The John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) is the NASA space vehicle launch facility and Launch Control Center (spaceport) on Merritt Island, Brevard County, Florida, United States. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration ( NASA, ˈnæsə is an agency of the United States government, responsible for the nation's public space program A spacecraft is a Vehicle or machine designed for Spaceflight. The Launch Control Center (LCC is a four-story building located at Kennedy Space Center, and is used for the supervision of launches from Launch Complex 39. A spaceport or cosmodrome is a site for launching Spacecraft, by analogy with Seaport for Ships or Airport for Aircraft Merritt Island is a Census designated place in Brevard County, Florida, United States. Brevard County is a county located in the US state of Florida, along the coast of the Atlantic Ocean. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The site is near Cape Canaveral, midway between Miami and Jacksonville, Florida. Cape Canaveral from the Spanish Cabo Cañaveral, is a headland in Brevard County Florida, United States, near the center of that It is 34 miles (55 km) long and around 6 miles (10 km) wide, covering 219 square miles (567 km²). A mile is a unit of Length, usually used to measure Distance, in a number of different systems including Imperial units United States The kilometre ( American spelling: kilometer) symbol km is a unit of Length in the Metric system, equal to one thousand The square mile is an imperial and US unit of Area equal the area of a square of one statute mile. Square Kilometre ( US spelling square kilometer) symbol km2, is a decimal multiple of the SI unit of A total of 13,500 people work at the site as of early 2008.  There is a visitor center and public tours and KSC is a major tourist destination for visitors to Florida. A tourist destination is a city town or other area that is dependent to a significant extent on the revenues accruing from Tourism. Because much of KSC is a restricted area and only nine percent of the land is developed, the site also serves as an important wildlife sanctuary; Mosquito Lagoon, Indian River, Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge and Canaveral National Seashore are also features of this area. An animal sanctuary is a facility where Animals are brought to live and be protected for the rest of their lives Mosquito Lagoon is part of the Indian River Lagoon system and the Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway. The Indian River is a waterway in Florida, a part of the Indian River Lagoon system which forms the Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway. Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge is an important US National Wildlife Refuge on the Atlantic coast of Florida. The Canaveral National Seashore (CANA is a National Seashore located between New Smyrna Beach and Titusville Florida, in the United States
Operations are currently controlled from Launch Complex 39, the location of the Vehicle Assembly Building. Launch Complex 39 (LC-39 is a Rocket launch site at the John F VABConstructionjpg|thumbnail|right|VAB during its early steel construction phase (1963 along with the Mobile Launcher Platform and tower assemblies for the Saturn V rocket The two launch pads are 3 miles (5 km) to the east of the assembly building. A launch pad is the area and facilities where rockets or spacecrafts liftoff The KSC Industrial Area, where many of the Center's support facilities and the administrative Headquarters Building are located, are found 5 miles (8 km) south. The Headquarters Building is a historic site on Merritt Island, Florida, United States.
Kennedy Space Center's only launch operations are at Launch Complex 39. All other launch operations take place at the adjacent Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS), which is operated by the US Air Force. The Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS is a detachment of the 45th Space Wing (45 SW Patrick AFB provides headquarters functions from the 45 SW a major airfield The center employs about 15,000 civil servants and contractors. See also Bureaucrat The term civil service has two distinct meanings Branch of governmental service in which individuals are hired on the basis A general contractor is a group or individual that Contracts with another organization or individual (the owner for the Construction or Renovation 
The announcement of the lunar program led to an expansion of operations from the Cape to the adjacent Merritt Island. NASA began acquisition in 1962, taking title to 131 square miles (340 km²) by outright purchase and negotiating with the state of Florida for an additional 87 square miles (230 km²). In July 1962, the site was named the Launch Operations Center. It was renamed the John F. Kennedy Space Center in November 1963, after the assassination of President John F. Kennedy. The assassination of John F Kennedy, the thirty-fifth President of the United States, took place on Friday November 22 1963 in Dallas Texas (The surrounding Cape Canaveral was also renamed Cape Kennedy, but this change was unpopular with local residents and the cape reverted to the original name in 1973. )
The lunar project had three stages—Mercury, Gemini and Apollo. Team The Gemini program was managed by the Manned Spacecraft Center Houston Texas under direction of the Office of Manned Space Flight NASA Headquarters Washington The objective of the Mercury program was:
The project started in October 1957 using the Atlas ICBM as the base to carry the Mercury payload, but early testing used the Redstone rocket for a series of suborbital flights including the 15-minute flights of Alan Shepard on May 5 and Virgil Grissom on July 21, 1961. The SM-65 Atlas was a missile built by the Convair Division of General Dynamics. First launched in 1953 the American Redstone Rocket (Redstone missile was a direct descendant of the German V-2. A sub-orbital spaceflight (or sub-orbital flight is a Spaceflight in which the Spacecraft reaches space, but its Trajectory intersects Alan Bartlett Shepard Jr (November 18 1923 &ndash July 21 1998 ( Rear Admiral, USN Ret Events 553 - The Second Council of Constantinople begins 1215 - Rebel Barons renounce their allegiance to King John Virgil Ivan Grissom, more widely known as Gus Grissom, ( 3 April 1926 – 27 January 1967) was one of the original NASA Events 356 BC - Herostratus sets fire to the Temple of Artemis in Ephesus, one of the Seven Wonders of the World Year 1961 ( MCMLXI) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The first human carried by an Atlas was John Glenn on February 20, 1962. John Herschel Glenn Jr (born July 18 1921 in Cambridge Ohio) is a former United States Senator who first rose to fame as the first American to Orbit Events 1472 - Orkney and Shetland are left by Norway to Scotland, due to a Dowry payment Year 1962 ( MCMLXII) was a Common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. While Mercury was launched by NASA, launches occurred from the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station as KSC was not yet developed.
From the knowledge gained through Mercury the more complex two-man capsules of Gemini were prepared as was a new launcher based on the Titan II ICBM. The Titan II was an Intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM and space launcher developed by the Glenn L The first manned flight took place on March 23, 1965 with John Young and Virgil Grissom. Events 1174 - Jocelin, Abbot of Melrose, is elected Bishop of Glasgow. Year 1965 ( MCMLXV) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. John Young may refer to John Young (actor (1916–1996 Scottish actor John Young, (1909–1997 American (Hawaiian painter Gemini 4 featured the first American extravehicular activity, by Edward H. White. Gemini 4 (officially Gemini IV) was a June 1965 Manned space flight in NASA 's Gemini program. Edward Higgins White II (LtCol, USAF ( November 14, 1930  &ndash January 27, 1967) was a United States Air Force officer and There were twelve Gemini launches from KSC.
The Apollo program had another new launcher—the three-stage Saturn V (111 m high and 10 m in diameter), built by Boeing (first stage), North American Aviation (engines and second stage) and Douglas Aircraft (third stage). The Saturn V (pronounced 'Saturn Five' popularly known as the Moon Rocket was a multistage liquid-fuel expendable Rocket used by NASA 's The Boeing Company is a major Aerospace and defense corporation originally founded by William E North American Aviation was a major US Aircraft manufacturer, responsible for a number of historic aircraft including the T-6 Texan trainer the The Douglas Aircraft Company was an American Aerospace manufacturer, based in Long Beach California. North American Aviation also made the command and service modules while Grumman Aircraft Engineering constructed the lunar lander. The Grumman Aircraft Engineering Corporation, later Grumman Aerospace Corporation, was a leading 20th century U IBM, MIT and GE provided instrumentation. International Business Machines Corporation abbreviated IBM and nicknamed "Big Blue", is a multinational Computer Technology
At KSC an $800 million center was built to accommodate this new rocket—Launch Complex 39. It included a hangar to hold four Saturn V rockets, the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB, 130 million ft³); a transportation system from the hangar to the launch pad, capable of carrying 5440 tons; a 446-foot (136 m) movable service structure and a control center. VABConstructionjpg|thumbnail|right|VAB during its early steel construction phase (1963 along with the Mobile Launcher Platform and tower assemblies for the Saturn V rocket Construction began in November 1962, the launch pads were completed by October 1965, the VAB was completed in June 1965, and the infrastructure by late 1966. From 1967 through 1973, there were 13 Saturn V launches from Complex 39.
Before the Saturn V launches there was a series of smaller Saturn I and IB launches, to test the men and equipment, from the Complex 34 on the Cape Canaveral site. Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Launch Complex 34 ( LC-34) is a launch site at Merritt Island, Cape Canaveral, Florida. The deaths of astronauts Gus Grissom, Ed White and Roger B. Chaffee by fire on Apollo-Saturn 204 (later designated Apollo 1) on January 27, 1967 occurred at Complex 34. Virgil Ivan Grissom, more widely known as Gus Grissom, ( 3 April 1926 – 27 January 1967) was one of the original NASA Edward White may refer to Edward John White (1831–1913 Anglo-Australian meteorologist and astronomer Edward Douglass White (1845–1921 Roger Bruce Chaffee ( February 15, 1935 – January 27, 1967) was a U Events 98 - Trajan becomes Roman Emperor after the death of Nerva. Year 1967 ( MCMLXVII) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the 1967 Gregorian calendar.
The first Saturn V test launch, Apollo 4 (Apollo-Saturn 501) began its 104 hour countdown on October 30, 1967 and, after delays, was launched on November 9. Events 637 - Antioch surrenders to the Muslim forces under Rashidun Caliphate after the Battle of Iron bridge. Year 1967 ( MCMLXVII) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. Events 694 - Egica, a king of the Visigoths of Hispania, accuses Jews of aiding Muslims sentencing all Apollo 7 was the first manned test on October 11, 1968 (on a Saturn IB). Events 1138 - A massive earthquake struck Aleppo, Syria. 1531 - Huldrych Zwingli is killed Year 1968 ( MCMLXVIII) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Apollo 8, the first manned Saturn V launch, made 10 lunar orbits on December 24-25, 1968. Apollo 9 and Apollo 10 tested the lunar lander. Apollo 11 was launched on July 16, 1969 and the Moon was walked on at 10:56 pm EDT, July 20. Events 622 - The beginning of the Islamic calendar. 1054 - Three Roman legates fractured relations between the Western and Year 1969 ( MCMLXIX) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Events 1304 - Wars of Scottish Independence: Fall of Stirling Castle - King Edward I of England takes the last rebel stronghold The Apollo program continued at KSC, with Apollo 14 (1971), the 24th US manned space flight (40th in the world), until Apollo 17 in December 1972. A human spaceflight is a Spaceflight with a human crew, and possibly passengers
The Air Force chose to expand the capabilities of the Titan launch vehicles for its heavy lift capabilities. It constructed Launch Complexes 40 and 41 to launch Titan III and Titan IV rockets at CCAFS, just south of Kennedy Space Center. Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Launch Complex 40 ( LC-40) was a launch pad at Merritt Island, Cape Canaveral, Florida Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Launch Complex 41 ( LC-41) is an active Launch Site at Merritt Island, Cape Canaveral, The Titan IIIC was a space booster used by the United States Air Force. The Titan IV family (including the IVA and IVB of Space boosters were used by the U A Titan III has about the same payload capacity as a Saturn IB with a considerable cost saving. Launch Complexes 40 and 41 were used to launch defense reconnaissance, communications and weather satellites and NASA planetary missions. The Air Force also planned to launch two manned space projects from LC 40 and 41. They were the Dyna-Soar, a manned orbital rocket plane (cancelled in 1963), and the Manned Orbital Laboratory, a manned reconnaissance space station (cancelled in 1969). WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout The Manned Orbital Laboratory ( MOL) was part of the United States Air Force 's Manned spaceflight program a successor to the cancelled X-20 Dyna-Soar
ELV rocket development also continued at KSC—before Apollo, an Atlas-Centaur launched from Launch Complex 36 placed the first American Surveyor lander softly on the Moon on May 30, 1966. An expendable launch system is a Launch system that uses an expendable launch vehicle (ELV to carry a payload into Space. Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Launch Complex 36 ( LC-36) was a launch complex at Cape Canaveral, Merritt Island, Florida. The Surveyor Program was a NASA program that from 1966 through 1968 sent seven Robotic spacecraft to the surface of the Moon. Events 1416 - The Council of Constance, called by the Emperor Sigismund a supporter of Antipope John XXIII burns Jerome of Prague following Year 1966 ( MCMLXVI) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. A further five out of seven Surveyor craft were also successfully transferred to the Moon. From 1974-1977 the powerful Titan-Centaur became the new heavy lift vehicle for NASA, launching the Viking and Voyager series of spacecraft from Launch Complex 41, an Air Force site lent to NASA. NASA 's Viking program consisted of a pair of space probes sent to Mars, Viking 1 and Viking 2. See also Voyager 1 and Voyager 2. The Voyager program consists of a pair of unmanned scientific probes Voyager 1 and Complex 41 later became the launch site for the most powerful unmanned U. S. rocket, the Titan IV, developed for the Air Force.
The Saturn V was also used to put the Skylab space station in orbit in 1973. Skylab was the first Space station the United States launched into orbit and the second space station ever visited by a human crew Launchpad 39B was slightly modified for Saturn IB use, and launched three manned missions to Skylab in 1973, as well as the Apollo component of the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project in 1975.
KSC is now the launch site for the Space Shuttle, reusing the Complex 39 Apollo infrastructure. NASA 's Space Shuttle, officially called the Space Transportation System ( STS) is the Spacecraft currently used by the United States The first launch was of Columbia on April 12, 1981. Space Shuttle Columbia ( NASA Orbiter Vehicle Designation: OV-102) was the first spaceworthy Space shuttle in NASA 's Events 467 - Anthemius is elevated to Emperor of the Western Roman Empire. Year 1981 ( MCMLXXXI) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 KSC also has a landing site for the orbiter, the 2. 9 mile (4. 6 km) Shuttle Landing Facility. The NASA Shuttle Landing Facility is an Airport located on Merritt Island in Brevard County, Florida, USA. However, the first end-of-mission Shuttle landing at KSC did not take place until February 11, 1984, when Challenger completed STS-41-B; the primary landing site had until that time been Edwards Air Force Base in California. Space Shuttle Challenger ( NASA Orbiter Vehicle Designation: OV-099 was NASA's second Space Shuttle orbiter to be put into service STS-41-B was the tenth space shuttle mission and the fourth flight for ''Challenger''. Edwards Air Force Base is a United States Air Force base located on the border of Kern County and Los Angeles County California in the Antelope California ( is a US state on the West Coast of the United States, along the Pacific Ocean. Twenty-five flights had been completed by September 1988, with a large hiatus from January 28, 1986, to September 29, 1988, following the Challenger disaster (which was the first shuttle launch from Pad 39B). Events 1077 - Walk to Canossa: The Excommunication of Henry IV Holy Roman Emperor is lifted Year 1986 ( MCMLXXXVI) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar) Events 522 BC - Darius I of Persia kills the Magian usurper Gaumâta securing his hold as king of the Persian Empire. Year 1988 ( MCMLXXXVIII) was a Leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar) The Space Shuttle Challenger disaster took place on January 28 1986 when ''Challenger'', a Space Shuttle operated by NASA, broke apart
In September 2004, parts of Kennedy Space Center were damaged by Hurricane Frances. Hurricane Frances was the sixth named storm, the fourth hurricane, and the third major hurricane of the 2004 Atlantic hurricane season. The Vehicle Assembly Building lost 1,000 exterior panels, each 3. 9 x 9. 8 ft (approx. 1. 2 x 3. 0 m) in size. This exposed 39,800 sq ft (3,700 m²) of the building to the elements. Damage occurred to the south and east sides of the VAB. The Space Shuttle tile manufacturing facility suffered extensive damage. The roof was partially torn off and the interior suffered extensive water damage. Tile manufacturing will probably be moved to the Palmdale, California backup facility. Palmdale, the first community within the Antelope Valley to incorporate as a city (on August 24, 1962 Further damage to KSC was caused by Hurricane Wilma in October 2005. Hurricane Wilma was the most intense hurricane ever recorded in the Atlantic basin.
The south Florida area receives more lightning strikes than any other place in the U. Lightning is an atmospheric discharge of Electricity, which typically occurs during Thunderstorms and sometimes during volcanic eruptions or S. , causing NASA to spend millions of dollars to avoid strikes during launch.  The first lightning strike on the launchpad happened in 2006, during Hurricane Ernesto. Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. The name Ernesto has been used for five Tropical cyclones in the Atlantic Ocean. This happened while NASA had to reprieve the Space Shuttle mission STS-115. STS-115 was a Space Shuttle mission to the International Space Station (ISS flown by Space Shuttle '' Atlantis''.
In the future, Kennedy Space Center will be the launch site for the Ares I and Ares V rockets, which carry the Orion spacecraft. Ares I is the crew Launch vehicle being developed by NASA as a component of Project Constellation. The Ares V (formerly known as the Cargo Launch Vehicle or CaLV is the cargo launch component of Project Constellation. Orion is a Spacecraft design currently under development by the United States space agency NASA.
Since Kennedy Space Center's formation, nine NASA officials have served as directors:
The Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex, operated by Delaware North Companies at no taxpayer expense, is home to a number of museums, two IMAX theatres, and various bus tours allowing visitors a closer look at various restricted areas that would otherwise not be possible. Delaware North Companies is an American-based food service and hospitality company headquartered in Buffalo N IMAX (short for Image MAXimum is a Film format created by Canada 's IMAX Corporation that has the capacity to display images of far greater size and Base admission for people over age 12 is $38. Included in the base admission is tour-bus transportation into the restricted area to an observation gantry on the grounds of Launch Complex 39, and to the Apollo-Saturn V Center. The observation gantry provides unobstructed views of both launch pads and all of Kennedy Space Center property. The Apollo-Saturn V Center is a large museum built around its centerpiece exhibit, a restored Saturn V launch vehicle, and features other space related exhibits, including an Apollo capsule. The Saturn V (pronounced 'Saturn Five' popularly known as the Moon Rocket was a multistage liquid-fuel expendable Rocket used by NASA 's Two theaters allow the visitor to relive parts of the Apollo program. One simulates the environment inside an Apollo-era firing room during an Apollo launch, and another simulates the Apollo 11 landing. The tour also includes a visit to a building where modules for the International Space Station are tested.
The Visitor Complex also includes two facilities run by the Astronauts Memorial Foundation. The most visible of these is the Space Mirror Memorial, also known as the Astronaut Memorial, a huge black granite mirror through-engraved with the names of all astronauts who died in the line of duty. The Space Mirror Memorial, also known as the Astronaut Memorial, is a Memorial on the grounds of the John F Granite (ˈɡrænɪt is a common and widely occurring type of intrusive, Felsic, igneous rock. These names are constantly illuminated from behind, with natural light when possible, and artificial light when necessary. The glowing names seem to float in a reflection of the sky. Supplemental displays nearby give the details of the lives and deaths of the astronauts memorialized. Elsewhere on the Visitor Complex grounds is the Foundation's Center for Space Education, which includes a resource center for teachers, among other facilities.
Several articles of flight-used and flight-ready spacecraft are on display at KSC:
The Skylab Rescue Command Module and LM-9 are among the few unused flight-ready articles currently in existence and on display. Gemini 9A (officially Gemini IX-A) was a 1966 manned spaceflight in NASA 's Gemini program. Crew Vance Brand Commander Don Lind Pilot See also STS-3xx Orion Due to budget constraints there were many canceled Apollo missions during the Apollo program. Skylab Rescue was on standby during the Skylab 3 and Skylab 4 missions in the event a rescue mission was necessary, and was actually rolled out to LC-39B during Skylab 3 when the mission's Command Module developed problems that were later fixed. Skylab 3 (also SL-3 and SLM-2) was the second manned mission to Skylab. Skylab 4 (also SL-4 and SLM-3) was the fourth Skylab mission and placed the third crew on board Launch Complex 39 (LC-39 is a Rocket launch site at the John F LM-9 was originally meant for Apollo 15, but the mission type was changed, and it was replaced with a more advanced one that carried a lunar rover. The Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV or lunar rover was a type of surface exploration rover used on the Moon during the Apollo program.
In addition, Mercury-Atlas 8 capsule Sigma 7 and Apollo 14 Command Module Kitty Hawk are located at the nearby Astronaut Hall of Fame. Mercury-Atlas 8 was a Mercury program Manned space mission launched on October 3, 1962. The United States Astronaut Hall of Fame is located in Titusville Florida.