002 " Giovinezza " (Italian for youth) is the official hymn of the Italian National Fascist Party, regime, and army and the unofficial National Italian ( or lingua italiana) is a Romance language spoken by about 63 million people as a First language, primarily in Italy. Italian Unification ( Italian: il Risorgimento, or "The Resurgence" was the political and social movement that unified different states of the Italian Kingdom of Sardinia, also known as Piedmont-Sardinia or Sardinia-Piedmont, was the name given to the possessions of the House of Savoy in 1720 when the A republic is a State or Country that is not led by a hereditary Monarch, but in which the people (or at least a part of its people have impact on its A constitution is a system for government often Codified as a written document that establishes the rules and principles of an autonomous political entity The Kingdom was the first Italian state to include the entire Italian Peninsula since the fall of the Roman Empire. Th Italian Peninsula or Apennine Peninsula (Penisola italiana or Penisola appenninica) is one of the three Peninsulas of Southern Europe The Roman Empire was the post-Republican phase of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial
During the time of the regime of the National Fascist Party under Italian dictator Benito Mussolini from 1922 to his ousting in 1943, the kingdom and its territorial possessions were often called by nationalists and Fascists the "Italian Empire" (Italian: Impero Italiano) or the "New Roman Empire" (Italian: Nuovo Impero Romano, Latin: Novum Imperium Romanum), but these were not used officially. The National Fascist Party ( Partito Nazionale Fascista; PNF was an Italian party created by Benito Mussolini as the political expression of Year 1922 ( MCMXXII) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. Year 1943 ( MCMXLIII) was a Common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The Italian colonial empire was created after the Kingdom of Italy joined other European powers in establishing colonies overseas during the " Scramble for Africa Italian ( or lingua italiana) is a Romance language spoken by about 63 million people as a First language, primarily in Italy. Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. The name often given by historians to the Kingdom of Italy during the rule of Mussolini and the Fascists is Fascist Italy. Under fascism, the Kingdom allied with Nazi Germany in World War II until 1943. Nazi Germany and the Third Reich are the common English names for Germany under the regime of Adolf Hitler and the National Socialist German Workers In the remaining two years of World War II, the Kingdom of Italy switched sides to the Allies after ousting Mussolini as Prime Minister and banned the Fascist party. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including The remnant fascist state that continued fighting against the Allies was a puppet state of Nazi Germany, the "Italian Social Republic", still led by Mussolini and his loyalist Fascists in northern Italy. The Italian Social Republic ( Italian: Repubblica Sociale Italiana or RSI) was a Puppet state of Nazi Germany led by the "Duce of the Shortly after the war, civil discontent led to a referendum in 1946 on whether Italy would remain a monarchy or become a republic. Italians decided to abandon the monarchy and form the Italian Republic, which is the present form of Italy today. Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest
The Kingdom of Italy claimed all of the territory which is modern-day Italy. The development of the Kingdom's territory progressed under Italian unification until 1870. Italian Unification ( Italian: il Risorgimento, or "The Resurgence" was the political and social movement that unified different states of the Italian The state for a long period of time did not have Trieste or Trentino-Alto Adige, which are in Italy today, and only received them in 1919. Trieste (Trieste Slovene and Croatian: Trst; German: Triest) is a city and port in northeastern Italy very near to Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol ( Italian: Trentino-Alto Adige; German: Trentino-Südtirol; Ladin: Trentin-Adesc Aut   After the Treaties of Versailles and St Germain, the state was given Gorica, Trieste and Istria (now part of Croatia and Slovenia), and small parts of modern-day northwestern Croatia as well as a minuscule portion of the Croatian province of Dalmatia. The Treaty of Versailles was one of the peace treaties at the end of World War I. The Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye, was signed on 10 September 1919 by the victorious Allies of World War I on the one hand and by the new This article is about a geographical region bordering the Adriatic Sea Croatia (Hrvatska ˈxȓvatska officially the Republic of Croatia ( Republika Hrvatska) is a southern Central European country at the crossroads between Slovenia, officially the Republic of Slovenia (Republika Slovenija) is a Country in southern Central Europe bordering Italy to the west Croatia (Hrvatska ˈxȓvatska officially the Republic of Croatia ( Republika Hrvatska) is a southern Central European country at the crossroads between Dalmatia ( Croatian: Dalmacija, see names in other languages) is a region on the eastern coast of the Adriatic Sea, situated mostly in modern During the second World War, the Kingdom gained more territory in Slovenia and more territory from Dalmatia. After the Second World War, the borders of present-day Italy were founded and the Kingdom abandoned its land claims.
The Kingdom of Italy also held colonies and protectorates and puppet states, such as modern-day Eritrea, Somalia, Libya, Ethiopia (occupied by Italy in 1936, and then occupied by the British in World War II), Albania, Greece (occupied in World War II), Croatia (Italian and German puppet state in World War II), Kosovo (occupied in World War II), and Montenegro (occupied in World War II), and a small 46 hectare section of land from China in Tianjin (see Italian concession in Tianjin). Eritrea () ( Ge'ez: ኤርትራ ʾErtrā, Arabic: إرتريا Iritriya) officially the State of Eritrea, is a country in Somalia ( Soomaaliya; الصومال) officially the Somali Republic ( Jamhuuriyadda Soomaaliya, جمهورية الصومال) and formerly known Libya ( ليبيا ar-Latn Lībiyā; Libyan vernacular: Lībya; Amazigh:) officially the Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab NOTE This intro is the result of careful NPOV work Please do not make potentially controversial edits to it without first discussing on the talk page This article is about the country in southern Europe For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Albania topics. Greece (Ελλάδα transliterated: Elláda, historically, Ellás,) officially the Hellenic Republic (Ελληνική Δημοκρατία Montenegro ( British English) Montenegrin / Serbian: PLEASE DO NOT CHANGE THE LANGUAGES WITHOUT CONSENSUS ON THE TALK PAGE! Explanation The hectare is commonly used in most countries around the world especially in domains concerned with land planning and management such as Agriculture, China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National ( Postal map spelling: Tientsin) is the second largest city in northern coastal China. The Concessions in Tianjin were concession territories ceded by the Chinese Imperialist Qing Dynasty to the European imperial powers
The Kingdom of Italy was theoretically a constitutional monarchy. A constitutional monarchy, or a limited monarchy, is a form of Constitutional Government, wherein either an elected or hereditary Monarch is Executive power belonged to the monarch, as executed through appointed ministers. Two chambers of parliament restricted the monarch's power — an appointive Senate and an elective Chamber of Deputies. The kingdom's constitution was the Statuto Albertino, the former governing document of the Kingdom of Sardinia. A constitution is a system for government often Codified as a written document that establishes the rules and principles of an autonomous political entity The Statuto Albertino or Albertine Statute was the Constitution that King Charles Albert I of Sardinia conceded to the Kingdom of Sardinia In theory, ministers were solely responsible to the king. However, in practice, it was impossible for an Italian government to stay in office without the support of Parliament.
Members of the Chamber of Deputies were elected by majority (winner-take-all) elections in large, regional, multi-seat electoral districts. Winner-take-all connotates also the principle of the Plurality voting system. A candidate needed the support of 50% of those voting, and of 25% of all enrolled voters, to be elected on the first round of balloting. If not all seats were filled on the first ballot, a runoff was hold shortly afterwards for the remaining vacancies.
Between 1925 and 1943, Italy was in fact a fascist dictatorship, though the constitution formally remained in effect. Fascism is a totalitarian nationalist and corporatist ideology
The monarchs of the House of Savoy who led Italy were
The creation of the Kingdom of Italy was the result of concerted efforts of Italian nationalists and monarchists loyal to the House of Savoy to establish a united kingdom encompassing the entire Italian Peninsula. The House of Savoy (Casa Savoia was formed in the early eleventh century in the historical Savoy region Th Italian Peninsula or Apennine Peninsula (Penisola italiana or Penisola appenninica) is one of the three Peninsulas of Southern Europe The last state to encompass the Italian peninsula was the Roman Empire and was the beginning of the modern Italian state. The Roman Empire was the post-Republican phase of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial
After the Revolutions of 1848, the apparent leader of the Italian unification movement was Italian nationalist Giuseppe Garibaldi. The European Revolutions of 1848, known in some countries as the Spring of Nations or the Year of Revolution, were a series of political upheavals throughout the European Garibaldi redirects here for other meanings see Garibaldi (disambiguation. He was popular amongst southern Italians and in the world was renowned for his extremely loyal followers.  Garibaldi led the Italian republican drive for unification in southern Italy, but the northern Italian monarchy of the House of Savoy in the Kingdom of Sardinia, a de facto Piedmontese state, whose government was led by Camillo Benso, conte di Cavour, also had ambitions of establishing a united Italian state. The House of Savoy (Casa Savoia was formed in the early eleventh century in the historical Savoy region Kingdom of Sardinia, also known as Piedmont-Sardinia or Sardinia-Piedmont, was the name given to the possessions of the House of Savoy in 1720 when the Piedmont ( Piemonte; Piedmontese and Occitan: Piemont; French: Piémont) is one of the 20 Regions of Italy. Camillo Paolo Filippo Giulio Benso Conte di Cavour, Conte di Isolabella e Leri ( August 10 1810 &ndash June Though the kingdom had no physical connection to Rome (deemed the natural capital of Italy), the kingdom had successfully challenged Austria in the Second Italian War of Independence, liberating Lombardy-Venetia from Austrian rule. Rome ( Roma ˈroma Roma is the capital city of Italy and Lazio, and is Italy's largest and most populous city with more than 2 For the history of these states before 1804 see Holy Roman Empire, Habsburg Monarchy, and articles on each of the component countries. The Second War of Italian Independence, Franco-Austrian War, or Austro-Sardinian War was fought by Napoleon III of France and the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia The Kingdom of Lombardy-Venetia (Regno Lombardo-Veneto Lombardo-Venezianisches Königreich was a kingdom in northern Italy, and part of the Austrian Empire. The kingdom also had established important alliances which helped it improve the possibility of Italian unification, such as Britain and France in the Crimean War. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was the formal name of the United Kingdom from 1 January 1801 until 12 April 1927 This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. The Crimean War, also known in Russia as the Eastern War (Восточная война Vostochnaya Vojna) (March 1854–February 1856 was fought Sardinia was dependent on France being willing to protect it and in 1860, Sardinia was forced to cede territory to France to maintain relations.
Cavour moved to challenge republican unification efforts by Garibaldi by organizing popular revolts in the Papal States. Camillo Paolo Filippo Giulio Benso Conte di Cavour, Conte di Isolabella e Leri ( August 10 1810 &ndash June The Papal States, State(s of the Church or Pontifical States (in Italian Stato Ecclesiastico, Stato della Chiesa, Stati della Chiesa He used these revolts as a pretext to invade the country, even though the invasion angered the Catholics, whom he told that the invasion was an effort to protect the Roman Catholic Church from the anti-clerical republicans of Garibaldi. Only a small portion of the Papal States around Rome remained in the control of Pope Pius IX. Blessed Pope Pius IX (May 13 1792 &ndash February 7 1878 born Giovanni Maria Mastai-Ferretti, was Pope from June 16 1846 until 1878  Despite their differences, Cavour agreed to include Garibaldi's Southern Italy allowing it to join the union with Piedmont-Sardinia in 1860. Geography Southern Italy forms the lower "boot" of the Italian peninsula containing the ankle (Abruzzo and Molise and southern Lazio the toe (Calabria and the heel Subsequently Cavour declared the creation of the Kingdom of Italy on February 18, 1861, composed of both Northern Italy and Southern Italy. Events 3102 BC - Epoch (origin of the Kali Yuga. 1229 - The Sixth Crusade: Frederick II Holy Year 1861 ( MDCCCLXI) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Related categories Central Italy Southern Italy Insular Italy Northeast Italy King Victor Emmanuel II of Piedmont-Sardinia from the House of Savoy was then declared King of Italy. Victor Emmanuel II King of Italy ( Vittorio Emanuele II; March 14, 1820 – January 9, 1878) was the King of Kingdom of Sardinia, also known as Piedmont-Sardinia or Sardinia-Piedmont, was the name given to the possessions of the House of Savoy in 1720 when the The House of Savoy (Casa Savoia was formed in the early eleventh century in the historical Savoy region This title had been out of use since the abdication of Napoleon I of France on April 6, 1814. Napoleon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821 was a French military and political leader who had a significant impact on the History of Europe. Events 46 BC - Julius Caesar defeats Caecilius Metellus Scipio and Marcus Porcius Cato in the Battle of Thapsus Year 1814 ( MDCCCXIV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common
Following the unification of most of Italy, tensions between the monarchists and republicans erupted. In April 1861, Garibaldi entered the Italian parliament and challenged Cavour's leadership of the government, accusing him of dividing Italy and spoke of the threat of civil war between the Kingdom in the north and Garibaldi's forces in the south. On June 6, 1861, the Kingdom's strongman Cavour died. Events 1508 - Maximilian I Holy Roman Emperor, is defeated in Friulia by Venetian forces; he is forced to sign a three-year Year 1861 ( MDCCCLXI) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common During the ensuing political instability, Garibaldi and the republicans became increasingly revolutionary in tone. Garibaldi’s arrest in 1862 set off world-wide controversy. 
In 1866 Prussian Prime Minister Otto von Bismarck offered Victor Emmanuel II an alliance with the Kingdom of Prussia in the Austro-Prussian War. Otto Eduard Leopold von Bismarck Count of Bismarck-Schönhausen Duke of Lauenburg Prince of Bismarck ( April 1, 1815 July 30, 1898) The Kingdom of Prussia (Königreich Preußen was a German kingdom from 1701 to 1918 and from 1871 was the leading state of the German Empire, comprising The Austro-Prussian In exchange Prussia would allow Italy to annex Austrian-controlled Venice. Venice ( Italian: Venezia, Venetian: Venesia or Venexia) is a city in Northern Italy, the capital of the King Emmanuel agreed to the alliance and the Third Italian War of Independence began. The Third Italian War of Independence was a conflict which paralleled the Austro-Prussian War, and was fought between the Kingdom of Italy and the Austrian Empire Italy fared poorly in the war with a badly organized military against Austria, but Prussia's victory allowed Italy to annex Venice. The one major obstacle to Italian unity remained Rome.
In 1870, Prussia went to war with France starting the Franco-Prussian War. The Franco-Prussian War or Franco-German War, often referred to in France as the 1870 War ( 19 July, 1870 — 10 May, 1871 To keep the large Prussian army at bay, France abandoned its positions in Rome in order to fight the Prussians. Italy benefited from Prussia's victory against France by being able to take over the Papal States from French authority. Italian unification was completed, and shortly afterward Italy's capital was moved to Rome. Economic conditions in the united Italy were poor:, there were no industry or transportation facilities, extreme poverty (especially in the Mezzogiorno), high illiteracy, and only a small percent of wealthy Italians had the right to vote. Geography Southern Italy forms the lower "boot" of the Italian peninsula containing the ankle (Abruzzo and Molise and southern Lazio the toe (Calabria and the heel The unification movement had largely been dependent on the support of foreign powers and remained so afterwards.
Following the capture of Rome in 1870 from French forces of Napoleon III, relations between Italy and the Vatican remained sour for the next sixty years with the Popes declaring themselves to be prisoners in the Vatican. Napoléon III, also known as Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte (full name Charles Louis Napoléon Bonaparte) (20 April 1808 9 January 1873 was the first President The Holy See is the episcopal jurisdiction of the Bishop of Rome, commonly known as the Pope, and is the preeminent Episcopal see of the Roman Catholic History See also History of the Papacy Catholics recognize the Pope as a successor to Saint Peter, who Jesus named as the "shepherd" and A prisoner in the Vatican is what Pope Pius IX claimed to be after the army of the Kingdom of Italy entered Rome ( September 20 The Catholic Church frequently protested the actions of the Italian government, refused to meet with envoys from the King and urged Catholics to not vote in Italian elections.  It would not be until 1929, that positive relations would be restored between Italy and the Vatican.
After unification, Italy's politics favoured liberalism: the right was regionally fragmented, and conservative Prime Minister Marco Minghetti only held on to power by enacting revolutionary and left-leaning policies (such as the nationalization of railways) to appease the opposition. Marco Minghetti ( November 18, 1818 &ndash December 10, 1886) was an Italian economist and statesman In 1876, Minghetti was ousted and replaced by liberal Agostino Depretis, who began the long Liberal Period. Agostino Depretis ( January 31, 1813 &ndash July 29, 1887) was an Italian statesman. The Liberal Period was marked by corruption, government instability, continued poverty in southern Italy, and use of authoritarian measures by the Italian government.
Depretis began his term as Prime Minister by initiating an experimental political idea called Trasformismo (transformism). Trasformismo was the method of creating a flexible centrist coalition of Government which isolated the extremes of the left and the right in Italian The theory of trasformismo was that a cabinet should select a variety of moderates and capable politicians from a non-partisan perspective. In practice, trasformismo was authoritarian and corrupt, Depretis pressured districts to vote for his candidates if they wished to gain favourable concessions from Depretis when in power. The results of the 1876 election resulted in only four representatives from the right being elected, allowing the government to be dominated by Depretis. Despotic and corrupt actions are believed to be the key means in which Depretis managed to keep support in southern Italy. Depretis put through authoritarian measures, such as banning public meetings, placing "dangerous" individuals in internal exile on remote penal islands across Italy and adopting militarist policies. Depretis enacted controversial legislation for the time, such as abolishing arrest for debt, making elementary education free and compulsory while ending compulsory religious teaching in elementary schools. 
In 1887, Francesco Crispi became Prime Minister and began focusing government efforts on foreign policy. Francesco Crispi ( October 4 1819 &ndash August 12 1901) was a 19th-century Italian Politician of Albanian Arberesh Crispi worked to build Italy as a great world power though increased military expenditures, advocacy of expansionism, and trying to win Germany's favour. Italy joined the Triple Alliance which included both Germany and Austria-Hungary in 1882 and which remained officially intact until 1915. The Triple Alliance was a military alliance between Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy that lasted from 1882 until the start of World War I While helping Italy develop strategically, he continued trasformismo and was authoritarian, once suggesting the use of martial law to ban opposition parties.  Despite being authoritarian, Crispi put through liberal policies such as the Public Health Act of 1888 and establishing tribunals for redress against abuses by the government. 
The overwhelming attention paid to foreign policy alienated the agricultural community in Italy which had been in decline since 1873.  Both radical and conservative forces in the Italian parliament demanded that the government investigate how to improve agriculture in Italy.  The investigation which started in 1877 and was released eight years later, showed that agriculture was not improving, that landowners were earning revenue from their lands and contributing almost nothing to the development of the land. Lower class Italians were hurt by the break-up of communal lands to the benefit of landlords.  Most of the workers on the agricultural lands were not peasants but short-term labourers who at best were employed for one year.  Peasants without stable income were forced to live off meager food supplies, disease was spreading rapidly, plagues were reported, including a major cholera epidemic which killed at least 55,000 people. Cholera, sometimes known as Asiatic cholera or epidemic cholera, is an infectious Gastroenteritis caused by the Bacterium 
The Italian government could not deal with the situation effectively because of overspending by the Depretis government that left Italy heavily in debt. Italy also suffered economically as a consequence of overproduction of grapes by their vineyards. In the 1870s and 1880s, France's vineyard industry was suffering from vine disease caused by insects. Italy time prospered as the largest exporter of wine in Europe. But following the recovery of France in 1888, southern Italy was overproducing and had to cut back, which caused greater unemployment and bankruptcies. 
A number of colonial projects were undertaken by the government. These were done to gain support of Italian nationalists and imperialists, who wanted to rebuild a Roman Empire. Already, Italy had large settlements in Alexandria, Cairo, and Tunis. Alexandria ( Egyptian Arabic: اسكندريه Eskendereyya; Standard Arabic: ar الإسكندرية Al-Iskandariyya; Ἀλεξάνδρεια Cairo () which means "the Vanquisher" or "the Triumphant" is the capital and largest city of Egypt. Tunis ( Arabic: تونس Tūnis) is the Capital of the Tunisian Republic and also the Tunis Italy first attempted to gain colonies through negotiations with other world powers to make colonial concessions. These negotiations failed. Italy also sent missionaries to uncolonized lands to investigate the potential for Italian colonization. The most promising and realistic of these were parts of Africa. Italian missionaries had already established a foothold at Massawa (in present day Eritrea) in the 1830s and had entered deep into Ethiopia. Massawa, formerly known as Mitsiwa ( Ge'ez ምጽዋ miṣṣiwa, Arabic مصوع maṣṣawaʿ Eritrea () ( Ge'ez: ኤርትራ ʾErtrā, Arabic: إرتريا Iritriya) officially the State of Eritrea, is a country in 
On 5 February 1885, shortly after the fall of Egyptian rule in Khartoum, Italy took advantage of Egypt's conflict with Britain by landing soldiers at Massawa. Events 1576 - Henry of Navarre converts to Roman Catholicism in order to ensure his right to the throne of France. Year 1885 ( MDCCCLXXXV) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common In 1888, Italy annexed Massawa by force, creating the colony of Italian Eritrea.
In 1895, Ethiopia led by Emperor Menelik II abandoned an agreement signed in 1889 to follow Italian foreign policy and Italy used the renunciation as a reason to invade Ethiopia. Emperor Menelik II GCB, GCMG, ( Ge'ez ምኒልክ baptized as Sahle Maryam ( August 17, 1844 &ndash December 12  Ethiopia gained the help of Russia, whose own interests in East Africa led Russia's government to sent large amounts of modern weaponry to the Ethiopians to hold back an Italian invasion. In response, Britain decided to back the Italians to challenge Russian influence in Africa and declared that all of Ethiopia was within the sphere of Italian interest. On the verge of war, Italian militarism and nationalism reached a peak, with Italians flocking to the Italian army, hoping to take part in the upcoming war. 
The Italian army failed on the battlefield, overwhelmed by the huge Ethiopian army which forced Italy to retreat into Eritrea.  The failed Ethiopian campaign was an international embarrassment to Italy. Ethiopia remained independent from Italy and other colonial powers until it was occupied in 1936 by Italy. It was subsequently liberated four years later in World War II. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including
In 1911, Italy declared war on the Ottoman Empire and invaded Libya. The Ottoman Empire (1299–1923 ( Old Ottoman Turkish: دولتْ علیّه عثمانیّه Devlet-i Âliye-yi Osmâniyye, Late Ottoman and Modern Turkish Libya ( ليبيا ar-Latn Lībiyā; Libyan vernacular: Lībya; Amazigh:) officially the Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab The war ended only a year later, but the occupation resulted in acts of discrimination against Libyans such as the forced deportation of Libyans to the Tremiti Islands in October 1911. Tremiti (Isole Tremiti is an Archipelago of the Adriatic Sea, north of the Gargano Peninsula. By 1912, a third of these Libyan refugees had died from a lack of food and shelter.  The annexation of Libya led nationalists to advocate Italy's domination of the Mediterranean Sea by occupying Greece and the Adriatic coastal region of Dalmatia. Greece (Ελλάδα transliterated: Elláda, historically, Ellás,) officially the Hellenic Republic (Ελληνική Δημοκρατία Dalmatia ( Croatian: Dalmacija, see names in other languages) is a region on the eastern coast of the Adriatic Sea, situated mostly in modern 
In 1892, Giovanni Giolitti became Prime Minister of Italy for his first term. Giovanni Giolitti ( October 27, 1842 &ndash July 17, 1928) was an Italian statesman Although his first government quickly collapsed a year later, Giolitti returned in 1903 to lead Italy's government during a fragmented period that lasted until 1914. Giolitti had spent his earlier life as a civil servant, and then took positions within the cabinets of Crispi. Giolitti was the first long-term Italian Prime Minister in many years because he mastered the political concept of trasformismo by manipulating, coercing and bribing officials to his side. In elections during Giolitti's government, voting fraud was common, and Giolitti helped improve voting only in well-off, more supportive areas, while attempting to isolate and intimidate poor areas where opposition was strong.  Southern Italy was in terrible shape prior to and during Giolitti's tenure as Prime Minister. Four-fifths of southern Italians were illiterate and the dire situation there ranged from problems of large numbers of absentee landlords to rebellion and even starvation.  Corruption was such a large problem that Giolitti himself admitted that there were places "where the law does not operate at all". 
In 1911, Giolitti's government sent forces to occupy Libya. While the success of the Libyan War improved the status of the nationalists, it did not help Giolitti's administration as a whole. The government attempted to discourage criticism by speaking about Italy's strategic achievements and inventiveness of their military in the war: Italy was the first country to use the airship for military purposes, and undertook aerial bombing on the Ottoman forces. Terminology In some countries airships are also known as dirigibles from the French (fr ''diriger'' to direct plus -ible) meaning "directable" An airstrike is a Military strike by Air forces on either a suspected or a confirmed enemy ground position  The war radicalized the Italian Socialist Party: anti-war revolutionaries led by future-Fascist dictator Benito Mussolini called for violence to bring down the government. Giolitti returned as Prime Minister only briefly in 1920, but the era of liberalism was effectively over in Italy.
In the lead-up to the First World War, the Kingdom of Italy faced a number of short-term and long-term problems in determining its allies and objectives. Italy's recent success in occupying Libya had sparked tension and jealousy with its allies, Germany and Austria-Hungary. In Munich, Germans reacted to Italy's aggression by singing anti-Italian songs.  Italy's relations with France also were in bad shape: France felt betrayed by Italy’s support of Prussia, opening the possibility of war erupting between the two countries.  Italy's relations with Britain had also been impaired by constant Italian demands for more recognition in the international stage following the occupation of Libya, and its demands that other nations accept its spheres of influence in East Africa and the Mediterranean. 
In the Mediterranean, Italy’s relations with Greece were aggravated when Italy occupied the Greek-populated Dodecanese Islands and Rhodes from 1912 to 1914. These islands had been formerly controlled by the Ottoman Empire. Italy and Greece were also in open rivalry over the desire to occupy Albania. 
King Emmanuel III himself was uneasy about Italy pursuing distant colonial adventures, and said that Italy should prepare to take back Italian-populated land from Austria-Hungary, as the "completion of the Risorgimento".  This idea put Italy at odds with Austria-Hungary.
A major hindrance to Italy's decision on what to do about the war was the political instability throughout Italy in 1914. After the formation of the government of Prime Minister Antonio Salandra in March of 1914, the government attempted to win the support of nationalists and moved to the political right. Antonio Salandra ( 1853-08-13 &ndash 1931-12-09) was a conservative Italian politician who served as Prime Minister of Italy  At the same time the left became more repulsed by the government after the killing of three anti-militarist demonstrators in June.  Many elements of the left including syndicalists, republicans and anarchists protested against this and the Italian Socialist Party declared a general strike in Italy. Syndicalism is a type of movement which aims to degrade capitalist societies through action by the Working class on the industrial front The Italian Socialist Party ( Partito Socialista Italiano, PSI was a democratic socialist / social democratic political party founded in Genoa A general strike is a Strike action by a critical mass of the labour force in a city region or country  The protests that ensued became known as "Red Week" as leftists rioted and various acts of civil disobedience occurred in major cities and small towns such as seizing railway stations, cutting telephone wires, and burning tax-registers. Red Week was the name given to a week of unrest which occurred in June 1914.  However only two days later the strike was officially called off, though the civil strife continued. Militarist nationalists and anti-militarist leftists fought on the streets until the Italian Royal Army forcefully restored calm after having used thousands of men to put down the various protesting forces following the invasion of Serbia by Austria-Hungary in 1914, World War I broke out. The Kingdom of Serbia ( Serbian Cyrillic: Краљевина Србија Serbian Latinica Kraljevina Srbija) was created when Prince Milan Obrenović ruler World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All Despite Italy's official alliance to the German Empire and in the Triple Alliance, she initially remained neutral, claiming that the Triple Alliance was only for defensive purposes. The German Empire is the name commonly used in English to describe Germany from 1871 to 1918 when it was a semi- Constitutional monarchy: beginning with the Unification
In Italy, society was divided over the war: Italian socialists generally opposed the war and supported pacificism, while nationalists militantly supported the war. Long-time nationalists Gabriele D'Annunzio and Luigi Federzoni and a new convert to nationalism, future Fascist dictator Benito Mussolini, demanded that Italy join the war. Gabriele d'Annunzio ( 12 March 1863 &ndash 1 March 1938) was an Italian Poet, Journalist, Novelist For the nationalists, the war presented Italy a long-awaited opportunity to use an alliance with the Entente to gain back Italian-populated territories from Austria-Hungary, which had long been part of Italian nationalist aims since unification. In 1915, relatives of Italian nationalist and republican hero Giuseppe Garibaldi died on the battlefield of France, where they had volunteered to fight. Garibaldi redirects here for other meanings see Garibaldi (disambiguation. Federzoni used the memorial services to declare the importance of Italy joining the war, and to warn the monarchy of the consequences of continued disunity in Italy if it did not:
"Italy has awaited this since 1866 her truly national war, in order to feel unified at last, renewed by the unanimous action and identical sacrifice of all her sons. Today, while Italy still wavers before the necessity imposed by history, the name of Garibaldi, resanctified by blood, rises again to warn her that she will not be able to defeat the revolution save by fighting and winning her national war. "
Mussolini used his new newspaper Il Popolo d'Italia and his strong oratorical skills to urge nationalists and patriotic revolutionary leftists to support Italy's entry into the war to gain back Italian populated territories from Austria-Hungary, by saying "enough of Libya, and on to Trent and Trieste". Il Popolo d'Italia ( Italian for "The People of Italy" was an Italian newspaper founded by Benito Mussolini on November 15 Trieste (Trieste Slovene and Croatian: Trst; German: Triest) is a city and port in northeastern Italy very near to  Mussolini claimed that it was in the interests of socialists to join the war to tear down the Hohenzollern dynasty of Germany which he claimed was the enemy of all European workers.  Mussolini and other nationalists warned the Italian government that that Italy must join the war or face revolution and called for violence against pacifists and neutralists.  Left-wing nationalism also erupted in southern Italy, socialist and nationalist Giuseppe De Felice-Giuffrida saw the Italy joining the war as essential to relieving southern Italy of the rising cost of bread which had caused riots in the south, and advocated a "war of revolution". Left-wing nationalism is a political movement geared to overcoming the losses and disadvantages experienced by a country due to economic pressure or Deep integration with another 
With nationalist sentiment firmly on the side of reclaiming Italian territories of Austria-Hungary, Italy entered negotiations with the Triple Entente. The negotiations ended successfully in April 1915 when the London Pact was brokered with the Italian government. London Pact ( Italian Patto di Londra) or more correctly the Treaty of London, 1915 was a secret Pact between Italy and Triple The pact ensured Italy the right to attain Italian-populated lands it wanted from Austria-Hungary, and land in the Balkans and German colonies in Africa. The proposal fulfilled the desires of Italian nationalists and Italian imperialism, and was agreed to. Italy joined the Triple Entente in its war against Austria-Hungary and Germany.
The reaction in Italy was divided: former Prime Minister Giovanni Giolitti was furious over Italy's decision to go to war against Austria-Hungary and Germany. Giovanni Giolitti ( October 27, 1842 &ndash July 17, 1928) was an Italian statesman He claimed that Italy would fail in the war, predicting high numbers of mutinies, Austro-Hungarian occupation of more Italian territory, and that the failure would produce a catastrophic rebellion that would destroy the monarchy and the liberal institutions of the state. 
The outset of the campaign against Austria-Hungary looked initially to favour Italy: Austria-Hungary's army was spread to cover its fronts with Serbia and Russia, and Italy had a numerical superiority against the Austro-Hungarian army. The Kingdom of Serbia ( Serbian Cyrillic: Краљевина Србија Serbian Latinica Kraljevina Srbija) was created when Prince Milan Obrenović ruler The Russian Empire ( Pre-reform Russian: Pоссійская Имперія Modern Russian: Российская Империя translit: Rossiyskaya However, this advantage was never fully utilized because Italian military commander Luigi Cadorna insisted on a dangerous frontal assault against Austria-Hungary in an attempt to occupy the Slovenian plateau and Ljubljana. Luigi Cadorna ( September 4, 1850 &ndash December 21, 1928) was an Italian Field Marshal most famous for being the Commander-in-Chief Ljubljana ( is the largest and Capital city of Slovenia. It is located in the center of the country and is a mid-sized city of some 270000 inhabitants This assault would put the Italian army not far away from Austria-Hungary's imperial capital, Vienna. Vienna ( in Wien; see also other names) is the Capital of Austria, and is also one of the nine States of Austria. After eleven failed offensives with enormous loss of life, the Italian campaign to take Vienna collapsed.
Upon entering the war, geography was also a difficulty for Italy, as its border with Austria-Hungary was along mountainous terrain. In May 1915, Italian forces at 400,000 men along the border outnumbered the Austrian and Germans almost precisely four to one.  However the Austrian defenses were strong even though they were undermanned and managed to hold off the Italian offensive.  The battles with the Austro-Hungarian army along the Alpine foothills in the trench warfare there were drawn-out, long engagements with little progress.  Italian officers were poorly trained in contrast to the Austro-Hungarian and German armies, and Italian artillery was inferior to the Austrian machine guns and the Italian forces had dangerously low supply of ammunition, this shortage would continually hamper attempts to make advances into Austrian territory.  This combined with the constant replacement of officers by Cadorna resulted in few officers gaining the experience necessary to lead military missions.  In the first year of the war, poor conditions on the battlefield led to outbreaks of cholera causing a significant number of Italian soldiers to die.  Despite these serious problems, Cadorna refused to back down the offensive. Naval battles occurred between the Italian Royal Navy (Regia Marina) and the Austro-Hungarian navy. The Regia Marina ( Italian Royal Navy) dates from the proclamation of the Kingdom of Italy in 1861 after Italian unification. Italy's warships were outclassed by the Austro-Hungarian fleet and the situation was made more dire for Italy in that both France and the United Kingdom refused to send their navies into the Adriatic Sea which they saw has far too dangerous to operate due the concentration of the Austro-Hungarian fleet there. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located  Morale fell among Italian soldiers who lived a tedious life when not on the front lines: they were forbidden to enter theatres or bars even when on leave. However when battles were about to occur, alcohol was made freely available to the soldiers in order to reduce tension before the battle. In order to escape the tedium after battles, some groups of soldiers worked to create improvised brothels.  In order to maintain morale, the Italian army had propaganda lectures of the importance of the war to Italy, especially in order to retrieve Trent and Trieste from Austria-Hungary.  Some of these lectures were carried out by popular nationalist war proponents such as Gabriele D'Annunzio. Gabriele d'Annunzio ( 12 March 1863 &ndash 1 March 1938) was an Italian Poet, Journalist, Novelist D'Annunzio himself would participate in a number of paramilitary raids on Austrian positions along the Adriatic coastline during the war and lost an eye one of the battles.  Prominent pro-war advocate Benito Mussolini was prevented from giving lecture by the government, most likely because of his revolutionary socialist past. 
The Italian government became increasingly aggravated in 1915 with the passive nature of the Serbian army which had not engaged in a serious offensive against Austria-Hungary for months. Land Forces ( Serbian: Копнена Војска - КоВ or Kopnena Vojska - KoV) is the largest and the oldest army branch of Serbia.  The Italian government blamed Serbian military inactiveness for allowing the Austrians to muster their armies against Italy.  Cadorna suspected that Serbia was attempting to negotiate an end to fighting with Austria and addressed this to foreign minister Sidney Sonnino who himself bitterly claimed that the Serbia was an unreliable ally. Baron Sidney Costantino Sonnino ( March 11, 1847 &ndash November 24, 1922) was an Italian Politician.  Relations between Italy and Serbia became so cold that the other Entente members were forced to abandon the idea of forming a united Balkan front against Austria-Hungary.  In negotiations, Sonnino remained willing to allow Bosnia to join Serbia, but refused to discuss the fate of Dalmatia which was claimed by Italy and Pan-Slavists in Serbia. Pan-Slavism was a movement in the mid 19th century aimed at unity of all the Slavic peoples The main focus was in the Balkans where the South Slavs had been  As Serbia fell to the Austro-Hungarian and German forces in 1915, Cadorna proposed sending 60,000 men to land in Salonika to help the Serbs now in exile in Greece and Albania to fight off the opposing forces, but the Italian government's bitterness to Serbia resulted in the proposal being rejected. 
After 1916, the situation for Italy grew steadily worse, the Austro-Hungarian army managed to push the Italian Army back into Italy as far as Verona and Padua in their Strafexpedition. Verona is a city and provincial capital in Veneto, Northern Italy. Padua ( Padova 'padova Latin: Patavium, Padoa) is a city in the Veneto, northern Italy. At the same time Italy faced a shortage of warships, increased attacks by submarines, soaring freight charges threatening the ability to supply food to soldiers, lack of raw materials and equipment, and Italians faced high taxes to pay for the war.  Austro-Hungarian and German forces had gone deep into northern Italian territory, and finally in November 1916, Cadorna ended offensive operations and began a defensive approach. In 1917, France, the United Kingdom and the United States offered to send troops to Italy to help it fend off the offensive of the Central Powers, but the Italian government refused, as Sonnino did not want Italy to be seen as a client state of the Allies and preferred isolation as the more brave alternative. The Central Powers ( German: "Mittelmächte" Hungarian: "Központi hatalmak" Turkish: "İttifak Client state is one of several terms used to describe the subordination of one state to a more powerful state in international affairs  Italy also wanted to keep Greece out of the war, as the Italian government feared that should Greece join the war on the side of the Allies, it would intend to annex Albania, which Italy wanted as its own. Greece (Ελλάδα transliterated: Elláda, historically, Ellás,) officially the Hellenic Republic (Ελληνική Δημοκρατία  Fortunately for Italy, pro-war advocates in Greece failed to succeed in pressuring the Greek King to bring the country into the conflict, and Italian aims on Albania remained unthreatened. 
With the collapse of the Russian Empire and the arrival of the communist Bolshevik regime of Vladimir Lenin in Russia in 1917, more Austro-Hungarian and German forces arrived on the front against Italy. The Russian Empire ( Pre-reform Russian: Pоссійская Имперія Modern Russian: Российская Империя translit: Rossiyskaya Communism is a Socioeconomic structure that promotes the establishment of an egalitarian, classless, stateless Society based The Bolsheviks, originally also Bolshevists ( Большевик Большевист (singular, derived from bolshe, "more" were a faction Internal dissent against the war grew with increasingly poor economic and social conditions in Italy due to the strain of the war. Much of the profit of the war was being made in the cities while rural areas were losing income.  The number of men available for agricultural work had fallen from 4. 8 million to 2. 2 million, though through the help of women, agricultural production managed to be maintained at 90 percent of its pre-war total during the war.  Many pacifist and internationalist Italian socialists turned to Bolshevism and advocated negotiations with the workers of Germany and Austria-Hungary to help end the war and bring about Bolshevik revolutions. The Bolsheviks, originally also Bolshevists ( Большевик Большевист (singular, derived from bolshe, "more" were a faction  The newspaper Avanti! of the Italian Socialist Party declared "Let the bourgeoisie fight its own war". Avanti! ("Forward!" is an Italian daily Newspaper, born as the official voice of the Italian Socialist Party, published since The Italian Socialist Party ( Partito Socialista Italiano, PSI was a democratic socialist / social democratic political party founded in Genoa  Leftist women in northern Italian cities led protests demanding action against the high cost of living and demanding an end to the war.  In Milan in May 1917, Bolshevik revolutionaries organized and engaged in rioting calling for an end to the war, and managed to close down factories and stop public transportation. Milan (Milano Milan (listen) is one of the largest cities in Italy, located in the plains of Lombardy.  The Italian army was forced to enter Milan with tanks and machine guns to face Bolsheviks and anarchists who fought violently until May 23 when the army gained control of the city with almost fifty people killed (three of which were Italian soldiers) and over 800 people arrested. Events 1430 - Siege of Compiègne: Joan of Arc is captured by the Burgundians while leading an army to relieve Compiègne 
After the Battle of Caporetto in 1917, Italian forces were forced far back into Italian territory, and the humiliation led to the arrival of Vittorio Orlando as Prime Minister who managed to solve some of Italy's wartime problems. The Battle of Caporetto (or Battle of Karfreit as it was known by the Central Powers; Bitka za Kobarid took place from 24 October Vittorio Emanuele Orlando ( May 19 1860 - December 1 1952) was an Italian diplomat and Political figure. Orlando abandoned the previous isolationist approach to the war and increased coordination with the Allies and the use of the convoy system to fend off submarine attack, allowed Italy to be able to end food shortages from February 1918 onward, and Italy received more raw materials from the Allies.  Also in 1918, began the official repression of enemy aliens and Italian socialists were increasingly repressed by the Italian government. The Italian government was infuriated with U. S. President Woodrow Wilson's Fourteen Points as the advocation of national self-determination meant that Italy would not gain Dalmatia as had been promised in the Treaty of London. The Fourteen Points were listed in a speech delivered by President Woodrow Wilson of the United States to a joint session of the United  In parliament, nationalists condemned Wilson's fourteen points as betraying the Treaty of London, while socialists claimed that Wilson's points were valid and claimed the Treaty of London was an offense to the rights of Slavs, Greeks, and Albanians.  Negotiations between Italy and the Allies, particularly the new Yugoslav delegation (replacing the Serbian delegation), agreed to a trade off between Italy and a new Yugoslav state, which was that Dalmatia as claimed by Italy would be accepted as Yugoslav, while Istria as claimed by the Yugoslavs would be accepted as Italian. 
At Piave the Italian army managed to hold off the Austro-Hungarian and German armies. The opposing armies repeatedly failed afterwards in major battles such as Battle of Asiago and the Battle of Vittorio Veneto. The Battle of Asiago (Battle of the Plateaux or the Trentino Offensive (in Italian Battaglia degli Altipiani) nicknamed Strafexpedition The Battle of Vittorio Veneto was fought between 24 October and 3 November 1918 near Vittorio Veneto, during the Italian Campaign of World War I. The Italian Army crushed the Austrian offensive in the latter battle. Austria-Hungary ended the fighting against Italy with the armistice on 11 November 1918 which ended World War I. Events 308 - The Congress of Carnuntum: Attempting to keep peace within the Roman Empire, the leaders of the Tetrarchy declare Year 1918 ( MCMXVIII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common
During the war, the Italian Royal Army increased in size from 15,000 men in 1914 to 160,000 men in 1918, with 5 million recruits in total entering service during the war.  This came at a terrible cost: by the end of the war, Italy had lost 700,000 soldiers and had a budget deficit of twelve billion lira. Italian society was divided between the majority pacifists who opposed Italian involvement in the war and the minority of pro-war nationalists who had condemned the Italian government for not having immediately gone to war with Austria in 1914.
As the war came to an end, Italian Prime Minister Vittorio Emanuele Orlando met with British Prime Minister David Lloyd George, French President Georges Clemenceau, and United States President Woodrow Wilson in Versailles, to discuss how the borders of Europe should be redefined to help avoid a future European war. Vittorio Emanuele Orlando ( May 19 1860 - December 1 1952) was an Italian diplomat and Political figure. World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All Versailles (vɛʀsaj in French) formerly de facto capital of the kingdom of France, is now a wealthy suburb of Paris and is still an important David Lloyd George 1st Earl Lloyd George of Dwyfor OM, PC (17 January 1863 &ndash 26 March 1945 was a British Statesman and the only Georges Benjamin Clemenceau ( Mouilleron-en-Pareds ( Vendée) 28 September 1841 24 November 1929 was a French statesman physician and Journalist Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28 1856—February 3 1924 was the twenty-eighth President of the United States. In Italy, the Prime Minister of Italy (officially the President of the Council of Ministers, Italian Presidente del Consiglio dei Ministri) is the country's Vittorio Emanuele Orlando ( May 19 1860 - December 1 1952) was an Italian diplomat and Political figure. The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the political leader of the United Kingdom David Lloyd George 1st Earl Lloyd George of Dwyfor OM, PC (17 January 1863 &ndash 26 March 1945 was a British Statesman and the only The President of the French Republic (Président de la République française colloquially referred to in English as the President of France, is France 's elected Georges Benjamin Clemenceau ( Mouilleron-en-Pareds ( Vendée) 28 September 1841 24 November 1929 was a French statesman physician and Journalist The President of the United States is the Head of state and Head of government of the United States and is the highest political official in United States by Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28 1856—February 3 1924 was the twenty-eighth President of the United States. Versailles (vɛʀsaj in French) formerly de facto capital of the kingdom of France, is now a wealthy suburb of Paris and is still an important
The talks provided little territorial gain to Italy because Wilson, during the peace talks, promised freedom to all European nationalities to form their own nation states. As a result, the Treaty of Versailles did not assign Dalmatia and Albania to Italy, as had been promised in the London Pact. The Treaty of Versailles was one of the peace treaties at the end of World War I. London Pact ( Italian Patto di Londra) or more correctly the Treaty of London, 1915 was a secret Pact between Italy and Triple Furthermore, the British and French decided to divide the German overseas colonies into mandates of their own, with Italy receiving none of them. Despite this, Orlando signed the Treaty of Versailles, which caused uproar against his government. Civil unrest erupted in Italy between nationalists who supported the war effort and opposed the "mutilated victory" (as nationalists called it) and leftists who were opposed to the war.
Furious over the peace settlement, Italian nationalist revolutionary Gabriele D'Annunzio led nationalists into the free state of Fiume in September 1919. Gabriele d'Annunzio ( 12 March 1863 &ndash 1 March 1938) was an Italian Poet, Journalist, Novelist Rijeka (other Croatian dialects Rika and Reka, Reka Italian and Hungarian: Fiume, Sankt Veit am Pflaumb is His popularity among nationalists led him to be called Il Duce (The Leader) and he used blackshirted paramilitary in his assault on Fiume, the blackshirt paramilitary uniform would later become synonymous with the fascist movement of Mussolini. Duce is an Italian word meaning Leader or the second derived from Latin word dux of the same meaning of which Duke is a derivation The demand for annexation of Fiume spread to all sides of the political spectrum, including Mussolini's revolutionary fascists.  D'Annunzio’s stirring speeches drew Croatian nationalists to his side. He also kept contact with the Irish Republican Army and Egyptian nationalists. The Irish Republican Army ( IRA) (Óglaigh na hÉireann was a military organisation descended from the Irish Volunteers, established 25 November 1913 and who 
The occupation ended one year later, but Fiume later was annexed by Italy in 1924. Mussolini learned from D'Annunzio the ways to arouse patriotism in order to gain support from nationalists, socialists, anarchists, and army veterans. 
|Part of the Politics series on|
In 1914, Benito Mussolini was forced out of the Italian Socialist Party after calling for Italian intervention against Austria. The term Italian Fascism denotes the totalitarian Fascismo political movement that ruled Italy from 1922 until 1943 under leader Benito Mussolini Politics Politics is the process by which groups of people make decisions Fascism is a totalitarian nationalist and corporatist ideology What constitutes a definition of Fascism and fascist Governments is a highly disputed subject that has proved complicated and contentious The Arrow Cross Party ( Hungarian: Nyilaskeresztes Párt – Hungarista Mozgalom, literally "Arrow Cross Party-Hungarist Movement" was a Far-right Austrofascism (Austrofaschismus is a term which is frequently used by historians to describe the authoritarian rule installed in Austria between 1934 and 1938 Brazilian Integralism (Integralismo brasileiro was a Brazilian political movement created in October 1932 Clerical fascism is an ideological construct that combines the political and economic doctrines of Fascism with Theology or religious tradition This article is about the Spanish political party For the Lebanese Phalange see the Kataeb Party. From 1936 to 1941, Greece was ruled by an authoritarian regime under the leadership of General The Iron Guard is the name most commonly given in English to a Far-right ultra- nationalist Antisemitic, fascist movement and political party The term Italian Fascism denotes the totalitarian Fascismo political movement that ruled Italy from 1922 until 1943 under leader Benito Mussolini The general term Japanese fascism has been used to refer to Japanese nationalist thinking its ideological foundation and the outlines of its political implementation Nazism, which was a short name for National Socialism (Nationalsozialismus refers primarily to the Ideology and practices of the National Socialist German National syndicalism is a variant of Syndicalism typically associated with the Labor movement in Italy which would later become a basis of Benito Mussolini This page specifically pertains to fascism after World War II Rexism was a fascist political movement in the first half of the twentieth century in Belgium. For the militiamen of the Military Frontier, see Uskoci The Ustaša - Croatian Revolutionary Movement ( Croatian: This article discusses regimes and movements that are alleged to have been either fascist or sympathetic to fascism This is a list of political parties organizations and movements that have been claimed to follow some form of fascist ideology From 1936 to 1941, Greece was ruled by an authoritarian regime under the leadership of General The Beer Hall Putsch (also known as the Munich Putsch) was a failed Coup d'état that occurred between the evening of Thursday November 8 Fascio (plural fasci) is an Italian word that effectively means "league" in English and which was used in the late 19th century to refer to Political This articles covers the history of Italy as a monarchy and in the World Wars. The Italian Social Republic ( Italian: Repubblica Sociale Italiana or RSI) was a Puppet state of Nazi Germany led by the "Duce of the The March on Rome ( Marcia su Roma) was a Coup d'état by which Mussolini 's National Fascist Party ( Partito Nazionale Fascista Nazi Germany and the Third Reich are the common English names for Germany under the regime of Adolf Hitler and the National Socialist German Workers The Acerbo Law was a Italian electoral law proposed by Baron Giacomo Acerbo and forced through the Italian Parliament in 1923 Actual Idealism was a form of Idealism developed by Giovanni Gentile that grew into a 'grounded' idealism contrasting the Transcendental Idealism of Anti-fascism is the opposition to fascist ideologies organizations governments and people Black Brigades (Brigate Nere were one of the Fascist Paramilitary groups operating in the Italian Social Republic (in northern Italy) For other uses and meanings see Blackshirts (disambiguation. The Blackshirts ( Italian: camicie nere, Class collaboration is a principle of social organization that forms part of Fascist philosophy Historically corporatism (corporativismo refers to a political or Economic system in which power is held by civic assemblies that represent Economic The economics of fascism refers to the economic policies implemented by fascist governments This article is about the Spanish political party For the Lebanese Phalange see the Kataeb Party. There are numerous debates concerning fascism and ideology. The position of fascism on the political spectrum is a point of contention As there were many different manifestations of Fascism, especially during the interwar years there were also many different symbols of Fascist movements. The Rhetoric of Hitler's "Battle" was an influential essay written by Kenneth Burke in 1939 which offered a rhetorical analysis of Adolf Hitler Giovanni Gentile (dʒoˈvɑnni dʒenˈtile May 30, 1875 April 15, 1944) was an Italian neo- Hegelian Idealist The Grand Council of Fascism (Gran Consiglio del Fascismo was the main body of Mussolini 's Fascist government in Italy. The Italian Nationalist Association, Associazione Nazionalista Italiana (ANI was Italy's first nationalist political party founded in 1910 The Hitler salute (Hitlergruß also known in Germany during World War II as the Deutscher Gruß (literally German Greeting) or in English as the The quadrumvirs were a group of four leaders that led Benito Mussolini 's March on Rome in October 1922 The Roman salute is a gesture in which the arm is held out forward straight with palm down Social fascism was a theory supported by the Communist International (Comintern during the late 1920s and early 1930s which stated that Social democracy was a variant Third Position is the name applied to a nationalist political strand that seeks to emphasise its opposition to both Communism and Capitalism. Enrico Corradini (1865 &mdash 1931 was an Italian Novelist Essayist journalist and nationalist political figure The Italian Socialist Party ( Partito Socialista Italiano, PSI was a democratic socialist / social democratic political party founded in Genoa Prior to World War I, Mussolini had opposed military conscription, protested Italy's occupation of Libya, and was the editor of the Socialist Party's official newspaper, Avanti!. Avanti! ("Forward!" is an Italian daily Newspaper, born as the official voice of the Italian Socialist Party, published since Over time, he simply called for revolution, without mentioning class struggle.  Mussolini's nationalism enabled him to raise funds from Ansaldo (an armaments firm) and other companies to create his own newspaper Il Popolo d'Italia to convince socialists and revolutionaries to support the war. Ansaldo was one of Italy's oldest and most important engineering companies existing for 140 years from 1853 to 1993 Il Popolo d'Italia ( Italian for "The People of Italy" was an Italian newspaper founded by Benito Mussolini on November 15  France, Britain, and Russia, wanting to draw Italy to the Entente, helped finance the newspaper.  This newspaper became Fascist Italy's officially-supported newspaper years later. During the war, Mussolini served in the Italian army and was wounded once during the war. The wound is widely believed to be the result of an accident in grenade practice, although he claimed to have been wounded in battle. 
Following the end of the war and the Treaty of Versailles, in 1919, Mussolini created the Fasci di Combattimento or Combat League. Fascio (plural fasci) is an Italian word that effectively means "league" in English and which was used in the late 19th century to refer to Political It was originally dominated by patriotic socialist and syndicalist veterans who opposed the pacifist nature of the Italian Socialist Party. Syndicalism is a type of movement which aims to degrade capitalist societies through action by the Working class on the industrial front The Fascists initially had a platform far more inclined to the left, promising social revolution, proportional representation, women's suffrage, and dividing private property held by estates.  On 15 April 1919, the Fascists made their debut in political violence, when a group of members from the Fasci di Combattimento attacked the offices of Avanti! Recognizing the failures of the Fascists' initial revolutionary and left-leaning policy, Mussolini moved the organization away from the left and turned the revolutionary movement into an electoral movement in 1921 named the Partido Nazionale Fascista (National Fascist Party). Events 1450 - Battle of Formigny: Toward the end of the Hundred Years' War, the French attack and nearly annihilate English Year 1919 ( MCMXIX) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common The National Fascist Party ( Partito Nazionale Fascista; PNF was an Italian party created by Benito Mussolini as the political expression of The party copied the nationalist themes of D'Annunzio and rejected parliamentary democracy while still operating within to destroy it. Mussolini changed his original revolutionary policies, such as moving away from anti-clericalism to supporting the Catholic Church and abandoned his public opposition to the monarchy.  Fascist support and violence began to grow in 1921 and Fascist-supporting army officers began taking arms and vehicles from the army to use in counterrevolutionary attacks on socialists. 
In 1920, Giolitti had come back as Prime Minister in an attempt to solve Italy's deadlock. Fasces (ˈfæsiːz a Plurale tantum, from the Latin word fascis, meaning "bundle" symbolize summary power and Jurisdiction The National Fascist Party ( Partito Nazionale Fascista; PNF was an Italian party created by Benito Mussolini as the political expression of One year later, Giolitti's government had already become unstable, and a growing socialist opposition further endangered his government. Giolitti believed that the Fascists could be toned down and used to protect the state from the socialists. He decided to include Fascists on his electoral list for the 1921 elections.  In the elections, the Fascists did not make large gains, but Giolitti's government failed to gather a large enough coalition to govern and offered the Fascists placements in his government. The Fascists rejected Giolitti's offers and joined with socialists in bringing down his government.  By 1922, Mussolini had become a dominant personality in Italian politics: his popularity arose from his speaking talents, bribes, and intimidation. A number of descendants of those who had served Garibaldi's revolutionaries during unification were won over to Mussolini's nationalist revolutionary ideals.  His advocacy of corporatism and futurism had attracted advocates of the "third way". Historically corporatism (corporativismo refers to a political or Economic system in which power is held by civic assemblies that represent Economic  But most importantly he had won over politicians in Italy like Facta and Giolitti who did not condemn him for his Blackshirts' mistreatment of socialists. 
In October 1922, Mussolini took advantage of a general strike by workers in Italy, and announced his demands to the Italian government to give the Fascist Party political power or face a coup. With no immediate response, a small number of Fascists began a long trek across Italy to Rome which was called the March on Rome, claiming to Italians that Fascists were intending to restore law and order. The March on Rome ( Marcia su Roma) was a Coup d'état by which Mussolini 's National Fascist Party ( Partito Nazionale Fascista Mussolini himself did not participate in the march. The Fascists demanded Prime Minister Luigi Facta's resignation and that Mussolini be named Prime Minister. Luigi Facta ( November 16, 1861 &ndash November 5, 1930) was an Italian politician journalist and last Prime Minister of Italy before Although the Italian Army was far better armed than the Fascist paramilitaries, the Italian government under King Victor Emmanuel III faced a political crisis. Victor Emmanuel III (Vittorio Emanuele III 11 November, 1869 – 28 December, 1947) was a member of the House of Savoy and The King was forced to choose which of the two rival movements in Italy would form the government: Mussolini's Fascists, or the anti-monarchist Italian Socialist Party. The Italian Socialist Party ( Partito Socialista Italiano, PSI was a democratic socialist / social democratic political party founded in Genoa He selected the Fascists.
On October 28, 1922, Victor Emmanuel III selected Mussolini to become Italian Prime Minister, allowing Mussolini and the Fascist Party to pursue their political ambitions as long as they supported the monarchy. Events 306 - Maxentius is proclaimed Roman Emperor. 312 - Battle of Milvian Bridge: Constantine Year 1922 ( MCMXXII) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. Mussolini was a very young political leader (at the age of 39) compared to other Italian prime ministers and world leaders at the time. Mussolini was called Il Duce, or "The Leader" by his supporters, an unofficial title that was commonly used to describe Mussolini's position during the Fascist era. A personality cult was developed that portrayed him as the nation's saviour which was aided by the personal popularity he held with Italians already which would remain strong until Italy faced continuous military defeats in World War II. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including
Upon taking power, Mussolini formed a legislative coalition with nationalists, liberals and populists. However goodwill by the Fascists towards parliamentary democracy faded quickly: Mussolini's coalition passed the electoral Acerbo Law of 1923, which gave two thirds of the seats in parliament to the party or coalition that achieved 25% of the vote. The Acerbo Law was a Italian electoral law proposed by Baron Giacomo Acerbo and forced through the Italian Parliament in 1923 The Fascist Party used violence and intimidation to achieve the 25% threshold in the 1924 election, and became the ruling political party of Italy.
Following the election, Socialist deputy Giacomo Matteotti was assassinated after calling for an annulment of the elections because of the irregularities. Giacomo Matteotti ( 22 May 1885 – 10 June 1924) was an Italian socialist politician Following the assassination, the Socialists walked out of parliament, allowing Mussolini to pass more authoritarian laws. In 1925, Mussolini accepted responsibility for the Fascist violence in 1924, and then declared a Fascist dictatorship in which he would be the unopposed Prime Minister of Italy with the assent of the King.
The result of Mussolini's take over of the government was the creation of a diarchy in Italy, with the King and Mussolini both having significant powers. Diarchy (or dyarchy) from the Greek "δύο" and αρχειν "to rule" is a form of government in which two diarchs are the heads of state
After rising to power, the Fascist regime set Italy on a course to becoming a one-party state and to integrate Fascism into all aspects of life. A totalitarian state as was officially declared in the Doctrine of Fascism of 1935,
"The Fascist conception of the State is all-embracing; outside of it no human or spiritual values can exist, much less have value. Totalitarianism (or totalitarian rule) is a concept used to describe Political systems where a State regulates nearly every aspect of public and private " The Doctrine of Fascism " (" La dottrina del fascismo " is a seminal essay signed by Benito Mussolini and officially attributed to him although Thus understood, Fascism is totalitarian, and the Fascist State—a synthesis and a unit inclusive of all values—interprets, develops, and potentiates the whole life of a people. " "
With the concept of totalitarianism, Mussolini and the Fascist regime set an agenda of improving Italian culture and society based on ancient Rome, personal dictatorship, and some futurist aspects of Italian intellectuals and artists. 
Under Fascism, the definition of the Italian nationality rested on a militarist foundation and the Fascist's "new man" ideal in which loyal Italians would rid themselves of individualism and autonomy and see themselves as a component of the Italian state and be willing to sacrifice his life for it. Militarism is the belief or desire of a government or people that a country should maintain a strong military capability and be prepared to use it aggressively to defend or  Under such a totalitarian society, only Fascists would be considered "true Italians" and membership and endorsement of the Fascist Party was necessary for people to gain "Complete Citizenship", those who did not swear allegiance to Fascism were banished from public life and could not gain employment.  The Fascist regime also reached out to Italian expatriates living abroad to endorse the Fascist cause and identify with Italy rather than their place of residence. An expatriate (in abbreviated form expat) is a person temporarily or permanently residing in a country and culture other than that of the person's upbringing  Despite efforts to mould a new culture for fascism, Fascist Italy's efforts were not as drastic or successful in comparison to other one-party states like Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union in creating a new culture. Nazi Germany and the Third Reich are the common English names for Germany under the regime of Adolf Hitler and the National Socialist German Workers The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 
In Fascist Italy, Mussolini was idolized as the nation's saviour. In public and in propaganda the Fascist regime attempted to make him omnipresent in Italian society. Much of Fascism's appeal in Italy was based on the personality cult around Mussolini and his popularity. Mussolini's passionate oratory and personality cult was displayed at huge rallies and parades of his Blackshirts in Rome which served as an inspiration to Adolf Hitler and the National Socialist German Workers Party (Nazi Party) in Germany. Hi and welcome to Wikipedia! Please understand that this article is frequently vandalized and vandalism is reverted immediately The, officially National Socialist German Workers' Party, ( abbreviated NSDAP) was a Political party in Germany between 1919 and 1945
The Fascist regime established propaganda in newsreels, radio broadcasting, and a few feature films deliberately endorsing Fascism. In 1926, laws were passed to require that propaganda newsreels be shown prior to all feature films in cinemas.  These newsreels were more effective in influencing the Italian public than propaganda films or radio, as few Italians had radio receivers at the time.  Fascist propaganda was widely present in posters and state-sponsored art of the time. Art and literature in Fascist Italy were not strictly controlled, and were only censored if they were blatantly against the state.
Relations with the Roman Catholic Church improved significantly during Mussolini's regime. Despite earlier opposition to the Church, after 1922, Mussolini made an alliance with the pro-church Partito Popolare Italiano or Italian People's Party. Christian Democracy ( Democrazia Cristiana, DC the Christian democratic party of Italy, dominated government for nearly half a century until its demise Mussolini negotiated with the Pope over granting sovereignty to the territory of the Vatican as part of a "conciliazione" (conciliation) in a concordat called the Lateran Treaty to improve Italy's official relations with the Church. The Lateran Treaty is one of the Lateran Pacts of 1929 or Lateran Accords, three agreements made in 1929 between the Kingdom of Italy and the Holy The negotiations however were initially tense: the Vatican and the Fascist regime engaged in bitter arguments over what such a pact would mean and how it should be interpreted.  Giovanni Montini (the future Pope Paul VI), who was involved with pro-Catholic politics in Italy, questioned the value of the concordat in ensuring Vatican sovereignty, once saying "If the liberty of the Pope cannot be guaranteed by the strong faith of a free people, and especially by the Italian people, then no territory and no treaty will be able to do so. Pope ". 
The Fascist regime nevertheless proceeded with its intent to resolve the problem of Vatican sovereignty. A plebscite was held in March 1929 in which Italians were asked to vote on the government's proposed recognition of Vatican sovereignty. Those who opposed the concordat felt intimidated by the Fascist regime: the Catholic Action party (Azione Cattolica) instructed Italian Catholics to vote for Fascist candidates to represent them, Mussolini claimed that "no" votes were of those ". The Azione Cattolica Italiana, or Azione Cattolica ( Catholic Action) for short is a widespread lay Roman Catholic association in Italy . . few ill-advised anti-clericals who refuse to accept the Lateran Pacts".  In the French newspaper Le Monde, Guido Miglioni spoke of the attitude of the Fascist regime and what he saw was the nature of the Lateran pact: "These two years have witnessed the gradual but inexorable submission of the Pope to the demands of the Regime" Despite opposition to the nature of the negotiations, many Italians feared that a "no" vote would incite Fascist reprisals and attacks on the individuals who opposed the concordat. Le Monde (The World is a When the plebiscite was held, 8. 63 million Italians or 90 per cent of the registered electorate voted.  Of this number, only 135,761 voted "no".  The Lateran Treaty was signed and the Vatican's sovereignty was recognized. Despite earlier troubles, relations between the Church and the regime and moreover Italy itself, improved significantly. The Lateran Treaty remains in place to this day.
In 1933, Italy made multiple technological achievements. The Fascist government spent large sums of money on technological projects such as the construction of the new Italian ocean liner SS Rex which in 1933 made a transatlantic sea crossing record of four days. History Following North German Lloyd 's successful capture of the Blue Riband with its and duo of ocean liners the Rex was intended to be Italy's effort to  as well as funding the development of the Macchi M.C.72 seaplane which became the world's fastest seaplane in 1933 and retained the title in 1934. WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout A seaplane is a Fixed-wing aircraft capable of taking off and landing (alighting on water In 1933, Fascist government member Italo Balbo, who was also an aviator made a transatlantic flight in a flying boat to Chicago for the World's Fair called the Century of Progress. Italo Balbo ( 5 June 1896 - 28 June 1940) was an Italian Blackshirt ( Camicie Nere, or CCNN leader Expo (short for "exposition" and also known as World Fair and World's Fair) is the name given to various large public exhibitions held since the A Century of Progress International Exposition was the name of a World's Fair held in Chicago, Illinois from 1933 to 1934 to celebrate The flight symbolized the power of Fascist leadership and the industrial and technological progress the state had made under Fascist direction.
On the issue of anti-Semitism, the Fascists were divided on what to do, especially with the rise of Adolf Hitler in Germany. Hi and welcome to Wikipedia! Please understand that this article is frequently vandalized and vandalism is reverted immediately A number of Fascist members were Jewish, and Mussolini himself did not personally believe in anti-Semitism, but to appease Hitler, anti-Semitism within the Fascist party steadily increased. In 1936, Mussolini made his first written denounciation of Jews by claiming that anti-Semitism had only arisen because Jews had become too predominant in the positions of power of countries and claimed that Jews were a "ferocious" tribe who sought to "totally banish" Christians from public life.  In 1937, Fascist member Paolo Orano criticized the Zionist movement as being part of British foreign policy which designed to secure British hold of the area without respecting the Christian and Muslim presence in Palestine. History of Zionism|Timeline of Zionism|World Zionist Organization|Zionist political violence Zionism is an international political movement that originally supported the Palestine is a name which has been widely used since Roman times to refer to the region between the Mediterranean Sea and the Jordan River. On the matter of Jewish Italians, Orano said that they "should concern themselves with nothing more than their religion" and not bother boasting of being patriotic Italians.  In 1938 under pressure from Nazi Germany, Mussolini made the regime adopt a policy of anti-Semitism, which was extremely unpopular in Italy and in the Fascist Party itself. Antisemitism (alternatively spelled anti-semitism or anti-Semitism; also rarely known as judeophobia) is the Prejudice against or hostility As a result of the laws, the Fascist regime lost its propaganda director, Margherita Sarfatti, who was Jewish and had been Mussolini's mistress. Margherita Sarfatti ( April 8, 1880 &mdash October 30, 1961) was an Italian journalist Art critic, patron collector A minority of Fascists were pleased with anti-Semitic policy such as Roberto Farinacci who claimed that Jews through intrigue had taken control key positions of finance, business and schools and he noted that Jews sympathized with Ethiopia during Italy's war with it and that Jews had sympathized with Republican Spain during the Spanish Civil War. Roberto Farinacci ( October 16 1892 &mdash April 28 1945) was a leading Italian Fascist politician and important The Second Spanish Republic was the system of government in Spain between April 14 1931, when King Alfonso XIII left the country The Spanish Civil War was a major conflict in Spain that started after an attempted Coup d'état committed by parts of the army against the government of  In its alliance with Nazi Germany, the Fascist regime aided the Nazis in the deportation of Jews to concentration camps, labour camps, and extermination camps during the Holocaust. Internment is the imprisonment or confinement of people commonly in large groups without trial The Holocaust (from the Greek el ''ὁλόκαυστον'' (el-Latn holókauston holos, "completely" and kaustos, "burnt" also known as In 1938, Farinacci became the minister in charge of culture, and adopted racial laws designed to prevent racial intermixing which included anti-Semitism. Italy itself established a number of concentration and internment camps across its held territories, but these camps were not like those of Nazi Germany, as families were allowed to stay together and there no campaign of deliberate mass murder as what was happening in German held territory. 
The Fascist government endorsed a stringent education policy in Italy aiming at eliminating illiteracy which was a serious problem in Italy at the time and improving loyalty of Italians to the state.  To reduce drop-outs, the government changed the minimum age of leaving school from twelve to fourteen and strictly enforced attendance.  The Fascist government's first minister of education from 1922 to 1924, Giovanni Gentile recommended that education policy should focus on indoctrination of students into Fascism, and to educate youth to respect and be obedient to authority. Giovanni Gentile (dʒoˈvɑnni dʒenˈtile May 30, 1875 April 15, 1944) was an Italian neo- Hegelian Idealist  In 1929, education policy took a major step towards being completely taken over by the agenda of indoctrination.  In that year, the Fascist government took control of the authorization of all textbooks, all secondary school teachers were required to take an oath of loyalty to Fascism, and children began to be taught that they owed the same loyalty to Fascism as they did to God.  In 1933, all university teachers were required to be members of the National Fascist Party.  From 1930s to 1940s, Italy's education focused on the history of Italy displaying Italy as a force of civilization during the Roman era, displaying the rebirth of Italian nationalism and the struggle for Italian independence and unity during the Risorgimento. Ancient Rome was a Civilization that grew out of a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 10th century BC Italian Unification ( Italian: il Risorgimento, or "The Resurgence" was the political and social movement that unified different states of the Italian  In late 1930s, the Fascist government copied Nazi Germany's education system on the issue of physical fitness, and began an agenda that demanded that Italians become physically healthy. Nazi Germany and the Third Reich are the common English names for Germany under the regime of Adolf Hitler and the National Socialist German Workers 
A major success in social policy in Fascist Italy was the creation of the Opera Nazionale Dopolavoro (OND) or "National After-work Program" in 1925. The Opera Nazionale Dopolavoro ( OND) was the Italian Fascist leisure and recreational organization The OND was the state's largest recreational organizations for adults.  The Dopolavoro was so popular that, by the 1930s, all towns in Italy had a Dopolavoro clubhouse and the Dopolavoro was responsible for establishing and maintaining 11,000 sports grounds, over 6,400 libraries, 800 movie houses, 1,200 theatres, and over 2,000 orchestras.  Membership in the Dopolavoro was voluntary but had high participation because of its nonpolitical nature.  In the 1930s under the direction of Achille Starace the OND became primarily recreational, concentrating on sports and other outings. Achille Starace ( August 18 1889 &mdash April 29 1945) was a prominent leader of Fascist Italy prior to and during World It is estimated that by 1936 the OND had organized 80% of salaried workers.  Nearly 40% of the industrial workforce had been recruited into the Dopolavoro by 1939 and the sports activities proved popular with large numbers of workers. The OND had the largest membership of any of the mass Fascist organizations in Italy.  The enormous success of the Dopolavoro in Fascist Italy was the key factor in Nazi Germany creating its own version of the Dopolavoro, the Kraft durch Freude (KdF) or "Strength through Joy" program, which was even more successful than the Dopolavoro. Kraft durch Freude ( KdF, literally "Strength through Joy" was a large state-controlled Leisure organization in the Third Reich, a part of the 
For security of the regime, Mussolini advocated complete state authority, and created the Milizia Volontaria per la Sicurezza Nazionale or National Security Volunteer Militia in 1923, which are commonly referred to as the Blackshirts for the colour of their uniforms. For other uses and meanings see Blackshirts (disambiguation. The Blackshirts ( Italian: camicie nere, Year 1923 ( MCMXXIII) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Most of the Blackshirts were members from the Fasci di Combattimento. A secret police force called the Organizzazione di Vigilanza Repressione dell'Antifascismo (Organisation for Vigilance and Repression of Anti-Fascism) or OVRA was created in 1927. The Organizzazione per la Vigilanza e la Repressione dell'Antifascismo ( OVRA; Italian for " Organisation for Vigilance and Repression of Anti-Fascism It was led by Arturo Bocchini to crack down on opponents of the regime and Mussolini (there had been several near-miss assassination attempts on Mussolini's life in his early years in power). Arturo Bocchini ( 12 February 1880 - 20 November 1940) was head of the Italian police ( Polizia di Stato) from 1927 under This force was effective, but unlike the Schutzstaffel (SS) in Nazi Germany or the NKVD of the Soviet Union, the OVRA caused far fewer deaths of political opponents. The ( German for "Protective Squadron" abbreviated SS - or ( Runic)- was a major Nazi organization under Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Germany and the Third Reich are the common English names for Germany under the regime of Adolf Hitler and the National Socialist German Workers The NKVD ( НКВД, ru Народный Комиссариат Внутренних Дел ''Narodnyy Komissariat Vnutrennikh Del'') or People's Commissariat The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 However Fascists methods of repression were cruel which included physically forcing opponents of Fascism to swallow castor oil which would cause severe diarrhea and dehydration, leaving the victim in a painful and physically debilitated state which would sometimes would result in death. Castor oil is a Vegetable oil obtained from the Castor bean (technically castor seed as the castor plant Ricinus communis, is not a member of  
To combat organized crime, especially the Mafia in Sicily and other parts of southern Italy, the Fascists gave special powers in 1925 to Cesare Mori, the prefect of Palermo. The Mafia (also known as Cosa Nostra) is a Sicilian Criminal Secret society which is believed to have first developed in the mid-19th century Sicily ( Italian and Sicilian: Sicilia) is an autonomous region of Italy. Cesare Mori ( Pavia, December 22, 1871 – Udine, July 6, 1942) was a " prefetto " ( Prefect Palermo ( Sicilian: Palermu, Greek: Panormus, al-Madinah during Muslim rule is a historic City in These powers gave him the ability to prosecute the Mafia, forcing many Mafiosi to flee abroad (many to the United States) or risk being jailed. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the  Mori was fired however, when he began to investigate Mafia links within the Fascist regime. He was removed from his position in 1929, and the Fascist regime declared that the threat of the Mafia had been eliminated. Mori's actions weakened the Mafia, but did not destroy them. From 1929 to 1943, the Fascist regime completely abandoned its previously aggressive measures against the Mafia, and the Mafiosi were left relatively undisturbed. 
Mussolini and the Fascist Party promised Italians a new economic system called corporatism. Historically corporatism (corporativismo refers to a political or Economic system in which power is held by civic assemblies that represent Economic Corporatism was the fusion of capitalism and socialism into a new economic system that would retain class hierarchy and class divisions while allowing workers to be able to negotiate on equal grounds with business owners on wages, hours of work, working conditions, etc.
In 1935, the Doctrine of Fascism was published under Mussolini's name, although it was most likely written by Giovanni Gentile. " The Doctrine of Fascism " (" La dottrina del fascismo " is a seminal essay signed by Benito Mussolini and officially attributed to him although Giovanni Gentile (dʒoˈvɑnni dʒenˈtile May 30, 1875 April 15, 1944) was an Italian neo- Hegelian Idealist It described the role of the state in the economy under corporatism. By this time, Fascism had been drawn more towards the support of market forces being dominant over state intervention.
The corporate State considers that private enterprise in the sphere of production is the most effective and useful instrument in the interest of the nation. In view of the fact that private organisation of production is a function of national concern, the organiser of the enterprise is responsible to the State for the direction given to production.
State intervention in economic production arises only when private initiative is lacking or insufficient, or when the political interests of the State are involved. This intervention may take the form of control, assistance or direct management. 
Fascists claimed that this system would be egalitarian and traditional at the same time. The economic policy of corporatism quickly faltered: the left-wing elements of the Fascist manifesto were opposed by industrialists and landowners who supported the party because it pledged to defend Italy from communism and socialism. As a result, corporatist policy became dominated by the industries. Throughout the Mussolini era, economic legislation mostly favoured the wealthy industrial and agrarian classes by allowing privatization, liberalization of rent laws and dismantling of non-Fascist unions. While the Fascist unions could not protect workers from all economic consequences, they were responsible for the handling of social security benefits, claims for severance pay, and could sometimes negotiate contracts that benefited workers. 
After the Great Depression hit the world economy in 1929, the Fascist regime followed other nations in enacting protectionist tariffs and attempted to set direction for the economy. In the 1930s, the government increased wheat production, and made Italy self-sufficient for wheat, ending imports of wheat from Canada and the United States. Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page The United States of America —commonly referred to as the  However the transfer of agricultural land to wheat production reduced the production of vegetables and fruit.  Despite improving production for wheat, the situation for peasants themselves did not improve. 0. 5% of the Italian population (usually wealthy), owned 42 percent of all agricultural land in Italy, and income for peasants did not increase while taxes did increase.  The Depression caused unemployment to rise from 300,000 to 1 million in 1933.  It also caused a 10 percent drop in real income and a fall in exports. Italy fared better than most western nations during the Depression: its welfare services did reduce the impact of the Depression. Its industrial growth from 1913 to 1938 was even greater than that of Germany for the same time period. Only the United Kingdom and the Scandinavian nations had a higher industrial growth during that period. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located 
Benito Mussolini and the Fascist Party promised to bring Italy back as a Great Power in Europe, making it a "New Roman Empire". A great power is a Nation or State that has the ability to exert its influence on a global scale Mussolini promised that Italy would hold power over the Mediterranean Sea. In propaganda, Fascists used the ancient Roman "Mare Nostrum" (Latin for "Our Sea") to describe the Mediterranean. Mare Nostrum ( Latin for Our Sea) was a Roman name for the Mediterranean Sea. Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. The Fascist regime increased funding and attention to military projects, and began plans to create an Italian Empire in Africa, and reclaim dominance in the Mediterranean and Adriatic Sea. The Italian colonial empire was created after the Kingdom of Italy joined other European powers in establishing colonies overseas during the " Scramble for Africa The Fascists considered wars to conquer Dalmatia, Albania and Greece for the Italian Empire. Dalmatia ( Croatian: Dalmacija, see names in other languages) is a region on the eastern coast of the Adriatic Sea, situated mostly in modern This article is about the country in southern Europe For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Albania topics. Greece (Ελλάδα transliterated: Elláda, historically, Ellás,) officially the Hellenic Republic (Ελληνική Δημοκρατία
Colonial efforts in Africa began in the 1920s, as civil war plagued the colony of Italian Libya, as the Arab population there refused to accept Italian colonial rule. Italian Libya was a unified colony of Italian North Africa ( Africa Settentrionale Italiana, or ASI established in 1934 in what represents present-day Libya Mussolini sent [[Marshal Rodolfo Graziani to lead a punitive pacification campaign against the Arab nationalists. Rodolfo Graziani Marchese di Neghelli ( August 11, 1882 &mdash January 11, 1955) was an officer in the Italian Royal Extrajudicial punishment is Punishment by the state or some other official authority without the permission of a Court or legal authority Omar Mukhtar, led the Arab resistance movement. Omar Mukhtar ( Arabic عمر المختار ‘Umar Al-Mokhtār) ( 1862 - September 16, 1931) was from the tribe After a much-disputed truce on 3 January 1928, the Fascist policy in Libya increased in brutality. Events 1431 - Joan of Arc is handed over to the Bishop Pierre Cauchon. Year 1928 ( MCMXXVIII) was a Leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. A barbed wire fence was built from the Mediterranean to the oasis of Al-Jaghbub to sever lines critical to the resistance. The Frontier Wire was 271 kilometer obstacle in Libya, near the border of Egypt, running from El Ramleh (located in the Gulf of Sollum between Bardia and Al-Jaghbub is a remote desert oasis in eastern Libyan Desert. Soon afterwards, the colonial administration began the wholesale deportation of the people of the Jebel Akhdar to deny the rebels the support of the local population. Jebel Akhdar or Djebel Akhdar may be Jebel Akhdar (Libya, wooded highland area Jebel Akhdar (Oman The forced migration of more than 100,000 people ended in concentration camps in Suluq and Al-'Aghela where tens of thousands died in squalid conditions. It's estimated that the number of Libyans who died - killed either through combat or starvation and disease - is at a minimum of 80,000 or even up to half of the Cyrenaican population. After Al-Mukhtar's capture September 15, 1931 and his execution in Benghazi, the resistance petered out. Limited resistance to the Italian occupation crystallized round the person of Sheik Idris, the Emir of Cyrenaica. Idris I, GBE (إدريس الأول born Sayyid Muhammad Idris bin Sayyid Muhammad al-Mahdi al-Senussi, ( March 12, 1889 - May 25,
Negotiations occured with the British government on expanding the borders of the colony of Libya. The first negotiations began in 1925 to define the border between Libya and British-held Egypt. This article is about the country of Egypt For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Egypt topics. These negotiations resulted in Italy gaining previously undefined territory.  In 1934, once again the Italian government requested more territory for Libya from British-held Sudan. Sudan (officially the Republic of Sudan) ( السودان al-Sūdān is a country in northeastern Africa. Britain allowed Italy to gain some territory from Sudan to add to Libya.  These concessions were probably allowed because of the relatively good relations between Italy and Britain prior to 1935.
In 1935, Mussolini believed that the time was right for Italy to invade Ethiopia (a. See also First Italo-Ethiopian War. The Second Italo–Abyssinian War (also referred to as the Second Italo-Ethiopian War) was a The Ethiopian Empire, also known as Abyssinia, was in what is now Ethiopia and Eritrea. k. a. Abyssinia) to make it a colony. As a result, the Second Italo-Abyssinian War) erupted. See also First Italo-Ethiopian War. The Second Italo–Abyssinian War (also referred to as the Second Italo-Ethiopian War) was a Italy invaded Ethiopia from the Italian colonies of Eritrea and Italian Somaliland. Eritrea () ( Ge'ez: ኤርትራ ʾErtrā, Arabic: إرتريا Iritriya) officially the State of Eritrea, is a country in Italian Somalia (also known as Italian Somaliland) was a colony of the Kingdom of Italy ( Regno d'Italia) from the 1880s until 1942 in the territory Italy committed atrocities against Ethiopians during the war, including the use of aircraft to drop poison gas on the defending Ethiopian soldiers. Chemical warfare involves using the toxic properties of Chemical substances to kill injure or incapacitate an enemy. Ethiopia surrendered in 1936, completing Italy's revenge for its failed colonial conquest of the 1880s. King Victor Emmanuel III was soon proclaimed Emperor of Abyssinia. Victor Emmanuel III (Vittorio Emanuele III 11 November, 1869 – 28 December, 1947) was a member of the House of Savoy and The following is a list of rulers and heads of state of Ethiopia since the Zagwe dynasty. The international consequences for Italy's belligerence resulted in its isolation at the League of Nations. The League of Nations was an International organization founded as a result of the Treaty of Versailles in 1919–1920 France and Britain quickly abandoned their trust of Mussolini. The only nation to back Italy's aggression was Nazi Germany.
After pressure was placed on Italy by Nazi Germany to promote a racist agenda, the Fascist regime moved away from its previous promotion of colonialism based on the spread of Italian culture to a directly racist colonial agenda. The Fascist regime declared that it would promote mass Italian settlements in the colonies that would in the Fascist regime's terms, "create in the heart of the African continent a powerful and homogeneous nucleus of whites strong enough to draw those populations within our economic orbit and our Roman and Fascist civilization.  Fascist rule in its Italian colonies differed from region to region. Rule in Italian East Africa (Ethiopia, Eritrea, and Italian Somaliland) was harsh for the native peoples as Fascist policy sought to destroy native culture. Italian East Africa ( Italian: Africa Orientale Italiana, or AOI was a short-lived (1936-1941 Italian Colony in Africa consisting of In February 1937, Rodolfo Graziani ordered Italian soldiers to pillage native settlements in Addis Ababa, which resulted in hundreds of Ethiopians being killed and their homes being burned to the ground. Rodolfo Graziani Marchese di Neghelli ( August 11, 1882 &mdash January 11, 1955) was an officer in the Italian Royal Addis Ababa (sometimes spelled Addis Abeba, the spelling used by the official Ethiopian Mapping Authority Amharic NOTE This intro is the result of careful NPOV work Please do not make potentially controversial edits to it without first discussing on the talk page  After the occupation of Ethiopia, the Fascist regime endorsed racial segregation to reduce the number of mixed offspring in Italian colonies which they claimed would "pollute" the Italian race. NOTE This intro is the result of careful NPOV work Please do not make potentially controversial edits to it without first discussing on the talk page  Marital and sexual relationships between Italians and Africans in its colonies were made a criminal offense when the Fascist regime implemented decree-law No. 880 of April 19, 1937 which gave sentences of one to five years imprisonment to Italians caught in such relationships. Events 1012 - Martyrdom of Alphege in Greenwich London. 1529 - At the Second Diet of Speyer Year 1937 ( MCMXXXVII) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar.  The law did not give any sentences to native Africans, as the Fascist government claimed that only those Italians were to blame for damaging the prestige of their race.  Despite racist language used in some propaganda, the Fascist regime accepted recruitment of native Africans who wanted to join Italy's colonial armed forces and native African colonial recruits were displayed in propaganda.  In Italian Libya, Mussolini downplayed racist policies as he attempted to earn the trust of Arab leaders there. Italian Libya was a unified colony of Italian North Africa ( Africa Settentrionale Italiana, or ASI established in 1934 in what represents present-day Libya Individual freedom, inviolability of home and property, right to join the military or civil administrations, and the right to freely pursue a career or employment were guaranteed to Libyans by December 1934. Libya ( ليبيا ar-Latn Lībiyā; Libyan vernacular: Lībya; Amazigh:) officially the Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab  In famous trip to Libya in 1937, a propaganda event was created when on March 18 Mussolini posed with Arab dignitaries who gave him an honourary "Sword of Islam" (that had actually been made in Florence) which was to symbolize Mussolini as a protector of the Muslim Arab peoples there. Events 37 - The Roman Senate annuls Tiberius ' will and proclaims Caligula emperor The araB gene Promoter is a bacterial promoter activated by e L-arabinose binding Florence ( Italian: Firenze Florentia and Fiorenza) is the Capital City of the Italian region of Tuscany A Muslim (مسلم pronounced Muslim, not Muzlim) is an adherent of the Religion  In 1939, laws were passed that allowed Muslims to be permitted to join the National Fascist Party and in particular the Muslim Association of the Lictor (Associazione Musulmana del Littorio) for Muslim Libya, and the 1939 reforms allowed the creation of Libyan military units within the Italian army. The National Fascist Party ( Partito Nazionale Fascista; PNF was an Italian party created by Benito Mussolini as the political expression of The Muslim Association of the Lictor ( Associazione Musulmana del Littorio) was created in 1939 as the Muslim branch of the National Fascist Party 
The Fascist regime also engaged in interventionist foreign policy in Europe. In 1923, Italian soldiers captured the Greek island of Corfu as part of the Fascists' plan to eventually take over Greece. Corfu (Κέρκυρα Kérkyra, ˈkʲe̞ɾkʲiɾa Κέρκυρα or Κόρκυρα Corcyra Corfù is a Greek island in the Ionian Sea Greece (Ελλάδα transliterated: Elláda, historically, Ellás,) officially the Hellenic Republic (Ελληνική Δημοκρατία Corfu was later returned to Greece and war between Greece and Italy was avoided. In 1925, Italy forced Albania to become a de facto protectorate which helped Italy's stand against Greek sovereignty. In International law, a protectorate is a autonomous territory that is "protected" by a stronger state or entity hense the protector which engages to protect Corfu was important to Italian imperialism and nationalism due to its presence in the former Republic of Venice which left behind significant Italian cultural monuments and influence, though the Greek population there, especially youth, heavily protested the Italian occupation. The Most Serene Republic of Venice ((Serenìsima Repùblica Vèneta or Repùblica de Venesia Serenissima Repubblica Relations with France were mixed, the Fascist regime consistently had the intention to eventually wage war on France to regain Italian-populated areas of France, but with the rise of Hitler, the Fascists immediately became more concerned of Austria's independence and the potential threat of Germany to Italy, if it demanded the German-populated areas of Tyrol. Tyrol is a region in Western Central Europe, which included the present day Austrian state of Tyrol (consisting of North Tyrol and East Due to concerns of German expansionism, Italy joined the Stresa Front with France and the United Kingdom against Germany which existed from 1935 to 1936. The Stresa Front was an agreement made in Stresa, a town on the banks of Lake Maggiore in Italy between French foreign minister Pierre Laval, British The Fascist regime held negative relations with Yugoslavia, as they long wanted the implosion of Yugoslavia in order to territorially expand and increase Italy's power. Italy pursued espionage in Yugoslavia, as Yugoslav authorities on multiple occasions discovered spy rings in the Italian Embassy in Yugoslavia such as in 1930.  In 1929, the Fascist government accepted Croatian extreme nationalist Ante Pavelić as a political exile to Italy from Yugoslavia. For the vice president of the National assembly of the State of Slovenes Croats and Serbs see Ante Pavelić (1869 Ante Pavelić ( July The Fascists gave Pavelić financial assistance and a training ground in Italy to develop and train his newly formed fascist militia and terrorist group, the Ustaše. For the militiamen of the Military Frontier, see Uskoci The Ustaša - Croatian Revolutionary Movement ( Croatian: This organization later became the ruling force of the Independent State of Croatia, and murdered hundreds of thousands of Serbs, Jews and other minorities during World War II. The Independent State of Croatia ( Croatian: Nezavisna Država Hrvatska, NDH was a Puppet state of the Axis powers. Serbs ( Serbian: Срби Srbi) are a South Slavic people living in the Balkans and Central Europe, mainly in Serbia, PLEASE TAKE NOTE************ World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including  In 1936 in Spain, the Fascist regime made its most significant pre-war military intervention. The Spanish Republic was divided in the Spanish Civil War between the anticlerical socialist Republicans and the Church-supporting, monarchy-backed nationalists led by Francisco Franco under his fascist Falange movement. The Second Spanish Republic was the system of government in Spain between April 14 1931, when King Alfonso XIII left the country The Spanish Civil War was a major conflict in Spain that started after an attempted Coup d'état committed by parts of the army against the government of Anti-clericalism is a historical movement that opposes Religious (generally Catholic institutional power and influence real or alleged in all aspects of public and political Francisco Paulino Hermenegildo Teódulo Franco y Bahamonde (born December 4, 1892 in Ferrol, died November 20, 1975 in Madrid This article is about the Spanish political party For the Lebanese Phalange see the Kataeb Party. Italy sent aircraft, weapons, and a total of over 60,000 troops to aid the Spanish nationalists. The war helped train the Italian military for war and improve relations with the Catholic Church. It was a success that secured Italy's naval access in and out of the Mediterranean to the Atlantic and its ability to pursue its policy of Mare Nostrum without fear of opposition by Spain. Mare Nostrum ( Latin for Our Sea) was a Roman name for the Mediterranean Sea. The other major foreign contributor to the Spanish Civil War was Nazi Germany. This was the first time that Italian and German forces fought together since the Austro-Prussian War in the 1860s. During the 1930s, Italy built many large battleships and other warships to solidify Italy's hold on the Mediterranean.
After Germany annexed Czechoslovakia, Mussolini decided to capture Albania to avoid becoming second-rate member of Axis. Czechoslovakia may also refer to what is now the Czech Republic and Slovakia. This article is about the country in southern Europe For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Albania topics. On April 7, Italy invaded Albania. Events 529 - First draft of Corpus Juris Civilis (a fundamental work in Jurisprudence) is issued by Eastern Roman Emperor The Italian invasion of Albania ( April 7 &ndash April 12, 1939) was a brief military campaign by the Kingdom of Italy against the Albanian After short campaign Albania was occupied, and its parliament crowned Victor Emmanuel III King of Albania. While the medieval Angevin Kingdom of Albania was a monarchy it did not encompass the entirety of the modern state of Albania. The historical justification for the annexation of Albania laid in the ancient history of the Roman Empire in which the region of Albania had been an early conquest for the Romans, even before northern Italy had been taken by Roman forces. The Roman Empire was the post-Republican phase of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial But obviously by the time of annexation, little connection to Italy remained amongst Albanians. } Albanians (Shqiptarët are an Ethnic group and a Nation, in the sense of sharing a common Albanian culture speaking the Albanian language In actuality, the annexation of Albania was far from a military conquest as the country had been a de facto protectorate of Italy since the 1920s and much of its army were commanded by Italian officers sent from Italy and the occupation was not appreciated by King Emmanuel III, who feared that it had isolated Italy even further than its war against Ethiopia. 
When the National Socialist German Workers Party (NSDAP, a. The, officially National Socialist German Workers' Party, ( abbreviated NSDAP) was a Political party in Germany between 1919 and 1945 k. a. Nazi Party) attained power in Germany in 1933, Mussolini and the Fascist regime in public showed approval of Hitler's regime, with Mussolini saying "The victory of Hitler is our victory".  The Fascist regime also spoke of creating an alliance with the new regime in Germany.  In private, Mussolini and the Italian Fascists showed disapproval of the Nazi government despite ideological similarities and Mussolini had a disapproving view of Hitler. The Fascists distrusted Hitler's Pan-German ideas which they saw as a threat to territories in Italy that previously had been part of Austria. Pan-Germanism (Pangermanismus or Alldeutsche Bewegung was a political movement of the 19th century aiming for unity of the German -speaking peoples of Europe Although other Nazis disapproved of Mussolini and Fascist Italy, Hitler had long idolized Mussolini's oratorical and visual persona, and adopted much of the symbolism of the Fascists into the Nazi Party, such as the Roman, straight-armed salute, dramatic oratory, the use of uniformed paramilitaries for political violence, and the use of mass rallies to demonstrate the power of the movement. In 1922 Hitler tried to ask for Mussolini's guidance on how to organize his own version of the March on Rome which would be a "March on Berlin" (which came into being as the failed Beer Hall Putsch in 1923). The March on Rome ( Marcia su Roma) was a Coup d'état by which Mussolini 's National Fascist Party ( Partito Nazionale Fascista The Beer Hall Putsch (also known as the Munich Putsch) was a failed Coup d'état that occurred between the evening of Thursday November 8 Mussolini did not respond to Hitler's requests as he did not have much interest in Hitler's movement and regarded Hitler to be somewhat crazy.  Mussolini did attempt to read Mein Kampf to find out what Hitler's National Socialist movement was but was immediately disappointed, saying that Mein Kampf was "a boring tome that I have never been able to read" and remarked that Hitler's beliefs were "little more than commonplace clichés. Mein Kampf ( English: My Struggle/My Battle) is a book by Adolf Hitler. Nazism, which was a short name for National Socialism (Nationalsozialismus refers primarily to the Ideology and practices of the National Socialist German " While Mussolini like Hitler believed in the cultural and moral superiority of whites over coloured peoples, he opposed Hitler's anti-Semitic beliefs. Antisemitism (alternatively spelled anti-semitism or anti-Semitism; also rarely known as judeophobia) is the Prejudice against or hostility A number of Fascists were Jewish, including Mussolini's mistress Margherita Sarfatti, the director of Fascist art and propaganda and there was little support amongst Italians for anti-Semitism. Margherita Sarfatti ( April 8, 1880 &mdash October 30, 1961) was an Italian journalist Art critic, patron collector Mussolini also did not evaluate race as being a precursor of superiority, but rather culture.
Hitler and the Nazis continued to try to woe Mussolini to their cause, and eventually Mussolini gave financial assistance to the Nazi party and allowed Nazi paramilitaries to train in Italy in the belief that despite differences, a fascist regime in Germany could be beneficial to Italy.  Suspicion of the Nazis increased after 1933, Mussolini sought to insure that Nazi Germany would not become the dominant fascist state in Europe. To do this, Mussolini opposed German efforts to annex Austria after the assassination of fascist Austrian President Engelbert Dollfuss in 1934, and promised the Austrians military support if Germany were to interfere. This promise helped save Austria from annexation in 1934.
Public appearances and propaganda constantly portrayed the closeness of Mussolini and Hitler and the similarities between Italian Fascism and German National Socialism. Fascism is a totalitarian nationalist and corporatist ideology Nazism, which was a short name for National Socialism (Nationalsozialismus refers primarily to the Ideology and practices of the National Socialist German While both ideologies had significant similarities, the two factions were suspicious of each other, and both leaders were in competition for world influence. Hitler and Mussolini first met in June 1934, as the issue of Austrian independence was in crisis. In private, after the visit in 1934, Mussolini said that Hitler was just "a silly little monkey". 
After Italy became isolated in 1936, the government had little choice but to work with Germany to regain a stable bargaining position in international affairs and reluctantly abandoned its support of Austrian independence from Germany. With no significant opposition from Italy, Hitler proceeded with Anschluß, the annexation of Austria in 1938. The ( German: "link-up" also known as the, was the 1938 Annexation of Austria into Greater Germany by the Nazi Mussolini was personally bitter over the move, and in private asked the Pope to excommunicate Hitler. History See also History of the Papacy Catholics recognize the Pope as a successor to Saint Peter, who Jesus named as the "shepherd" and  Germany later claimed the Sudetenland, a province of Czechoslovakia inhabited mostly by Germans. Sudetenland ( Czech and Polish: Sudety) is the German name used in English in the first half of the 20th century for the western regions of Czechoslovakia may also refer to what is now the Czech Republic and Slovakia. The German people (Deutsche are an Ethnic group, in the sense of sharing a common German culture, descent and speaking the German language as Mussolini felt he had little choice but to help Germany to avoid isolation. With the annexation of Austria by Germany in 1938, the Fascist regime began to be concerned about the majority ethnic German population in southern Tyrol, and whether they would want to join a Greater Germany. Großdeutschland ( German for "Greater Germany" or "Large Germany" is a term referring to the concept of one German Nation-state The Fascists were also concerned about whether Italy should follow Nazi anti-Semitic policies in order to gain favour from those Nazis who had mixed feelings about Italy as an ally. In 1938, Mussolini pressured fellow Fascist members to support the enacting of anti-Semitic policies, but this was not well taken, as a number of Fascists were Jewish and anti-Semitism was not an active political concept in Italy. Nevertheless, Mussolini forced through anti-Semitic legislation even while his own son-in-law and prominent Fascist Count Galeazzo Ciano personally condemned such laws. A count is a Nobleman in European countries The word count comes from French comte, itself from Latin Gian Galeazzo Ciano Count of Cortellazzo and Buccari ( March 18, 1903 – January 11, 1944) was Italian Minister of Foreign Affairs In turn for enacting the extremely unpopular anti-Semitic laws, Mussolini and the Fascist government demanded a concession from Hitler and the Nazis. In 1939 the Fascists demanded from Hitler that his government willingly accept the Italian government's plan to have all Germans in south Tyrol either leave Italy or be forced to accept Italianization. Hitler agreed and thus the threat to Italy from the south Tyrol Germans was neutralized.
As war approached in 1939, the Fascist regime stepped up an aggressive press campaign against France claiming that Italian people were suffering in France.  This was important to the alliance as both regimes mutually had claims on France, Germany on German-populated Alsace-Lorraine and Italy on the mixed Italian and French populated Savoy and Corsica. Alsace-Lorraine (Reichsland Elsaß-Lothringen generally Elsass - Lothringen) was a territorial entity created by the German Empire in 1871 For the two French départements of the region of Savoy see Savoie and Haute-Savoie Savoy ( French Corsica (Corse Corsican and Italian: Corsica) is the fourth largest island in the Mediterranean Sea (after Sicily In May 1939, a formal alliance was organized. The alliance was known as the Pact of Steel which obliged Italy to fight with Germany if war broke out against Germany. The Pact of Steel, known formally as the Pact of Friendship and Alliance between Germany and Italy, was an agreement between Fascist Mussolini felt obliged to sign the pact in spite of his own concerns that Italy could not fight a war in the near future. This obligation grew from his promises to Italians that he would build an empire for them and from his personal desire to not allow Hitler to become the dominant leader in Europe.  Mussolini was repulsed by the Molotov-Ribentrop agreement where Germany and the Soviet Union agreed to partition Poland into German and Soviet zones for an impending invasion. The Fascist government saw this as a betrayal of the Anti-Comintern Pact, but decided to remain officially silent. The Anti-Comintern Pact was concluded between Nazi Germany and the Empire of Japan (later to be joined by other countries on November 25, 1936 
When Germany invaded Poland on 1 September 1939 beginning World war II, Italy did not initially join the German side. The Invasion of Poland (1939 precipitated World War II. It was carried out by Nazi Germany, the Soviet Union, and a small German-allied Events 462 - Possible start of first Byzantine indiction cycle. Year 1939 ( MCMXXXIX) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including Italy waited until the threat of France was dealt with during the Battle of France before declaring war on Britain and France on 10 June 1940. The French Third Republic (in French, La Troisième République, sometimes written as La IIIe In World War II, the Battle of France, also known as the Fall of France, was the German invasion of France and the Low Countries Events 1190 - Third Crusade: Frederick I Barbarossa drowns in the Sally River while leading an army to Jerusalem Year 1940 ( MCMXL) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Both Germany and Italy did not expect a war to come about so early. This was especially damaging to Italy which required more time to fully re-arm and organize its industries for war. From the start, Italy was largely a subordinate partner to Germany during the war.
After Germany invaded Poland in 1939, Mussolini publicly declared on September 24, 1939, that Italy had the choice of entering the war or to remain neutral which would cause the country to lose its national dignity. Nevertheless, despite his aggressive posture, Mussolini kept Italy out of the conflict for many months. Mussolini told his son in law, Count Ciano, that he was personally jealous over Hitler's accomplishments and hoped that Hitler's prowess would be slowed down by Allied counterattack.  Mussolini went as far to lessen Germany's successes in Europe by giving advanced notice to Belgium and the Netherlands of an imminent German invasion, as had been informed to Italy by Germany. The Kingdom of Belgium is a Country in northwest Europe. It is a founding member of the European Union and hosts its headquarters as well as those The Netherlands ( Dutch:, ˈnedərlɑnt is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which consists of the Netherlands the Netherlands 
In drawing out war plans, Mussolini and the Fascist regime decided that Italy would aim to annex large portions of Africa and the Middle East to be included in its colonial empire. Hesitance remained from the King and military commander Pietro Badoglio who warned Mussolini that Italy had too few tanks, armoured vehicles, and aircraft available to be able to carry out a long-term war and Badoglio told Mussolini "It is suicide" for Italy to get involved in the European conflict. Pietro Badoglio 1st Duke of Addis Abeba ( 28 September 1871 &ndash 1 November 1956) was an Italian soldier and politician  Mussolini and the Fascist regime took the advice to a degree and waited as France was invaded by Germany before deciding to get involved.
As France collapsed under the German Blitzkrieg, Italy declared war on France, bringing it into conflict with the other Allied powers and fulfilling its obligations of the Pact of Steel. Blitzkrieg (German for "lightning war" is a popular name for an Offensive operational-level Military doctrine which involves an initial Italy hoped to quickly conquer Savoy, Nice,Corsica, and the African colony of Tunisia from the French, but this was quickly stopped when Germany signed an armistice with the French commander Philippe Petain who established the puppet state of Vichy France which retained control over Savoy, Nice, Corsica, and Tunisia. For the two French départements of the region of Savoy see Savoie and Haute-Savoie Savoy ( French Nice (nis Niçard Occitan: Niça norm or Nissa, Italian: Nizza or Nizza Marittima, Greek Corsica (Corse Corsican and Italian: Corsica) is the fourth largest island in the Mediterranean Sea (after Sicily Tunisia (تونس Tūnis officially the Tunisian Republic ( is a country located in North Africa. Henri Philippe Benoni Omer Joseph Pétain (24 April 1856 – 23 July 1951 generally known as Philippe Pétain or Marshal Pétain ( Maréchal Pétain) Vichy France, or the Vichy regime are the common terms used to describe the government of France from July 1940 to August 1944 This decision by Germany angered the Fascist regime. 
The one Italian strength that concerned the Allies was the Italian Royal Navy (Regia Marina), the fourth largest navy in the world at the time. The Regia Marina ( Italian Royal Navy) dates from the proclamation of the Kingdom of Italy in 1861 after Italian unification. In 1940, the British Royal Navy launched a surprise air attack on the Italian fleet at Taranto which crippled Italy's major warships. The Royal Navy of the United Kingdom is the oldest of the British armed services (and is therefore known as the Senior Service) The naval Battle of Taranto took place on the night of 11 November 1940 &ndash 12 November 1940 during World War II Although the Italian fleet did not inflict serious damage as was feared, it did keep significant British Commonwealth naval forces in the Mediterranean Sea. This fleet had to fight the Italian fleet to keep British Commonwealth forces in Egypt and the Middle East from being cut off from Britain. Over time, the Allied navies inflicted serious damage to the Italian fleet, and ruined Italy's one advantage to Germany.
Continuing indications of Italy's subordinate nature to Germany arose during the Greco-Italian War, which was disastrous for the poorly armed Italian Army. The Greco-Italian War ( Ελληνοϊταλικός Πόλεμος Ellēnoїtalikós Pólemos or Πόλεμος Mussolini had intended the war with Greece to prove to Germany that Italy was no minor power in the alliance, but a capable empire which could hold its own weight. Mussolini boasted to his government that he would even resign from being Italian if anyone found fighting the Greeks to be difficult.  Within days of invading Greece, the Greek army pushed the Italian army back into Albania and humiliatingly put Italy on the defensive.  Hitler and the German government were frustrated with Italy's failing campaigns, but so was Mussolini. Mussolini in private angrily accused Italians on the battlefield of becoming "overcome with a crisis of artistic sentimentalism and throw in the towel. "
To gain back ground in Greece, Germany reluctantly began a Balkans Campaign alongside Italy which resulted also in the destruction of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia in 1941 and the ceding of Dalmatia to Italy. The Royal Air Force ( Regia Aeronautica) was the name of the Italian Air Force established as an independent service from 1923 until the Libya ( ليبيا ar-Latn Lībiyā; Libyan vernacular: Lībya; Amazigh:) officially the Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab The Balkans Campaign was the Axis Powers ' invasion of Greece and Yugoslavia during World War II. The Kingdom of Yugoslavia (Serbo-Croato-Slovene ie Serbo-Croatian, Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian, Slovene: Kraljevina Jugoslavija Mussolini and Hitler compensated Croatian nationalists by endorsing the creation of the Independent State of Croatia under the extreme nationalist Ustaše. The Independent State of Croatia ( Croatian: Nezavisna Država Hrvatska, NDH was a Puppet state of the Axis powers. For the militiamen of the Military Frontier, see Uskoci The Ustaša - Croatian Revolutionary Movement ( Croatian: In order to receive support the support of Italy, the Ustaše agreed to concede the main central portion of Dalmatia as well as various Adriatic islands to Italy as Dalmatia held a significant number of Italians and the ceding of Adriatic islands by Croatia was a minimal loss for their government as in exchange for Croatia was allowed to annex all of modern-day Bosnia and Herzegovina and to persecute the Serb population there to make way for future Croat habitation there. Dalmatia ( Croatian: Dalmacija, see names in other languages) is a region on the eastern coast of the Adriatic Sea, situated mostly in modern Bosnia and Herzegovina ( Latin script: Bosna i Hercegovina, Cyrillic script: Босна и Херцеговина is a country on the Balkan Officially, Croatia was a kingdom and an Italian protectorate, ruled by Italian House of Savoy member Tomislav II of Croatia, however he never personally set foot on Croatian soil, and the government was run by Ante Pavelić, the leader of the Ustaše. The House of Savoy (Casa Savoia was formed in the early eleventh century in the historical Savoy region Early life Aimone d'Aosta was born in Turin. He was the second son of Prince Emanuele Filiberto 2nd Duke of Aosta (son of Amadeus I of Spain For the vice president of the National assembly of the State of Slovenes Croats and Serbs see Ante Pavelić (1869 Ante Pavelić ( July Italy did however hold military control across all of Croatia's coast, which combined with Italian control of Albania and Montenegro, gave Italy complete control of the Adriatic Sea, thus completing a key part of the Mare Nostrum policy of the Fascists. Mare Nostrum ( Latin for Our Sea) was a Roman name for the Mediterranean Sea. The Ustaše movement proved valuable to Italy and Germany as a means to counter Royalist Chetnik guerrillas and the communist Yugoslav Partisans under Josip Broz Tito who opposed the occupation of Yugoslavia. The Chetnik movement or the Chetniks ( Serbian: Četnici, Cyrillic script: Четници were a Serbian -nationalist/ royalist The Yugoslav Partisans, or simply the Partisans, ( Serbo-Croatian, Croatian, Serbian, Macedonian, Slovene: Partizani
In 1940, Italy invaded Egypt and was soon driven far back into Libya by British Commonwealth forces. The Kingdom of Egypt ( المملكة المصرية) was the first modern Egyptian state, lasting from 1922 to 1953 Libya ( ليبيا ar-Latn Lībiyā; Libyan vernacular: Lībya; Amazigh:) officially the Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab The German army sent a detachment to join the Italian army in Libya to save the colony from the British advance. German army units in the Afrika Korps under General Erwin Rommel were the mainstay in the campaign to push the British out of Libya and into central Egypt in 1941 to 1942. The German Afrikakorps ( German: Deutsches Afrikakorps DAK) was the original German blocking force (Sperrverband = Armored Blocking Force in Libya Erwin Johannes Eugen Rommel ( ( 15 November 1891 – 14 October 1944) (also known as the " Desert Fox " Wüstenfuchs The victories in Egypt were almost entirely credited to Rommel's strategic brilliance. The Italian forces received little media attention in North Africa because of their dependence on the superior weaponry and experience of Rommel's forces. North Africa or Northern Africa is the Northernmost Region of the African Continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan For a time in 1942, Italy from an official standpoint controlled large amounts of territory along the Mediterranean. With the collapse of Vichy France, Italy gained control of Corsica (which had a mixed population of French and Italians), Nice and other portions of southwestern France. Corsica (Corse Corsican and Italian: Corsica) is the fourth largest island in the Mediterranean Sea (after Sicily Italy also oversaw a military occupation over significant sections of southern France. But despite the official territorial achievements, the so called "Italian Empire" was a paper tiger by 1942: it was faltering as its economy failed to adapt to the conditions of war, Italian cities were being bombed by the Allies, and since 1940, Italy had not won a single battle on its own and always required the aid of Germany to do so. Paper tiger is a literal English translation of the Chinese phrase zhǐ lǎohǔ ( meaning something which seems as threatening as a Also, despite Rommel's advances in 1941 and early 1942, the campaign in North Africa began to collapse in late 1942. Complete collapse came in 1943 when German and Italian forces fled North Africa to Sicily. Sicily ( Italian and Sicilian: Sicilia) is an autonomous region of Italy.
By 1943, Italy was failing on every front, by January of the year, half of the Italian forces serving on the Eastern Front had been destroyed,, the African campaign had collapsed, the Balkans remained unstable, and Italians wanted an end to the war.  King Victor Emmanuel III urged Count Ciano to overstep Mussolini to try to begin talks with the Allies.  In mid 1943, the Allies commenced an invasion of Sicily in an effort to knock Italy out of the war and establish a foothold in Europe. The Allies of World War II were the countries officially opposed to the Axis powers during the Second World War. The Allied invasion of Sicily, codenamed Operation Husky, was a major World War II campaign in which the Allies took Sicily from the Axis Allied troops landed in Sicily with little initial opposition from Italian forces. The situation changed as the Allies ran into German forces, who held out for some time before Sicily was taken over by the Allies. The invasion made Mussolini dependent on the German Armed Forces (Wehrmacht) to protect his regime. Wehrmacht (literally "defense force" was the name of the unified Armed forces of Germany from 1935 to 1945 The Allies steadily advanced through Italy with little opposition from demoralized Italian soldiers, while facing serious opposition from German forces.
By 1943, Mussolini had lost the support of the Italian population for having led a disastrous war effort. To the world, Mussolini was viewed as a "sawdust caesar" for having led his country to war with ill-equipped and poorly trained armed forces which failed in battle. The embarrassment of Mussolini and Italy led King Victor Emmanuel III and even members of the Fascist Party to desire Mussolini's removal. Victor Emmanuel III (Vittorio Emanuele III 11 November, 1869 – 28 December, 1947) was a member of the House of Savoy and The first stage of his ouster took place when Fascist Party's Grand Council under the direction of Fascist member Dino Grandi voted to remove Mussolini as the party's leader. Dino Grandi ( June 4 1895 — May 21 1988) Conte ( Count) di Mordano was an Italian Fascist politician minister Days later, Emmanuel III officially removed Mussolini from the post of Prime Minister and replaced him with Marshal Pietro Badoglio. Pietro Badoglio 1st Duke of Addis Abeba ( 28 September 1871 &ndash 1 November 1956) was an Italian soldier and politician Upon resigning, Mussolini was immediately arrested. The new "Badoglio government" stripped away the final elements of Fascist rule by banning the Fascist Party. Italy then signed an armistice with the Allied armed forces and the Kingdom of Italy joined the Allies in their war against Nazi Germany. The Armistice with Italy was an Armistice signed on September 3 and publicly declared on September 8, 1943, during World War II, between The Allies of World War II were the countries officially opposed to the Axis powers during the Second World War. Nazi Germany and the Third Reich are the common English names for Germany under the regime of Adolf Hitler and the National Socialist German Workers The new Royalist government of Victor Emmanuel III and Marshal Badoglio raised an Italian Co-Belligerent Army, an Italian Co-Belligerent Navy, and an Italian Co-Belligerent Air Force. The Italian Co-Belligerent Army ( Esercito Cobelligerante Italiana) or the Army of the South ( Esercito del Sud) was the army of the The Italian Co-Belligerent Navy ( Marina Cobelligerante Italiana) or Navy of the South ( Marina del Sud) or Royal Navy ( Regia The Italian Co-Belligerent Air Force ( Aviazione Cobelligerante Italiana, or ACI) or Air Force of the South ( Aeronautica del Sud The Bagdolio government attempted to establish a non-partisan administration and a number of political parties were allowed to exist again after years of ban under Fascism. These ranged from liberal to communist parties which all were part of the government.  Italians celebrated the fall of Mussolini and as more Italian territory were taken by the Allies, the Allies were welcomed as liberators by Italians, who opposed the German occupation.
However, Mussolini's reign in Italy was not over. A German paratrooper division rescued Mussolini from the mountain hotel where he was being held under arrest. Hitler instructed Mussolini to establish the Italian Social Republic in German-held northern Italy. The Italian Social Republic ( Italian: Repubblica Sociale Italiana or RSI) was a Puppet state of Nazi Germany led by the "Duce of the The Italian Social Republic was a German puppet state. A puppet state is a State that is nominally independent but in reality under the control of another power The Fascist state's armed forces were a combination of Mussolini loyalist Fascists and German armed forces. However Mussolini had little power, Hitler and the German armed forces led the campaign against the Allies and saw little interest in preserving Italy as little more than a buffer zone against an Allied invasion of Germany. 
Life for Italians under German occupation was hard especially in Rome. Rome's citizens by 1943 had grown tired of the war and upon Italy signing an armistice with the Allies on September 8, 1943, Rome's citizens took to the streets chanting "Viva la pace!" ("Long live the peace!) but within hours, German forces raided the city, and attacked anti-Fascists, royalists, and Jews.  Roman citizens were harassed by German soldiers to provide them food and fuel and German authorities would arrest all opposition and many were sent into forced labour.  Rome's citizens upon being liberated reported that during the first week of German occupation of Rome, crimes against Italian citizens took place, as German soldiers looted stores and robbed Roman citizens at gunpoint.  Martial law was imposed on Rome by German authorities requiring all citizens to obey a curfew forbidding people to be out on the street after 9 p. m.  During winter of 1943, Rome's citizens were denied access to sufficient food, firewood and coal which were taken by German authorities to be given to German soldiers housed in occupied hotels.  These actions left Rome's citizens to live in the harsh cold and were on the verge of starvation.  German authorities began arresting able-bodied Roman men to to be conscripted into forced labour.  On June 4, 1944, the German occupation of Rome came to an end as German forces retreated as the Allies advanced.
Mussolini was captured by communist Italian partisans while trying to escape Italy. The Italian Resistance movement was a partisan force during World War II. On 28 April 1945, the communist partisans executed him. Events 1192 - Assassination of Conrad of Montferrat (Conrad I King of Jerusalem, in Tyre, two days after his title Year 1945 ( MCMXLV) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar Afterwards, the bodies of Mussolini, his mistress, and about fifteen other Fascists were taken to Milan where they were brutally abused and disfigured by mobs of angry Italians. Milan (Milano Milan (listen) is one of the largest cities in Italy, located in the plains of Lombardy. The mauled bodies were then hung up on meat hooks for public display. Days later on 2 May 1945, the German Army (Wehrmacht Heer) in Italy surrendered. Events 1194 - King Richard I of England gives Portsmouth its first Royal Charter. Year 1945 ( MCMXLV) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar The Heer was the land forces component of the German armed forces ( Wehrmacht) from 1935 to 1945, which also included the Navy (
The aftermath of World War II left Italy with a destroyed economy, a divided society, and anger against the monarchy for its endorsement of the Fascist regime for the previous twenty years. Anger flourished as well over Italy's embarrassment of being occupied by the Germans and then by the Allies.
Even prior to the rise of the Fascists, the monarchy was seen to have performed poorly, with society extremely divided between the wealthy north and poor south. World War I resulted in Italy making few gains and was seen as what fostered the rise of Fascism. These frustrations compacted into a revival of the Italian republican movement.
Following Victor Emmanuel III's abdication as king in 1946, his son, the new king Umberto II, was pressured by the threat of civil war to call a referendum to decide whether Italy should remain a monarchy or become a republic. Umberto II, occasionally anglicized as Humbert II, (September 15 1904 - March 18 1983 the last King of Italy, nicknamed the King of May ( Re On 2 June 1946, the republican side won 54% of the vote and Italy officially became a republic. Events 455 - The Vandals enter Rome, and plunder the city for two weeks Year 1946 ( MCMXLVI) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Umberto II abdicated the Italian throne, and a new republic was born with bitter resentment against the House of Savoy. The birth of the Italian Republic (officially on June 2, 1946) is a key event of Italian contemporary history. The House of Savoy (Casa Savoia was formed in the early eleventh century in the historical Savoy region All male members of the Savoy family were barred from entering Italy in 1948. This ban was only repealed in 2002.
King of Italy — Supreme commander of the Italian Royal Army, Navy, and later Air Force, from 1861 to 1938 and 1943 to 1946. Kingdom of Sardinia, also known as Piedmont-Sardinia or Sardinia-Piedmont, was the name given to the possessions of the House of Savoy in 1720 when the The Kingdom of the Two Sicilies ( Regno delle Due Sicilie) commonly known as just the Two Sicilies, was the name of a Kingdom in Europe. The Kingdom of Lombardy-Venetia (Regno Lombardo-Veneto Lombardo-Venezianisches Königreich was a kingdom in northern Italy, and part of the Austrian Empire. The Papal States, State(s of the Church or Pontifical States (in Italian Stato Ecclesiastico, Stato della Chiesa, Stati della Chiesa The Free State of Fiume, also known as the Free State of Rijeka (Croatian Slobodna Država Rijeka) was an independent free state which existed between The Republic of German Austria (Republik Deutschösterreich or Deutsch-Österreich was the initial Rump state successor to the Austro-Hungarian Empire The Drava Banovina or Drava Banate (Dravska banovina was a province ( banovina) of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia between 1929 and 1941 Vatican City, officially the State of the Vatican City (Stato della Città del Vaticano is a Landlocked sovereign City-state whose territory The Italian Social Republic ( Italian: Repubblica Sociale Italiana or RSI) was a Puppet state of Nazi Germany led by the "Duce of the The Socialist Republic of Slovenia ( Slovene: Socialistična republika Slovenija) was a Socialist state that was a Constituent country of the The Free Territory of Trieste or Free State of Trieste ( Italian Territorio libero di Trieste, Slovenian Svobodno tržaško ozemlje Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest
First Marshal of the Empire - Supreme commander of the Italian Royal Army, Air Force, Navy, and the Voluntary Militia for National Security from 1938 to 1943, held by both Victor Emmanuel III and Benito Mussolini. First Marshal of the Empire was a military rank established by the Italian Parliament on March 30, 1938. Victor Emmanuel III (Vittorio Emanuele III 11 November, 1869 – 28 December, 1947) was a member of the House of Savoy and