| ?കേരളം? · Kēraḷaṁ|
|Nickname: "God's Own Country"|
|Time zone||IST (UTC+5:30)|
|Area||38,863 km² (15,005 sq mi)|
|Largest metro||Kochi metropolitan area|
|31,838,619 (12th) (2001)|
• 819 /km² (2,121 /sq mi)
|Governor||R. L. Bhatia|
|Chief Minister||V.S. Achuthanandan|
|Established||November 1, 1956|
|Legislature (seats)||Unicameral (141‡)|
|‡ 140 elected, 1 nominated|
Seal of Kerala
Kerala (Malayalam: കേരളം?; Kēraḷaṁ) is a state on the tropical Malabar Coast of southwestern India. India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country Thiruvananthapuram ( Malayalam: തിരുവനന്തപുരം Tiruvanantapuraṁ) also known as Trivandrum, is the capital of the A geographic coordinate system enables every location on the Earth to be specified in three coordinates using mainly a spherical coordinate system. Indian Standard Time ( IST) is the time observed throughout India and Sri Lanka, with a Time offset of UTC+530. UTC+530 is the Timezone for Indian Standard Time Sri Lanka Time The geography of India is diverse with landscape ranging from snow-capped mountain ranges to deserts plains rainforests hills and plateaus To help compare Orders of magnitude of different geographical regions  Areas between 10000 km² and 100000 km² are listed here Wikipedia_talkFeatured_lists#Proposed_change_to_all_featured_lists for an explanation of this and other inclusion tags below -->This is a list of Indian state Thiruvananthapuram ( Malayalam: തിരുവനന്തപുരം Tiruvanantapuraṁ) also known as Trivandrum, is the capital of the Thiruvananthapuram ( Malayalam: തിരുവനന്തപുരം Tiruvanantapuraṁ) also known as Trivandrum, is the capital of the This article is about the Urban agglomeration of Kochi For the city of Kochi see Kochi Name Theories regarding the Etymology A district is an administrative division of a state in India India is divided into twenty-eight states and seven Union territories (UT The state of Kerala, in southern India, has 14 revenue Districts Most of the districts in Kerala has the same name as the important town or city in the In Biology a population is the collection of inter-breeding organisms of a particular Species; in Sociology Population density (in agriculture standing stock and Standing crop) is a measurement of Population per unit area or unit volume This is a list of the States of India in order of population Year 2001 ( MMI) was a Common year starting on Monday according to the Gregorian calendar. The Constitution of India envisages Hindi as the primary official language to be used by the Union Government, with English as the subsidiary official language Not to be confused with the Malay language. Malayalam (മലയാളം malayāḷaṁ) is a Dravidian language used Raghunanthanlal Bhatia, also known as Raghunandan Lal Bhatia, or R The complete list of Chief Ministers of Kerala consists of the heads of government in the history of the state of Kerala in India Velikkakathu Sankaran Achuthanandan, ( Malayalam:വേലിക്കകത്ത് ശങ്കരന് അച്യുതാനന്ദന് (born 20 October The States Reorganization Act of 1956 was a major reform of the boundaries and governance of India 's states and territories. Events 996 - Emperor Otto III issues a deed to Gottschalk Bishop of Freising which is the oldest known document using the name Ostarrîchi Year 1956 ( MCMLVI) was a Leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Unicameralism is the practice of having only one legislative or Parliamentary chamber ISO 3166-2 is the second part of the ISO 3166 standard published by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO ISO 3166-2IN is an ISO standard which defines Geocodes it is the subset of ISO 3166-2 which applies to India. A geographic coordinate system enables every location on the Earth to be specified in three coordinates using mainly a spherical coordinate system. Not to be confused with the Malay language. Malayalam (മലയാളം malayāḷaṁ) is a Dravidian language used The Malayalam script is an Abugida of the Brahmic family, used to write the Malayalam language. India is a union of states comprising twenty-eight states and seven union territories. Malabar (മലബാര് is a region of southern India, lying between the Western Ghats and the Arabian Sea. India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country To its east and northeast, Kerala borders Tamil Nadu and Karnataka; to its west and south lie the Indian Ocean islands of Lakshadweep and the Maldives, respectively. Tamil Nadu ( Tamil:, Country of the Tamils, t̪ɐmɨɻ n̪aːɽɯ is one of the 28 states of India. Karnataka (ಕರ್ನಾಟಕ pronounced) is a state in the southern part of India The Indian Ocean is the third largest of the world's Oceanic divisions covering about 20% of the water on the Earth 's surface Lakshadweep ( (ലക്ഷദ്വീപ്,) the smallest Union territory of India, is a group of islands 200 to 300 km off of the coast of The Maldives ( or, or Maldive Islands) officially the Republic of Maldives, is an Island nation consisting of a group of atolls stretching Kerala nearly envelops Mahé, a coastal exclave of Pondicherry. WikipediaWikiProject Indian cities for details --> Mahé, a small town (9 km² in the south of India on the Arabian Sea, has the official Puducherry (formerly; புதுச்சேரி or பாண்டிச்சேரி పాండిచెర్రి പുതുശ്ശേരി Pondichéry is a Kerala is one of four states that compose the linguistic-cultural region known as South India. South India is the area encompassing India 's states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu as well as the union The principal spoken language is Malayalam, but other languages are also spoken. Not to be confused with the Malay language. Malayalam (മലയാളം malayāḷaṁ) is a Dravidian language used Kerala ranks 12th by population nationwide and is the most densely populated state in India. ;
First settled in around 1000 BC by speakers of Proto-South Dravidian, Kerala was influenced by the Mauryan Empire. Proto-Dravidian is the Proto-language of the Dravidian languages. The Maurya Empire ( 322 – 185 BCE) ruled by the Mauryan dynasty was a geographically extensive and powerful political and military Later, the Cheran Kingdom and feudal Nair and Namboothiri Brahminical city-states became major powers in the region. History In early Tamil literature the great Chera rulers are referred to as Cheral Kuttuvan Irumporai Kollipurai and Athan Nāyar (Malayalam നായര് naːjar most commonly spelt Nair) is the name of a Hindu upper caste from the southern Indian state of Kerala The Nambudiri Brahmins ( Malayalam: ml നമ്പൂതിരി ml-Latn nambũdiri, also transliterated Namputiri, Namboothiri) are the Brahmin ( Brāhmaṇa, sa ब्राह्मणः is the class of educators scholars and preachers in Brahminical Hinduism.  Early contact with overseas lands culminated in struggles between colonial and native powers. The States Reorganisation Act of 1 November 1956 elevated Kerala to statehood. The States Reorganization Act of 1956 was a major reform of the boundaries and governance of India 's states and territories. Events 996 - Emperor Otto III issues a deed to Gottschalk Bishop of Freising which is the oldest known document using the name Ostarrîchi Year 1956 ( MCMLVI) was a Leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar.
Social reforms enacted in the late 19th century by Cochin and Travancore were expanded upon by post-independence governments, making Kerala, India's longest-lived, healthiest, most gender-equitable, and most literate regions. The Kingdom of Cochin or Kochi (also known as Perumpadappu Swaroopam, Madarajyam, Gosree Rajyam, or Kuru Swaroopam; Travancore or Thiruvithaamkoor ( Malayalam: തിരുവിതാങ്കൂര് "Thiru" (respectful prefix which suggests either royal or The term " Indian independence movement " is diffuse incorporating various national and regional campaigns agitations and efforts of both Nonviolent and Militant  Kerala has one of the most advanced educational systems in India.  Though the state's basic human development indices are roughly equivalent to those in the developed world, the state is substantially more environmentally sustainable than Europe and North America. The term developed country, or advanced country, is used to categorize countries with developed Economies in which the tertiary and quaternary sectors  Nevertheless, Kerala's suicide, alcoholism, and unemployment rates rank among India's highest.  A survey conducted in 2005 by Transparency International ranked Kerala as the least corrupt state in the country. Transparency International ( TI) is a leading international Non-governmental organization addressing corruption 
The etymology of Kerala is a matter of conjecture. Etymology is the study of the History of Words &mdash when they entered a language from what source and how their form and meaning have changed over time In the prevailing theory, Kerala is an imperfect Malayalam portmanteau that fuses kera ("coconut palm tree") and alam ("land" or "location").  Another theory is that the name originated from the phrase chera alam ("Land of the Chera").  Natives of Kerala, known as Keralites or Malayalis, thus refer to their land as Keralam. The Malayali people (also spelled Malayalee; Malayalam: മലയാളി are the inhabitants of Kerala or their descendants
Kerala is first mentioned (as Keralaputra) in a 3rd-century-BC rock inscription left by the Mauryan emperor Asoka. This article concerns itself with the history of Kerala, a state in South India. Ashoka ( Devanāgarī: अशोकः IAST: Aśokaḥ, aɕoːkə(hə Prakrit Imperial title Devanampriya Priyadarsi 
According to legend, Kerala was an Asura Kingdom and was ruled by Asura kings. In Hinduism In Hinduism, the Asura ( Sanskrit: असुर are a group of power-seeking deities sometimes referred to as Demons or sinful The last of the Asura kings, Maveli was killed by Vamana, one of the avatars of Mahavishnu. Mahabali ( IAST: mahābalī Malayalam:മഹാബലി Sanskrit: महाबली A benevolent Asura King Vamana ( Devanagari: वामन IAST: Vāmana) is a personality described in the Puranic texts of Hinduism as the Fifth Mahavishnu ( Devanagari: महाविष्णु is an aspect of Vishnu, the Absolute which is beyond human comprehension and is beyond all attributes According to folk songs there was no caste system in Kerala during that period and the kingdom had very high ethical values. People of Kerala celebrate Onam in Maveli's memory. Onam is the state festival of Kerala. It is celebrated in honour of Mahabali, the mythical Asura king of ancient Kerala Maveli is referred to as Mahabali in Sanskrit texts. Mahabali ( IAST: mahābalī Malayalam:മഹാബലി Sanskrit: महाबली A benevolent Asura King Sanskrit (sa संस्कृता वाक् saṃskṛtā vāk, for short sa संस्कृतम् saṃskṛtam) is a historical
According to another legend, Parasurama, who was the next avatar of Mahavishnu, threw his battle axe into the sea. Parashurama a Brahman ( Sanskrit: परशुराम or Parasurama ( Axe-wielding Rama) the sixth Avatar of Vishnu, Avatar or Avatara (अवतार IAST Avatāra) is often inaccurately translated into English as incarnation Mahavishnu ( Devanagari: महाविष्णु is an aspect of Vishnu, the Absolute which is beyond human comprehension and is beyond all attributes As a result, the land of Kerala arose and was reclaimed from the waters.  During Neolithic times, humans largely avoided Kerala's rainforests and wetlands. The Neolithic (from Greek νεολιθικός — neolithikos from νέος neos, "new" + λίθος lithos There is evidence of the emergence of prehistoric pottery and granite burial monuments in the 10th century BC that resemble their counterparts in Western Europe and the rest of Asia. These were produced by speakers of a proto-Tamil language.  Thus, Kerala and Tamil Nadu once shared a common language, ethnicity and culture; this common area was known as Tamilakam. Tamil Nadu ( Tamil:, Country of the Tamils, t̪ɐmɨɻ n̪aːɽɯ is one of the 28 states of India. Tamiḻakam ( Tamil தமிழகம் is a Tamil word meaning the Tamil country or the Tamil home. Kerala became a linguistically separate region by the early 14th century. The ancient Cherans, whose mother tongue and court language was Tamil, ruled Kerala from their capital at Vanchi and was the first major recorded kingdom. History In early Tamil literature the great Chera rulers are referred to as Cheral Kuttuvan Irumporai Kollipurai and Athan A first language (also mother tongue, native language, arterial language, or L1) is the language a human being learns from birth Tamil (ta தமிழ்; t̪əmɨɻ is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamil people of the Indian subcontinent. Vanchi was the ancient capital of the Chera kingdom The Chera were one of the ancient dynasties which ruled parts of present day Kerala and Tamil Nadu. Allied with the Pallavas, they continually warred against the neighbouring Chola and Pandya kingdoms. Origins See also Origin of Pallava The exact origin of the Pallavas is shrouded in mystery Origin The origin of the word “Pandya” has been a subject of much speculation A Keralite identity—distinct from the Tamils and associated with the second Chera empire—and the development of Malayalam evolved between the 8th and 14th centuries. Tamil people (also called Tamils or Tamilians) ( are an Ethnic group native to Tamil Nadu, a state in India, and the north-eastern In written records, Kerala was mentioned in the Sanskrit epic Aitareya Aranyaka. Sanskrit (sa संस्कृता वाक् saṃskṛtā vāk, for short sa संस्कृतम् saṃskṛtam) is a historical An epic is a lengthy Narrative poem, ordinarily concerning a serious subject containing details of heroic deeds and events significant to a culture or nation Later, figures such as Katyayana, Patanjali, Pliny the Elder, and the unknown author of the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea displayed familiarity with Kerala. Kātyāyana (c 3rd century BC was a Sanskrit grammarian, mathematician and Vedic priest who lived in ancient India. Patañjali ( Devanāgarī पतञ्जलि (fl 150 BCE or 2nd c Gaius or Caius Plinius Secundus, ( AD 23 – August 25, AD 79 better known as Pliny the Elder, was an ancient Author The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea ( Periplus Maris Erythraei) is a Greek Periplus, describing navigation and trading opportunities  In the last centuries BC this region became famous among the Greeks and Romans for its spices (especially pepper). The Greeks ( Greek: Έλληνες) are a Nation and Ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus and neighbouring regions 
The Chera kings' dependence on trade meant that merchants from West Asia and Southern Europe established coastal posts and settlements in Kerala.  Many, especially Jews and Christians, escaped persecution and established the Nasrani Mappila and Muslim Mappila communities. The Syrian Malabar Nasrani people are an Ethnoreligious group from Kerala, India. The Mappilas (historically called Moplahs in Malayalam:മാപ്പിള refer to the Muslim community in Kerala and neighbouring  According to several scholars, the Jews first arrived in Kerala in 573 BC.  The works of scholars and Eastern Christian writings state that Thomas the Apostle visited Muziris in Kerala in 52 AD to proselytize amongst Kerala's Jewish settlements. Families of churches Eastern Christians have a shared tradition but they became divided ( Schism) during the early centuries of Christianity in disputes about Thomas the Apostle, also called Judas Thomas, Doubting Thomas, or Didymus, was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus. Muziris is also a genus of Jumping spiders. Traditional scholars identify Muziris with the town of Musiri, located in  However, archeological evidences of existence are dating from 6th century. Eastern Christian writings points to migration of Christian families to Kerala in 3rd and 8th century respectively. Families of churches Eastern Christians have a shared tradition but they became divided ( Schism) during the early centuries of Christianity in disputes about  Muslim merchants (Malik ibn Dinar) settled in Kerala by the 8th century AD. Malik bin Deenar or Malik Ibn Dinar was a Tabi‘in. He is famous for being the first to bring Islam to India. Malik bin Deenar or Malik Ibn Dinar was a Tabi‘in. He is famous for being the first to bring Islam to India. After Vasco Da Gama's arrival in 1498, the Portuguese gained control of the lucrative pepper trade by subduing Keralite communities and commerce. Dom Vasco da Gama, 1st Count of Vidigueira ('vaʃku dɐ 'gɐmɐ ( Sines or Vidigueira, Alentejo, Portugal, ca Spice trade is a commercial activity of ancient origin which involves the merchandising of Spices and Herbs. 
Conflicts between the cities of Kozhikode (Calicut) and Kochi (Cochin) provided an opportunity for the Dutch to oust the Portuguese. WikipediaWikiProject Indian cities for details --> For the district with the same name see Kozhikode District. In turn, the Dutch were ousted at the 1741 Battle of Colachel by Marthanda Varma of Travancore (Thiruvathaamkoor). The Battle of Colachel (or Battle of Kulachal was a battle that took place on 10 August 1741 ( 31 July OS during the Travancore-Dutch War Marthanda Varma (Anizham Thirunal Malayalam, (1706-1758 was the Maharajah of the Indian Princely state of Travancore from 1729 till Travancore or Thiruvithaamkoor ( Malayalam: തിരുവിതാങ്കൂര് "Thiru" (respectful prefix which suggests either royal or Hyder Ali, heading the Mysore, conquered northern Kerala, capturing Kozhikode in 1766. Hyder Ali or Haidar 'Ali (c 1722 - 1782 was the de facto ruler of the Kingdom of Mysore in southern India. The Kingdom of Mysore/State of Mysore (ಮೈಸೂರು ಸಾಮ್ರಾಜ್ಯ was both a Kingdom (1399-1799 CE and a Princely state (1799-1947 In the late 18th century, Tipu Sultan, Ali’s son and successor, launched campaigns against the expanding British East India Company; these resulted in two of the four Anglo-Mysore Wars. The Honourable East India Company ( HEIC) referred to most commonly as the East India Company, also historically and colloquially as John Company, or The Anglo-Mysore Wars were a series of wars fought in India over the last three decades of the eighteenth-century between the Kingdom of Mysore and the British He ultimately ceded Malabar District and South Kanara to the Company in the 1790s. Malabar District was an administrative district of British India and independent India's Madras State. Dakshina Kannada ( Kannada & Tulu:ದಕ್ಷಿಣ ಕನ್ನಡ (earlier known as South Kanara, or South Canara) is a coastal The Company then forged tributary alliances with Kochi (1791) and Travancore (1795). Malabar and South Kanara became part of the Madras Presidency. Madras Presidency, also known as Madras Province and known officially as Presidency of Fort St 
Kerala saw comparatively little defiance of the British Raj. For usage see British rule in India British Raj ( rāj, lit "reign" in Hindustani) primarily refers to the British Nevertheless, several rebellions occurred, including the 1946 Punnapra-Vayalar revolt, and leaders like Velayudan Thampi Dalava, Kunjali Marakkar, and Pazhassi Raja earned their place in history and folklore. Velayudhan Chempakaraman Thampi (1765 - 1809 was the Dalawa or Prime Minister of the Indian kingdom of Travancore between 1801 and 1809 during Mohammed Kunjali Marakkar was the Muslim naval chief of the Samoothiri Raja Manavikraman (Samoothiri Veera Kerala Varma Pazhassi Raja, known as the Lion of Kerala, was the ruler of the Kingdom of Kottayam in northern Kerala and one of the first martyrs Many actions, spurred by such leaders as Sree Narayana Guru and Chattampi Swamikal, instead protested such conditions as untouchability; notable was the 1924 Vaikom Satyagraham. Nārāyana Guru (नारायण गुरुനാരായണ ഗുരു (1855 - 1928 also known as Sree Nārāyana Guru Swami was a Saint, Sree Vidyadhiraja Parama Bhattaraka Chattampi Swamikal (b1853 - d1924 was a Hindu sage and social reformer Dalit is a self designation for group of people of South Asian descent who were traditionally regarded as untouchables or low Caste. Vaikom Satyagraha (1924 - 25 was a Satyagraha (movement in Travancore, India (now part of Kerala) against Untouchability in In 1936, Chitra Thirunal Bala Rama Varma of Travancore issued the Temple Entry Proclamation that opened Hindu temples to all castes; Cochin and Malabar soon did likewise. Sree Chithira Thirunal (born as Balarama Varma November 7, 1912 &ndash July 19, 1991) was the last ruling Maharaja of the Princely The Temple Entry Proclamation issued by Maharaja Shri Chithira Thirunal Balarama Varma and his Dewan Sir C Malabar (മലബാര് is a region of southern India, lying between the Western Ghats and the Arabian Sea. The 1921 Moplah Rebellion involved Mappila Muslims rioting against Hindus and the British Raj. For usage see British rule in India British Raj ( rāj, lit "reign" in Hindustani) primarily refers to the British 
After India gained its independence in 1947, Travancore and Cochin were merged to form Travancore-Cochin on July 1, 1949. Travancore or Thiruvithaamkoor ( Malayalam: തിരുവിതാങ്കൂര് "Thiru" (respectful prefix which suggests either royal or The Kingdom of Cochin or Kochi (also known as Perumpadappu Swaroopam, Madarajyam, Gosree Rajyam, or Kuru Swaroopam; Travancore-Cochin or Thiru-Kochi is a former state of India. It was created on July 1 1949 by the merger of two former Princely "July 1st" redirects here For the Ayumi Hamasaki song see H (song. Year 1949 ( MCMXLIX) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. On January 1, 1950 (Republic Day), Travancore-Cochin was recognised as a state. New Year See also New Year The Ancient Romans began their consular year on January 1st since 153 BC Year 1950 ( MCML) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The Republic Day of India is a National holiday of India to mark the adoption of the Constitution of India and the transition of India from a British The Madras Presidency was organised to form Madras State several years prior, in 1947. Madras State was the former name of the present day state of Tamil Nadu, India. Finally, the Government of India's November 1, 1956 States Reorganisation Act inaugurated the state of Kerala, incorporating Malabar district, Travancore-Cochin (excluding four southern taluks, which were merged with Tamil Nadu), and the taluk of Kasargod, South Kanara. Events 996 - Emperor Otto III issues a deed to Gottschalk Bishop of Freising which is the oldest known document using the name Ostarrîchi Year 1956 ( MCMLVI) was a Leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The States Reorganization Act of 1956 was a major reform of the boundaries and governance of India 's states and territories. A tehsil ( Urdu: تحصیل) (or tahsil, tahasil, taluka, taluk, taluq, mandal) is an Administrative division WikipediaWikiProject Indian cities for details --> For the district with the same name see Kasaragod district. Dakshina Kannada ( Kannada & Tulu:ದಕ್ಷಿಣ ಕನ್ನಡ (earlier known as South Kanara, or South Canara) is a coastal  A new legislative assembly was also created, for which elections were first held in 1957. These resulted in a communist-led government through ballot - the world's first of its kind - headed by E.M.S. Namboodiripad. Communism is a Socioeconomic structure that promotes the establishment of an egalitarian, classless, stateless Society based Elamkulam Manakkal Sankaran Namboodiripad, ( Malayalam: ഏലങ്കുളം മനക്കല് ശങ്കരന് നമ്പൂതിരിപ്പാട്  Subsequent social reforms favoured tenants and labourers.  As a result, living standards, education, and life expectancy improved dramatically.
Kerala’s 38,863 km² landmass (1. 18% of India) is wedged between the Arabian Sea to the west and the Western Ghats—identified as one of the world's twenty-five biodiversity hotspots—to the east. The Arabian Sea ( Arabic: بحر العرب transliterated: Baḥr al-'Arab Sanskrit: सिन्धु सागर transliterated: The Western Ghats ( Kannada ಸಹ್ಯಾದ್ರಿ Marathi / Konkani - सह्याद्री Sahyadri Malayalam സഹ്യപര്വ്വതം A biodiversity hotspot is a Biogeographic region with a significant reservoir of biodiversity that is threatened with destruction Lying between north latitudes 8°18' and 12°48' and east longitudes 74°52' and 72°22', Kerala is well within the humid equatorial tropics. Kerala’s coast runs for some 580 km (360 miles), while the state itself varies between 35 and 120 km (22–75 miles) in width. Geographically, Kerala can be divided into three climatically distinct regions: the eastern highlands (rugged and cool mountainous terrain), the central midlands (rolling hills), and the western lowlands (coastal plains). Located at the extreme southern tip of the Indian subcontinent, Kerala lies near the centre of the Indian tectonic plate; as such, most of the state is subject to comparatively little seismic and volcanic activity. This article deals with the geophysical region in Asia For geopolitical treatments see South Asia. The India or Indian Plate is a Tectonic plate that was originally a part of the ancient continent of Gondwanaland from which it split off eventually Plate tectonics (from Greek τέκτων tektōn "builder" or "mason" describes the large scale motions of Earth 's Lithosphere An earthquake is the result of a sudden release of energy in the Earth 's crust that creates Seismic waves Earthquakes are recorded with a Seismometer  Pre-Cambrian and Pleistocene geological formations compose the bulk of Kerala’s terrain. The Precambrian ( Pre-Cambrian) is an informal name for the supereon comprising the eons of the Geologic timescale that came before the current The Pleistocene ('plaɪstəsin is the epoch from 18 million to 10000 years BP covering the world's recent period
Eastern Kerala lies immediately west of the Western Ghats's rain shadow; it consists of high mountains, gorges and deep-cut valleys. For the Australian television series see Rain Shadow (TV series. 41 of Kerala’s west-flowing rivers, and 3 of its east-flowing ones originate in this region. Here, the Western Ghats form a wall of mountains interrupted only near Palakkad, where the Palakkad Gap breaks through to provide access to the rest of India. Palakkad Gap is a 32-42 kilometer wide low Mountain pass in the Western Ghats, near Palakkad town in the South Indian State of Kerala The Western Ghats rises on average to 1,500 m (4920 ft) above sea level, while the highest peaks may reach to 2,500 m (8200 ft). Just west of the mountains lie the midland plains composing central Kerala; rolling hills and valleys dominate.  Generally ranging between elevations of 250–1,000 m (820–3300 ft), the eastern portions of the Nilgiri and Palni Hills include such formations as Agastyamalai and Anamalai. The Nilgiri (Tamil: நீலகிரி or literally Blue Mountains) often referred to as the Nilgiri Hills, are a range of mountains with at least 24 peaks above The Palni Hills (also Palani Hills are a mountain range in Tamil Nadu state of South India. Agastya Mala (also known as Agastyarkoodam or Agasthyakoodam) is a peak within Neyyar Wildlife Sanctuary in the Western Ghats of South The Anaimalai Hills (ஆனைமலை or Anamala Hills (in Malayalam is a range of mountains in the Western Ghats in Tamil Nadu and Kerala
Kerala’s western coastal belt is relatively flat, and is criss-crossed by a network of interconnected brackish canals, lakes, estuaries, and rivers known as the Kerala Backwaters. Vazhachal Falls is a rushing waterbody joining Chalakkudy River in the Thrissur district of Kerala state South India. Canals are artificial channels for water There are two types of canals water conveyance canals which are used for the conveyance and delivery of water and Waterways An estuary is a semi-enclosed Coastal body of Water with one or more Rivers or Streams flowing into it and with a free connection to the open The Kerala backwaters are a chain of Brackish Lagoons and lakes lying parallel to the Arabian Sea coast (known as the Malabar Coast) of Lake Vembanad—Kerala’s largest body of water—dominates the Backwaters; it lies between Alappuzha and Kochi and is more than 200 km² in area. Vembanad Lake ( Vembanad Kayal or Vembanad Kol) is India 's longest Lake, and is the largest lake in the state of Kerala. Around 8% of India's waterways (measured by length) are found in Kerala.  The most important of Kerala’s forty four rivers include the Periyar (244 km), the Bharathapuzha (209 km), the Pamba (176 km), the Chaliyar (169 km), the Kadalundipuzha (130 km) and the Achankovil (128 km). There are 44 rivers in Kerala all but three originating in the Western Ghats. The Periyar River is the longest river in the state of Kerala, India, with a length of 244 km The Bharathappuzha, also known as Nila, is a river in India in the state of Kerala. Chaliyar River is the fourth longest river in Kerala at 169 km in length The average length of the rivers of Kerala is 64 km. Most of the remainder are small and entirely fed by monsoon rains. A monsoon is a seasonal prevailing wind which lasts for several months  These conditions result in the nearly year-round water logging of such western regions as Kuttanad, 500 km² of which lies below sea level. Kuttanadu in Kerala, India, is the region with the lowest altitude in India with 500 square kilometres of the region below Sea level. As Kerala's rivers are small and lack deltas, they are more prone to environmental factors. A delta is a Landform where the mouth of a River flows into an Ocean, Sea, Estuary, Lake or another river Kerala's rivers face many problems, including summer droughts, the building of large dams, sand mining, and pollution.
With 120–140 rainy days per year, Kerala has a wet and maritime tropical climate influenced by the seasonal heavy rains of the southwest summer monsoon. The climate of India defies easy generalisation comprising a wide range of weather conditions across a large geographic scale and varied topography A monsoon is a seasonal prevailing wind which lasts for several months  In eastern Kerala, a drier tropical wet and dry climate prevails. Kerala's rainfall averages 3,107 mm annually. Some of Kerala's drier lowland regions average only 1,250 mm; the mountains of eastern Idukki district receive more than 5,000 mm of orographic precipitation, the highest in the state. In Meteorology, precipitation (also known as one class of hydrometeors, which are atmospheric water phenomena is any product of the condensation of atmospheric
In summers, most of Kerala is prone to gale force winds, storm surges, cyclone-related torrential downpours, occasional droughts, and rises in sea level and storm activity resulting from global warming. In Meteorology, a cyclone refers to an area of closed circular fluid motion rotating in the same direction as the Earth. Global warming is the increase in the average measured temperature of the  Kerala’s maximum daily temperature averages 36. 7 °C; the minimum is 19. 8 °C.  Mean annual temperatures range from 25. 0–27. 5 °C in the coastal lowlands to 20. 0–22. 5 °C in the highlands. 
Much of Kerala's notable biodiversity is concentrated and protected in the Agasthyamalai Biosphere Reserve in the eastern hills. The Agasthyamalai Biosphere Reserve (ABR was Established in 2001 and includes out of which 1828 km² is in Kerala and 1672 Almost a fourth of India's 10,000 plant species are found in the state. Among the almost 4,000 flowering plant species (1,272 of which are endemic to Kerala and 159 threatened) are 900 species of highly sought medicinal plants. The flowering plants or angiosperms ( Angiospermae or Magnoliophyta) are the most widespread group Endemism is the Ecological state of being unique to a place Endemic species are not naturally found elsewhere Herbalism is a traditional Medicinal or Folk medicine practice based on the use of Plants and Plant extracts Herbalism is also known as 
Its 9,400 km² of forests include tropical wet evergreen and semi-evergreen forests (lower and middle elevations—3,470 km²), tropical moist and dry deciduous forests (mid-elevations—4,100 km² and 100 km², respectively), and montane subtropical and temperate (shola) forests (highest elevations—100 km²). The Bonnet Macaque ( Macaca radiata) is a Macaque living in India. Nelliampathi is a popular hill station 60 km away from Palakkad in Kerala a small state in South India. Altogether, 24% of Kerala is forested.  Two of the world’s Ramsar Convention listed wetlands—Lake Sasthamkotta and the Vembanad-Kol wetlands—are in Kerala, as well as 1455. The Ramsar Convention is an international Treaty for the conservation and sustainable utilization of Wetlands i A wetland is an area of Land consisting of Soil that is Saturated with Moisture, such as a Swamp, Marsh, or Bog Sasthamkotta Lake, is a large Freshwater Lake in Kerala state of southern India. Vembanad Lake ( Vembanad Kayal or Vembanad Kol) is India 's longest Lake, and is the largest lake in the state of Kerala. 4 km² of the vast Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve. The Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve is an International Biosphere Reserve in the Western Ghats, Nilgiri Hills range of South India. Subjected to extensive clearing for cultivation in the 20th century, much of Kerala's forest cover is now protected from clearfelling. Clearcutting or clearfelling is a Forestry / Logging practice in which the clear majority of all trees in a forest sector are cut down Kerala's fauna are notable for their diversity and high rates of endemism: 102 species of mammals (56 of which are endemic), 476 species of birds, 202 species of freshwater fishes, 169 species of reptiles (139 of them endemic), and 89 species of amphibians (86 endemic). Mammals ( class Mammalia) are a class of Vertebrate Animals characterized by the presence of Sweat glands, including sweat glands Fish are aquatic Vertebrate animals that are typically ectothermic (previously Cold-blooded) covered with scales, and equipped with two Reptiles, or members of the class Reptilia are air-breathing Cold-blooded Vertebrates that have skin covered in scales as opposed to hair or feathers Prehistoric amphibian Amphibians (class Amphibia such as Frogs Toads Salamanders Newts Gymnophiona, Sirens and  These are threatened by extensive habitat destruction, including soil erosion, landslides, salinization, and resource extraction. 
Eastern Kerala’s windward mountains shelter tropical moist forests and tropical dry forests, which are common in the Western Ghats. Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests (TSMF also known as tropical moist forests, are a Tropical and Subtropical Forest The tropical and subtropical dry broadleaf forest Biome, also known as tropical dry forest, is located at tropical and subtropical latitudes Here, sonokeling (Indian rosewood), anjili, mullumurikku (Erythrina), and Cassia number among the more than 1,000 species of trees in Kerala. Erythrina is a genus of tropical and subtropical flowering trees in the Family Fabaceae and distributed in tropical and subtropical regions worldwide Other plants include bamboo, wild black pepper, wild cardamom, the calamus rattan palm (a type of climbing palm), and aromatic vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides). Black pepper ( Piper nigrum) is a flowering Vine in the family Piperaceae, cultivated for its Fruit, which is usually dried The name cardamom (or cardamon is used for herbs within two genera of the Ginger family Zingiberaceae, namely Elettaria and Amomum Rattan (from the Malay rotan) is the name for the roughly six hundred Species of palms in the tribe Calameae, native to tropical This article refers to the tropical grass For the men's fragrance Vétiver see Guerlain. This article refers to the tropical grass For the men's fragrance Vétiver see Guerlain.  Living among them are such fauna as Asian Elephant, Bengal Tiger, Leopard (Panthera pardus), Nilgiri Tahr, Common Palm Civet, and Grizzled Giant Squirrel. The Asian or Asiatic Elephant ( Elephas maximus) sometimes known by the name of one of its subspecies &ndash the Indian Elephant, is one of The Bengal tiger, or Royal Bengal tiger ( Panthera tigris tigris or Panthera tigris bengalensis) is a Subspecies of Tiger primarily The leopard (lɛpɚd Panthera pardus) is an Old World Mammal of the Felidae family and the smallest of the four roaring The Nilgiri Tahr ( Nilgiritragus hylocrius) is an Ungulate that is Endemic to the Nilgiri Hills and the southern portion of the Western Ghats The Asian Palm Civet ( Paradoxurus hermaphroditus) also known as the Common Palm Civet or the Toddy Cat, is a Cat -sized Mammal Grizzled Giant Squirrel (also known as the Sri Lankan Giant Squirrel) ( Ratufa macroura) is a large species of Squirrel found in Sri Lanka and  Reptiles include the king cobra, viper, python, and crocodile. The King Cobra ( Ophiophagus hannah) is the world's longest venomous Snake, with a length that can be as large as 5 VIPeR is a Military robot developed by the Israeli company Elbit Systems and intended for use in warfare Common names pythons The Pythonidae are a family of non- Venomous Snakes found in Africa, Asia A crocodile is any Species belonging to the family Crocodylidae (sometimes classified instead as the Subfamily Crocodylinae) Kerala's birds are legion—Peafowl, the Great Hornbill, Indian Grey Hornbill, Indian Cormorant, and Jungle Myna are several emblematic species. The term peafowl refers to Gallinaceous Birds classified within the genera Rheinardia Argusianus Afropavoand Pavo The Great Hornbill, Buceros bicornis also known as Greater Indian Hornbill or Two-horned Calao, is the largest Asian member of the Hornbill family The Indian Grey Hornbill ( Ocyceros birostris) is a common Hornbill on the Indian subcontinent. The Indian Cormorant ( Phalacrocorax fuscicollis) is a member of the Cormorant family of Seabirds It breeds in tropical Asia from The Jungle Myna, Acridotheres fuscus, is a Myna, a member of the Starling family In lakes, wetlands, and waterways, fish such as kadu (stinging catfish and Choottachi (Orange chromide—Etroplus maculatus; valued as an aquarium specimen) are found. Catfish ( order Siluriformes) are a very diverse group of bony Fish. An aquarium (plural aquariums or aquaria) is a Vivarium consisting of at least one transparent side in which Water -dwelling Plants 
Kerala's fourteen districts are distributed among Kerala's three historical regions: Malabar (northern Kerala), Kochi (central Kerala), and Travancore (southern Kerala). The state of Kerala, in southern India, has 14 revenue Districts Most of the districts in Kerala has the same name as the important town or city in the Kerala's modern-day districts (listed in order from north to south) correspond to them as follows:
Kerala's 14 revenue districts are further divided into 62 taluks, 1453 revenue villages and 1007 Gram panchayats. Malabar (മലബാര് is a region of southern India, lying between the Western Ghats and the Arabian Sea. Kasaragod ( Malayalam:കാസര്ഗോഡ് ജില്ല is one of the districts of the Indian state of Kerala. For the city with the same name see Kannur. Kannur District ( Malayalam: കണ്ണൂര് or Cannanore District is Wayanad District, in the north-east of Kerala, India, was formed on November 1 1980 as the 12th district by carving out areas from Kozhikode District is a district of Kerala state situated on the southwest coast of India. For the town with the same name see Malappuram. Malappuram District is a district of Kerala state in southern India. Palakkad District ( Malayalam:പാലക്കാട്) or Palghat is one of the 14 districts of Kerala state in South India. The Kingdom of Cochin or Kochi (also known as Perumpadappu Swaroopam, Madarajyam, Gosree Rajyam, or Kuru Swaroopam; Thrissur ( Trichur / Trissur ( Malayalam: തൃശ്ശൂര് is a district situated in the central part of Kerala state, India For the town with the same name see Ernakulam. Ernakulam District (എറണാകുളം is a district of the state of Travancore or Thiruvithaamkoor ( Malayalam: തിരുവിതാങ്കൂര് "Thiru" (respectful prefix which suggests either royal or This article is about the District of Kottayam See Kottayam Town also Idukki district (ഇടുക്കി is one among the 14 districts of Kerala state, India. For the town with the same name see Alappuzha. Alappuzha is one of the 14 districts in the state of Kerala in India. For the District Capital with the same name see Pathanamthitta Pathanamthitta is one of the fourteen districts of Kerala For the town with the same name see Kollam. Kollam district, earlier known as Quilon district is one among the 14 districts of Kerala Thiruvananthapuram District is the southernmost district of the Indian state of Kerala. Kerala 's 14 revenue districts are further divided into 5 Municipal Corporations 53 Municipalities, 63 taluks, 1453 revenue villages and 1007 Gram panchayats Kerala 's 14 revenue districts are further divided into 5 Municipal Corporations 53 Municipalities, 63 taluks, 1453 revenue villages and 1007 Gram panchayats Gram panchayats are local government bodies at the village level in India.
Mahé, a part of the Indian union territory of Puducherry (Pondicherry), is a coastal exclave surrounded by Kerala on all of its landward approaches. Thiruvananthapuram (Trivandrum) is the state capital and most populous city. Thiruvananthapuram ( Malayalam: തിരുവനന്തപുരം Tiruvanantapuraṁ) also known as Trivandrum, is the capital of the  Kochi is the most populous urban agglomeration and the major port city in Kerala. In the study of human settlements an agglomeration is an extended City or Town area comprising the built-up area of a central place ( usually a Municipality Kozhikode and Thrissur are the other major commercial centres of the state. WikipediaWikiProject Indian cities for details --> For the district with the same name see Kozhikode District. For the district with the same name see Thrissur district. Thrissur / Trichur / Trissur ( Malayalam: തൃശ്ശൂര് The High Court of Kerala is at Ernakulam. High Court of Kerala is the highest court in the Indian state of Kerala and in the Union Territory of Lakshadweep. This article is about the town of Ernakulam See Ernakulam district. Kerala's districts, which serve as the administrative regions for taxation purposes, are further subdivided into 63 taluks; these have fiscal and administrative powers over settlements within their borders, including maintenance of local land records. A tehsil ( Urdu: تحصیل) (or tahsil, tahasil, taluka, taluk, taluq, mandal) is an Administrative division
Like other Indian states and most Commonwealth countries, Kerala is governed through a parliamentary system of representative democracy; universal suffrage is granted to state residents. A parliamentary system, also known as parliamentarianism (and parliamentarism in American English) is a System of government in which Representative democracy is a form of government founded on the principles of the people's representatives Universal suffrage (also universal adult suffrage, general suffrage or common suffrage) consists of the extension of the right to vote to There are three branches of government. The unicameral legislature, known as the legislative assembly, comprises elected members and special office bearers (the Speaker and Deputy Speaker) elected by assemblymen. Unicameralism is the practice of having only one legislative or Parliamentary chamber A legislature is a type of representative Deliberative assembly with the power to create amend and change Laws The law created by a legislature is called Legislation The Kerala Legislative Assembly is the law making body of Kerala, one of the 28 States in India. Assembly meetings are presided over by the Speaker. The Assembly is presided over by the Deputy Speaker whenever the Speaker is absent. Kerala has 140 Assembly constituencies. The state sends 20 members to the Lok Sabha and 9 to the Rajya Sabha, the Indian Parliament's upper house. The Lok Sabha (also titled the House of the People, by the Constitution) is the directly elected Lower house of the Parliament of India The Rajya Sabha (meaning the "Council of States" is the Upper house of the Parliament of India. The Parliament of India (or Sansad) is the federal and supreme Legislative body of India.
Like other Indian states, the constitutional head of state is the Governor of Kerala, who is appointed by the President of India. The President of India or Rashtrapati ( Hindi: राष्ट्रपति a Sanskrit Neologism, lit The executive authority is headed by the Chief Minister of Kerala, who is the de facto head of state and is vested with most of the executive powers; the Legislative Assembly's majority party leader is appointed to this position by the Governor. In Political science and Constitutional law, the executive is the branch of government responsible for the day-to-day management of the State. The complete list of Chief Ministers of Kerala consists of the heads of government in the history of the state of Kerala in India The Council of Ministers, which answers to the Legislative Assembly, has its members appointed by the Governor; the appointments receive input from the Chief Minister.
The judiciary comprises the Kerala High Court (including a Chief Justice combined with 26 permanent and two additional (pro tempore) justices) and a system of lower courts. In Law, the judiciary or judicial system is the system of Courts which administer Justice in the name of the sovereign or State High Court of Kerala is the highest court in the Indian state of Kerala and in the Union Territory of Lakshadweep. The High Court of Kerala is the highest court for the state; it also decides cases from the Union Territory of Lakshadweep. Lakshadweep ( (ലക്ഷദ്വീപ്,) the smallest Union territory of India, is a group of islands 200 to 300 km off of the coast of Auxiliary authorities known as panchayats, for which local body elections are regularly held, govern local affairs. The Panchayat is a South Asian Political system. ‘Panchayat’ literally means assembly ( yat) of five ( panch) wise and respected elders chosen Elections in Kerala are regularly held to fill government officials at all levels of government in both Kerala and India as a whole
The state's 2005–2006 budget was 219 billion INR. The rupee (रुपया ( code: INR) is the Currency of India.  The state government's tax revenues (excluding the shares from Union tax pool) amounted to 111,248 million INR in 2005, up from 63,599 million in 2000. The rupee (रुपया ( code: INR) is the Currency of India. Its non-tax revenues (excluding the shares from Union tax pool) of the Government of Kerala as assessed by the Indian Finance Commissions reached 10,809 million INR in 2005, nearly double the 6,847 million INR revenues of 2000.  However, Kerala's high ratio of taxation to gross state domestic product (GSDP) has not alleviated chronic budget deficits and unsustainable levels of government debt, impacting social services. 
Kerala hosts two major political alliances: the United Democratic Front (UDF—led by the Indian National Congress) and the Left Democratic Front (LDF—led by the Communist Party of India (Marxist) (CPI(M)). United Democratic Front (UDF is an alliance of progressive pro-development political parties of Kerala state in India. Indian National Congress-I (also known as the Congress Party and abbreviated INC) is a major Political party in India. Left Democratic Front is one of the two major alliances that dominate the political life of the Indian state Kerala. The Communist Party of India (Marxist (abbreviated CPI(M or CPM) is a Political party in India. At present, the LDF is the ruling coalition in government; V.S. Achuthanandan of the CPI(M) is the Chief Minister of Kerala and Oommen Chandy of the UDF is the Chief Opposition leader. Velikkakathu Sankaran Achuthanandan, ( Malayalam:വേലിക്കകത്ത് ശങ്കരന് അച്യുതാനന്ദന് (born 20 October Oommen Chandy ( Malayalam: ഉമ്മന് ചാണ്ടി) born 31 October, 1943 in Kumarakom, Kottayam District
Kerala is one of the few regions in the world where communist parties are democratically elected in a parliamentary democracy. Compared with most other Indians, Keralites are well versed and keen participants in the political process; many elections are decided by razor-thin margins of victory. Strikes, protests, rallies, and marches are ubiquitous. 
Since its incorporation as a state, Kerala's economy largely operated under welfare based democratic socialist principles. Welfare economics is a branch of Economics that uses microeconomic techniques to simultaneously determine Allocative efficiency within an economy and the Democratic socialism is a description used by various socialist movements tendencies and organizations to emphasize the democratic character of their political orientation In recent years, the state has liberalised its increasingly mixed economy, allowing greater participation by the free market and foreign direct investment. Originally coined by its critics and opponents " neoliberalism " is a label referring to the recent reemergence of Economic liberalism or Classical liberalism A mixed economy is an Economic system that incorporates aspects of more than one economic system A free market is a Market in which property rights are voluntarily exchanged at a price arranged completely by the mutual consent of sellers and buyers Foreign direct investment ( FDI) in its classic definition is defined as a company from one country making a physical investment into building a factory in another country Kerala's nominal gross domestic product (as of 2004–2005) is an estimated 89451. 99 crore INR, while recent GDP growth (9. The rupee (रुपया ( code: INR) is the Currency of India. 2% in 2004–2005 and 7. 4% in 2003–2004) has been robust compared to historical averages (2. 3% annually in the 1980s and between 5. 1% and 5. 99% in the 1990s).  Nevertheless, relatively few major corporations and manufacturing plants choose to operate in Kerala.  This is mitigated by remittances sent home by overseas Keralites, which contributes around 20% of state GDP. Remittance can also refer to the Accounting concept of a monetary payment transferred by a customer to a business Remittances are transfers  Kerala's per capita GDP of 11,819 INR is significantly higher than the all India average, although it still lies far below the world average. The rupee (रुपया ( code: INR) is the Currency of India. Additionally, Kerala's Human Development Index and standard of living statistics are the nation's best. The Human Development Index ( HDI) is an index combining normalized measures of Life expectancy, Literacy, Educational attainment, and GDP The standard of living refers to the quality and quantity of goods and services available to people and the way these goods and services are distributed within a population  This apparent paradox—high human development and low economic development—is often dubbed the Kerala phenomenon or the Kerala model of development, and arises mainly from Kerala's strong service sector. The Kerala model refers to a set of Economic practices developed in India's state of Kerala.
The service sector (including tourism, public administration, banking and finance, transportation, and communications—63. 8% of statewide GDP in 2002–2003) along with the agricultural and fishing industries (together 17. 2% of GDP) dominate Kerala's economy.  Nearly half of Kerala's people are dependent on agriculture alone for income.  Some 600 varieties of rice (Kerala's most important staple food and cereal crop) are harvested from 3105. A staple food is a Food that forms the basis of a Traditional diet. 21 km² (a decline from 5883. 4 km² in 1990) of paddy fields; 688,859 tonnes are produced per annum. A paddy field is a flooded parcel of Arable land used for growing Rice and other semiaquatic crops. This article is about the tonne or metric ton For other tons see Ton.  Other key crops include coconut (899,198 ha), tea, coffee (23% of Indian production, or 57,000 tonnes), rubber, cashews, and spices—including pepper, cardamom, vanilla, cinnamon, and nutmeg. Around 1. 050 million fishermen haul an annual catch of 668,000 tonnes (1999–2000 estimate); 222 fishing villages are strung along the 590 km coast. Another 113 fishing villages dot the hinterland.
Traditional industries manufacturing such items as coir, handlooms, and handicrafts employ around one million people. Coir (from Malayalam kayar, cord is a coarse fibre extracted from the fibrous outer shell of a Coconut. Handicraft, also known as craftwork or simply Craft, is a type of work where useful and decorative devices are made completely by hand or using only simple tools Around 180,000 small-scale industries employ around 909,859 Keralites; 511 medium and large scale manufacturing firms are located in Kerala. A small mining sector (0. 3% of GDP) involves extraction of ilmenite, kaolin, bauxite, silica, quartz, rutile, zircon, and sillimanite. Ilmenite is a weakly magnetic titanium-iron oxide Mineral which is iron-black or steel-gray Kaolinite is a Clay mineral with the chemical composition Al 2 Si 2 O 5( OH)4 Bauxite is the most important Aluminium Ore. It consists largely of the minerals Gibbsite Al(OH3 Boehmite γ-AlO(OH and The Chemical compound silicon dioxide, also known as silica or silox (from the Latin " Silex " is an Oxide Quartz (from German) is the most abundant Mineral in the Earth 's Continental crust (although Feldspar is more common in Rutile is a Mineral composed primarily of Titanium dioxide, Ti[[oxygen O]]2 Zircon is a Mineral belonging to the group of nesosilicates. Its chemical name is Zirconium silicate and its corresponding chemical formula is Sillimanite also called Bucholzite is an alumino-silicate Mineral with the Chemical formula Al2SiO5  Home gardens and animal husbandry also provide work for hundreds of thousands of people. Home gardens, also known as forest gardens are found in humid areas Other major sectors are tourism, manufacturing, and business process outsourcing. Kerala, a state situated on the tropical Malabar Coast of southwestern India, is one of the most popular tourist destinations in the country Business process outsourcing ( BPO) contains the transmission of processes along with the associated operational activities and responsibilities to a third party with at least Kerala's unemployment rate is variously estimated at 19. 2% and 20. 77%, although underemployment of those classified as "employed", low employability of many job-seeking youths, and a mere 13. In Economics, the term underemployment has three different distinct meanings and applications 5% female participation rate are significant problems. In Economics the people in the labor force are the suppliers of labor  Estimates of the statewide poverty rate range from 12. The poverty threshold, or poverty line, is the minimum level of Income deemed necessary to achieve an adequate Standard of living in a given country 71% to as high as 36%. 
Kerala has 145,704 kilometers (90,536 mi) of roads (4. 2% of India's total). This translates to about 4. 62 kilometers (2. 87 mi) of road per thousand population, compared to an all India average of 2. 59 kilometers (1. 61 mi). Virtually all of Kerala's villages are connected by road. Traffic in Kerala has been growing at a rate of 10–11% every year, resulting in high traffic and pressure on the roads. Kerala's road density is nearly four times the national average, reflecting the state's high population density. The Kerala state in India has a good network of Roads It has eight National Highways, a good number of State Highways and many district roads Kerala's annual total of road accidents is among the nation's highest. 
India's national highway network includes a Kerala-wide total of 1,524 kilometers (947 mi), which is 2. 6% of the national total. There are eight designated national highways in the state. The Kerala State Transport Project (KSTP), which includes the GIS-based Road Information and Management Project (RIMS), is responsible for maintaining and expanding the 1,600 kilometers (994 mi) of roadways that compose the state highways system; it also oversees major district roads. A list of State highways in Kerala, India.The respective State Highway number is displayed on the top of all milestone (black in color in green background in the  Most of Kerala's west coast is accessible through two national highways, NH 47, and NH 17. The list of National Highways in India gives a region wide listing of the Indian Highways, a class of roads maintained by the National Highways Authority of India National Highway 47, commonly referred to as NH 47, is a busy highway that runs through some parts of Tamil Nadu and the south-west coast of Kerala state National Highway 17, commonly referred to as NH 17, is a busy highway that runs roughly north-south along the western coast of India, parallel to Western ghats
The state has major international airports at Thiruvananthapuram, Kochi, and Kozhikode, that link the state with the rest of the nation and the world. Trivandrum International Airport is the first international Airport of Kerala, India. Cochin International Airport, also known as Kochi International Airport or Nedumbassery Airport, is located at Nedumbassery, near Kochi Calicut International Airport, also known as Karipur Airport, is located at Karipur in the Malappuram district near Kozhikode (Calicut The new airports are coming up in Aranmula, near to Kozhencherry in Pathanamthitta district, Kannur, and Idukky. Aranmula is a suburb of Kozhencherry in Pathanamthitta District in the state of Kerala in South India. Kozhencherry is a small town in Pathanamthitta district of Central Travancore region (South Central Kerala in Kerala state South India The Cochin International Airport at Kochi is the first international airport in India that was built without Central Government funds, and is also the country's first publicly owned airport.  The backwaters traversing the state are an important mode of inland navigation. Inland navigation is Transport with ships via Inland water ( Canals Rivers etc The Indian Railways' Southern Railway line runs throughout the state, connecting all major towns and cities except those in the highland districts of Idukki and Wayanad. Indian Railways (भारतीय रेल Bhāratīya Rail) abbreviated as IR (hi भारे is a Department of the Government of India under the Ministry Southern Railway is the first Railway Zone to be created in independent India. Kerala's major railway stations are Trivandrum Central, Kollam Junction, Ernakulam Junction, Thrissur, Kozhikode, Shoranur Junction, and Palakkad. Trivandrum Central is the biggest railway station in the state of Kerala in India and one of the important rail hubs in South India Ernakulam Junction (also known as South) is a Railway junction and one of the busiest railway stations in Kerala located in Kochi, India. WikipediaWikiProject Indian cities for details --> Shoranur ( Malayalam:ഷൊര്ണൂര് is a town and a Municipality in
The 31. 8 million of Kerala’s compound population is predominantly of Malayali ethnicity, while the rest is mostly made up of Jewish and Arab elements in both culture and ancestry. The Malayali people (also spelled Malayalee; Malayalam: മലയാളി are the inhabitants of Kerala or their descendants PLEASE TAKE NOTE************ The araB gene Promoter is a bacterial promoter activated by e L-arabinose binding Kerala is also home to 321,000 indigenous tribal Adivasis (1. Ādivāsīs (in Devanagari script: आदिवासी literally "original inhabitants" comprise a substantial indigenous minority of the population 10% of the populace), who are mostly concentrated in the eastern districts.  Malayalam is Kerala's official language; Tamil and various Adivasi languages are also spoken by ethnic minorities. Not to be confused with the Malay language. Malayalam (മലയാളം malayāḷaṁ) is a Dravidian language used An official language is a Language that is given a special legal status in a particular Country, State, or other territory Tamil (ta தமிழ்; t̪əmɨɻ is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamil people of the Indian subcontinent.
Kerala is home to 3. The Malayali people (also spelled Malayalee; Malayalam: മലയാളി are the inhabitants of Kerala or their descendants for the town in Nepal see Sari Nepal A sari or saree or shari is a female garment in the Indian subcontinent The mundu (muɳʈɨ is a garment worn around the waist in Kerala and Maldives related to the Dhoti as well as the Lungi. 44% of India's people; at 819 persons per km², its land is three times as densely settled as the rest of India.  Kerala's rate of population growth is India's lowest, and Kerala's decadal growth (9. 42% in 2001) is less than half the all-India average of 21. 34%.  Whereas Kerala's population more than doubled between 1951 and 1991 by adding 15. 6 million people to reach 29. 1 million residents in 1991, the population stood at less than 32 million by 2001. Kerala's coastal regions are the most densely settled, leaving the eastern hills and mountains comparatively sparsely populated. 
Women compose 51. 42% of the population.  Kerala's principal religions are Hinduism (56. 1%), Islam (24. 7%), and Christianity (19%).  Remnants of a once substantial Cochin Jewish population also practice Judaism. Cochin Jews, also called Malabar Jews ( Malabar Yehudan) are the ancient Jews and their descendants of the former In comparison with the rest of India, Kerala experiences relatively little sectarianism. 
Kerala's society is less patriarchical than the rest of the Third World. Third World is a name given to nations that are generally considered to be underdeveloped economically  Gender relations are among the most equitable in India and the Third World, despite discrepancies among low caste men and women.  Certain Hindu communities such as the Nairs, some Ezhavas and the Muslims around Kannur used to follow a traditional matrilineal system known as marumakkathayam, although this practice ended in the years after Indian independence. Nāyar (Malayalam നായര് naːjar most commonly spelt Nair) is the name of a Hindu upper caste from the southern Indian state of Kerala The Ezhavas are the largest Hindu community in Kerala and Tulu Nadu. For the district with the name Kannur see Kannur District. For town with same name in Karnataka, see Kannur Dakshina Kannada Marumakkattayam (marumakan = nephew dayam= inheritance/gift is a matrilinear system of inheritance which was followed by Castes of Kerala like Royal Families Other Muslims, Christians, and some Hindu castes such as the Namboothiris and the Ezhavas follow makkathayam, a patrilineal system.  Owing to the former matrilineal system, women in Kerala enjoy a high social status. 
Kerala's human development indices—elimination of poverty, primary level education, and health care—are among the best in India. Kerala has the highest literacy rate (96. 9%) among Indian states and life expectancy (73 years) is among the highest in India.  Literacy is 94. 7% among females and 98. 3% among males according to the 2001 census. Kerala's rural poverty rate fell from 69% (1970–1971) to 19% (1993–1994); the overall (urban and rural) rate fell 36% between the 1970s and 1980s.  By 1999–2000, the rural and urban poverty rates dropped to 10. 0% and 9. 6% respectively.  These changes stem largely from efforts begun in the late 19th century by the kingdoms of Cochin and Travancore to boost social welfare.  This focus was maintained by Kerala's post-independence government. 
Kerala's healthcare system has garnered international acclaim. UNICEF and the World Health Organization designating Kerala the world's first "baby-friendly state". The United Nations Children's Fund (or UNICEF) was created by the United Nations General Assembly on December 11, 1946 Representative of this condition, more than 95% of Keralite births are hospital-delivered.  Aside from ayurveda (both elite and popular forms), siddha, and unani, many endangered and endemic modes of traditional medicine, including kalari, marmachikitsa, and vishavaidyam, are practiced. Ayurveda ( Devanāgarī: आयुर्वॆद the 'science of life' is a system of Traditional medicine native to India, and practiced in other for the towns in Nepal see Siddha Nepal A siddha சித்தா in Tamil means "one who is accomplished" and refers to Unani IPA: (in Arabic, Hindi, Persian, Pashtu, Urdu, etc means " Greek " The term traditional medicine ( Indigenous medicine or folk medicine) describes medical knowledge systems which developed over centuries within various societies These propagate via gurukula discipleship, and comprise a fusion of both medicinal and supernatural treatments, and are partly responsible for drawing increasing numbers of medical tourists. A Gurukul ( Guru refers to "teacher" or "master" Kul refers to his domain from the Sanskrit word kula, meaning extended family Medical tourism (also called medical travel, health tourism or global healthcare is a term initially coined by travel agencies and the Mass media
A steadily aging population (11. 2% of Keralites are over age 60) and low birthrate (18 per 1,000) make Kerala one of the few regions of the Third World to have undergone the "demographic transition" characteristic of such developed nations as Canada, Japan, and Norway. The Demographic transition model (DTM is a model used to explain the process of shift from high Birth rates and high Death rates to low birth rates and low death rates The term developed country, or advanced country, is used to categorize countries with developed Economies in which the tertiary and quaternary sectors  In 1991, Kerala's TFR (children born per women) was the lowest in India. The total fertility rate ( TFR, sometimes also called the fertility rate, period total fertility rate (PTFR or total Hindus had a TFR of 1. 66, Christians 1. 78, and Muslims 2. 97. 
Kerala's female-to-male ratio (1. Sex ratio is the Ratio of Males to Females in a Population. The primary sex ratio is the ratio at the time of conception secondary sex ratio is 058) is significantly higher than that of the rest of India.  The same is true of its sub-replacement fertility level and infant mortality rate (estimated at 12 to 14 deaths per 1,000 live births). Sub-replacement fertility is a Total fertility rate that is not high enough to replace an area's population Infant mortality is defined as the number of deaths of Infants (one year of age or younger per 1000 live births However, Kerala's morbidity rate is higher than that of any other Indian state—118 (rural Keralites) and 88 (urban) per 1,000 people. In Medicine, Epidemiology and Actuarial science, the term morbidity can refer to the state of poor health (from Latin The corresponding all India figures are 55 and 54 per 1,000, respectively.  Kerala's 13. 3% prevalence of low birth weight is substantially higher than that of First World nations. In Epidemiology, the prevalence of a Disease in a Statistical population is defined as the total number of cases of the disease in the population at a given Birth weight is the weight of a baby at its birth. It has direct links with the Gestational age at which the child was born and can be estimated The term " first world " refers to countries that are capitalist, which are technologically advanced and whose  Outbreaks of water-borne diseases, including diarrhoea, dysentery, hepatitis, and typhoid, among the more than 50% of Keralites who rely on some 3 million water wells is another problem, which is worsened by the widespread lack of sewers. 
Schools and colleges in Kerala are either run by the government or by private trusts and individuals. The schools are each affiliated with either the Indian Certificate of Secondary Education (ICSE), the Central Board for Secondary Education (CBSE), or the Kerala State Education Board. The Indian Certificate of Secondary Education ( ICSE) examination is an examination conducted by the Council for the Indian School Certificate Examinations for The Kerala State Education Board is a board of school Education in India, conducted by the Government of the Indian state of Kerala English is the medium of instruction in most private schools; though government run schools offer both English and Malayalam. After completing their secondary education, which involves ten years of schooling, students typically enroll at Higher Secondary School in one of the three streams—liberal arts, commerce or science. The term junior college refers to different educational institutions in different countries The term liberal arts refers to a particular type of educational Curriculum broadly defined as a Classical education. Commerce is a division of trade or production which deals with the exchange of goods and services from producer to final consumer Science (from the Latin scientia, meaning " Knowledge " or "knowing" is the effort to discover, and increase human understanding Upon completing the required coursework, the student can enroll in general or professional degree programmes.
Thiruvananthapuram is one of the state's major academic hubs; it hosts the University of Kerala. The University of Kerala is an Affiliating university located in Thiruvananthapuram in Kerala state India. The city also has several professional education colleges, including fifteen engineering colleges, three medical colleges, three Ayurveda colleges, two colleges of homeopathy, six other medical colleges, and several law colleges. Ayurveda ( Devanāgarī: आयुर्वॆद the 'science of life' is a system of Traditional medicine native to India, and practiced in other This article has been the subject of edit wars and has been placed on probation  Trivandrum Medical College, Kerala's premier health institute, is also one of the finest in the country. Trivandrum Medical College is located in Thiruvananthapuram city, the capital of Kerala state India. It is being upgraded to the status of an All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS). All India Institute of Medical Sciences ( AIIMS) (created 1956 is a Medical college and hospital in India, and is an autonomous institution The College of Engineering, Trivandrum is one of the prominent engineering institutions in the country. The College of Engineering Trivandrum, commonly known as CET, is situated in Thiruvananthapuram, the capital city of Kerala. The Asian School of Business and IIITM-K are two of the other premier management study institutions in the city, both situated inside Technopark. Management (covering theory practice and scope of management and Manager' (covering the people who manage might help clarify and systematise Technopark is a Technology park in Thiruvananthapuram ( Trivandrum) Kerala, India dedicated to Electronics, Software The Indian Institute of Space Technology, the unique and first of its kind in India, is situated in the state capital.
Kochi is another major educational hub. The Cochin University of Science and Technology (also known as "Cochin University") is situated in the city. Cochin University of Science & Technology ( CUSAT) is a Government owned Autonomous University in Kochi ( Cochin) Most of the city's colleges offering tertiary education are affiliated either with the Mahatma Gandhi University or Cochin University. Tertiary education, also referred to as third stage third level and' post-secondary education', is the educational level following the completion of a school providing Mahatma Gandhi University, also known as M G University, was established on 2 October, 1983 in Kottayam. Other national educational institutes in Kochi include the Central Institute of Fisheries Nautical and Engineering Training, the National University of Advanced Legal Studies, the National Institute of Oceanography and the Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute. Central Institute of Fisheries Nautical and Engineering Training (or CIFNET is a marine studies centre located at Kochi, India. National University of Advanced Legal Studies (NUALS is a University located at Kochi, India. Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute is a marine research institute located at Kochi, India.
Thrissur can be called as the Educational Capital of Kerala as Coimbatore to Tamil Nadu. For the district with the same name see Thrissur district. Thrissur / Trichur / Trissur ( Malayalam: തൃശ്ശൂര് Kerala Agricultural University is situated in this city. Three Medical Colleges, The Government Engineering College, Govt. Law College, Ayurveda College, Govt. Fine Arts College, College of Co-operation & Banking and Management, College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, College of Horticulture, College of Forestry etc make the name "Educational Capital" more meaningful. There are a lot of famous colleges like St. Thomas College, Sri Kerala Varma College, St. Mary's College, Vimala College etc. Thrissur is also a main center of coaching for the entrance examinations for engineering and medicine.
Kottayam also acts as a main educational hub. WikipediaWikiProject Indian cities for details --> This article is about the town of Kottayam See Kottayam district also According to the 1991 census, Kottayam District of Kerala is the first district to achieve full literacy rate in the whole of India. This article is about the District of Kottayam See Kottayam Town also Literacy in India is an indispensable means for effective social and economic participation contributing to human development and poverty reduction says UNESCO. Mahatma Gandhi University, CMS College(the first institution to start English education in Southern India), Medical College, Kottayam, and the Labour India Educational Research Center are some of the important educational institutions in the district. Mahatma Gandhi University, also known as M G University, was established on 2 October, 1983 in Kottayam. The CMS College ( cms college) ( cms college kottayam) the first college in india Kottayam, Kerala, India. Government Medical College Kottayam is one of the five government financed medical colleges in Kerala, India. Labour India Publications Limited is an educational publisher based in Marangattupally, Kerala, India.
Kozhikode is home to two of the premier educational institutions in the country; the IIMK, one of the seven Indian Institutes of Management, and the only National Institute of Technology in Kerala, the NITC. WikipediaWikiProject Indian cities for details --> For the district with the same name see Kozhikode District. The Indian Institute of Management Kozhikode (IIMK is one of the seven Indian Institutes of Management set up by the Government of India. The Indian Institutes of Management (IIMs are India's premier Management institutes that also conduct research and provide consultancy services in the field of management National Institute of Technology Calicut ( Hindi:राष्ट्रीय प्रौद्योगिकी संस्थान कालिकट or NITC
Kerala's culture is derived from both a greater Tamil-heritage region known as Tamilakam and southern coastal Karnataka. Kerala is a southern most state of India. Kerala can largely trace its non-prehistoric cultural genesis to its membership (around the 3rd century CE in a vaguely-defined Tamiḻakam ( Tamil தமிழகம் is a Tamil word meaning the Tamil country or the Tamil home. Karnataka (ಕರ್ನಾಟಕ pronounced) is a state in the southern part of India Later, Kerala's culture was elaborated upon through centuries of contact with neighboring and overseas cultures.  Native performing arts include koodiyattom (a 2000 year old Sanskrit theatre tradition, officially recognised by UNESCO as a Masterpiece of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity), kathakali—from katha ("story") and kali ("performance")—and its offshoot Kerala natanam, koothu (akin to stand-up comedy), mohiniaattam ("dance of the enchantress"), thullal, padayani, and theyyam. The performing arts are those forms of Art which differ from the Plastic arts insofar as the former uses the artist's own Body, Face and presence Koodiyattam or Kutiyattam (kuːʈijaːʈːam is a form of Sanskrit theatre traditionally performed in the state of Kerala, India. United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization ( UNESCO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established on November 16 The Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity is a list maintained by UNESCO with pieces of Intangible culture considered relevant by that Kathakali (കഥകളി kat̪ʰəkaɭi is a form of highly stylised classical Indian Dance - Drama that is noted for its attractive make-up of characters Kerala Natanam (Kerala Dance is a new style of dance that is now recognised as a distinct art form evolved from Kathakali a form of Indian dance-drama Chakyar Koothu (tʃaːkjaːr kuːtː̪ɨ̆ is a performing art form from Kerala, South India. Mohiniyattam ( Malayalam: മോഹിനിയാട്ടം is a traditional South Indian Dance form from Kerala, India. Ottamthullal or Ottanthullal (oːʈːamt̪uɭːal Malayalam:ഓട്ടന് തുള്ളല് is a type of performing art from Kerala, south Padayani or padeni colloquial speech is one of the most colourful and spectacular Ritual art associated with the festivals of certain Temples in southern The Theyyam or Theyyattam is a popular Ritual dance of north Kerala, South India, particularly presented in the Kolathunadu (of the
Other forms of art are more religious or tribal in nature. These include chavittu nadakom, oppana (originally from Malabar), which combines dance, rhythmic hand clapping, and ishal vocalisations. Chavittu nadakom is an almost extinct art form which was popular among certain segments of Christians in Kerala, India. Oppana ( Malayalam:ഒപ്പന is a popular form of social entertainment among the Mappila community of Kerala, South India, prevalent all However, many of these art forms largely play to tourists or at youth festivals, and are not as popular among most ordinary Keralites. These people look to more contemporary art and performance styles, including those employing mimicry and parody.
Kerala's music also has ancient roots. Kerala is a region of India, musically known for Sopanam. Sopanam is religious in nature and developed through singing invocatory songs at the Kalam of Carnatic music dominates Keralite traditional music. Carnatic music (also spelled Karnatak music or Karnatik music, and originally called Karṇāṭaka sangīta or Karṇāṭaka sangītam in India This was the result of Swathi Thirunal Rama Varma's popularisation of the genre in the 19th century. Sri Swathi Thirunal Rama Varma (April 16 1813 - December 25 1846 was the Maharaja of the state of Travancore, in India.  Raga-based renditions known as sopanam accompany kathakali performances. Kathakali (കഥകളി kat̪ʰəkaɭi is a form of highly stylised classical Indian Dance - Drama that is noted for its attractive make-up of characters Melam (including the paandi and panchari variants) is a more percussive style of music; it is performed at Kshetram centered festivals using the chenda. A Hindu temple or Mandir ( Sanskrit: मंदिर is a house of worship for Hindus followers of Hinduism. "Chene" redirects here This is also a peculiar cactus Species, Polaskia chende. Melam ensembles comprise up to 150 musicians, and performances may last up to four hours. Panchavadyam is a different form of percussion ensemble, in which up to 100 artists use five types of percussion instrument. Kerala has various styles of folk and tribal music. The popular music of Kerala is dominated by the filmi music of Indian cinema. Filmi (or Filmy used as an adjective is a colloquial term which refers to anything relating to the Bollywood film industry The Indian film industry is the largest in the world in terms of ticket sales and number of films produced annually (877 feature films and 1177 short films were released in the year 2003 Kerala's visual arts range from traditional murals to the works of Raja Ravi Varma, the state's most renowned painter. Kerala mural paintings are the Frescos depicting Mythology and legends which are drawn on the walls of temples and churches in South India, principally Raja Ravi Varma ( April 29, 1848 - October 2, 1906) was an Indian painter who achieved recognition for his depiction of scenes
|State symbols of Kerala|
|Bird||Great Indian Hornbill|
|Flower||Cassia Fistula (Indian laburnum)|
Kerala has its own Malayalam calendar, which is used to plan agricultural and religious activities. Elephants ( family: Elephantidae) are large land Mammals of the order Proboscidea. The Great Hornbill, Buceros bicornis also known as Greater Indian Hornbill or Two-horned Calao, is the largest Asian member of the Hornbill family "Cassia fistula" redirects here This Taxon can also refer to other Species; see below. The Coconut Palm ( Cocos nucifera) is a member of the Family Arecaceae (palm family See also Mangifera caesia The jackfruit ( Artocarpus heterophyllus) is a species of Tree of the mulberry family ( Moraceae) for the town in Nepal see Sari Nepal A sari or saree or shari is a female garment in the Indian subcontinent Malayalam calendar (also known as Malayalam Era or Kollavarsham) is a solar Sidereal calendar used in the state of Kerala in South India Kerala's cuisine is typically served as a sadhya on green banana leaves. Sadya ( Malayalam: സദ്യ means banquet in Malayalam (the language spoken in Kerala, India) Such dishes as idli, payasam, pulisherry, puttucuddla, puzhukku, rasam, and sambar are typical. History Although the precise history of the modern idli is unknown it is a very old food in southern Indian cuisine Kheer ( Sanskrit: हिन्दी (Payasam Oriya: Kheeri) a traditional dish in the Indian subcontinent, is a Rice pudding typically Rasam, ( Tamil: Rasam; Kannada: Saaru; Telugu: Chaaru; sanskrit: Rasam) is a South Indian Keralites—both men and women alike—traditionally don flowing and unstitched garments. These include the mundu, a loose piece of cloth wrapped around men's waists. The mundu (muɳʈɨ is a garment worn around the waist in Kerala and Maldives related to the Dhoti as well as the Lungi. Women typically wear the sari, a long and elaborately wrapped banner of cloth, wearable in various styles. for the town in Nepal see Sari Nepal A sari or saree or shari is a female garment in the Indian subcontinent
The predominant spoken language in Kerala is Malayalam, most of whose speakers live in Kerala. Not to be confused with the Malay language. Malayalam (മലയാളം malayāḷaṁ) is a Dravidian language used The term Malayalam literature refers to Literature written in Malayalam language
Malayalam literature is ancient in origin, and includes such figures as the 14th century Niranam poets (Madhava Panikkar, Sankara Panikkar and Rama Panikkar), and the 17th century poet Thunchaththu Ezhuthachan whose works mark the dawn of both modern Malayalam language and indigenous Keralite poetry. The term Malayalam literature refers to Literature written in Malayalam language Niranam is a small village in Southern Kerala in India near Mannar town Thunchaththu Ramanujan Ezhuthachan Malayalam തുഞ്ചത്തു രാമാനുജന് എഴുത്തച്ഛന് is considered as the Father of the The "triumvirate of poets" (Kavithrayam), Kumaran Asan, Vallathol Narayana Menon, and Ulloor S. Parameswara Iyer, are recognised for moving Keralite poetry away from archaic sophistry and metaphysics, and towards a more lyrical mode. NKumaran Asan, Vallathol Narayana Menon and Ulloor S Parameswara Iyer are regarded as the triumvirates ( Kavithrayam) of modern Malayalam N Kumaran Asan (1873-1924 also known as Mahakavi Kumaran Asan, (the name prefix Mahakavi (Awarded by Madras University in the Year 1922 meaning great poet and the Vallathol Narayana Menon popularly known as Vallathol, was one of the famous triumvirate poets of Kerala Ulloor S Parameswara Iyer (1877-1949 ( Malayalam: ഉള്ളൂര് എസ് Lyrics (in singular form Lyric) are a set of words that accompany music either by speaking or singing
In the second half of the 20th century, Jnanpith awardees like G. Sankara Kurup, S. K. Pottekkatt, Thakazhi Sivasankara Pillai and M. T. Vasudevan Nair have made valuable contributions to the Malayalam literature. The Jnanpith Award is a literary award in India. Along with the Sahitya Akademi Fellowship, it is one of the two most prestigious literary honours in the country G Sankara Kurup, (born June 3, 1901, Nayathode Kerala, India - February 2, 1978, Trivandrum, Kerala Sankaran Kutty Pottekkatt, Popularly known as S K Pottekkatt, ( March 14 1913 &ndash August 6 1982) was a famous Malayalam Thakazhi Sivasankara Pillai ( 17 April, 1912 - 10 April, 1999) was a Novelist and Short story writer of M T Vasudevan Nair, popularly known as MT is a renowned Malayalam author Screenplay writer and Film director. Later, such Keralite writers as O. V. Vijayan, Kamaladas, M. Mukundan, and Booker Prize winner Arundhati Roy, whose 1996 semi-autobiographical bestseller The God of Small Things is set in the Kottayam town of Ayemenem, have gained international recognition. Ootupulackal Velukkuty Vijayan (Oottupulackal Velukkutty Vijayan July 2 1930 &ndash March 30 2005) was an Indian Author Kamala Suraiya (born Kamala Das on March 31, 1934) is a well-known Indian writer who writes in English as well as Malayalam M Mukundan is one of the pioneers of modernity in Malayalam literature. The Man Booker Prize for Fiction, also known in short as the Booker Prize, is a literary prize awarded each year for the best original full-length Novel Suzanna Arundhati Roy (born November 24, 1961) is an Indian Writer and Activist who won the Booker Prize in 1997 for her novel An autobiography, from the Greek αὐτός autos "self" βίος bios "life" and γράφειν graphein "to write" The God of Small Things (1997 is a semi-autobiographical politically charged novel by Indian author Arundhati Roy. WikipediaWikiProject Indian cities for details --> This article is about the town of Kottayam See Kottayam district also 
Dozens of newspapers are published in Kerala; they are printed in nine major languages.  The principal languages of publication are Malayalam and English. The most widely circulating Malayalam-language newspapers include Malayala Manorama, Mathrubhumi, Deepika, Kerala Kaumudi,Madhyamam and Desabhimani. Madhyamam Thejas Malayala Manorama Mathrubhumi Deepika Desabhimani Malayala Manorama (മലയാള മനോരമ is a popular Malayalam daily newspaper in Kerala, India. Mathrubhumi is a prominent Malayalam language newspapers in Kerala state of India. Deepika, a Malayalam language newspaper is one of the oldest newspapers published in India. Kerala Kaumudi is a popular Malayalam newspaper founded in 1911 by C Madhyamam is a Malayalam daily newspaper established in 1987. Desabhimani is a Malayalam Newspaper and the organ of the Kerala State Committee of the Communist Party of India (Marxist. Among major Malayalam periodicals are India Today Malayalam, Vanitha, Veedu, Gruhalakshmi, Chithrabhumi, Kanyaka, and Bhashaposhini. The following is a list of Periodicals published in the Malayalam language India Today is an Indian weekly Newsmagazine published by Living Media India Limited, in publication since 1975. Vanitha is an Indian biweekly magazine published by the Malayala Manorama group Chithrabhumi is a film magazine in Malayalam. It is a publication from Mathrubhumi group Kanyaka is an Indian Magazine in Malayalam primarily addressing women's issues Bhashaposhini is an Indian monthly magazine It is one of the oldest Malayalam Literary review magazines
Doordarshan is the state-owned television broadcaster. Doordarshan (दूरदर्शन literally Tele-Vision) is the public television broadcaster of India and a division of Prasar Bharati, a public Multi system operators provide a mix of Malayalam, English, and international channels via cable television. A multiple system operator (MSO is an operator of multiple Cable television systems There are 17 malayalam channels which makes the countries maximum number in regional language. Asianet,Surya TV,Kairali TV and Amrita TV are among the Malayalam-language channels that compete with the major national channels. Asianet is one of the leading Television channel companies in Kerala, India. Surya TV is a Malayalam television channel in India.Established in 1998 October 7th the channel is the largest entertainment channel in Malayalam Kairali TV is a Malayalam television channel based in Trivandrum, Kerala. Amrita TV, launched in 2005 as a 24-hour Malayalam general entertainment & news satellite channel with a global footprint has been honoured with 26 State Awards for Excellence in All India Radio, the national radio service, reaches much of Kerala via its Thiruvananthapuram 'A' Malayalam-language broadcaster. All India Radio (abbreviated as AIR) officially known as Akashvani ( Devanagari: आकाशवाणी ākāshavānī ( Urdu: اکاشوانی BSNL, Reliance Infocomm, Tata Indicom, Vodafone and Airtel compete to provide cellular phone services. Reliance Communications (formerly Reliance Infocomm) along with Reliance Telecom and Flag Telecom, is part of Reliance Communications Ventures (RCoVL Introduction Tata Teleservices Limited (TTSL is a part of the Tata Group of companies an Indian conglomerate Vodafone is a Mobile network operator headquartered in Berkshire, England, UK. Bharti Airtel, formerly known as Bharti Tele-Ventures Limited (BTVL is India 's largest cellular service provider with more than 75 million subscribers as of August Broadband internet is available in most of the towns and cities and is provided by different agencies like the state-run Kerala Telecommunications (which is run by BSNL) and by other private companies like Asianet Satellite communications, VSNL. The term broadband can have different meanings in different contexts Asianet is one of the leading Television channel companies in Kerala, India. Tata Communications, formerly known Videsh Sanchar Nigam Limited or VSNL, is India 's largest Telecommunication company in international long BSNL provides 2 Mbit/s and 8 Mbit/s broadband service in most of the cities. Kerala accounts for the highest number of PC users and software engineers in India. Around 30% of software engineers working in Bangalore are from Kerala.
A substantial Malayalam film industry effectively competes against both Bollywood and Hollywood. Malayalam cinema refers to Films made in the Indian state of Kerala in the Malayalam language. Bollywood (बॉलीवूड بالی وڈ is the informal term popularly used for the Mumbai -based Hindi-language Film industry in India Television (especially "mega serials" and cartoons) and the Internet have affected Keralite culture. Yet Keralites maintain high rates of newspaper and magazine subscriptions; 50% spend an average of about seven hours a week reading novels and other books. A sizeable "people's science" movement has taken root in the state, and such activities as writers' cooperatives are becoming increasingly common. 
Several ancient ritualised arts are Keralite in origin. These include kalaripayattu—kalari ("place", "threshing floor", or "battlefield") and payattu ("exercise" or "practice"). Kalarippayattu or kalaripayattu ( Malayalam കളരിപയറ്റ് kaɭəɾipːajətːɨ̆ is a Martial art with origins in Kerala Kalari is the Malayalam word for the kind of gymnasium where Kalarippayattu, a martial art from Kerala, is practiced Among the world's oldest martial arts, oral tradition attributes kalaripayattu's emergence to Parasurama. Other ritual arts include theyyam and poorakkali. The Theyyam or Theyyattam is a popular Ritual dance of north Kerala, South India, particularly presented in the Kolathunadu (of the Poorakkali is a traditional dance ritual performed by men during the nine-day Pooram festival in Bhagavathy temples across Northern Kerala (formerly known However, larger numbers of Keralites follow sports such as cricket, kabaddi, soccer, and badminton. Cricket is a bat-and-ball team Sport that originated in England and is now played in more than 100 countries Kabaddi (sometimes written Kabbadi or Kabadi) (கபடி otherwise known as சடுகுடுకబడ్డీ ਕਬੱਡੀ कबड्डी कबड्डीکبڈی Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a Team sport played between two teams of eleven players and is widely considered Badminton is a racquet sport played by either two opposing players (singles or two opposing pairs (doubles who take positions on opposite halves of a rectangular court Dozens of large stadiums, including Kochi's Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium and Thiruvananthapuram's Chandrashekaran Nair Stadium, attest to the mass appeal of such sports among Keralites. Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium (locally known as Kaloor International Stadium) is an international Stadium in Kochi, Kerala, India.
Kerala has been the athletics powerhouse of India for decades, and several Keralite athletes have attained world-class status, including P. T. Usha, Suresh Babu, Shiny Wilson, K. M. Beenamol, M. D. Valsamma and Anju Bobby George. Pilavullakandi Thekkeparambil Usha ( Malayalam: പിലാവുളളകണ്ടി തെക്കേപറമ്പില് ഉഷ) (born June 27 Suresh Babu has held the national title in the long triple and high jump events in addition to the decathlon Shiny Abraham (now Wilson (b May 8, 1965) is an Indian athlete. Kalayathumkuzhi Mathews Beenamol, popularly known as K M Beenamol (b Manathoor Devasia Valsamma (born 29 October 1960 was an Indian athlete Anju Bobby George ( Malayalam: അഞ്ജു ബോബി ജോര്ജ്ജ് (born April 19, 1977) is an Indian athlete
As in the rest of India, cricket is the most popular sport in the state but it has an illustrious history in other sports/games, including football. Some notable football stars from Kerala include I. M. Vijayan, V. P. Sathyan, and Joe Paul Ancheri. Inivalappil Mani Vijayan (Malayalam അയിനിവളപ്പില് മണി വിജയന് (born April 25 1969) is one of the leading Indian VP Sathyan (1965 – July 18, 2006) was a former captain of the India national football team. Volleyball, another popular sport, is often played on makeshift courts on sandy beaches along the coast. Volleyball is an Olympic team sport in which two teams of 6 active players (5 normal players and one 'libero' are separated by a net that is usually four feet Jimmy George, born in Peravoor, Kannur, was a notable Indian volleyball player, regarded in his prime as among the world's ten best players. Jimmy George (born March 8, 1955 in Peravoor, died November 30, 1987) was a professional Volleyball player from Peravoor is a small town in Kannur district of Kerala state South India. For the district with the name Kannur see Kannur District. For town with same name in Karnataka, see Kannur Dakshina Kannada 
It is from the 1990s that cricket started growing in popularity. The 21st century saw two Kerala Ranji Trophy players gain test selection. Shanthakumaran Sreesanth, born in Kothamangalam, has represented India since 2005, and is the most successful cricketer from Kerala. Shanthakumaran Sreesanth (born 6 February 1983 in Kothamangalam, Kerala, India also known as S Kothamangalam may refer to WikipediaWikiProject Indian cities for details --> Kothamangalam ( Malayalam:കോതമംഗലം is a small . Among less successful Keralite cricketers is Tinu Yohannan, son of Olympic long jumper T. C. Yohannan. Tinu Yohannan (b 18 February 1979) is an Indian pace bowler from the state of Kerala who was for several years on the fringes of the national The Olympic Games is an international Multi-sport event established for both summer and winter games The long jump is an Athletics (track and field event in which athletes combine speed strength and agility in an attempt to leap as far from the take-off point as possible T C Yohannan is a former Indian Long jumper who held the national record in long jump for nearly 3 decades and represented India in the 1976 Summer Olympics 
Kerala, situated on the lush and tropical Malabar Coast, is one of the most popular tourist destinations in India. Named as one of the "ten paradises of the world" and "50 places of a lifetime" by the National Geographic Traveler magazine, Kerala is especially known for its ecotourism initiatives. National Geographic Traveler is a magazine published by the National Geographic Society in the United States. Ecotourism, also known as ecological tourism, is a form of Tourism that appeals to ecologically and socially conscious individuals  Its unique culture and traditions, coupled with its varied demographics, has made Kerala one of the most popular tourist destinations in the world. Kerala is a southern most state of India. Kerala can largely trace its non-prehistoric cultural genesis to its membership (around the 3rd century CE in a vaguely-defined Population Religion The major religions followed in Kerala are Hinduism (56 Growing at a rate of 13. 31%, the state's tourism industry is a major contributor to the state's economy. Agriculture dominates the Keralite economy Kerala lags behind many other Indian states and territories in terms of per capita GDP (11819 
Until the early 1980s, Kerala was a relatively unknown destination; most tourist circuits focused on North India. Geography Northern India lies mainly on continental India and a very small part of it lies on the Indian peninsula Aggressive marketing campaigns launched by the Kerala Tourism Development Corporation, the government agency that oversees tourism prospects of the state, laid the foundation for the growth of the tourism industry. The Kerala Tourism Development Corporation (KTDC is a government agency that conducts and regulates the tourism activities of the Indian state of Kerala. In the decades that followed, Kerala's tourism industry was able to transform the state into one of the niche holiday destinations in India. The tagline Kerala- God's Own Country, originally coined by Vipin Gopal, has been widely used in Kerala's tourism promotions and soon became synonymous with the state. God’s Own Country, often abbreviated to Godzone or less often Godzown, is a phrase that has been used for more than 120 years by New Zealanders to describe Dr Vipin Gopal, born at Calicut, Kerala, India, is an inventor business innovator and community activist In 2006, Kerala attracted 8. 5 million tourist arrivals, an increase of 23. 68% over the previous year, making the state one of the fastest-growing destinations in the world. 
Popular attractions in the state include the beaches at Kovalam, Cherai and Varkala; the hill stations of Munnar, Nelliampathi, Ponmudi and Wayanad; and national parks and wildlife sanctuaries at Periyar and Eravikulam National Park. Kovalam is a Beach town on the Arabian Sea in Kerala, a state in South India. Kovalam is a Beach town on the Arabian Sea in Kerala, a state in South India. Cherai is a small coastal town in the Ernakulam district of Kerala, South India. WikipediaWikiProject Indian cities for details --> Varkala ( Malayalam: വര്ക്കല is a coastal town and Municipality in Thiruvananthapuram Hill station is a term used for a town usually at somewhat higher elevations Munnar ( മൂന്നാര് மூணார் is a town located in Kerala state in the southern Western Ghats in South India. Nelliampathi is a popular hill station 60 km away from Palakkad in Kerala a small state in South India. Ponmudi (The Golden Peak is a hillstation in the Thiruvananthapuram district of Kerala in South India. Wayanad District, in the north-east of Kerala, India, was formed on November 1 1980 as the 12th district by carving out areas from Thekkady ( Idukki district) is the location of the Periyar National Park, which is an important tourist attraction in the Kerala state of Eravikulam National Park is a 97 km² National park located along the Western Ghats in the Idukki district of Kerala in India The "backwaters" region, which comprises an extensive network of interlocking rivers, lakes, and canals that centre on Alleppey, Kumarakom, and Punnamada (where the annual Nehru Trophy Boat Race is held in August), also see heavy tourist traffic. Alappuzha (ആലപ്പുഴ also known as Alleppey, is a town in Alappuzha District of Kerala state of southern India. Kumarakom is a tourist village in Kottayam district, Kerala, India. Punnamada Lake is a Lake in the Kerala Backwaters region near Alappuzha in the Indian state of Kerala. Heritage sites, such as the Padmanabhapuram Palace and the Mattancherry Palace, are also visited. Padamanabhapuram Palace complex is located in at Padmanabhapuram Fort close to the town of Thuckalay in Kanyakumari District, Tamilnadu. The Mattancherry Palace, also known as the Dutch Palace, in Mattancherry, Kochi, in the Indian state of Kerala features Cities such as Kochi and Thiruvananthapuram are popular centres for their shopping and traditional theatrical performances. During early summer, the Thrissur Pooram is conducted, attracting foreign tourists who are largely drawn by the festival's elephants and celebrants. Thrissur Pooram is the annual temple festival of the town of Thrissur in Kerala, India.