|Born||May 8, 1945 |
Allentown, Pennsylvania, U.S.
|Genre(s)||Mainstream jazz, Avant-garde jazz, Jazz fusion, Post bop, Contemporary jazz|
Keith Jarrett (born May 8, 1945 in Allentown, Pennsylvania) is an American pianist and composer. Events 589 - Reccared summons the Third Council of Toledo 1450 - Jack Cade's Rebellion: Kentishmen Year 1945 ( MCMXLV) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania ( often colloquially referred to as PA (its abbreviation by natives and Northeasterners is a state located in the Northeastern The United States of America —commonly referred to as the A music genre is a categorical and typological construct that identifies musical sounds as belonging to a particular category and type of music that can be distinguished from other Mainstream jazz is a genre of Jazz music that was first used in reference to the playing styles of musicians like Buck Clayton among others performers who once heralded Avant-garde jazz (also known as avant-jazz) is a style of music and Improvisation that combines Avant-garde Art music and composition with Fusion or more specifically jazz fusion or jazz rock, is a Musical genre that merges Jazz with elements of other styles of music particularly Post-bop is a term for a form of small-combo Jazz music that evolved in the early-to-mid sixties Jazz is an American Musical art form which originated in the beginning of the 20th century in African American communities in the Southern United States A pianist (/'piənɪst/ is a Musician who plays the Piano. A professional pianist can perform solo pieces play with an ensemble or Orchestra A musical instrument is a device constructed or modified for the purpose of making Music. The piano is a Musical instrument played by means of a keyboard that produces sound by striking steel strings with Felt covered hammers Events 589 - Reccared summons the Third Council of Toledo 1450 - Jack Cade's Rebellion: Kentishmen Year 1945 ( MCMXLV) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar For the song by Billy Joel, see " Allentown (song." For the neighborhood in Pittsburgh The United States of America —commonly referred to as the A pianist (/'piənɪst/ is a Musician who plays the Piano. A professional pianist can perform solo pieces play with an ensemble or Orchestra A composer (literally meaning 'one who puts together' is a person who creates Music, usually in the medium of notation, for Interpretation and Performance
His career started with Art Blakey, Charles Lloyd and Miles Davis. Arthur (Art Blakey ( October 11 1919 &ndash October 16 1990) born in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Charles Lloyd may refer to Full name Charles Lloyd (jazz musician Charles Lloyd (poet Charles Lloyd (bishop Miles Dewey Davis III (May 26 1926 &ndash September 28 1991 was an American Jazz Trumpeter, Bandleader, and Composer. Since the early 1970s he has enjoyed a great deal of success in both classical music and jazz, as a group leader and a solo performer. His improvisation technique combines not only jazz, but also other forms of music, especially classical, gospel, blues and ethnic folk music. Jazz is an American Musical art form which originated in the beginning of the 20th century in African American communities in the Southern United States Classical music is a broad term that usually refers to mainstream music produced in or rooted in the traditions of Western liturgical and Secular music Gospel music is Music that is written to express either personal or a communal belief regarding Christian life as well as (in terms of the varying music styles to The Blues is a vocal and instrumental form of Music based on the use of the Blue notes It emerged as an accessible form of self-expression
Jarrett grew up with a significant exposure to music. He displayed prodigious talents as a young child and possessed absolute pitch. Absolute pitch (AP widely referred to as perfect pitch, is the ability of a person to identify or recreate a Musical Note without the benefit of a known He played his first formal public concert to paying customers at the age of six and it ended with two of his own compositions. In his teens, he learned jazz and quickly became proficient in it. His talent as a piano player was encouraged, and he became something of a child prodigy. At one point, he had an offer to study composition with the legendary Nadia Boulanger in Paris; this was amiably turned down by Jarrett and his mother. Nadia Boulanger (September 16 1887 &ndash October 22 1979 was an influential French Composer, conductor, and Music professor His younger brother, Chris Jarrett, is also a pianist and his other brother Scott Jarrett is a producer/songwriter. Chris Jarrett (born 1956 in Allentown Pennsylvania) is an American Pianist and Composer who has lived in Germany since 1985 In his early teens, he developed a stronger interest in the contemporary jazz scene: he recalls a Dave Brubeck show as an early inspiration. David Warren Brubeck (born December 6, 1920 in Concord California) better known as Dave Brubeck, is an American jazz pianist
Following his graduation from high school, he moved from Allentown to Boston, Massachusetts, where he attended the Berklee College of Music and played cocktail piano. Berklee College of Music, founded in 1945 is an independent music College in Boston Massachusetts. Jarrett then moved to New York City, where he played at the renowned Village Vanguard club. The City of New York The Village Vanguard is a Jazz club in Greenwich Village in New York City.
In New York, Art Blakey hired him to play with his Jazz Messengers band, and he subsequently became a member of the Charles Lloyd Quartet (a group which included Jack DeJohnette, a frequent musical partner throughout Jarrett's career). Arthur (Art Blakey ( October 11 1919 &ndash October 16 1990) born in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Jack DeJohnette (born 9 August 1942) is an American Jazz Drummer, pianist, and composer The Lloyd quartet's 1966 album Forest Flower was one of the most successful jazz recordings of the late 1960s. Year 1966 ( MCMLXVI) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. Jarrett also started to record as a leader at this time, in a trio with Charlie Haden and Paul Motian. Charles Edward Haden (born August 6, 1937) is a Jazz Double bassist probably best known for his long association with saxophonist Ornette Stephen Paul Motian (born 25 March 1931 in Philadelphia Pennsylvania and raised in Providence Rhode Island) is an American Jarrett's first album as a leader, Life Between The Exit Signs (1967), appeared around this time on the Vortex label, to be followed by Restoration Ruin (1968), which is easily the most bizarre entry in the Jarrett catalog. Life Between the Exit Signs was recorded on May 4, 1967 at Atlantic Recording studios New York City Not only does Jarrett barely touch the piano, he plays all the other instruments on what is essentially a folk-rock album, and even does all the singing. Another trio album with Haden and Motian followed later in 1968, this one recorded live for the Atlantic label and called Somewhere Before.
When the Charles Lloyd quartet came to an end, Jarrett was asked to join the Miles Davis group after Miles heard Jarrett in a New York City club. Miles Dewey Davis III (May 26 1926 &ndash September 28 1991 was an American Jazz Trumpeter, Bandleader, and Composer. During his tenure with Davis, he played both Fender Contempo electronic organ and Fender Rhodes electric piano, alternating with Chick Corea; after Corea left, he often played the two simultaneously. An electronic organ is an Electronic keyboard instrument originally designed to imitate the sound of a Pipe organ. A Rhodes piano is an electromechanical Musical instrument, a brand of Electric piano. An electric piano is an electric Musical instrument. The popularity of the electric piano began to grow in the late 1960s, reaching its greatest height during the Armando Anthony "Chick" Corea (born June 12, 1941) is a multiple Grammy Award winning American Jazz Pianist Despite Jarrett's dislike of amplified music and electric instruments, he stayed on out of his respect for Davis and his wish to work again with DeJohnette. Jarrett can be heard on five of Davis's albums, Miles Davis at Fillmore: Live at the Fillmore East, The Cellar Door Sessions (recorded December 16–December 19, 1970 at a club in Washington, DC) and Live-Evil, which was largely composed of heavily-edited Cellar Door recordings. At Fillmore, nowadays for disambiguation purposes also known as Miles Davis at Fillmore Live at the Fillmore East is a 1970 Live album The Cellar Door Sessions is a 2005 reissue of several 1970 concerts given by Miles Davis, at the Washington DC nightclub The Cellar Door. Events 755 - An Lushan revolts against Chancellor Yang Guozhong at Fanyang, initiating the An Shi Rebellion Events 324 - Licinius abdicates his position as Roman Emperor. Year 1970 ( MCMLXX) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Washington DC ( formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington, the District, or simply D There is also a Black Sabbath album called Live Evil. Live-Evil is an album by Miles Davis, part of which The extended sessions from these recordings can be heard on The Complete Cellar Door Sessions. He also plays electric organ on Get Up with It; the song he features on, "Honky Tonk", is an edit of a track available in full on The Complete Jack Johnson Sessions. Get Up With It is an album collecting tracks recorded between 1970 and 1974 by Miles Davis. The Complete Jack Johnson Sessions were recorded in April 1970 by Miles Davis, and released in September 2003 In addition, part of a track called "Konda" (rec. on May 21st, 1970) was released during Davis' late-70's retirement on an album called Directions (1976). The track features an extended Fender-Rhodes piano introduction by Jarrett was released in full on 2003's The Complete Jack Johnson Sessions 
Officially released Miles Davis recordings on which Jarrett appeared:
Those recordings followed by two asterisks also include Chick Corea on electric piano. The Cellar Door Sessions is a 2005 reissue of several 1970 concerts given by Miles Davis, at the Washington DC nightclub The Cellar Door. Armando Anthony "Chick" Corea (born June 12, 1941) is a multiple Grammy Award winning American Jazz Pianist
From 1971 to 1976, Jarrett added saxophonist Dewey Redman to the existing trio with Haden and Motian. Dewey Redman (born Walter Redman in Fort Worth, Texas, United States, May 17, 1931; d The "American Quartet" was often supplemented by an extra percussionist, such as Danny Johnson, Guilherme Franco, or Airto Moreira, and occasionally by guitarist Sam Brown. Guilherme Franco born November 25th 1946 in Sao Paulo Brazil is a percussionist in the Jazz and World fusion music genres Airto Moreira (born August 5, 1941) is a Brazilian Jazz percussionist and musician Sam T Brown (1939 St Louis Missouri - 1977 Bloomington Indiana) was a jazz guitarist The members would also play a variety of instruments, with Jarrett often being heard on soprano saxophone and percussion as well as piano, Redman on musette, a Chinese double-reed instrument, and Motian and Haden on a variety of percussion. Haden also produces a variety of unusual plucked and percussive sounds with his acoustic bass, even running it through a wah-wah pedal for one track ("Mortgage On My Soul," on the album Birth). The group recorded for Atlantic Records, Columbia Records, Impulse! Records and ECM. Atlantic Records ( Atlantic Recording Corporation) is an American Record label best known for its many recordings of Rhythm & blues, Rock Columbia Records is an American Record label founded in 1888 Columbia is the oldest surviving Brand name in pre-recorded sound being the first record company Impulse! Records was an American based Jazz Record label, originally launched in 1960 by Creed Taylor as a subsidiary of ABC-Paramount ECM (Edition of Contemporary Music is a Record label founded in Munich, Germany in 1969 by Manfred Eicher.
The group's recordings include:
The last two albums, both recorded for Impulse!, primarily feature the compositions of the other band members, as opposed to Jarrett's own which dominate the previous albums.
Jarrett's compositions and the strong musical identities of the group members gave this group a very distinctive sound. The group's music was an interesting and exciting amalgam of free jazz, straight-ahead post-bop, gospel music, and exotic Middle-Eastern-sounding improvisations.
In the mid and late 1970s Jarrett led a "European Quartet" concurrently with the above discussed "American Quartet", which was recorded by ECM. ECM (Edition of Contemporary Music is a Record label founded in Munich, Germany in 1969 by Manfred Eicher. This combo consisted of saxophonist Jan Garbarek, bassist Palle Danielsson, and drummer Jon Christensen. Jan Garbarek (born 4 March 1947 in Mysen, Norway) a Norwegian tenor and soprano saxophonist, active in the Jazz Palle Danielsson (born October 15, 1946) is a Swedish Jazz Double bassist born in Stockholm, Sweden, perhaps Jon Christensen (born 20 March 1943 in Oslo) is a Norwegian Jazz Percussionist. Albums recorded by this group include Belonging (1974), Personal Mountains (1979, live in Tokyo, released a decade later), My Song (1978), and Nude Ants (1979, live at the Village Vanguard in New York). The Village Vanguard is a Jazz club in Greenwich Village in New York City. This ensemble played music in a similar style to that of the American Quartet, but with many of the avant-garde and "Americana" elements replaced by the European folk influences that characterized ECM artists of the time.
Jarrett's first album for ECM, called Facing You (1971) was a solo piano date recorded in the studio. He has continued to record solo piano albums in the studio intermittently throughout his career, including Staircase (1976), The Moth and the Flame (1981), and The Melody At Night, With You (1999). Book of Ways (1986) is a studio recording of clavichord solos.
The studio albums are modestly successful entries in the Jarrett catalog, but in 1973, Jarrett also began playing totally improvised solo concerts, and it is the voluminous recordings of these concerts that have made him one of the best-selling jazz artists in history. Year 1973 ( MCMLXXIII) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar of the 1973 Gregorian calendar. Free improvisation or free music is improvised music without any rules beyond the taste or inclination of the musician(s involved in many cases the musicians make Albums recorded at these concerts include:
Jarrett has commented that his best performances were during the times where he had the least amount of preconception of what he was going to play at the next moment. A possibly apocryphal account of one such performance had Jarrett staring at the piano for several minutes without playing; as the audience grew increasingly uncomfortable, one member shouted to Jarrett, "D sharp!", to which the pianist responded, "Thank you!," and launched into an improvisation at speed.
Another of his solo concerts, Dark Intervals (1987, Tokyo), has less of a freeform improvisation feel to it due to the brevity of the pieces. Sounding more like a set of short compositions, these pieces are nonetheless entirely improvised. In addition to the shorter form, they lack the 'jazzy' feel associated with the above concerts.
Following the release of the album Gaucho by the US jazz/rock band Steely Dan in 1980, he became involved in a legal wrangle over the title track. Gaucho ( gaúcho in Portuguese, "gaucho" in Spanish) is a term commonly used to describe residents of the South American Pampas Steely Dan is a American rock band centered on core members Walter Becker and Donald Fagen. Originally intended as a a tribute to Jarrett, the song was credited only to Fagen and Becker. Jarrett insisted, however, that the track used a part of his composition "Long As You Know You're Living Yours," and threatened legal action. Becker and Fagen were then forced to add his name to the credits and to include him in future royalties. 
In the late 1990s, Jarrett was diagnosed with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and was confined to his home for long periods of time. Chronic fatigue syndrome ( CFS) is the most common name given to a poorly understood variably debilitating disorder or disorders of uncertain causation It was during this period that he recorded The Melody at Night, With You, a solo piano record consisting of jazz standards presented with very little of the reinterpretation in which he usually engages. The album had originally been a Christmas Day gift to his wife.
By 2000, he had returned to touring, both solo and with the Standards Trio. Two 2002 solo concerts in Japan, Jarrett's first solo piano concerts following his illness, were released on the 2005 CD Radiance (a complete concert in Osaka, and excerpts from one in Tokyo), and the 2006 DVD Tokyo Solo (the entire Tokyo performance). In contrast with previous concerts (which were generally a pair of 30-40 minute continuous improvisations), the 2002 concerts consist of a linked series of shorter improvisations (some as short as a minute and a half, a few of fifteen or twenty minutes).
In September 2005 at Carnegie Hall Jarrett performed his first solo concert in North America in more than ten years, released a year later as a double CD set (The Carnegie Hall Concert). Carnegie Hall (generally ˌkɑrnɨgi ˈhɔːl is a concert venue in Midtown Manhattan in New York City located at 881 Seventh Avenue, occupying the east
In 1983, Jarrett asked bassist Gary Peacock and drummer Jack DeJohnette, with whom he had worked on Peacock's 1977 album Tales of Another, to record an album of jazz standards, simply entitled Standards, Volume 1. Gary Peacock (born 12 May 1935 in Burley Idaho) is an American Jazz Double-bassist. Jack DeJohnette (born 9 August 1942) is an American Jazz Drummer, pianist, and composer A jazz standard is a Jazz tune that is held in continuing esteem and which is widely known performed and recorded among jazz musicians as part of the jazz musical repertoire Standards, Volume 2 and Changes, both recorded at the same session, followed soon after. The success of these albums and the group's ensuing tour, which came as traditional acoustic post-bop was enjoying an upswing in the early 1980s, led to this new "Standards Trio" becoming one of the premier working groups in jazz, and certainly one of the most enduring, continuing to record and perform live over more than twenty years. Working Group can mean Working group, an interdisciplinary group of researchers or Working Group (dogs, kennel club designation for
The trio has recorded numerous live and studio albums consisting primarily of jazz repertory material. They each list Ahmad Jamal as a major influence in their musical development for both his use of melodical and multi-tonal lines. Ahmad Jamal, born July 2, 1930, is a noted American Jazz Pianist. They are:
The trio has also released videos of performances in Japan, which are available on DVD, including:
The Jarrett/Peacock/DeJohnette trio has also produced recordings that consist largely of challenging original material, most notably 1987's Changeless. (These recordings are noted above. ) Several of the standards albums contain an original track or two, some attributed to Jarrett but mostly group improvisations. The live recordings Inside Out and Always Let Me Go (both released in 2001) marked a renewed interest by the trio in wholly improvised free jazz. For the Ornette Coleman album after which this genre was named see Free Jazz A Collective Improvisation. By this point in their history, the musical communication among these three men had become all but telepathic, and their group improvisations frequently take on a complexity that sounds almost composed. The Standards Trio undertakes frequent world tours of recital halls (the only venues in which Jarrett, a notorious stickler for acoustic sound, will play these days) and is one of the few truly lucrative jazz groups to play both "straight-ahead" (as opposed to smooth) and free jazz. Smooth jazz, also sometimes referred to as new adult contemporary music is generally described as a genre of music that utilizes instruments (and at times improvisation
A related recording, At the Deer Head Inn (1992), is a live album of standards recorded with Paul Motian replacing DeJohnette, at the venue in Jarrett's hometown where he had his first employment as a jazz pianist. Stephen Paul Motian (born 25 March 1931 in Philadelphia Pennsylvania and raised in Providence Rhode Island) is an American It was the first time Jarrett and Motian had played together since the demise of the American quartet sixteen years earlier, and also reunited the drummer and bassist who had backed Bill Evans on his album Trio 64 (1963). William John Evans (better known as Bill Evans) ( August 16, 1929 &ndash September 15, 1980) was one of the most famous and influential
Since the early 1970s, Jarrett's success as a jazz musician has enabled him to maintain a parallel career as a classical composer and pianist, recording almost exclusively for ECM Records.
1973's In The Light album consists of short pieces for solo piano, strings, and various chamber ensembles, including a string quartet, a brass quintet, and a piece for cellos and trombones. This collection demonstrates a young composer's affinity for a variety of classical styles, with varying degrees of success.
Luminessence (1974) and Arbour Zena (1975) both combine composed pieces for strings with improvising jazz musicians, including Jan Garbarek and Charlie Haden. Jan Garbarek (born 4 March 1947 in Mysen, Norway) a Norwegian tenor and soprano saxophonist, active in the Jazz Charles Edward Haden (born August 6, 1937) is a Jazz Double bassist probably best known for his long association with saxophonist Ornette The strings here have a moody, contemplative feel that is characteristic of the "ECM sound" of the 1970s, and is also particularly well-suited to Garbarek's keening saxophone improvisations. From an academic standpoint, these compositions are dismissed by many classical music aficionados as lightweight, but Jarrett appeared to be working more towards a synthesis between composed and improvised music at this time, rather than the production of formal classical works. From this point on, however, his classical work would adhere to more conventional disciplines.
Ritual (1977) is a composed solo piano piece recorded by Dennis Russell Davies that is somewhat reminiscent of Jarrett's own solo piano recordings.
The Celestial Hawk (1980) is a piece for orchestra, percussion, and piano that Jarrett performed and recorded with the Syracuse Symphony under Christopher Keene. This piece is the largest and longest of Jarrett's efforts as a classical composer.
Bridge of Light (1993) is the last recording of classical compositions to appear under Jarrett's name. The album contains three pieces written for a soloist with orchestra, and one for violin and piano. The pieces date from 1984 and 1990.
In 1995 the record label Music Masters Jazz released a CD on which one track featured Jarrett performing the exquisite solo piano part in Lousadzak, a 17-minute piano concerto by American composer Alan Hovhaness. Alan Hovhaness (Ալան Հովհանես ( March 8, 1911 &ndash June 21, 2000) was an American Composer of Armenian The conductor was Dennis Russell Davies. Most of Jarrett's classical recordings are of older repertoire, but Jarrett may have been introduced to this modern work by his one-time manager George Avakian, who was a friend of the composer. George Avakian (Георг Авакиан born Armavir, Russian Federation, March 15, 1919) is an American Record producer
In addition to his classical work as a composer, Jarrett has also performed and recorded classical music for ECM's New Series since the mid-1980s, including the following:
In 2004, Jarrett was awarded the Léonie Sonning Music Prize. WikipediaWikiProject Composers#Lead section --> Arvo Pärt (born 11 September 1935 in Paide, Estonia) (ˈɑr̺vɔ Gidon Kremer (Gidons Krēmers (born February 27, 1947) is a Latvian Violinist and conductor. WikipediaWikiProject Composers#Lead section.2 This article is written in British English including maximised use of "-ise" The Well-Tempered Clavier ( Das Wohltemperirte Clavier in the original old German spelling BWV 846–893 is a collection of solo keyboard music composed by The Goldberg Variations, BWV 988 are a set of 30 variations for Harpsichord by Johann Sebastian Bach. Dmitri Dmitriyevich Shostakovich ( Russian: ru Дмитрий Дмитриевич Шостакович ( &ndash 9 August 1975 was a Russian Composer The 24 Preludes and Fugues Op 87 by Dmitri Shostakovich are a cycle of piano pieces written in each major and minor key of the Chromatic scale Adagio and Fugue in C minor is a Piece by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart partly inspired by the contrapuntal style of Johann Sebastian Bach. The Léonie Sonning Music Prize, or Sonning Award, which is recognized as Denmark 's highest musical honor is given annually to an international Musician The prestigious award usually associated with classical musicians and composers has only previously been given to one other jazz musician — Miles Davis. The first person to receive the award was Igor Stravinsky in 1959. Igor Fyodorovich Stravinsky (Игорь Фёдорович Стравинский) ( &ndash 6 April 1971 was a Russian born Composer, considered by many to The year 1959 ( MCMLIX) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar.
Jarrett also plays harpsichord, clavichord, organ, soprano saxophone, drums and many other instruments. A harpsichord is a Musical instrument played by means of a keyboard. The clavichord is a European stringed Keyboard instrument known from the late Medieval, through the Renaissance, Baroque and Classical The organ (from Greek όργανον – organon "organ instrument tool" is a Keyboard instrument of one or more divisions each The soprano saxophone was invented in 1840 and is a variety of the Saxophone, a Woodwind instrument. A drum kit (also drum set or trap set) is a collection of Drums Cymbals and sometimes other Percussion instruments such as cowbells He often played saxophone and various forms of percussion in the American quartet, though his recordings since the breakup of that group have rarely featured other instruments. In the last twenty years, the majority of his recordings have been on the acoustic piano only. He has spoken with some regret of his decision to give up playing the saxophone, in particular. Some of Jarrett's other albums, many of which contain examples of his instrumental diversity are:
There are several compilations and collections covering various aspects of Jarrett's career:
After leaving Miles Davis, Jarrett did not often work as a sideman, but he did appear on a few other musician's albums, including the following:
On April 15, 1978, Jarrett was the musical guest on Saturday Night Live. Saturday Night Live ( SNL) is a weekly late-night 90-minute American Sketch comedy / Variety show based in New York City
One of Jarrett's trademarks is his frequent, highly audible vocalization (grunting, groaning, and tuneless singing), similar to that of Glenn Gould, Thelonious Monk, Erroll Garner, and Oscar Peterson. Glenn Herbert Gould At a young age he reportedly behaved differently from typical children at the piano he would strike single notes and listen to their long decay Thelonious Sphere Monk ( October 10, 1917 - February 17, 1982) was an American Jazz Pianist and Composer. Erroll Louis Garner ( June 15 1921 &ndash January 2 1977) was an American Jazz Pianist and Composer Oscar Emmanuel Peterson, CC, CQ, OOnt ( 15 August 1925 – 23 December 2007) was a Canadian Some listeners find this to be extremely distracting. Jarrett is also physically active while playing, writhing, gyrating, and almost dancing on the piano bench. These behaviors occur in his jazz and improvised solo performances, but are for the most part absent whenever he plays classical repertory. Jarrett has noted his vocalizations are based on involvement, not content, and are more of an interaction than a reaction.
Jarrett is notoriously intolerant of audience noise, including coughing and other involuntary sounds, especially during solo improvised performances. He feels that extraneous noise affects his musical inspiration. As a result, cough drops are routinely supplied to Jarrett's audiences in cold weather, and he has even been known to stop playing and lead the crowd in a "group cough. " This intolerance was made clear during a concert on October 31, 2006, at the restored Salle Pleyel in Paris. Ignace Joseph Pleyel ( June 18, 1757 &ndash November 14, 1831) was an Austrian-born French Composer of the Paris (ˈpærɨs in English; in French) is the Capital of France and the country's largest city After making an impassioned plea to the audience to stop coughing, Jarrett walked out of the concert during the first half, refusing at first to continue, although he did subsequently return to the stage to finish the first half, and also the second. A further solo concert three days later went undisturbed, following an official announcement beforehand urging the audience to minimize extraneous noise. In 2007, at concert in Perugia, angered by photographers, Jarrett insulted the audience, which caused the organizers of Umbria Jazz Festival to declare that they will never invite him again. Perugia is the capital City of the region of Umbria in central Italy, near the Tiber river and the capital of the Province of Perugia The Umbria Jazz Festival is one of the most important jazz festivals in the world and has been held annually since 1973 usually in July in the city of Perugia, Italy 
He is also extremely protective over the quality of recordings of his concerts. In 1992, a trio concert at the Royal Festival Hall in London was temporarily stopped as Jarrett thought he had identified someone in the audience with a recording device. Royal Festival Hall is a concert dance and talks venue within Southbank Centre in London, England. London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. It turned out to be a light on the mixing desk and the concert resumed after an apology.
Jarrett has been known for many years to be strongly opposed to electronic instruments and equipment. His liner notes for the 1973 album Solo Concerts: Bremen / Lausanne state: I am, and have been, carrying on an anti-electric-music crusade of which this is an exhibit for the prosecution. Electricity goes through all of us and is not to be relegated to wires. He has largely eschewed electric or electronic instruments since his time with Miles Davis.
Jarrett's public speeches and writings have been perceived as negative or obnoxious by some. He has been known to write back disdainful letters to critics who have negatively reviewed his music. This attitude and his vocalizations while playing are the reasons most commonly cited by his detractors for disliking him and dismissing his music.
Jarrett, for many years, has been a follower of the teachings of metaphysicist and mystic G. I. Gurdjieff. George Ivanovich Gurdjieff (Գեորգի Գյուրջիև Γιώργος Γεωργιάδης Георгий Иванович Гюрджиев (or Gurdjiev) January In 1980 he recorded for ECM an album of his compositions Sacred Hymns of G. I. Gurdjieff.