|Jamhuri ya Kenya|
Republic of Kenya
|Motto: "Harambee" (Swahili)|
"Let us all pull together"
|Anthem: Ee Mungu Nguvu Yetu|
"O God of All Creation"
(and largest city)
|Official languages||Swahili (since 1963), English|
|-||Prime Minister||Raila Odinga|
|Independence||from the United Kingdom|
|-||Date||December 12, 1963|
|-||Republic declared||December 12, 1964|
|-||Total||580,367 km² (47th)|
224,080 sq mi
|-||Water (%)||2. The flag of Kenya was officially adopted on December 12, 1963. The Coat of arms of Kenya features two Lions a symbol of protection holding Spears and a traditional East African Shield. A motto (from the Italian word motto, meaning witticism sentence is a phrase meant to formally describe the general motivation or intention of a social group Harambee is a Kenyan tradition of community self-help events eg Swahili (called Kiswahili in the language itself is the First language of the Swahili people (Waswahili who inhabit several large stretches A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history traditions and struggles of its people recognized either by a nation's Ee Mungu Nguvu Yetu (Oh God of All Creation is the National anthem of Kenya. Kenya has a very diverse population that includes most major ethnic and linguistic groups of Africa. Nairobi (naɪˈroʊbɪ is the capital and largest city of Kenya. An official language is a Language that is given a special legal status in a particular Country, State, or other territory Swahili (called Kiswahili in the language itself is the First language of the Swahili people (Waswahili who inhabit several large stretches A demonym or gentilic is a word that denotes the members of a People or the inhabitants of a place For the government of parliamentary systems see Executive (government. A republic is a State or Country that is not led by a hereditary Monarch, but in which the people (or at least a part of its people have impact on its List of the heads of state of Kenya Dominion of Kenya (1963 – 1964 Republic of Kenya (1964 – present Latest election "Notes from Mwai Kibaki (born November 15, 1931) is the President of Kenya. Prime Minister of Kenya is a new post re-created in the aftermath of the 2007–2008 Kenyan crisis. Raila Amollo Odinga (born January 7, 1945) is a Kenyan politician currently serving as the Prime Minister of Kenya with president Mwai Kibaki Independence is the Self-government of a Nation, Country, or State by its residents and population or some portion thereof generally exercising The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Events 627 - Battle of Nineveh: A Byzantine army under Emperor Heraclius defeats Emperor Khosrau II 's Persian Year 1963 ( MCMLXIII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Events 627 - Battle of Nineveh: A Byzantine army under Emperor Heraclius defeats Emperor Khosrau II 's Persian Year 1964 ( MCMLXIV) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar of the 1964 Gregorian calendar. Area is a Quantity expressing the two- Dimensional size of a defined part of a Surface, typically a region bounded by a closed Curve. To help compare Orders of magnitude of different geographical regions we list here Surface areas between 100000 km² and 1000000 km² This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by total area. The square mile is an imperial and US unit of Area equal the area of a square of one statute mile. Water is a common Chemical substance that is essential for the survival of all known forms of Life. In Mathematics, a percentage is a way of expressing a number as a Fraction of 100 ( per cent meaning "per hundred" 3|
|-||July 2005 estimate||34,707,8171 (34th)|
|-||8 February 2007 census||31,138,735|
|GDP (PPP)||2005 estimate|
|-||Total||$48. In Biology a population is the collection of inter-breeding organisms of a particular Species; in Sociology List of countries by population in 2005|List of countries by population in 1907This is a list of countries ordered according to Population. Events 421 - Constantius III becomes co- Emperor of the Western Roman Empire. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Population density (in agriculture standing stock and Standing crop) is a measurement of Population per unit area or unit volume List of countries and dependencies by Population density in inhabitants/km² The purchasing power parity ( PPP) theory uses the long-term equilibrium Exchange rate of two currencies to equalize their Purchasing power. 33 billion (79th)|
|-||Per capita||$1,445 (156th)|
|HDI (2007)||▲ 0. There are three lists of Countries of the world sorted by their Gross domestic product (GDP (the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation Per capita is a Latin phrase meaning for each head with Per meaning 'through' or 'by' This article includes three lists of Countries of the world sorted by their Gross domestic product (GDP at Purchasing power parity (PPP Per capita The Human Development Index ( HDI) is an index combining normalized measures of Life expectancy, Literacy, Educational attainment, and GDP 521 (medium) (148th)|
|Currency||Kenyan shilling (|
|Time zone||EAT (UTC+3)|
|-||Summer (DST)||not observed (UTC+3)|
|2. This is a list of countries by Human Development Index as included in the United Nations Development Program 's Human Development Report 2007 A currency is a unit of exchange, facilitating the transfer of Goods and/or services It is one form of Money, where money is The shilling ( ISO 4217 code KES, also often used KSh) is the Currency of Kenya. ISO 4217 is the International standard describing three-letter codes (also known as the currency code) to define the names of currencies established East Africa Time, or EAT, is a time zone used in eastern Africa. Daylight saving time ( DST A country This is a list of country calling codes defined by ITU-T recommendation E 005 from Tanzania and Uganda.|
The Republic of Kenya is a country in East Africa. East Africa is the Easternmost Region of the African Continent. It is bordered by Ethiopia to the north, Somalia to the east, Tanzania to the south, Uganda to the west, and Sudan to the northwest, with the Indian Ocean running along the southeast border. NOTE This intro is the result of careful NPOV work Please do not make potentially controversial edits to it without first discussing on the talk page Somalia ( Soomaaliya; الصومال) officially the Somali Republic ( Jamhuuriyadda Soomaaliya, جمهورية الصومال) and formerly known Tanzania ˌtænzəˈniːə officially the United Republic of Tanzania (Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania is a country in East Africa bordered by Kenya The Republic of Uganda is a Landlocked country in East Africa. Sudan (officially the Republic of Sudan) ( السودان al-Sūdān is a country in northeastern Africa. The Indian Ocean is the third largest of the world's Oceanic divisions covering about 20% of the water on the Earth 's surface Borders define geographic boundaries of political entities or legal jurisdictions such as Governments States or subnational administrative The country is named after Mount Kenya, a very significant landmark, and both were originally usually pronounced ˈkiːnjə in English although the native pronunciation and the one intended by the original transcription Kenia was ˈkenia. Mount Kenya is the highest Mountain in Kenya, and the second highest in Africa (after Mount Kilimanjaro)  During the presidency of Jomo Kenyatta in the 1960s, the current pronunciation ˈkɛnjə became widespread in English too because his name was pronounced according to the original native pronunciation. Jomo Kenyatta ( October 20, 1894 &ndash August 22, 1978) served as the first Prime Minister (1963&ndash1964 and President  Before 1920, the area now known as Kenya was known as the British East Africa Protectorate and so there was no need to mention mount when referring to the mountain. 
Palaeontologists have discovered many fossils of prehistoric animals in Kenya. The history of Kenya as a land occupied by sentient humans extends for millions of years even though the history of Kenya as an independent state is relatively short Palaeontology redirects here For the Scientific journal, see Palaeontology (journal. Stone Age Paleolithic See also Paleolithic, Recent African Origin, Early Homo sapiens, Early human migrations "Paleolithic" At one of the rare dinosaur fossil sites in Africa, two hundred Cretaceous theropod and giant crocodile fossils have been discovered in Kenya, dating from the Mesozoic Era, over 200 million years ago. FOSSIL is a standard protocol for allowing serial communication for Telecommunications programs under the DOS Operating system. The Cretaceous (kriːˈteɪʃəs, usually abbreviated 'K' for its German translation "Kreide" is a geologic period and system, reaching from the end of Theropods (ˈθɪərəpɒd theropoda /θiːˈrɒpədə/ 'beast feet' are a group of Bipedal Saurischian Dinosaurs Although they were primarily The term prehistoric Reptile covers a broad category that is intended to help distinguish the Dinosaurs from other prehistoric reptiles The Mesozoic Era is one of three geologic eras of the Phanerozoic eon. The fossils were found in an excavation conducted by a team from the University of Utah and the National Museums of Kenya in July-August 2004 at Lokitaung Gorge, near Lake Turkana. The University of Utah (referred to locally as ' The U' or ' the U of U') is a publicly funded Research university in Salt Lake The National Museums of Kenya (NMK is a governmental body maintaining museums and monuments in Kenya. Lake Turkana (tər-kăn'ə tʊr-kä'nə formerly known as Lake Rudolf, is a Lake in the Great Rift Valley in Kenya, with its far northern 
Fossils found in East Africa suggest that primates roamed the area more than 20 million years ago. Recent finds near Kenya's Lake Turkana indicate that hominids such as Homo habilis (1. A hominid is any member of the biological family Hominidae (the "great apes" including the extinct and extant Humans Chimpanzees Homo habilis (ˈhoʊmoʊ ˈhæbəlɪs ("handy man" "skillful person" is a Species of the genus Homo, which lived 8 and 2. 5 million years ago) and Homo erectus (1. Homo erectus ( Latin: "upright man" is an extinct species of the genus Homo, believed to have been the first hominin 8 million to 350,000 years ago) are possible direct ancestors of modern Homo sapiens and lived in Kenya during the Pleistocene epoch. Human beings, humans or man (Origin 1590–1600 L homō man OL hemō the earthly one (see Humus The Pleistocene ('plaɪstəsin is the epoch from 18 million to 10000 years BP covering the world's recent period In 1984 one particular discovery made at Lake Turkana by famous palaeoanthropologist Richard Leakey and Kamoya Kimeu was the skeleton of a Turkana boy belonging to Homo erectus from 1. Lake Turkana (tər-kăn'ə tʊr-kä'nə formerly known as Lake Rudolf, is a Lake in the Great Rift Valley in Kenya, with its far northern Richard Erskine Frere Leakey (born 19 December 1944 in Nairobi, Kenya) is a Kenyan politician Kamoya Kimeu, (born c 1940 is one of the world's most successful fossil collectors who together with paleontologists Meave Leakey and Richard Leakey, Turkana Boy or Nariokotome Boy is the designation given to Fossil KNM-WT 15000 a nearly complete skeleton of an 11- or 12-year-old Hominid boy who died 6 million years ago. Previous research on early hominids is particularly identified to Louis Leakey and Mary Leakey, who are responsible for the preliminary archaeological research at Olorgesailie and Hyrax Hill. Louis Seymour Bazett Leakey ( LSB Leakey) ( August 7, 1903 – October 1 1972) was a Kenyan archaeologist and naturalist Mary Leakey ( February 6 1913 &ndash December 9 1996) was a British Archaeologist and Anthropologist, who Hyrax Hill is a prehistoric site near Nakuru in the Rift Valley province of Kenya. Later work at the former was undertaken by Glynn Isaac. Glynn Llywelyn Isaac (1937-1985 was a South African Archaeologist who specialised in the very early Prehistory of Africa.
Cushitic-speaking people from northern Africa moved into the area that is now Kenya beginning around 2000 BC. The Ruins of Gedi are the remains of a Swahili town located in Gede, a village near the coastal town of Malindi in Kenya. The Cushitic languages are a branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family spoken in the Horn of Africa. North Africa or Northern Africa is the Northernmost Region of the African Continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Arab traders began frequenting the Kenya coast around the 1st century AD. The araB gene Promoter is a bacterial promoter activated by e L-arabinose binding Kenya's proximity to the Arabian Peninsula invited colonization, and Arab and Persian settlements sprouted along the coast by the 8th century. The araB gene Promoter is a bacterial promoter activated by e L-arabinose binding During the first millennium AD, Nilotic and Bantu-speaking peoples moved into the region, and the latter now comprise three-quarters of Kenya's population. Nilotic people or Nilotes, in its contemporary usage refers to some Ethnic groups mainly in Southern Sudan, Uganda, Kenya, and northern Bantu may refer to Bantu expansion, a series of migrations of Bantu speakers Bantu languages Bantu people
In the centuries preceding colonization, the Swahili coast of Kenya was part of the east African region which traded with the Arab world and India especially for ivory and slaves (the Ameru tribe is said to have originated from slaves escaping from Arab lands some time around the year 1700. Ivory is formed from Dentine and constitutes the bulk of the Teeth and Tusks of animals such as the Elephant, Hippopotamus, As a social-economic system slavery is a legal institution under which a Person (called "a slave" is compelled to work for another The Ameru tribe inhabits the Meru region of Kenya. They speak the Meru language. ). Initially these traders came mainly from Arab states, but later many also came from Zanzibar (such as Tippu Tip). The araB gene Promoter is a bacterial promoter activated by e L-arabinose binding Zanzibar ( is part of the East African republic of Tanzania. It consists of the Zanzibar Archipelago in the Tippu Tip or Tib ( 1837 - June 14, 1905) real name Hamed bin Mohammed bin Juma bin Rajab bin Mohammed bin Said el Murgebi, was a
Swahili, a Bantu language with many Arabic, Persian and other Middle Eastern and South Asian loan words, developed as a lingua franca for trade between the different peoples. Swahili (called Kiswahili in the language itself is the First language of the Swahili people (Waswahili who inhabit several large stretches Arabic (ar الْعَرَبيّة (informally ar عَرَبيْ) in terms of the number of speakers is the largest living member of the Semitic language A lingua franca (from Italian, literally meaning Frankish language, see etymology under Sabir and Italian below is any Language widely
The Luo of Kenya descend from early agricultural and herding communities from western Kenya's early pre-colonial history. The Luo people and dialects of their language have historic roots across the Lake Victoria region. Lake Victoria or Victoria Nyanza (also known as Ukerewe and Nalubaale) is one of the Great Lakes of Africa. Chief among the powerful families to which the Luo trace their ancestry were the Sahkarias of Kano, the Jaramogis of Ugenya, and the Owuors of Kisumo, whose clans married several wives and had multitudes of grandchildren and heirs to various chieftainships. Leaders of these lineages typically had multiple wives and intermarried with their neighbours in Uganda and Sudan. The Republic of Uganda is a Landlocked country in East Africa. Sudan (officially the Republic of Sudan) ( السودان al-Sūdān is a country in northeastern Africa. The Luo tribe, through intermarriages and wars, are part of the genetic admixture that includes all modern East African ethnic groups as well as members of Buganda Kingdom, the Toro Kingdom, and the Nubians of modern day Sudan. Buganda is the kingdom of the Baganda people the largest of the traditional kingdoms in present-day Uganda. The Nubians (Arabic نوبي Nuubi are an ethnic group originally from northern Sudan, now inhabiting East Africa and some parts of Northeast Africa in southern Egypt Sudan (officially the Republic of Sudan) ( السودان al-Sūdān is a country in northeastern Africa. In recent times, the Luo have had many enemies with whom they fought for access to water, cattle, and land including the Nandi, Kipsigis and the Kisii. As a result of these wars were peace treaties and intermarriages were resolved resulting in a mixture of cultural ideals and practices. As with all so-called tribes of modern day East Africa, Luo history is intricately interwoven with the histories of their friends, enemies and neighbours and attest to the complexity of East African precolonial history.
The Portuguese were the first Europeans to explore the region of current-day Kenya, Vasco da Gama having visited Mombasa in 1498. Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa is a country on the Iberian Peninsula. Dom Vasco da Gama, 1st Count of Vidigueira ('vaʃku dɐ 'gɐmɐ ( Sines or Vidigueira, Alentejo, Portugal, ca Mombasa is the second largest City in Kenya, lying on the Indian Ocean. Gama's voyage was successful in reaching India and this permitted the Portuguese to trade with the Far East directly by sea, thus challenging older trading networks of mixed land and sea routes, such as the Spice trade routes that utilized the Persian Gulf, Red Sea and caravans to reach the eastern Mediterranean. India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country The Far East is a term often used by people in the Western world to refer to the countries of East Asia. Spice trade is a commercial activity of ancient origin which involves the merchandising of Spices and Herbs. The Persian Gulf, in the Southwest Asian region is an extension of the The Red Sea is a Salt water Inlet of the Indian Ocean between Africa and Asia. A camel train is a series of Camels carrying goods or passengers in a group as part of a regular or semi-regular service between two points The Republic of Venice had gained control over much of the trade routes between Europe and Asia. The Most Serene Republic of Venice ((Serenìsima Repùblica Vèneta or Repùblica de Venesia Serenissima Repubblica After traditional land routes to India had been closed by the Ottoman Turks, Portugal hoped to use the sea route pioneered by Gama to break the once Venetian trading monopoly. The Ottoman Turks were the subdivision of the Ottoman Muslim Millet that dominated the ruling class of the Ottoman Empire. Portuguese rule in East Africa focused mainly on a coastal strip centred in Mombasa. The Portuguese presence in East Africa officially began after 1505, when flagships under the command of Don Francisco de Almeida conquered Kilwa, an island located in what is now southern Tanzania. East Africa is the Easternmost Region of the African Continent. Dom Francisco de Almeida (fɾɐ̃ˈsiʃku dɨ aɫˈmɐiðɐ also known as "the Great Dom Francisco" (born c Tanzania ˌtænzəˈniːə officially the United Republic of Tanzania (Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania is a country in East Africa bordered by Kenya In March 1505, having received from Manuel I the appointment of viceroy of the newly conquered territory in India, he set sail from Lisbon in command of a large and powerful fleet, and arrived in July at Quiloa (Kilwa), which yielded to him almost without a struggle. Manuel I (mɐnuˈɛɫ Archaic Portuguese: Manoel I, English: Emmanuel I) the Fortunate ( Port Portuguese India (Índia Portuguesa or Estado da Índia) was the aggregate of Portugal 's colonial holdings in India. Lisbon (Lisboa liʒˈboɐ is the Capital and largest city of Portugal. A much more vigorous resistance was offered by the Moors of Mombasa, but the town was taken and destroyed, and its large treasures went to strengthen the resources of Almeida. The description Moors has referred to several historic and modern populations of Muslim (and earlier non-Muslim people of Berber and Arab descent Attacks followed on Hoja (now known as Ungwana, located at the mouth of the Tana River), Barawa, Angoche, Pate and other coastal towns until the western Indian Ocean was a safe haven for Portuguese commercial interests. Pate island or Paté island is located in the Indian Ocean close to the northern coast of Kenya, to which it belongs The Indian Ocean is the third largest of the world's Oceanic divisions covering about 20% of the water on the Earth 's surface At other places on his way, such as the island of Angediva, near Goa, and Cannanore, the Portuguese built forts, and adopted measures to secure the Portuguese supremacy. Goa ( Konkani: गोंय /ɡɔ̃j/ is India 's smallest state in terms of area and the fourth smallest in terms of population. For the district with the name Kannur see Kannur District. For town with same name in Karnataka, see Kannur Dakshina Kannada Portugal's main goal in the east coast of Africa was take control of the spice trade from the Arabs. Spice trade is a commercial activity of ancient origin which involves the merchandising of Spices and Herbs. The araB gene Promoter is a bacterial promoter activated by e L-arabinose binding At this stage, the Portuguese presence in East Africa served the purpose of control trade within the Indian Ocean and secure the sea routes linking Europe to Asia. Portuguese naval vessels were very disruptive to the commerce of Portugal's enemies within the western Indian Ocean and were able to demand high tariffs on items transported through the sea due to their strategic control of ports and shipping lanes. The construction of Fort Jesus in Mombasa in 1593 was meant to solidify Portuguese hegemony in the region, but their influence was clipped by the British, Dutch and Omani Arab incursions into the region during the 17th century. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located The Dutch Empire was the territories controlled by The Netherlands from the 17th to the 20th century Omani (ﻲﻧﺎﻣﻋ in Arabic) refers to anything that is of or pertaining to Oman. The araB gene Promoter is a bacterial promoter activated by e L-arabinose binding The Omani Arabs posed the most direct challenge to Portuguese influence in East Africa and besieged Portuguese fortresses, openly attacked naval vessels and expelled the remaining Portuguese from the Kenyan and Tanzanian coasts by 1730. By this time the Portuguese Empire had already lost its interest on the spice trade sea route due to the decreasing profitability of that business. The Portuguese Empire was the earliest and longest lived of the modern European colonial empires spanning almost six centuries from the capture of Ceuta
Omani Arab colonization of the Kenyan and Tanzanian coasts brought the once independent city-states under closer foreign scrutiny and domination than was experienced during the Portuguese period. Colonisation (also known as Colonization) occurs whenever any one or more species populates a new area A city-state is a Region controlled exclusively by a City, usually having Sovereignty. Like their predecessors, the Omani Arabs were primarily able only to control the coastal areas, not the interior. However, the creation of clove plantations, intensification of the slave trade and relocation of the Omani capital to Zanzibar in 1839 by Seyyid Said had the effect of consolidating the Omani power in the region. Fundamentally a plantation is usually a large Farm or estate, especially in a tropical or semitropical country on which Cotton, Tobacco The history of slavery uncovers many different forms of human exploitation across many cultures throughout history Zanzibar ( is part of the East African republic of Tanzania. It consists of the Zanzibar Archipelago in the Sayyid Said bin Sultan Al-Said ( سعيد بن سلطان,) ( 5 June 1797 - October 19, 1856) was Sultan of Muscat Arab governance of all the major ports along the East African coast continued until British interests aimed particularly at ending the slave trade and creation of a wage-labour system began to put pressure on Omani rule. Wage labour is the socioeconomic relationship between a worker and an employer in which the worker sells their labour under a Contract ( Employment By the late nineteenth century, the slave trade on the open seas had been completely outlawed by the British and the Omani Arabs had little ability to resist the Royal Navy's ability to enforce the directive. The 19th century of the Common Era began on January 1, 1801 and ended on December 31, 1900, according to the Gregorian calendar The Omani presence continued in Zanzibar and Pemba until the 1964 revolution, but the official Omani Arab presence in Kenya was checked by German and British seizure of key ports and creation of crucial trade alliances with influential local leaders in the 1880s. A revolution (from the Latin revolutio, "a turnaround" is a fundamental change in power or organizational structures that takes place in a relatively However, the Omani Arab legacy in East Africa is currently found through their numerous descendants found along the coast that can directly trace ancestry to Oman and are typically the wealthiest and most politically influential members of the Kenyan coastal community. Oman, officially the Sultanate of Oman ( Arabic: سلطنة عُمان) is an Arab Country in Southwest Asia on the southeast
However, most historians consider that the colonial history of Kenya dates from the establishment of a German protectorate over the Sultan of Zanzibar's coastal possessions in 1885, followed by the arrival of the Imperial British East Africa Company in 1888. Mombasa is the second largest City in Kenya, lying on the Indian Ocean. The German Empire is the name commonly used in English to describe Germany from 1871 to 1918 when it was a semi- Constitutional monarchy: beginning with the Unification Zanzibar ( is part of the East African republic of Tanzania. It consists of the Zanzibar Archipelago in the The Imperial British East Africa Company (IBEAC was the administrator of British East Africa, which was the forerunner of the East Africa Protectorate, later Incipient imperial rivalry was forestalled when Germany handed its coastal holdings to Britain in 1890. This followed the building of the Kenya-Uganda railway passing through the country. The Uganda Railway is a historical Railway system linking the interiors of Uganda and Kenya to the Indian Ocean at Mombasa in This was resisted by some tribes, notably the Nandi led by Orkoiyot Koitalel Arap Samoei for ten years from 1895 to 1905, the British eventually built the railway. The Nandi is a Kenyan ethnic group or Tribe living in the highland areas of the Nandi Hills in Rift Valley Province; they form a sub-group of An Orkoiyot is the supreme chief of the Nandi people of Kenya. It is believed that the Nandi were the first tribe to be put in a native reserve to stop them from disrupting the building of the railway. During the railway construction era, there was a significant inflow of Indian peoples who provided the bulk of the skilled manpower required for construction. These people remained in Kenya and formed the core of several distinct Indian communities such as the Ismaili muslim and Sikh communities.
At the outbreak of the First World War in August 1914, the governors of British East Africa (as the Protectorate was generally known) and German East Africa agreed a truce in an attempt to keep the young colonies out of direct hostilities. World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All British East Africa was an area of East Africa controlled by the British in the late 19th century which became a Protectorate covering roughly the area of present-day Tanzania ˌtænzəˈniːə officially the United Republic of Tanzania (Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania is a country in East Africa bordered by Kenya However Lt Col Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck took command of the German military forces, determined to tie down as many British resources as possible. Paul Emil von Lettow-Vorbeck ( March 20, 1870 - March 9, 1964) was a German General, the commander of the German Completely cut off from Germany by the Royal Navy, von Lettow conducted an effective guerilla warfare campaign, living off the land, capturing British supplies, and remaining undefeated. The Royal Navy of the United Kingdom is the oldest of the British armed services (and is therefore known as the Senior Service) Guerrilla warfare is the unconventional warfare and combat with which a small group of combatants use mobile tactics (ambushes raids etc He eventually surrendered in Zambia eleven days after the Armistice was signed in 1918. The Republic of Zambia (ˈzæmbɪə is a Landlocked country in Southern Africa. An armistice is a situation where the warring parties agree to stop fighting To chase von Lettow the British deployed Indian Army troops from India and then needed large numbers of porters to overcome the formidable logistics of transporting supplies far into the interior by foot. The Indian Army (Bharatiya Thalsena भारतीय थाल्सेना is one of the armed forces of India and has the responsibility for land-based India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country The Carrier Corps was formed and ultimately mobilised over 400,000 Africans, contributing to their long-term politicisation. The Carrier Corps was a military organisation created in Kenya in World War I to provide military labour to support the British campaign against the German
During the early part of the twentieth century, the interior central highlands were settled by British and other European farmers, who became wealthy farming coffee and tea. The twentieth century of the Common Era began on CoFFEE is an Open source Software for computer supported collaborative learning (CSCL in a digital classroom Tea refers to the cured agricultural product of the leaves leaf buds and internodes of Camellia sinensis, which have been prepared and cured for the market By the 1930s, approximately 30,000 white settlers lived in the area and were offered undue political powers because of their effects on the economy. A settler is a person who has migrated to an area and established permanent residence there often to colonize the area The area was already home to over a million members of the Kikuyu tribe, most of whom had no land claims in European terms (but the land belonged to the ethnic group), and lived as itinerant farmers. There is also a town in Kiambu district called Kikuyu, and a species of Pennisetum grass native to the Kenyan highlands named Kikuyu A farmer is a person who raises living organisms for food or raw materials To protect their interests, the settlers banned the growing of coffee, introduced a hut tax, and the landless were granted less and less land in exchange for their labour. A massive exodus to the cities ensued as their ability to provide a living from the land dwindled.
In 1951, Sir Horace Hector Hearne became Chief Justice in Kenya (coming from Ceylon, where he had also been Chief Justice) and sat in the Supreme Court in Nairobi. Sir Hector Horace Hearne ( 23 February 1892 &ndash 31 December 1962) was a Judge The Chief Justice in many countries is the name for the presiding member of a Supreme Court in Commonwealth or other countries with an Anglo-Saxon justice system based on English Sri Lanka, officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka ( Sinhalese:, இலங்கை known as Ceylon before 1972 is an Island Nairobi (naɪˈroʊbɪ is the capital and largest city of Kenya. He held that position until 1954 when he became an Appeal Justice of the West African Court of Appeal. On the night of the death of King George VI, 5 February 1952, Hearne escorted The Princess Elizabeth, Duchess of Edinburgh, as she then was, to a state dinner at the Treetops Hotel, which is now a very popular tourist retreat. Events 1576 - Henry of Navarre converts to Roman Catholicism in order to ensure his right to the throne of France. Year 1952 ( MCMLII) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. For the ship see RMS Queen Elizabeth 2 Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Context States headed by Elizabeth II Treetops Hotel is a hotel in Aberdare National Park in Kenya near the township of Nyeri, 1966 m (6450 ft above sea level on the Aberdare Range It was there that she "went up a princess and came down a Queen".  She returned immediately to England, accompanied by Hearne. England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland
From October 1952 to December 1959, Kenya was under a state of emergency arising from the Mau Mau rebellion against British rule. Year 1952 ( MCMLII) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The year 1959 ( MCMLIX) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The governor requested and obtained British and African troops, including the King's African Rifles. The King's African Rifles (KAR was a multi- Battalion British colonial Regiment raised from the various British possessions in East Africa In January 1953, Major General Hinde was appointed as director of counter-insurgency operations. Year 1953 ( MCMLIII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. See also Insurgency In the context of an occupation or a Civil war, counter-insurgency (abbreviated COIN is a military term for the combat The situation did not improve for lack of intelligence, so General Sir George Erskine was appointed commander-in-chief of the colony's armed forces in May 1953, with the personal backing of Winston Churchill. Sir is an Honorific used as a title (see Knight) and in several other modern contexts Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill, KG, OM, CH, TD, FRS, PC, PC (Can ( 30 November 1874
The capture of Warũhiũ Itote (a. k. a. General China) on 15 January 1954 and the subsequent interrogation led to a better understanding of the Mau Mau command structure. Waruhiu Itote (General China (b 1922 d 30 April 1993) was one of the key leaders of the Mau Mau rebellion alongside Field Marshal Dedan Kimathi Events 588 BC - Nebuchadrezzar II of Babylon lays siege to Jerusalem under Zedekiah 's reign Year 1954 ( MCMLIV) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1954 Gregorian calendar) Operation Anvil opened on 24 April 1954 after weeks of planning by the army with the approval of the War Council. Events 1479 BC - Thutmose III ascends to the throne of Egypt, although power effectively shifts to Hatshepsut (according to Year 1954 ( MCMLIV) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1954 Gregorian calendar) The operation effectively placed Nairobi under military siege, and the occupants were screened and the Mau Mau supporters moved to detention camps. Nairobi (naɪˈroʊbɪ is the capital and largest city of Kenya. Internment is the imprisonment or confinement of people commonly in large groups without trial May 1953 also saw the Home Guard officially recognized as a branch of the Security Forces. The Home Guard formed the core of the government's anti-Mau Mau strategy as it was composed of loyalist Africans, not foreign forces like the British Army and King's African Rifles. In general a loyalist is one who maintains loyalty to an established government political party or sovereign especially during war or revolutionary change The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British Armed Forces. The King's African Rifles (KAR was a multi- Battalion British colonial Regiment raised from the various British possessions in East Africa By the end of the emergency the Home Guard had killed 4,686 Mau Mau, amounting to 42% of the total insurgents. The capture of Dedan Kimathi on 21 October 1956 in Nyeri signified the ultimate defeat of the Mau Mau and essentially ended the military offensive. Dedan Kimathi Waciuri (truly Kimathi wa Waciuri Field Marshal, (31 October 1920 &ndash 18 February 1957 was a Kenyan rebel leader who fought against British colonization Events 1512 - Martin Luther joins the theological faculty of the University of Wittenberg. Year 1956 ( MCMLVI) was a Leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Nyeri is a town in Kenya, about 180 km north of the capital Nairobi.
The first direct elections for Africans to the Legislative Council took place in 1957. Lake Victoria or Victoria Nyanza (also known as Ukerewe and Nalubaale) is one of the Great Lakes of Africa. Despite British hopes of handing power to "moderate" African rivals, it was the Kenya African National Union (KANU) of Jomo Kenyatta that formed a government shortly before Kenya became independent on 12 December 1963. The Kenya African National Union, better known as KANU, ruled Kenya for nearly 40 years after its independence from British colonial rule in 1963 until its electoral Jomo Kenyatta ( October 20, 1894 &ndash August 22, 1978) served as the first Prime Minister (1963&ndash1964 and President Events 627 - Battle of Nineveh: A Byzantine army under Emperor Heraclius defeats Emperor Khosrau II 's Persian Year 1963 ( MCMLXIII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. During the same year, the Kenyan army fought the Shifta War against ethnic Somalis determined to see the NFD join with the Republic of Somalia. The Shifta War (1963–1967 was a Secessionist conflict in which ethnic Somalis in the Northern Frontier District (NFD of Kenya (a region that The North Eastern Province is one of the seven administrative provinces in Kenya outside of Nairobi. The Shiftas inflicted heavy casualties on the Kenyan armed forces but were defeated in 1967.
Kenya, fearing an invasion from militarily stronger Somalia, in 1969 signed a defence pact with Ethiopia which is still in effect. NOTE This intro is the result of careful NPOV work Please do not make potentially controversial edits to it without first discussing on the talk page Suffering from droughts and floods, NFD is the least developed region in Kenya. However, since the 1990s, Somali refugees-turned-wealthy businessmen have managed to transform the one-time slum of Eastleigh into the most prosperous commercial centre of Eastlands and increasingly much of Nairobi. Eastleigh is a suburb of Nairobi, Kenya. It is located east of the the central business district 
In 1964, Kenyatta became Kenya's first president. At Kenyatta's death in 1978, Daniel arap Moi became President. Daniel Toroitich arap Moi (born September 2, 1924) was the President of Kenya from 1978 until 2002 Daniel arap Moi retained the Presidency, being unopposed in elections held in 1979, 1983 (snap elections) and 1988, all of which were held under the single party constitution. A snap election is an election called earlier than scheduled Generally it refers to an election called when no one expects it usually to capitalize on a unique electoral opportunity or The 1983 elections were held a year early, and were a direct result of an abortive military coup attempt on 1 August 1982. The 1982 Kenyan coup d'état attempt was a failed attempt to overthrow President Daniel arap Moi 's government Events 30 BC - Octavian (later known as Augustus enters Alexandria, Egypt, bringing it under the control of the Roman Year 1982 ( MCMLXXXII) was a Common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar)
The abortive coup was masterminded by a lowly ranked Air Force serviceman, Senior Private Hezekiah Ochuka and was staged mainly by enlisted men in the Air Force. The attempt was quickly suppressed by Loyalist forces led by the Army, the General Service Unit (GSU) — a paramilitary wing of the police — and later the regular police, but not without civilian casualties. This event led to the disbanding of the entire Air Force and a large number of its former members were either dismissed or court-martialled.
The election held in 1988 saw the advent of the mlolongo (queuing) system, where voters were supposed to line up behind their favoured candidates instead of a secret ballot. This was seen as the climax of a very undemocratic regime and it led to widespread agitation for constitutional reform. Several contentious clauses, including one that allowed for only one political party were changed in the following years. In democratic, multiparty elections in 1992 and 1997, Daniel arap Moi won re-election. In 2002, Moi was constitutionally barred from running, and Mwai Kǐbakǐ, running for the opposition coalition "National Rainbow Coalition" — NARC, was elected President. Mwai Kibaki (born November 15, 1931) is the President of Kenya. The National Rainbow Coalition (National Alliance of Rainbow Coalition - NARC was a coalition of Kenyan political parties in power from 2002 and 2005 when it fell apart in a The elections, judged free and fair by local and international observers, marked a turning point in Kenya's democratic evolution. Kenya is one of the most politically distinguished countries in Africa.
Until the 2008 changes in the Kenyan political dispensation which introduced the Prime minister as the head of the cabinet, Kenya was a presidential representative democratic republic, whereby the President was both the head of state and head of government, and of a multi-party system. Mount Kenya is the highest Mountain in Kenya, and the second highest in Africa (after Mount Kilimanjaro) The Politics of Kenya take place in a framework of a presidential representative democratic Republic, whereby the President of Kenya Mwai Kibaki (born November 15, 1931) is the President of Kenya. A presidential system is a System of government where an executive branch exists and presides (hence the term separately from the Legislature Representative democracy is a form of government founded on the principles of the people's representatives A republic is a State or Country that is not led by a hereditary Monarch, but in which the people (or at least a part of its people have impact on its President is a Title leaders of Organizations companies, Trade unions universities, and countries. Head of state is the generic term for the individual or collective office that serves as the chief public representative of a Monarchic or Republican Nation-state This article focuses on the cases where the Head of Government is a separate office from the Head of State A multi-party system is a system in which three or more political parties have the capacity to gain control of government separately or in coalition Executive power is exercised by the government. In Political science and Constitutional law, the executive is the branch of government responsible for the day-to-day management of the State. Legislative power is vested in both the government and the National Assembly. A legislature is a type of representative Deliberative assembly with the power to create amend and change Laws The law created by a legislature is called Legislation For the government of parliamentary systems see Executive (government. The Unicameral National Assembly of Kenya is the country's legislative body The Judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature. In Law, the judiciary or judicial system is the system of Courts which administer Justice in the name of the sovereign or State However, there was growing concern especially during former president Daniel Arap Moi's tenure that the executive was increasingly meddling with the affairs of the judiciary. Daniel Toroitich arap Moi (born September 2, 1924) was the President of Kenya from 1978 until 2002 In Law, the judiciary or judicial system is the system of Courts which administer Justice in the name of the sovereign or State
Until the unrest occasioned by the disputed election results of December 2007, Kenya had hitherto maintained remarkable stability despite changes in its political system and crises in neighbouring countries. A cross-party parliamentary reform initiative in the fall of 1997 revised some oppressive laws inherited from the colonial era that had been used to limit freedom of speech and assembly. This improved public freedoms and contributed to generally credible national elections in December 1997.
In December 2002, Kenyans held democratic and open elections, most of which were judged free and fair by international observers. The 2002 elections marked an important turning point in Kenya's democratic evolution in that power was transferred peacefully from the Kenya African Union (KANU), which had ruled the country since independence to the National Rainbow Coalition (Narc), a coalition of political parties.
Under the presidency of Mwai Kibaki, the new ruling coalition promised to focus its efforts on generating economic growth, combating corruption, improving education, and rewriting its constitution. A few of these promises have been met. There is free primary education. In 2007 the government issued a statement declaring that from 2008, secondary education would be heavily subsidised, with the government footing all tuition fees. President Kibaki subsequently launched the ambitious free Secondary education program in early February 2008 at Jamhuri High School in the outskirts of the city of Nairobi. Mwai Kibaki (born November 15, 1931) is the President of Kenya. Education encompasses both the Teaching and Learning of Knowledge, proper conduct, and technical competency Nairobi (naɪˈroʊbɪ is the capital and largest city of Kenya. Before the contentious elections were held, a general overview indicated that Under president Kibaki, the democratic space had expanded, the media was freer than before. The news media refers to the section of the Mass media that focuses on presenting current News to the public Kenyans could associate and express themselves without fearing being harassed by security agents as it used to be the case during the Moi administration. In November 2005, the Kenyan electorate resoundingly defeated a new draft constitution supported by Parliament and President Kibaki. The 2005 Kenyan constitutional referendum was held on 21 November 2005. Kibaki responded by dismissing his entire cabinet. Kibaki eventually appointed a new slate of ministers.
The last general elections were held on 27 December 2007. A presidential election was held as part of the Kenyan general election on December 27 2007; parliamentary elections were held on the same date Events 537 - The Hagia Sophia is completed 1512 - The Spanish Crown issues the Laws of Burgos, governing the Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. In them, President Kibaki under the Party of National Unity ran for re-election against the main opposition party, the Orange Democratic Movement (ODM). Party of National Unity (PNU is a newly created political coalition of parties in Kenya. Orange Democratic Movement refers to a Political party in Kenya, which originated as a single party that was formed as a result of the 2005 Kenyan constitutional After a split which would take a crucial 8% of the votes away from the ODM to the newly formed Orange Democratic Movement-Kenya (ODM-K)'s candidate, Kalonzo Musyoka, the race tightened between ODM candidate Raila Odinga and Kibaki. Orange Democratic Movement-Kenya refers to a Political party in Kenya, which originated as a result of the 2005 Kenyan constitutional referendum. Stephen Kalonzo Musyoka (born December 24 1953) is a Kenyan Politician, currently serving as Vice President of Kenya. Raila Amollo Odinga (born January 7, 1945) is a Kenyan politician currently serving as the Prime Minister of Kenya with president Mwai Kibaki Mwai Kibaki (born November 15, 1931) is the President of Kenya. As the count came in to the Kenyan Election Commission, Odinga was shown to have a slight, and then substantial lead. However, as the Electoral Commission of Kenya (ECK) continued to count the votes, Kibaki closed the gap and then overtook his opponent by a substantial margin amid largely substantiated claims of rigging (notably by the EU Observers). This led to protests and riots, open discrediting of the ECK for complicity and to Odinga declaring himself the "people's president" and calling for a recount and Kibaki to resign. The protests escalated into unprecedented violence and destruction of property, leading to over 1000 deaths and the internal displacement of over 350,000 people. A Kofi Annan led group of eminent persons of Africa was called in to broker a peaceful solution to the political stalemate. Kofi Atta Annan, GCMG (born 8 April 1938 is a Ghanaian Diplomat who served as the seventh Secretary-General of the United Nations It enjoys the backing of the United Nations, European Union, African Union, United States as well governments of various other notable countries across the world. The United Nations ( UN) is an International organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in International law, International security The European Union ( EU) is a political and economic union of twenty-seven member states, located primarily in The African Union (abbreviated AU in English, and UA in its other working languages is a Confederation consisting of 53  African The United States of America —commonly referred to as the For the government of parliamentary systems see Executive (government. More information is available in clashes in Kenya (2007–present). The 2007–2008 Kenyan crisis refers to a political economic and humanitarian crisis that erupted in Kenya after incumbent President Mwai Kibaki was declared On 28th February 2008, President Mwai Kibaki and Mr Raila Odinga signed an agreement on the formation of a coalition government in which Mr. Mwai Kibaki (born November 15, 1931) is the President of Kenya. Raila Amollo Odinga (born January 7, 1945) is a Kenyan politician currently serving as the Prime Minister of Kenya with president Mwai Kibaki A coalition is an alliance among individuals during which they cooperate in joint action, each in their own Self-interest. Odinga would become Kenya's second prime Minister. Under the deal, the president would also appoint cabinet ministers from both PNU and ODM camps depending on each party's strength in parliament. TalkParliament#Screen-size. -->A  parliament is a Legislature, especially in those The agreement stipulated that the cabinet would also include a vice-president and two deputy Prime Ministers. __FORCETOC__ For the Vice President of the United States, their roles and other information see Vice President of the United States. This article is about the government position For other uses see Prime Minister (disambiguation. After being debated and passed by parliament, the coalition would hold till the end of the current Parliament or if either of the parties withdraws from the deal before then. The new office of the PM will have power and authority to co-ordinate and supervise the functions of the Government and will be occupied by an elected MP who will also be the leader of the party or coalition with majority members in Parliament. Power is a measure of a person's ability to control the environment around them including the behavior of other people In Politics, authority ( Latin Auctoritas, used in Roman law as opposed to Potestas and Imperium TalkParliament#Screen-size. -->A  parliament is a Legislature, especially in those The world watched Dr Kofi Annan and his UN-backed Panel of African Eminent Persons and African Union chairman Jakaya Kikwete as they brought together the erstwhile rivals to the signing ceremony beamed live on national TV from the steps of Nairobi's Harambee House. Kofi Atta Annan, GCMG (born 8 April 1938 is a Ghanaian Diplomat who served as the seventh Secretary-General of the United Nations A nation is a Human Cultural and Social Community. In as much as most members never meet each other yet feel a common bond it may be considered Nairobi (naɪˈroʊbɪ is the capital and largest city of Kenya. Harambee is a Kenyan tradition of community self-help events eg On 29th February 2008, representatives of PNU and ODM began working on the finer details of the power-sharing agreement.  Kenyan lawmakers unanimously approved a power-sharing deal March 18, 2008 aimed at salvaging a country once seen as one of the most stable and prosperous in Africa, bringing together two men, President Mwai Kibaki and opposition leader Raila Odinga, whose dispute over the presidency unleashed weeks of deadly violence. Events 37 - The Roman Senate annuls Tiberius ' will and proclaims Caligula emperor 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Mwai Kibaki (born November 15, 1931) is the President of Kenya. Raila Amollo Odinga (born January 7, 1945) is a Kenyan politician currently serving as the Prime Minister of Kenya with president Mwai Kibaki 
On April 13, 2008, President Mwai Kibaki named a Grand coalition cabinet of 41 Ministers- including the prime minister and his two deputies - after weeks of tension and uncertainty that had gripped the country following the failure of the president and prime minister designate, Raila Odinga, to agree on how some of the ministries should be shared. The Politics of Kenya take place in a framework of a presidential representative democratic Republic, whereby the President of Kenya Events 1111 - Henry V is crowned Holy Roman Emperor. 1204 - The Fourth Crusade sacks Constantinople 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Mwai Kibaki (born November 15, 1931) is the President of Kenya. A grand coalition is a Coalition government in a Multi-party Parliamentary system where the two largest political parties unite in a coalition A minister or a secretary is a Politician who holds significant public office in a national or regional Government. President is a Title leaders of Organizations companies, Trade unions universities, and countries. Raila Amollo Odinga (born January 7, 1945) is a Kenyan politician currently serving as the Prime Minister of Kenya with president Mwai Kibaki The cabinet, which also included 50 Assistant Ministers, was sworn in at the State House in Nairobi on Thursday, April 17, 2008 in the presence of Dr. Events 69 - After the First Battle of Bedriacum, Vitellius becomes Roman Emperor. 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Kofi Annan and other invited dignitaries. Kofi Atta Annan, GCMG (born 8 April 1938 is a Ghanaian Diplomat who served as the seventh Secretary-General of the United Nations
Kenya comprises eight provinces each headed by a Provincial Commissioner (centrally appointed by the president). Kenya is divided into eight provinces ( mkoa) The Provinces are subdivided into 71 districts ( ''wilaya'at'') which are The provinces of Kenya are subdivided into 71 districts ( Wilaya) |||} The districts of Kenya are divided into 262 divisions ( tarafa) Kenya is divided into eight provinces ( mkoa) The Provinces are subdivided into 71 districts ( ''wilaya'at'') which are The provinces (mkoa singular mikoa plural in Swahili) are subdivided into districts (wilaya). Swahili (called Kiswahili in the language itself is the First language of the Swahili people (Waswahili who inhabit several large stretches The provinces of Kenya are subdivided into 71 districts ( Wilaya) A wilāyah (ولاية or vilâyet (in Persian and Ottoman Turkish) is an administrative division usually There were 69 districts as of 1999 census. Districts are then subdivided into 497 divisions (taarafa). |||} The districts of Kenya are divided into 262 divisions ( tarafa) The divisions are then subdivided into 2,427 locations (mtaa) and then 6,612 sublocations (kata ndogo). |||} Locations are a type of administrative region in Kenya. Location are a fourth level subdivision below Provinces, Districts and Divisions.  The City of Nairobi enjoys the status of a full administrative province. The government supervises administration of districts and provinces. The provinces are:
Local governance in Kenya is practised through local authorities. Kenya 's Central Province covers the area around Nyeri to southwest of Mt Coast Province of Kenya, along the Indian Ocean, is one of Kenya's seven administrative provinces outside Nairobi. The Eastern Province of Kenya is one of seven regions of the country Nairobi Province is one of eight provinces in Kenya. It shares common boundaries with Nairobi city the capital of Kenya but functions as a state unit The North Eastern Province is one of the seven administrative provinces in Kenya outside of Nairobi. Nyanza Province of Kenya, on Lake Victoria, is one of Kenya's seven administrative provinces outside Nairobi; it is in the southwest corner of Rift Valley Province of Kenya, bordering Uganda, is one of Kenya's seven administrative provinces outside Nairobi. The Western Province of Kenya, bordering Uganda, is one of Kenya's seven administrative provinces outside Nairobi. ||} Local authorities in Kenya are the bodies controlling local governance in Kenya. Many urban centres host city, municipal or town councils. Local authorities in rural areas are known as county councils. Local councillors are elected by civic elections, held alongside general elections.
At 224,961 square miles (582,646 km²), Kenya is the world's forty-seventh largest country (after Madagascar). Madagascar, or Republic of Madagascar (older name Malagasy Republic) is an Island nation in the Indian Ocean off the southeastern From the coast on the Indian Ocean the Low plains rise to central highlands. The Indian Ocean is the third largest of the world's Oceanic divisions covering about 20% of the water on the Earth 's surface The highlands are bisected by the Great Rift Valley; a fertile plateau in the west. The Great Rift Valley is a name given in the late 19th century by English explorer John Walter Gregory to the continuous geographic trough approximately in length that runs The Kenyan Highlands comprise one of the most successful agricultural production regions in Africa. The highlands are the site of the highest point in Kenya (and the second highest in Africa): Mount Kenya, which reaches 5,199 metres (17,057 ft) and is also the site of glaciers. Mount Kenya is the highest Mountain in Kenya, and the second highest in Africa (after Mount Kilimanjaro) Climate varies from tropical along the coast to arid in the interior. The Tropics are centered on the Equator and limited in Latitude by the Tropic of Cancer in the northern hemisphere at approximately 23°26' (23 In general terms the Climate of a local or region is said to be arid when it is characterized by a severe lack of available Water, to the extent of hindering Mount Kilimanjaro (5,895m - 19,341 ft) can be seen from Kenya to the south of the Tanzanian border. 
Kenya has considerable land area of wildlife habitat, including the Masai Mara, where Blue Wildebeest and other bovids participate in a large scale annual migration. Environmental issues in Kenya include Deforestation, soil erosion, Desertification, Water shortage and degraded Water quality, The giraffe ( Giraffa camelopardalis) is an African Even-toed ungulate Mammal, the tallest of all land-living Animal Species Nairobi National Park is a National park in Kenya. Established in 1946 the national park was Kenya's first Wildlife includes all non-domesticated plants animals and other organisms The Masai Mara (also spelled Maasai Mara) is a large Park reserve in south-western Kenya, which is effectively the northern continuation of the Serengeti The Blue Wildebeest ( Connochaetes taurinus) is a large Ungulate mammal of the Bovid family and one of two species of Wildebeest. A bovid is any of almost 140 species of Cloven-hoofed Mammals belonging to the family Bovidae. Up to 250,000 blue wildebeest perish each year in the long and arduous movement to find forage in the dry season. The "Big Five" animals of Africa can also be found in Kenya: the lion, leopard, buffalo, rhinoceros and elephant. The phrase Big Five game was coined by Big-game hunters and refers to the five most difficult animals in Africa to hunt on foot The lion ( Panthera leo) is a member of the family Felidae and one of four Big cats in the Genus Panthera. The leopard (lɛpɚd Panthera pardus) is an Old World Mammal of the Felidae family and the smallest of the four roaring The African Buffalo or Cape Buffalo ( Syncerus caffer) is a large African bovid. Rhinoceros (raɪˈnɒsərəs often colloquially abbreviated rhino, is a name used to group five extant species of Odd-toed ungulates in the family Elephants ( family: Elephantidae) are large land Mammals of the order Proboscidea. A significant population of other wild animals, reptiles and birds can be found in the national parks and game reserves in the country. The environment of Kenya is threatened by high population growth and its side effects.
Kenya enjoys a tropical climate. SAFARI was an attempt by the French government under the presidency of Georges Pompidou, to create a centralized database of personal data It is hot and humid at the coast, temperate inland and very dry in the north and northeast parts of the country. There is however a lot of rain between the months March and May. The temperature does remain high throughout these months.
|City||Elevation (m)||Max (°C)||Min (°C)|
|Mombasa||coastal town||17||30. 3||22. 4|
|Nairobi||capital city||1,661||25. 2||13. 6|
|Eldoret||3,085||23. 6||9. 5|
|Lodwar||dry north plainlands||506||34. 8||23. 7|
|Mandera||dry north plainlands||506||34. 8||25. 7|
The country receives a great deal of sunshine all the year round and summer clothes are worn throughout the year. However, it is usually cool at night and early in the morning.
The long rain season occurs from April to June. The short rain season occurs from October to December. The rainfall is sometimes heavy and often falls in the afternoons and evenings. The hottest period is from February to March and coldest in July to August.
The annual migration occurs between June and September with millions of wildlife taking part. It has been a popular event for filmmakers to capture.
After independence, Kenya promoted rapid economic growth through public investment, encouragement of smallholder agricultural production, and incentives for private (often foreign) industrial investment. Daniel Toroitich arap Moi (born September 2, 1924) was the President of Kenya from 1978 until 2002 Kenya 's economy is Market-based, with some state-owned infrastructure enterprises and maintains a liberalized external trade system Gross domestic product (GDP) grew at an annual average of 6. 6% from 1963 to 1973. Agricultural production grew by 4. 7% annually during the same period, stimulated by redistributing estates, diffusing new crop strains, and opening new areas to cultivation.
Between 1974 and 1990, however, Kenya's economic performance declined. Inappropriate agricultural policies, inadequate credit, and poor international terms of trade contributed to the decline in agriculture. Kenya's inward-looking policy of import substitution and rising oil prices made Kenya's manufacturing sector uncompetitive. The government began a massive intrusion into the private sector. Lack of export incentives, tight import controls, and foreign exchange controls made the domestic environment for investment even less attractive.
From 1991 to 1993, Kenya had its worst economic performance since independence. Growth in GDP stagnated, and agricultural production shrank at an annual rate of 3. 9%. Inflation reached a record 100% in August 1993, and the government's budget deficit was over 10% of GDP. As a result of these combined problems, bilateral and multilateral donors suspended programme aid to Kenya in 1991.
In 1993, the Government of Kenya began a major programme of economic reform and liberalization. A new minister of finance and a new governor of the Central Bank of Kenya undertook a series of economic measures with the assistance of the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF). The Central Bank of Kenya is Kenya's Central bank. The bank is located in Nairobi. The World Bank is an internationally supported Bank that provides financial and technical assistance to developing countries for development programs (e The International Monetary Fund ( IMF) is an International organization that oversees the Global financial system by following the Macroeconomic As part of this programme, the government eliminated price controls and import licensing, removed foreign exchange controls, privatized a range of publicly owned companies, reduced the number of civil servants, and introduced conservative fiscal and monetary policies. See also Bureaucrat The term civil service has two distinct meanings Branch of governmental service in which individuals are hired on the basis From 1994 to 1996, Kenya's real GDP growth rate averaged just over 4% a year.
In 1997, however, the economy entered a period of slowing or stagnant growth, due in part to adverse weather conditions and reduced economic activity prior to general elections in December 1997. In 2000, GDP growth was negative, but improved slightly in 2001 as rainfall returned closer to normal levels. Economic growth continued to improve slightly in 2002 and reached 1. 4% in 2003. it was 4. 3% in 2004 and 5. 8% in 2005.
In July 1997, the Government of Kenya refused to meet commitments made earlier to the IMF on governance reforms. Jomo Kenyatta International Airport, formerly called Embakasi Airport and Nairobi International Airport, is Kenya 's largest Aviation facility Nairobi (naɪˈroʊbɪ is the capital and largest city of Kenya. East Africa is the Easternmost Region of the African Continent. As a result, the IMF suspended lending for 3 years, and the World Bank also put a $90-million structural adjustment credit on hold. Although many economic reforms put in place in 1993-94 remained, conservative economists believe that Kenya needs further reforms, particularly in governance, in order to increase GDP growth and combat the poverty that afflicts more than 57% of its population.
The Government of Kenya took some positive steps on reform, including the 1999 establishment of the Kenya Anti-Corruption Authority (KACA), and measures to improve the transparency of government procurements and reduce the government payroll. Political corruption is the use of governmental powers by government officials for illegitimate private gain In July 2000, the IMF signed a $150 million Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility (PRGF), and the World Bank followed suit shortly after with a $157 million Economic and Public Sector Reform credit. The Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility (PRGF is an arm of the International Monetary Fund which lends to the world's poorest countries The Anti-Corruption Authority was declared unconstitutional in December 2000, and other parts of the reform effort faltered in 2001. The IMF and World Bank again suspended their programmes. Various efforts to restart the programme through mid-2002 were unsuccessful.
Under the leadership of President Kibaki, who took over on December 30, 2002, the Government of Kenya began an ambitious economic reform programme and has resumed its cooperation with the World Bank and the IMF. Events 1460 - Wars of the Roses: Battle of Wakefield. 1816 - The Treaty of St See also 2002 (disambiguation Year 2002 ( MMII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. The new National Rainbow Coalition (NARC) government enacted the Anti-Corruption and Economic Crimes Act and Public Officers Ethics Act in May 2003 aimed at fighting graft in public offices. The National Rainbow Coalition (National Alliance of Rainbow Coalition - NARC was a coalition of Kenyan political parties in power from 2002 and 2005 when it fell apart in a Other reforms especially in the judiciary, public procurement etc. , have led to the unlocking of donor aid and a renewed hope at economic revival. In November 2003, following the adoption of key anti-corruption laws and other reforms by the new government, donors reengaged as the IMF approved a three-year $250 million Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility and donors committed $4. 2 billion in support over 4 years. The renewal of donor involvement has provided a much-needed boost to investor confidence.
The Privatization Bill has been enacted although the setting up of a privatization commission is yet to be finalized, civil service reform has been implemented and in the year 2007 the country won the UN Public Service reform award  . However a lot of work needS to be done to make the country catch up with the rest of economic giants especially the Far East. The main challenges include taking candid action on corruption, enacting anti-terrorism and money laundering laws, bridging budget deficits, rehabilitating and building infrastructure. This hopefully will help in maintaining sound macroeconomic policies, and speed up the rapidly accelerating economic growth, which is projected to grow to 7. 2% in 2007.
In 2007, amid pomp and color, the Kenyan government unveiled Vision 2030, which, to say the least, is a very ambitious economic blueprint and which, if implemented in its entirety, has the potential of putting the country in the same league with the Asian Economic Tigers. VisiCorp 's VisiOn was a short-lived but influential Graphical user interface -based Operating environment program for IBM PC compatible A blueprint is a type of paper-based reproduction usually of a Technical drawing, documenting an Architecture or an Engineering design An economy is the realized social system of production exchange distribution and consumption of goods and services of a country or other area The tiger ( Panthera tigris) is a member of the Felidae family the largest and the most powerful of the four " Big cats quot in the Genus However all these economic projections now hang in the balance following the political uncertainty occasioned by the aftermath of the 2007 disputed Presidential polls, which left the country economically dented. Polymerase (DNA directed lambda, also known as POLL, is a human Gene. Economics is the social science that studies the production distribution, and consumption of goods and services.
Nairobi continues to be the primary communication and financial hub of East Africa. It enjoys the region's best transportation linkages, communications infrastructure, and trained personnel, although these advantages are less prominent than in past years. A wide range of foreign firms maintain regional branch or representative offices in the city. In March 1996, the Presidents of Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda re-established the East African Community (EAC). The East African Community ( EAC) is an intergovernmental organisation comprising five east African countries The EAC's objectives include harmonizing tariffs and customs regimes, free movement of people, and improving regional infrastructures. In March 2004, the three East African countries signed a Customs Union Agreement. A customs union is a Free trade area with a Common external tariff.
|GDP||$17. 43 billion (2005) at Market Price. $ 41. 36 billion (Purchasing Power Parity, 2006)|
There also exists a large, informal economy that is never counted as part of the official GDP figures.
|Annual growth rate||5. 8% (2005): 2006 = 6. 1% : Estimate for 2007 = 7. 2%|
|Per capita income||Per Capita Income (PPP)= $1,200|
|Natural resources||Wildlife, land (5% arable)|
|Agricultural produce||tea, coffee, sugarcane, horticultural products, corn, wheat, rice, sisal, pineapples, pyrethrum, dairy products, meat and meat products, hides, skins|
|Industry||petroleum products, grain and sugar milling, cement, beer, soft drinks, textiles, vehicle assembly, paper and light manufacturing, tourism|
|Exports||$2. In Geography, arable land (from Latin arare, to Plough) is an agricultural term meaning land that can be used for Tea refers to the cured agricultural product of the leaves leaf buds and internodes of Camellia sinensis, which have been prepared and cured for the market CoFFEE is an Open source Software for computer supported collaborative learning (CSCL in a digital classroom Sugarcane ( Saccharum) is a genus of 6 to 37 species (depending on taxonomic interpretation of tall perennial grasses (family Poaceae tribe Andropogoneae Maize (ˈmeɪz ( Zea mays L. ssp mays) known as corn in some countries is a cereal grain domesticated in Mesoamerica Wheat ( Triticum spp is a worldwide cultivated grass from the Levant area of the Middle East. Rice is a Cereal foodstuff which forms an important part of the diet of many people worldwide and as such it is a staple food for many Sisal or sisal hemp is an Agave Agave sisalana that yields a stiff Fiber used in making Rope. Pyrethrum refers to several Old World plants of the genus Chrysanthemum (e 2 billion||tea, coffee, horticultural products, petroleum products, cement, pyrethrum, soda ash, sisal, hides and skins, fluorspar|
|Major markets||Uganda, Tanzania, United Kingdom, Germany, Netherlands, Ethiopia, Rwanda, Egypt, South Africa, United States|
|Imports||$3. The Republic of Uganda is a Landlocked country in East Africa. Tanzania ˌtænzəˈniːə officially the United Republic of Tanzania (Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania is a country in East Africa bordered by Kenya The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. The Netherlands ( Dutch:, ˈnedərlɑnt is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which consists of the Netherlands the Netherlands NOTE This intro is the result of careful NPOV work Please do not make potentially controversial edits to it without first discussing on the talk page The Republic of Rwanda (ruːˈændə or /rəˈwɑːndə/ in English ɾwanda or in Kinyarwanda is a small Landlocked country in the This article is about the country of Egypt For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Egypt topics. The Republic of South Africa (also known by other official names) is a country located at the southern tip of the continent of Africa The United States of America —commonly referred to as the 2 billion||machinery, vehicles, crude petroleum, iron and steel, resins and plastic materials, refined petroleum products, pharmaceuticals, paper and paper products, fertilizers, wheat|
|Major suppliers||United Kingdom, Japan, South Africa, Germany, United Arab Emirates, Italy, India, France, United States, Saudi Arabia|
Early in 2006 Chinese President Hu Jintao signed an oil exploration contract with Kenya; the latest in a series of deals designed to keep Africa's natural resources flowing to China's booming economy. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. The Republic of South Africa (also known by other official names) is a country located at the southern tip of the continent of Africa Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, KSA ( المملكة العربية السعودية, al-Mamlaka al-ʻArabiyya as-Suʻūdiyya) or Suudi China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National Hu Jintao ( born 21 December 1942 is currently the Paramount Leader of the People's Republic of China, holding the titles of General Secretary of the Communist
The deal allowed for China's state-controlled offshore oil and gas company, CNOOC Ltd., to prospect for oil in Kenya, which is just beginning to drill its first exploratory wells on the borders of Sudan and Somalia and in coastal waters. China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National China National Offshore Oil Corporation ( CNOOC,,, Chinese: 中国海洋石油总公司 Pinyin: Zhōngguó Háiyáng Shíyóu Zǒnggōngsī No oil has been produced yet, and there has been no formal estimate of the possible reserves.
Kenya is a country of great ethnic diversity. Kenya has a very diverse population that includes most major ethnic and linguistic groups of Africa. Most Kenyans are bilingual in English and Swahili, also a big percentage speak their mother tongue of their ethnic tribe.
Kenya's education system consists of early childhood education, primary, secondary and college. This is a list of cities and towns in Kenya: Baragoi Bungoma Busia Dadaab Education in Kenya has been based on an 8-4-4 system since the late 1980s with eight years of primary education followed by four years of secondary school and four years of college or The University of Nairobi ( UON) is the largest University in Kenya. Early childhood education takes at least three years, primary eight years, secondary four and university four or six years depending on the course. Preschooling, which targets children from age three to five, is an integral component of the education system and is a key requirement for admission to Standard One (First Grade). At the end of primary education, pupils sit the Kenya Certificate of Primary Education (KCPE), which determines those who proceed to secondary school or vocational training. KCPE is an Abbreviation for Kenya Certificate of Primary Education, a certificate awarded to students after completing the approved eight-year course in Primary Primary school age is 6/7-13/14 years. For those who proceed to secondary level, there is a national examination at the end of Form Four – the Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education (KCSE), which determines those proceeding to the universities, other professional training or employment. KCSE stands for the Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education, which is taken at the completion of Secondary Education The Joint Admission Board (JAB) is responsible for selecting students joining the public universities. The minimum university entry grade is C+ at KCSE. However, due to stiff competition, only those with higher grades such as B+ and above are guaranteed admission. Private universities admit students on their own but are guided by the rules and regulations provided by the Commission for Higher Education. Other than the public schools, there are many private schools in the country, mainly in urban areas. Similarly, there are a number of international schools catering for various educational systems such as American, British, French, German, Japanese and Swedish. An International school is loosely defined as a School that does not require their students to learn the national or local language of the country the school is located in
Kenya is a diverse country, with many different cultures represented. Culture of Kenya - Kenya has no one culture that identifies it Notable cultures include the Swahili on the coast, pastoralist communities in the north, and several different communities in the central and western regions. The Swahili are a people and culture found on the coast of East Africa, mainly the coastal regions and the islands of Kenya and Tanzania, and north Pastoralism or pastoral farming is the branch of Agriculture concerned with the raising of Livestock. Today, the Maasai culture is well known, due to its heavy exposure from tourism, however, Maasai make up a relatively minor percentage of the Kenyan population. The Maasai are an indigenous African Ethnic group of semi-nomadic people located in Kenya and northern Tanzania. The Maasai are known for their elaborate upper body adornment and jewelry.
There is no singular dish that represents all of Kenya. Different communities have their own different foods. Staples are maize and other cereals depending on the region including millet and sorghum eaten with various meats and vegetables. Maize (ˈmeɪz ( Zea mays L. ssp mays) known as corn in some countries is a cereal grain domesticated in Mesoamerica The millets are a group of small- Seeded Species of Cereal crops or grains widely grown around the world for Food and Fodder Sorghum is a genus of numerous species of grasses, some of which are raised for grain and many of which are used as Fodder plants either cultivated or as part The foods that are universally eaten in Kenya are ugali, sukuma wiki, and nyama choma. Ugali (also sometimes called sima or posho) is a Cornmeal product and a staple Starch component of many African meals especially Sukuma wiki, a Kiswahili phrase literally meaning "to push the week," is a simple dish made with greens similar to kale or collards, but can also be made with cassava leaves, sweet potato leaves, or pumpkin leaves. Its Kiswahili name comes from the fact that it is typically eaten to "get through the week" or "stretch the week. " Nyama choma is roasted meat - usually goat or sheep- roasted over an open fire. It is best eaten with ugali and kachumbari. Ugali (also sometimes called sima or posho) is a Cornmeal product and a staple Starch component of many African meals especially Kachumbari is a fresh Condiment similar to Pico de gallo, consisting of chopped tomatoes onions and chili peppers Among the Kikuyu of Central Kenya, a lot of tubers: ngwaci (sweet potatoes), ndũma (taro root) known in Kenya as arrowroot, ikwa (yams), mianga (cassava) are eaten as well as legumes like beans and a Kikuyu bean known as njahi. There is also a town in Kiambu district called Kikuyu, and a species of Pennisetum grass native to the Kenyan highlands named Kikuyu Tubers are various types of modified plant structures that are enlarged to store Nutrients They are used by Plants to overwinter and regrow the next year The sweet potato ( Ipomoea batatas) is a Dicotyledonous plant which belongs to the family Convolvulaceae Taro (from Tahitian or other Polynesian languages) more rarely kalo (from Hawaiian) and gabi in The Philippines, is a Arrowroot, or obedience plant ( Maranta arundinacea) is a large perennial Herb of genus Maranta found in Rainforest The cassava, yuca, manioc, or mandioca ( Manihot esculenta) is a woody Shrub of the Euphorbiaceae (spurge family native Bean is a common name for large plant Seeds of several genera of the family Fabaceae (formerly Leguminosae used for human food or animal
Apart from the national flag, Kenya is yet to have a national dress that cuts across its diverse ethnic divide. The flag of Kenya was officially adopted on December 12, 1963. With each of the more than 42 ethnic communities in Kenya having its own traditional practices and symbols that make it unique, this is a task that has proved elusive in the past. However, several attempts have been made to design an outfit that can be worn to identify Kenyans, much like the Kente' cloth of Ghana. Kente cloth, known locally as nwentoma, is a type of fabric made of interwoven woven cloth strips and is native to the country of Ghana, where it was first The Republic of Ghana is a country in West Africa. It borders Côte d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast to the west Burkina Faso to the north Togo to the
The most recent effort was the Unilever-sponsored "Sunlight quest for Kenya's National Dress". A design was chosen and though it was unveiled with much pomp at a ceremony in which public figures modelled the dress, the dress design never took hold with the ordinary people.
Kitenge, a cotton fabric made into various colours and design through tie-and-dye and heavy embroidery, is generally accepted as the African dress. Kitenge or chitenge is an African garment similar to Sarong, often worn by women wrapped around the chest or waist over the head as a Headscarf Tie-dye is typically brightly colored patterned Textile or clothing which is made from knit or woven fabric usually Cotton, through a Resist dyeing Though used in many African countries, Kitenge is yet to be accepted as an official dress as it is only worn during ceremonies and non-official functions. The Maasai wear dark red garments to symbolise their love for the earth and also their dependence on it. It also stands for courage and blood that is given to them by nature. The Kanga (Khanga, Lesso) is another cloth that is in common use in practically every Kenyan home. The kanga (sometimes khanga, meaning "guinea hen" in Swahili, for its brilliant colors is a colourful garment similar to Kitenge, worn by women The Kanga is a piece of clothing about 1. 5 m by 1 m, screen printed with beautiful sayings in Swahili (or English) and is largely worn by women around the waist and torso. Kangas are a flexible item, used in many ways such as aprons, child-carrying slings, picnic blankets, swimwear etc. However, except among the coastal people, it is usually not worn as a full outfit.
Kenya is home to a diverse range of music styles, ranging from imported popular music, afro-fusion and benga music to traditional folk songs. Afro-fusion is a type of music which blends contemporary music with traditional African rhythms to create a hybrid music style There is also Benga in the province of Nyanga, see Benga Gabon Benga is a genre of Kenyan Popular music. Folk music can have a number of different meanings including Traditional music: The original meaning of the term "folk music" was synonymous The guitar is the most popular instrument in Kenyan music, and songs often feature intricate guitar rhythms. The most famous guitarist of the early 20th century was Fundi Konde. Fundi Konde ( August 24, 1924 - June 29, 2000) was a Kenyan musician Other notable musicians of the 60s era include Fadhili Williams (recognised by many as the author of the hit song "Malaika" that was later re-done by Miriam Makeba, Boney M and Daudi Kabaka. Fadhili William Mdawida (most often referred to simply as Fadhili William ( November 11 1938 &ndash February 11 2001) was a Kenyan Malaika is also a spider genus ( Phyxelididae) found in South Africa Miriam Makeba (b March 4, 1932) is a Grammy Award-winning South African singer also known as Mama Afrika. Boney M is a German pop and Disco group created by West German Record producer Frank Farian. Daudi Kabaka (1939-2001 was a Kenyan born singer The type of music he is known for is called ' Benga ' a popular style in East Africa.
Popular music in the 1980s and 90s in Kenya could be divided into two genres: the Swahili sound and the Congolese sound. There are varying regional styles, and some performers create tourist-oriented "hotel pop" that is similar to western music. Them Mushrooms, later renamed Uyoga, was one of the popular groups in this era. Them Mushrooms is a musical band from Kenya, playing mostly Chakacha, some Benga and also some Reggae.
In the recent past, newer varieties of modern popular music have arisen which are mostly local derivatives of western hip-hop. Two sub-genres have emerged: "Genge" and "Kapuka" beats. Genge music is a genre of hip hop music that had its beginnings in Nairobi, Kenya. This has revolutionized popular Kenyan music and created an industry dominated by the youth. There is also underground Kenyan hip hop that gets less radio play than Kapuka or Genge due to the fact that it is less club oriented and more focussed on social commentary. Early pioneers include the late Poxi Presha, Kalamashaka, and K-South. Poxi Presha (1971-2005 real name Prechard Pouka Olang, was a pioneering Kenyan rapper Kalamashaka (aka K-Shaka) is a hip hop group based in Dandora, a ghetto estate in Nairobi, Kenya. K-South is a hip hop production company who are among the pioneers of hip hop in Kenya. In Nairobi, hip-hop is viewed as more of a style than as a musical culture. There is a great correlation between the youth who listen to rap music and their economical status in the country with the majority of them coming from wealthy economic backgrounds. Since hip-hop is portrayed through clothing, magazines, and CDs, all of which are expensive, only the wealthier individuals are able to enjoy these luxuries.  In the last five years, hip-hop in Kenya has really taken off and has emerged from a mere curiosity, to a legitimate and successful business, which many claim is the most vibrant hip-hop scene in Africa. 
One phenomenon that critics have noted is the differences in opinions on authenticity of Hip Hop between American listeners and those in Nairobi. While those within the Hip Hop culture in the US fully embrace aspects of Hip Hop throughout their everyday lives, Nairobi youths tend not to. Kenyan rappers often used American slang within their songs, however it was noted that they rarely used the same language in regular conversation. Similarly, there is a glamorization of violence and crime that exists in America which does not in Kenya. Middle class American Hip Hop fans are often intrigued by the street images that exist in Hip Hop. Within wealthy Kenyan youth though, who often have most access to Hip Hop, these themes are taboo. This trend can likely be attributed to the language barrier between Kenyan listeners and English-speaking artists. 
Mainstream artists include Nameless, Redsan, Necessary Noize, Nonini, Juacali, Kleptomaniax, Longombas, Suzzanna Owiyo, Achieng Abura and others. David Mathenge (born August 1976 better known by his stage name Nameless, is a Kenyan pop artist signed to the Ogopa DJ's record label Redsan (real name Swabri Mohammed, 1981- is a Reggae musician from Kenya. Necessary Noize is Kenyan hip hop group originally composed of female MC/singer Nazizi Hirji singer Kevin Wyre and rapper Bamzigi though Bamzigi later left due to Nonini (born October 2, 1982) whose real name is Hubert Nakitare, is a Kenyan hip hop artist originally signed to Calif Records Jua Cali whose real name is Paul Nunda (born September 12, 1979) is a MC from Kenya. Suzanna Owiyo is a Kenyan Musician. A Singer-songwriter, Owiyo has been called "the Tracy Chapman of Africa " Their sounds run the gamut from Reggae/Ragga, Pop, Afro-Fusion to Hip-Hop. Reggae is a Music genre first developed in Jamaica in the late 1960s Raggamuffin music, usually abbreviated as ragga, is a sub-genre of Dancehall music or Reggae, in which the instrumentation primarily consists Contemporary Kenyan music is becoming quite popular, with African based music channels such as Channel O and MTV Base, giving them a greater audience than previously before. Channel O is a South African based music channel which first started transmission in the early Nineties. MTV Base is a digital television channel which began in the United Kingdom, now with localised digital broadcast versions for South Africa and France. In Kenya, West Coast rappers like 2pac, Dr. Dre, and Snoop Dogg help glamorize and popularize hip-hop through their flashy music videos and material goods. 
Many Kenyan performers mix languages in any single song, usually English, Swahili, their tribal language or Sheng (a hybrid of Kenyan languages and English/Swahili). Sheng is a Swahili -based Patois, originating in Nairobi, Kenya, and influenced by the many languages spoken there
The Kisima Music Awards, which recognise musical talent across East Africa, were founded and are currently based in Kenya. The Kisima Music Awards is an annual awards program that recognises musical talent in East Africa. Every year numerous Kenyan artists take out categories in the scheme.
The African Children's Choir features children, many of whom are orphaned, from Kenya, as well as from other neighbouring African countries. The African Children's Choir is a large Choir made up of children ages 7 to 12 from several African nations
Kenya is active in several sports, among them cricket, rallying, football (soccer), rugby union and boxing. Cricket is a bat-and-ball team Sport that originated in England and is now played in more than 100 countries Rallying is a form of motor competition that takes place on public or private roads with modified production or specially built road-legal cars Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a Team sport played between two teams of eleven players and is widely considered Overview See also Playing rugby union A rugby union match lasts for 80 minutes (plus stoppage time with a short Boxing (sometimes also known as English boxing or pugilism) is a Combat sport in which two participants generally of similar weight, But the country is known chiefly for its dominance in long-distance athletics. Long-distance track event races require runners to balance their energy Kenya has regularly produced Olympic and Commonwealth Games champions in various distance events, especially in 800 m, 1,500 m, 3,000 m steeplechase, 5,000 m, 10,000 m and the marathons. The Olympic Games is an international Multi-sport event established for both summer and winter games The Commonwealth Games is a multinational Multi-sport event. Held every four years it involves the elite athletes of the Commonwealth of Nations. Kenyan athletes (particularly Kalenjin) continue to dominate the world of distance running, although competition from Morocco and Ethiopia has somewhat reduced this supremacy. Kalenjin is an ethnic group of Nilotic origin living in the Great Rift Valley in western Kenya. Morocco (المغرب "al-Maghrib" officially the Kingdom of Morocco (المملكة المغربية is a country located in North Africa NOTE This intro is the result of careful NPOV work Please do not make potentially controversial edits to it without first discussing on the talk page The former Marathon world record holder, Paul Tergat, and the four-time women's Boston Marathon winner and two-time world champion, Catherine Ndereba, are among the best-known athletes in Kenya. The marathon is a long-distance foot race with an official distance of 42 Paul Kibii Tergat (born June 17, 1969) is a Kenyan professional athlete. The Boston Marathon is an annual marathon sporting event hosted by the city of Boston, Massachusetts Catherine Ndereba (born July 21, 1972) is a world class Kenyan marathon runner.
Retired Olympic and Commonwealth Games champion Kipchoge Keino, helped usher in Kenya's ongoing distance dynasty 1970s and was followed by Commonwealth Champion Henry Rono's spectacular string of world record performances. Kipchoge ("Kip" Keino (born January 17, 1940) chairman of the Kenyan Olympic Committee (KOC is a retired Kenyan athlete and Henry Rono (born February 12, 1952 in Kapsabet) is a former Kenyan athlete
Lately, there has been controversy in Kenyan athletics circles, with the defection of a number of Kenyan athletes to represent other countries, chiefly Bahrain and Qatar. The Kingdom of Bahrain (in مملكة البحرين,, literally Kingdom of the Two Seas) is an Island country in the Persian Gulf Qatar ( قطر; ˈqɑtˁɑr local pronunciation giṭar officially the State of Qatar (Arabic دولة قطر transliterated  The Kenyan Ministry of Sports has tried to stop the defections, but they have continued anyway, with Bernard Lagat the latest, choosing to represent the United States. Bernard Kipchirchir Lagat (born December 12, 1974, Kapsabet, Kenya) is a middle and long distance Champion The United States of America —commonly referred to as the 
Cricket is Kenya's second most popular and most successful team sport. Kenya has competed in the Cricket World Cup since 1996. The Kenya national cricket team is the team that represents the country of Kenya in international Cricket matches The Cricket World Cup is the premier international championship of men's One Day International (ODI Cricket. The 1996 Cricket World Cup (aka Wills World Cup was won by Sri Lanka who beat Australia by 7 wickets at the final in Lahore. They upset some of the World's best teams and reached semi-finals of the 2003 tournament. The 2003 Cricket World Cup ( Official name: ICC Cricket World Cup 2003) was played in South Africa from February 9 to March 24. They also won the inaugural World Cricket League Division 1 hosted in Nairobi and participated in the World T20. Their current captain is Steve Tikolo. Stephen Ogonji Tikolo (born June 25, 1971 in Nairobi) is a Kenyan Cricketer He is a right-handed middle order batsman and part
Kenya is making a name for itself in rugby union. Overview See also Playing rugby union A rugby union match lasts for 80 minutes (plus stoppage time with a short It is popular in Kenya especially with the annual Safari Sevens tournament. The Safari Sevens is an annual Rugby sevens tournament held in Kenya. Kenya sevens team ranked 9th in IRB Sevens World Series for the 2006 season. The Kenya national rugby union sevens team compete in the IRB Sevens World Series and Rugby World Cup Sevens.
Kenya has also been a dominant force in ladies' volleyball within Africa, with both the clubs and the national team winning various continental championships in the past decade. Volleyball is an Olympic team sport in which two teams of 6 active players (5 normal players and one 'libero' are separated by a net that is usually four feet The women team has also competed at the Olympics and World Championships but without any notable success. The Volleyball World Championship is a men's and women's indoor Volleyball competition
Kenya was a regional power in soccer but its dominance has been eroded by wrangles within the Kenya Football Federation. The Kenya Football Federation (KFF is the governing body of football in Kenya.  This has led to a suspension by FIFA which was lifted in March, 2007. The Fédération Internationale de Football Association (French for International Federation of Association Football)
In the motor rallying arena, Kenya is home to the world famous Safari Rally, commonly acknowledged as one of the toughest rallies in the world, and a part of the World Rally Championship for many years until its exclusion after the 2002 event due to financial difficulties. Rallying is a form of motor competition that takes place on public or private roads with modified production or specially built road-legal cars The Safari Rally is considered by many to be the world's toughest rally. History Early The World Rally Championship was formed from well-known international rallies nine of which were previously part of the International Championship Some of the best rally drivers in the world have taken part in and won the rally, such as Bjorn Waldegaard, Hannu Mikkola, Tommi Makinen, Shekhar Mehta, Carlos Sainz and Colin McRae. Björn Waldegård (born November 12 1943 at Solna) from Rimbo is a former Swedish rally driver and the winner of the inaugural Hannu Olavi Mikkola (born 24 May 1942 in Joensuu, Finland) is a retired world champion rally driver Tommi Antero Mäkinen (ˈtommi ˈmækinen is a now retired Finnish rally driver born in Puuppola, Finland near Jyväskylä in June Chandrashekhar "Shekhar" Mehta ( 20 June, 1945 – 12 April, 2006) was a Ugandan -born Kenyan rally driver Carlos Sainz (born April 12, 1962 in Madrid, Spain) is a former Spanish Rally driver. Colin Steele McRae, MBE ( August 5, 1968 &ndash September 15, 2007) was a Scottish rally driver born in Though the rally still runs annually as part of the Africa rally championship, the organisers are hoping to be allowed to rejoin the World Rally championship in the next couple of years.
Although the government has not been very supportive of the film industry in Kenya, the country offers some of the most spectacular sceneries and can only be compared to South Africa in regard to producing some of the most talented actors and actresses on the African continent. The film industry consists of the technological and commercial institutions of filmmaking i The Republic of South Africa (also known by other official names) is a country located at the southern tip of the continent of Africa Due to the nonchalant attitude and lack of enthusiasm exhibited by the government, the industry has remained considerably dormant whereby notable movies shot in the country have been few and far between. The most recent movie is the award winning The Constant Gardener directed by Fernando Meirelles and starring Ralph Fiennes and Rachel Weisz. The Constant Gardener is a 2005 Drama film directed by Fernando Meirelles. Fernando Meirelles (born November 9, 1955 in São Paulo, Brazil) is an Academy Award -nominated Film director. Ralph Nathaniel Twisleton-Wykeham-Fiennes ( "rafe fines" born 22 December 1962) is a British Actor. Rachel Hannah Weisz ( "vice" born 7 March, in 1970 or 1971 is an Academy Award -winning English Other films shot in Kenya in the recent past include the Academy Award winning Nowhere in Africa and Lara Croft Tomb Raider: The Cradle of Life. "The Oscar" redirects here for the film see The Oscar (film. Nowhere in Africa ( Nirgendwo in Afrika) is an epic 2001 German film directed by Caroline Link and based on the autobiographical novel Lara Croft Tomb Raider The Cradle of Life is a 2003 Action film directed by Jan de Bont, and starring Angelina Jolie as Sheena, Queen of the Jungle won great acclaim in the 1980s and was one of the first foreign movies to be shot entirely on location in Kenya. Other highly acclaimed films set (and shot) in Kenya include Karen Blixen's Out of Africa, starring Robert Redford and Meryl Streep and directed by Sidney Pollack, and Born Free, an adaptation of the autobiography of Joy Adamson. Baroness Karen von Blixen-Finecke ( April 17, 1885 &ndash September 7, 1962) Née Karen Dinesen, was a Out of Africa is a 1985 Film based loosely on the autobiographical book by Isak Dinesen (pseudonym of Karen Blixen) published Charles Robert Redford Jr (born August 18 1936) is an Academy Award -winning American Film director, Actor, Mary Louise "Meryl" Streep (born June 22, 1949) is an award-winning American Actress who has worked in Theatre, Sydney Irwin Pollack ( July 1, 1934 – May 26, 2008) was an American Film director, producer and Actor. Born Free ( 1966) is an Open Road Films Ltd / Columbia Pictures Feature film starring Virginia McKenna and Bill Joy Adamson ( January 20, 1910 – January 3, 1980) was a naturalist and author best known for her book Born Free, which described In 1999, part of the movie To Walk With Lions, which featured actor Richard Harris, was shot on location in the country. To Walk with Lions was a 1999 film based on the book of the same title by George Adamson starring Richard Harris as Adamson and John Michie Richard St John Harris ( October 1 1930 - October 25 2002) was a two-time Academy Award -nominated and Grammy Award Notable film actors from Kenya include Paul Onsongo, David Mulwa, the late Sidede Onyulo, John Sibi Okumu and Njeri Osaak. John Sibi-Okumu is a Kenyan Actor and Journalist best known internationally for his role in The Constant Gardener. Njeri Luseno also known as Njeri Osaak is a Kenyan actress She worked with actors like Paul Onsongo and John Sibi Okumu and featured in many
Die Weiße Massai (The White Masai), a German movie about a Swiss Woman who fell in love with a Samburu warrior (Maasai); won an Award of the best Foreign language Movie (2006). The White Masai ( Die weiße Massai) directed by Hermine Huntgeburth, is a 2005 movie about Swiss woman Carola ( Nina Hoss Rise and Fall of Idi Amin, based on the Ugandan dictator, was shot in Kenya and is considered one of the most successful movies produced and directed by a Kenyan (Sharad Patel). Rise and Fall of Idi Amin, also known as Amin The Rise and Fall, is a 1981 British bloody Exploitation film and Biopic Indigenous Kenyan filmmakers include Ingolo Wa Keya, Albert Wandago and Judy Kibinge. Nowhere in Africa (Nirgendwo in Afrika - 2001), an award-winning German production, tells a story about German Jewish refugees living in Kenya during Second World War. Nowhere in Africa ( Nirgendwo in Afrika) is an epic 2001 German film directed by Caroline Link and based on the autobiographical novel Most of the movie is set in Kenya and numerous scenes show actors, either Kenyans or main German actors, speaking Swahili.
Some of the latest notable productions include the footage screened to the music of U2, Robbie Williams, R.E.M. and other acts at the Live 8 concerts in Europe and the US in July 2005, Africa Mon Amor, shot over a period of three months in Samburu, Shaba and Lamu with a renowned German actress, Iris Berben, in 2006. Robert Peter Maximilian Williams (born 13 February 1974) is an English singer REM is an American rock band formed in Athens, Georgia, in 1980 by Michael Stipe ( lead vocals) Peter Buck ( Guitar Live 8 was a string of Benefit concerts that took place on 2 July, 2005, in the G8 states and in South Africa. Iris Berben (born 12 August 1950 in Detmold, North Rhine-Westphalia) is a German actress.
The Kenya Film Commission (KFC) was established by the Kenyan government in 2005, but only became fully operational in mid-2006. The Kenya Film Commission (KFC was established by the Kenyan government in 2005 The Commission was formed with the aim of promoting the Kenyan film industry both locally and internationally. It offers detailed information on Kenyan filming locations as well as liaison services on behalf of the government. The Commission also advises on recce's, film licensing and immigration requirements as well as facilitate the filming process for film makers.
Interested producers and production companies need to go though filming agents in order to obtain a film licence that allows filming all over Kenya
Acting for television has proved popular with the Kenyan audience. This genre has been around from the 1960s when actors like Mzee Pembe graced the Kenyan television screen. A genre (ˈʒɑːnrə also /ˈdʒɑːnrə/ from French "kind" or "sort" from Latin: genus (stem gener-) is a loose set Others, like Benson Wanjau (Ojwang' Hatari) and Mary Khavere (Mama Kayai), followed later with their rib-cracking comedies presented exclusively in Swahili, reaching millions of households courtesy of Kenya Broadcasting Corporation television station. Comedy (from the Greek κωμωδίαkomodia has a popular meaning (any discourse generally intended to amuse especially in Television, Film, and Swahili (called Kiswahili in the language itself is the First language of the Swahili people (Waswahili who inhabit several large stretches Kenya Broadcasting Corporation (KBC is the state-run media ( Radio and Television) organization of Kenya. Serious Television drama was witnessed for the first time in the early 1990s with the entry of popular actors like Packson Ngugi, BMJ Muriithi and Betty Achieng' alongside other thespians who featured in a variety of TV shows following the liberalization of the airwaves by the Kenyan government. Packson Ngugi is one of the few Kenyan actors who have immensely contributed to theatre development in the country Television ( TV) is a widely used Telecommunication medium for sending ( Broadcasting) and receiving moving Images, either monochromatic In general liberalization (or liberalisation) refers to a relaxation of previous government restrictions usually in areas of social or economic policy For the government of parliamentary systems see Executive (government. However, Tushauriane, a Swahili television series featuring Kenyan fine actors like Dennis Kashero and Tony Msalame had premiered in the late 1980s becoming arguably one of the most popular productions to ever hit the Kenyan TV screens. Swahili (called Kiswahili in the language itself is the First language of the Swahili people (Waswahili who inhabit several large stretches The Republic of Kenya is a country in East Africa. It is bordered by Ethiopia to the north Somalia to the northeast Tanzania to the south A new genre in the form of stand-up comedy followed when the late actor Joni Nderitu entered the scene. The new style was later to be perfected by the group, 'Redykyulass', comprised of a trio of young Kenyans - Walter Mong'are, Tony Njuguna and John Kiare (KJ) - who specialised in political satire. They lampooned not only the establishment but the then Kenyan President, Daniel Arap Moi  as well. Daniel Toroitich arap Moi (born September 2, 1924) was the President of Kenya from 1978 until 2002 The lampooning of the Kenyan head of state was unprecedented and could have easily led to their prosecution, or even detention without trial, had it been done in the 1980s, when mimicking the head of state and exhibiting any form of political dissent was considered treasonable. The Republic of Kenya is a country in East Africa. It is bordered by Ethiopia to the north Somalia to the northeast Tanzania to the south Other Stations known to promote theater in Kenya include Nation TV, Kenya Television Network (KTN) an Citizen TV, all based in the nation's capital, Nairobi. Nairobi (naɪˈroʊbɪ is the capital and largest city of Kenya. K24, the newest TV station to enter the scene, started its test run in Nairobi in December 2007. It captured the interest of many mainly because of the introduction of Jeff Koinange, one of the most popular Kenyan journalists who has worked for major international mediahouses like CNN, as its chief News anchor. Jeff Koinange is a television Reporter, most recently serving as the Africa correspondent for CNN and CNN International from 2001 to 2007 Cable News Network, usually referred to by its Initialism CNN, is a major English language Television network founded in 1980 by Ted Turner
A Satellite and Internet-based 24-hour pan-African TV channel, A24, is scheduled to start broadcasting from Nairobi in 2008. This article is about artificial satellites For natural satellites also known as moons see Natural satellite. The Internet is a global system of interconnected Computer networks K24 is a proposed independent Pan-African 24-hour news and information channel, an 'African voice for Africa' This will be in honor and memory of world-renowned and award winning Kenyan Photojournalist, Mohamed Amin. Mohamed "Mo" Amin ( 29 August 1943 - 23 November 1996) was a Kenyan photojournalist noted for his pictures and videotapes
Kenya holds one of the biggest annual drama events, the Kenya schools and colleges drama festival, in the south of Sahara. The Sahara (الصحراء الكبرى aṣ-ṣaḥrā´ al-kubra, "The Great Desert" is the world's largest hot Desert and the world's second largest The Kenya National Theatre is based in Nairobi opposite the Norfolk Hotel. Kenya National Theatre is a national organisation in Kenya for bringing performing artists together Notable theatre performing groups include Festival of Creative Arts that stages regular stage performances at both the Kenya National Theatre and Alliance Francaise, Phoenix Players based at the Professional Centre, Heartsrings Ensemble and Mombasa Little Theatre Club based in Mombasa. Festival Of Creative Arts is theatre group in Kenya Started only in 2005 this group has cultivated a culture of high Notable names on the Kenyan theatre scene include the late actresses Stella Awinja Muka and Anne Wanjugu. Renowned director Tirus Gathwe cut a niche for himself and is perhaps the most well known theatre directors in Kenya today. In the late 1990s through the early 2000s, the late Wahome Mutahi followed in the footsteps of the legendary Ngugi Wa Thiong'o when he, through Igiza Productions, teamed up with Tirus Gathwe and embarked on a project dubbed "taking Theatre to the people" which saw them stage numerous productions, mainly political Satires, at nightspots throughout the country. Wahome Mutahi ( October 24 1954 &ndash July 22 2003) was one of the most beloved humourists of Kenya. Ngũgĩ wa Thiong'o (born January 5, 1938) is a Kenyan author formerly working in English and now working in Gĩkũyũ. Politics Politics is the process by which groups of people make decisions
Ngugi wa Thiong'o is one of the best known writers of Kenya. Kenyan literature describes Literature which comes from the African country of Kenya. Ngũgĩ wa Thiong'o (born January 5, 1938) is a Kenyan author formerly working in English and now working in Gĩkũyũ. His book, Weep Not, Child is an illustration of life in Kenya during the British occupation. Weep Not Child is Kenyan author Ngũgĩ wa Thiong'o 's first novel published in 1964 This is a story about the effects of the Mau Mau on the lives of black Kenyans. Its combination of themes - colonialism, education, and love - help to make it one of the best-known novels in Africa. See Colony and Colonization for examples of colonialism which do not refer to Western colonialism
M.G. Vassanji's 2003 novel The In-Between World of Vikram Lall won the Giller Prize in 2003. Moyez Gulamhussein Vassanji, CM (born 30 May 1950) is a Canadian Novelist and editor. The Scotiabank Giller Prize is an award that goes to the author of a Canadian Novel or Short story Fiction collection published in It is the fictional memoir of a Kenyan of Indian heritage and his family as they adjust to the changing political climates in colonial and post-colonial Kenya.
Since 2003, the literary journal Kwani? has been publishing Kenyan contemporary literature. Kwani? is Kenya 's first literary journal founded in 2003 It was set up by some of Kenya's new writers including Binyavanga Wainaina