Republic of Kazakhstan
|Anthem: Менің Қазақстаным (Kazakh)|
Meniñ Qazaqstanım (transcription)
|Official languages||Kazakh 1|
|-||Prime Minister||Karim Masimov|
|Independence||from the Soviet Union|
|-||1st Khanate||1361 as White Horde|
|-||2nd Khanate||1428 as Uzbek Horde|
|-||3rd Khanate||1465 as Kazakh Khanate|
|-||Declared||December 16, 1991|
|-||Finalized||December 25, 1991|
|-||Total||2,724,900 km² (9th)|
1,052,085 sq mi
|-||Water (%)||1. The current flag of Kazakhstan was adopted on June 4, 1992, replacing the Flag of the Kazakh SSR. The coat of arms of the Republic of Kazakhstan was adopted on June 4 1992. A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history traditions and struggles of its people recognized either by a nation's My Kazakhstan (Менің Қазақстаным is the current National anthem of Kazakhstan Kazakh (also Qazaq and variants natively kk Qazaq tili, kk Қазақ тілі; pronounced tˈlə is a Turkic language closely related to Astana ( Kazakh: Астана آستانه former names include Akmola, Akmolinsk, Tselinograd, and Aqmola) is the capital As of 2003 there is a discrepancy between reputable sources as to the population of Kazakhstan. Almaty ( Алматы; formerly known as Alma-Ata ( Алма-Ата) also Verniy, (Верный is the largest city in Kazakhstan An official language is a Language that is given a special legal status in a particular Country, State, or other territory Kazakh (also Qazaq and variants natively kk Qazaq tili, kk Қазақ тілі; pronounced tˈlə is a Turkic language closely related to Russian ( transliteration:,) is the most geographically widespread language of Eurasia, the most widely spoken of the Slavic languages A demonym or gentilic is a word that denotes the members of a People or the inhabitants of a place The Kazakhs (also spelled Kazaks, Qazaqs; Kazakh: Қазақтар qɑzɑqtɑr Russian: Казахи the English name is transliterated For the government of parliamentary systems see Executive (government. A presidential system is a System of government where an executive branch exists and presides (hence the term separately from the Legislature Leaders of Kazakhstan since 1919 Kyrgyz Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (1920-1925 Secretaries of the Kirghiz Regional Committee of the Communist Party Nursultan Abishuly Nazarbayev ( Kazakh: Нұрсұлтан Әбішұлы Назарбаев æbəʃʊˈlɯ nɑzɑrˈbɑjəf Russian: Нурсултан List of Heads of Government of Kazakhstan (1920-Present Kyrgyz Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (1920-1925 Chairmen of the Council of People's Commissars Karim Kajymqanuly Massimov ( Мәсімов Кәрім Қажымқанұлы, See also Kazakhstan political shakeup of 2007 See also Kazakhstan political Independence is the Self-government of a Nation, Country, or State by its residents and population or some portion thereof generally exercising The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 The White Horde (Ақ Орда/Aq Orda Ак Урда/Aq Urda) was one of the uluses within the Mongol Empire formed around 1226, after the death of Kazakh Khanate ( Kazakh: Қазақ хандығы Russian: Казахское ханство was a Kazakh State that existed in 1456-1731 Pre-History Humans have inhabited present-day Kazakhstan since the earliest Stone Age, generally pursuing the nomadic pastoralism for which the region's climate Events 755 - An Lushan revolts against Chancellor Yang Guozhong at Fanyang, initiating the An Shi Rebellion Year 1991 ( MCMXCI) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar. Events 274 - Roman Emperor Aurelian Year 1991 ( MCMXCI) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar. Area is a Quantity expressing the two- Dimensional size of a defined part of a Surface, typically a region bounded by a closed Curve. To help compare Orders of magnitude of different surface Areas here is a list of areas between 1 million km² and 10 million km² This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by total area. The square mile is an imperial and US unit of Area equal the area of a square of one statute mile. Water is a common Chemical substance that is essential for the survival of all known forms of Life. In Mathematics, a percentage is a way of expressing a number as a Fraction of 100 ( per cent meaning "per hundred" 7|
|-||January 2006 estimate||15,217,711  (62nd)|
|-||Density||5. In Biology a population is the collection of inter-breeding organisms of a particular Species; in Sociology List of countries by population in 2005|List of countries by population in 1907This is a list of countries ordered according to Population. Population density (in agriculture standing stock and Standing crop) is a measurement of Population per unit area or unit volume 4/km² (215th)|
14. List of countries and dependencies by Population density in inhabitants/km² 0/sq mi
|GDP (PPP)||2007 estimate|
|-||Total||161,155$ billion  (56th)|
|-||Per capita||$10,658 (66th)|
|Gini (2003)||33. The purchasing power parity ( PPP) theory uses the long-term equilibrium Exchange rate of two currencies to equalize their Purchasing power. There are three lists of Countries of the world sorted by their Gross domestic product (GDP (the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation Per capita is a Latin phrase meaning for each head with Per meaning 'through' or 'by' This article includes three lists of Countries of the world sorted by their Gross domestic product (GDP at Purchasing power parity (PPP Per capita The Gini coefficient is a measure of statistical dispersion most prominently used as a measure of inequality of income distribution or inequality of wealth 9 (medium)|
|HDI (2007)||▲ 0. The Human Development Index ( HDI) is an index combining normalized measures of Life expectancy, Literacy, Educational attainment, and GDP 794 (medium) (73rd)|
|Currency||Tenge () (|
|Time zone||West/East (UTC+5/+6)|
|-||Summer (DST)||not observed (UTC+5/+6)|
|1||The state language. This is a list of countries by Human Development Index as included in the United Nations Development Program 's Human Development Report 2007 A currency is a unit of exchange, facilitating the transfer of Goods and/or services It is one form of Money, where money is The tenge (теңге is the currency of Kazakhstan. It is divided into 100 tiyn (тиын also transliterated as tiyin or tijn) ISO 4217 is the International standard describing three-letter codes (also known as the currency code) to define the names of currencies established Daylight saving time ( DST A country This is a list of country calling codes defined by ITU-T recommendation E|
|2||The language of interethnic communication.|
Kazakhstan, also spelled Kazakstan (Kazakh: Қазақстан, Qazaqstan, IPA: [qɑzɑqˈstɑn]; Russian: Казахстан, Kazakhstán, Russian pronunciation: [kazəxˈstan]), officially the Republic of Kazakhstan, is a country in Central Asia and Europe. Kazakh (also Qazaq and variants natively kk Qazaq tili, kk Қазақ тілі; pronounced tˈlə is a Turkic language closely related to Russian ( transliteration:,) is the most geographically widespread language of Eurasia, the most widely spoken of the Slavic languages Central Asia is a region of Asia from the Caspian Sea in the west to central China in the east and from southern Russia in the north to northern Pakistan in the south Ranked as the ninth largest country in the world as well as the world's largest landlocked country, it has a territory of 2,727,300 km² (greater than Western Europe). This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by total area. A landlocked country is commonly defined as one enclosed or nearly enclosed by land Square Kilometre ( US spelling square kilometer) symbol km2, is a decimal multiple of the SI unit of Western Europe at its most general meaning means 'all the countries in the West of Europe ' It is bordered by Russia, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and China. Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending Kyrgyzstan (ˈkɻ̩gɪztɑn (AmE or /'kɝgəztan/ (BrE Kyrgyz: Кыргызстан; Russian: Киргизия or Киргизстан or Кыргызстан Turkmenistan ( Türkmenistan; also known as Turkmenia) is a Turkic country in Central Asia. Uzbekistan, officially the Republic of Uzbekistan ( Uzbek: O‘zbekiston Respublikasi or Ўзбекистон Республикаси is a doubly Talk People's Republic of China) PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA ARTICLE GUIDELINES The country also borders on a significant part of the Caspian Sea. The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed body of water on Earth by area variously classed as the world's largest lake or a full-fledged Sea.
Vast in size, the land in Kazakhstan is very diverse in types of terrain: flatlands, steppes, taigas, rock-canyons, hills, deltas, mountains, snow-capped mountains, and deserts. Kazakhstan has the 62nd largest population in the world, with a population density of less than 6 people per square kilometre (15 per sq. List of countries by population in 2005|List of countries by population in 1907This is a list of countries ordered according to Population. List of countries and dependencies by Population density in inhabitants/km² mi. ).
For most of its history the territory of modern-day Kazakhstan has been inhabited by nomadic tribes. Nomadic people, (from the νομάδες nomádes, "those who let pasture herds" also known as nomads, are communities of people that By the 16th century the Kazakhs emerged as a distinct group, divided into three hordes. The Kazakhs (also spelled Kazaks, Qazaqs; Kazakh: Қазақтар qɑzɑqtɑr Russian: Казахи the English name is transliterated HORDES is the name of a 30mm tabletop Miniature wargame produced by Privateer Press, announced at Gen Con 2005 and released on April 22 The Russians began advancing into the Kazakh steppe in the 18th century, and by the mid-19th century all of Kazakhstan was part of the Russian Empire. The Russian people (Русские— Russkie) are an East Slavic Ethnic group, primarily living in Russia and neighboring countries Kazakh Steppe or Kirghiz Steppe, is a vast region of open grassland in northern Kazakhstan and adjacent portions of Russia, extending to the east of The 18th century lasted from 1701 to 1800 in the Gregorian calendar, in accordance with the Anno Domini / Common Era numbering system The 19th century of the Common Era began on January 1, 1801 and ended on December 31, 1900, according to the Gregorian calendar The Russian Empire ( Pre-reform Russian: Pоссійская Имперія Modern Russian: Российская Империя translit: Rossiyskaya Following the 1917 Russian Revolution, and subsequent civil war, the territory of Kazakhstan was reorganized several times before becoming the Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic in 1936, a part of the USSR. See also Russian Revolution (1905 The Russian Revolution of 1916 refers to a series of popular revolutions in Russia, and the events surrounding them The Russian Civil War (1917–1923 was a multi-party war that occurred within the former Russian Empire after the Russian provisional government collapsed The Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic (Қазақ Кеңестік Социалистік Республикасы Qazaq Keñestik Socialistik Respublikasi; Казахская Year 1936 ( MCMXXXVI) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 During the 20th century, Kazakhstan was the site of major Soviet projects, including Khrushchev's Virgin Lands campaign, the Baikonur Cosmodrome, and the Semipalatinsk "Polygon", the USSR's primary nuclear weapon testing site. The twentieth century of the Common Era began on Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev (April 17 1894 – September 11 1971 served as First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1953 to 1964 following The Virgin Lands Campaign was an initiative by Nikita Khrushchev to open up vast tracts of unseeded (virgin The Baikonur Cosmodrome ( Kazakh: Байқоңыр ғарыш айлағы, Bayqoñır ğarış aylağı; Russian: Космодром The Semipalatinsk Test Site (STS was the primary testing venue for the Soviet Union 's Nuclear weapons.
Kazakhstan declared itself an independent country on December 16, 1991, the last Soviet republic to do so. Events 755 - An Lushan revolts against Chancellor Yang Guozhong at Fanyang, initiating the An Shi Rebellion Year 1991 ( MCMXCI) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar. Its communist-era leader, Nursultan Nazarbayev, became the country's new president. Nursultan Abishuly Nazarbayev ( Kazakh: Нұрсұлтан Әбішұлы Назарбаев æbəʃʊˈlɯ nɑzɑrˈbɑjəf Russian: Нурсултан Since independence, Kazakhstan has pursued a balanced foreign policy and worked to develop its economy, especially its hydrocarbon industry. Foreign relations of Kazakhstan are primarily based on economic and political security Kazakhstan is the largest nation and economy in Central Asia, and the ninth largest nation by area in the world In Organic chemistry, a hydrocarbon is an Organic compound consisting entirely of Hydrogen and Carbon. While the country's economic outlook is improving, President Nazarbayev maintains strict control over the country's politics. The politics of Kazakhstan takes place in the framework of a presidential Republic, whereby the President of Kazakhstan is Head of state and Several opposition leaders and journalists have been killed in recent years, and Western observers generally do not consider Kazakhstan's elections to be free and fair. Elections in Kazakhstan are held on a national level to elect a President and the the Parliament, which is divided into two bodies the Majilis (Assembly Nevertheless, Kazakhstan's international prestige is building. It is now considered to be the dominant state in Central Asia. Central Asia is a region of Asia from the Caspian Sea in the west to central China in the east and from southern Russia in the north to northern Pakistan in the south  The country belongs to many international organizations, including the United Nations, NATO's Partnership for Peace, the Commonwealth of Independent States, and the Shanghai Cooperation Organization. The United Nations ( UN) is an International organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in International law, International security Partnership for Peace (PfP is a North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO program aimed at creating trust between NATO and other states in Europe and the former The Shanghai Cooperation Organisation ( SCO) is an Intergovernmental mutual-security organization which was founded in 2001 by the leaders of China, In 2010, Kazakhstan will chair the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe.
Kazakhstan is very diverse, in part due to mass deportations of many ethnic groups to the country during Stalin's rule. Forced settlements in the Soviet Union took several forms Though the most notorious was the Gulag Labor camp system of Penal labor, resettling of entire Joseph Stalin ( ნამდვილი გვარი ჯუღაშვილი|Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili; March 5 1953 was General Secretary of the Communist Party Kazakhs are the largest group, followed by Russians. Kazakhstan allows freedom of religion, and many different beliefs are represented in the country. The Constitution provides for freedom of religion and the various religious communities worship largely without government interference Islam is the primary religion, followed by Orthodox Christianity. For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation. The term Orthodox Christianity may refer to The Eastern Orthodox Church: the Eastern Christian churches of Byzantine The official language is Kazakh, though Russian is still commonly used for everyday communication. Kazakh (also Qazaq and variants natively kk Qazaq tili, kk Қазақ тілі; pronounced tˈlə is a Turkic language closely related to Russian ( transliteration:,) is the most geographically widespread language of Eurasia, the most widely spoken of the Slavic languages
Kazakhstan has been inhabited since the Stone Age: the region's climate and terrain are best suited for nomads practising pastoralism. Pre-History Humans have inhabited present-day Kazakhstan since the earliest Stone Age, generally pursuing the nomadic pastoralism for which the region's climate Taraz ( Тараз) formerly Talas, Zhambyl (Kazakh Жамбы́л and Aulie-Ata (Kazakh Әулие́-Ата Chagatai: اولياه The Stone Age is a broad prehistoric time period during which Humans widely used stone for toolmaking Pastoralism or pastoral farming is the branch of Agriculture concerned with the raising of Livestock. Historians believe that humans first domesticated the horse in the region's vast steppes. There are a number of hypotheses on many of the key issues regarding the domestication of the horse. While ancient cities Taraz (Aulie-Ata) and Hazrat-e Turkestan had long served as important way-stations along the Silk Road connecting East and West, real political consolidation only began with the Mongol invasion of the early thirteenth century AD. Taraz ( Тараз) formerly Talas, Zhambyl (Kazakh Жамбы́л and Aulie-Ata (Kazakh Әулие́-Ата Chagatai: اولياه Hazrat-e Turkestan (modern name Türkistan, یسی، حضرت ترکستان Kazakh: Түркістан a city in the southern region of The Silk Road, or Silk Routes, are an extensive interconnected network of Trade routes across the Asian continent connecting East South and Western Asia with the Under the Mongol Empire, administrative districts were established, and these eventually came under the emergent Kazakh Khanate. The Mongol Empire ( Mongolyn Ezent Güren or mn Их Mонгол улс Ikh Mongol Uls; 1206–1368 was the largest contiguous Empire Kazakh Khanate ( Kazakh: Қазақ хандығы Russian: Казахское ханство was a Kazakh State that existed in 1456-1731
Throughout this period traditional nomadic life and a livestock-based economy continued to dominate the steppe. Nomadic people, (from the νομάδες nomádes, "those who let pasture herds" also known as nomads, are communities of people that Livestock is the term used to refer (singularly or plurally to a Domesticated Animal intentionally reared in an agricultural setting to produce such as Food In physical Geography, a steppe ( German, from степь - "a flat and arid land" степ - /stɛp/ тал - tal дала - /dɑlɑ/ pronounced In the 15th century, a distinct Kazakh identity began to emerge among the Turkic tribes, a process which was consolidated by the mid-16th century with the appearance of a distinctive Kazakh language, culture, and economy. The Kazakhs (also spelled Kazaks, Qazaqs; Kazakh: Қазақтар qɑzɑqtɑr Russian: Казахи the English name is transliterated The Turkic peoples are Eurasian peoples residing in northern central and western Eurasia who speak languages belonging to the Turkic language family Kazakh (also Qazaq and variants natively kk Qazaq tili, kk Қазақ тілі; pronounced tˈlə is a Turkic language closely related to Nevertheless, the region was the focus of ever-increasing disputes between the native Kazakh emirs and the neighboring Persian-speaking peoples to the south. Emir ( Arabic: ar أمير;, female أميرة; emira;) ( Farsi and Urdu: امیر) The Persian -speaking peoples constitute one of the largest Indo-European linguistic groups in the world By the early 17th century, the Kazakh Khanate was struggling with the impact of tribal rivalries, which has effectively divided the population into the Great, Middle and Little (or Small) Hordes (jüz). As a means of recording the passage of Time, the 17th Century was that Century which lasted from 1601 - 1700 in the Gregorian calendar A juz (жүз is one of the three main territorial divisions in the Desht-i Kypchak that covers much of the contemporary Kazakhstan Political disunion, tribal rivalries, and the diminishing importance of overland trade routes between East and West weakened the Kazakh Khanate.
During the 17th century Kazakhs fought Oirats, a federation of western Mongol tribes, among which the Dzungars were particularly aggressive. This article deals with the Oirat ethnic group For the obsolete term for the Turkic Altays see Altay people. Dzungar (also Jungar or Zungar; Mongolian: Зүүнгар Züüngar) is the collective identity of several Oirat tribes that  The beginning of the 18th century marked the zenith of the Kazakh Khanate. During this period the Little Horde participated in the 1723–1730 war against the Dzungars, following their "Great Disaster" invasion of Kazakh territories. An invasion is a military offensive consisting of all or large parts of the Armed forces of one geopolitical entity aggressively entering territory Under leadership Abul Khair Khan the Kazakhs won major victories over the Dzungar at the Bulanty River, in 1726, and at the Battle of Anrakay in 1729. Abul Khair Khan (Әбілқайыр хан (1693 - 1748 was leader of the Kazakh "Little Horde" (The Lesser Jüz) in present-day western Kazakhstan  Ablai Khan participated in the most significant battles against the Dzungars from the 1720s to the 1750s, for which he was declared a "batyr" ("hero") by the people. Ablai-Khan (Абылай (Әбілмансұр хан 1711 - 1781 was a Kazakh khan of the Middle Juz. Kazakhs were also a victims of constant raids carried out by the Volga Kalmyks. Kalmyk redirects here for the breed of cattle see Kalmyk (cattle.
In the 19th century, the Russian Empire began to expand, and spread into Central Asia. The Russian Empire ( Pre-reform Russian: Pоссійская Имперія Modern Russian: Российская Империя translit: Rossiyskaya Central Asia is a region of Asia from the Caspian Sea in the west to central China in the east and from southern Russia in the north to northern Pakistan in the south The "Great Game" period is generally regarded as running from approximately 1813 to the Anglo-Russian Convention of 1907. For the film see The Great Game (film The Great Game was a term used for the strategic rivalry and conflict between the British Empire Year 1813 ( MDCCCXIII) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common The Anglo-Russian Entente or the Anglo-Russian Convention of 1907 was an accord signed on 31 August 1907 in St The tsars effectively ruled over most of the territory belonging to what is now the Republic of Kazakhstan. Tsar csar and tzar redirect here For other uses see Tsar (disambiguation.
The Russian Empire introduced a system of administration and built military garrisons and barracks in its effort to establish a presence in Central Asia in the so-called "Great Game" between it and the United Kingdom. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located The first Russian outpost, Orsk, was built in 1735. Orsk (Орск is a city in Orenburg Oblast, Russia, situated in the southern Urals, at. Russia enforced the Russian language in all schools and governmental organizations. Russian efforts to impose its system aroused the extreme resentment by the Kazakh people, and by the 1860s, most Kazakhs resisted Russia's annexation largely because of the disruption it wrought upon the traditional nomadic lifestyle and livestock-based economy, and the associated hunger which was rapidly wiping out some Kazakh tribes. The Kazakhs (also spelled Kazaks, Qazaqs; Kazakh: Қазақтар qɑzɑqtɑr Russian: Казахи the English name is transliterated The Kazakh national movement, which began in the late 1800s, sought to preserve the native language and identity by resisting the attempts of the Russian Empire to assimilate and stifle them.
From the 1890s onwards ever-larger numbers of Slavic settlers began colonising the territory of present-day Kazakhstan, in particular the province of Semirechye. This article is about a type of political territory For other uses see Colony (disambiguation. The number of settlers rose still further once the Trans-Aral Railway from Orenburg to Tashkent was completed in 1906, and the movement was overseen and encouraged by a specially created Migration Department (Переселенческое Управление) in St. The Trans-Aral Railway (also known as the Tashkent Railway) was built in 1906 connecting Orenburg and Tashkent. Orenburg (Оренбу́рг is a city on the Ural River and the administrative center of Orenburg Oblast in the Volga Federal District Petersburg.
The competition for land and water which ensued between the Kazakhs and the newcomers caused great resentment against colonial rule during the final years of Tsarist Russia, with the most serious uprising, the Central Asian Revolt, occurring in 1916. The Basmachi Revolt (Восстание басмачей or Basmachestvo (Басмачество was a Muslim and largely Turkic uprising against Russian The Kazakhs attacked Russian and Cossack villages, killing indiscriminately. The Russian people (Русские— Russkie) are an East Slavic Ethnic group, primarily living in Russia and neighboring countries The Cossacks (Каза́ки́ Kazaki; Козаки́ Kozaki; Kozacy are a group of martial people living in the southern Steppe regions of Eastern The Russians' revenge was merciless. A military force drove 300,000 Kazakhs to flee into the mountains or to China. China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National When approximately 80,000 of them returned the next year, many of them were slaughtered by Tsarist forces. During the 1921–22 famine, another million Kazakhs died from starvation.
Although there was a brief period of autonomy (Alash Autonomy) during the tumultuous period following the collapse of the Russian Empire, many uprisings were brutally suppressed, and the Kazakhs eventually succumbed to Soviet rule. An autonomous area is an area of a Country that has a degree of Autonomy, or freedom from an external authority Alash Autonomy (Алаш аутономиясы was a State that existed between December 13 1917 and August 26 1920, located The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 In 1920, the area of present-day Kazakhstan became an autonomous republic within R.S.F.S.R.. The Kazakh ASSR was an autonomous republic of the Soviet Union.
Soviet repression of the traditional elite, along with forced collectivization in late 1920s–1930s, brought mass hunger and led to unrest. Collective farming is an organization of agricultural production in which the holdings of several farmers are run as a joint enterprise A famine is a widespread shortage of food that may apply to any Faunal species which phenomenon is usually accompanied by regional Malnutrition, Starvation  Between 1926 and 1939, the Kazakh population declined by 22%, due to starvation, violence and mass emigration. Starvation (also called inanition) is a severe reduction in Vitamin, Nutrient, and Energy intake and is the most extreme form of Violence is the exertion of force so as to injure or abuse The word is used broadly to describe the destructive action of natural phenomena like Storms and Earthquakes Today, the estimates suggest that the population of Kazakhstan would be closer to 20 million if there was no starvation or massacre of Kazakhs. During the 1930s, many renowned Kazakh writers, thinkers, poets, politicians and historians were slaughtered on Stalin's orders, both as part of the repression and as a methodical pattern of suppressing Kazakh identity and culture. Soviet rule took hold, and a communist apparatus steadily worked to fully integrate Kazakhstan into the Soviet system. Communism is a Socioeconomic structure that promotes the establishment of an egalitarian, classless, stateless Society based In 1936 Kazakhstan became a Soviet republic. The Republics of the Soviet Union were according to the Article 76 of the 1977 Soviet Constitution, Sovereign Soviet Socialist states that had united with other
Kazakhstan experienced population inflows of millions exiled from other parts of the Soviet Union during the 1930s and 1940s; many of the deportation victims were deported to Siberia or Kazakhstan merely due to their ethnic heritage or beliefs, and were in many cases interned in some of the biggest Soviet labor camps. Exile means to be away from one's home (ie city state or country while either being explicitly refused permission to return and/or being threatened by prison or death upon return Deportation, not to be confused with Extradition, generally means the expulsion of someone from a place or Country. The Gulag was the government agency that administered the penal labor camps of the Soviet Union. (See also: Population transfer in the Soviet Union, Involuntary settlements in the Soviet Union. Population transfer in the Soviet Union may be classified into the following broad categories deportations of " Anti-Soviet " categories of population often classified Forced settlements in the Soviet Union took several forms Though the most notorious was the Gulag Labor camp system of Penal labor, resettling of entire ) The Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic (SSR) contributed five national divisions to the Soviet Union's World War II effort. The Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic (Қазақ Кеңестік Социалистік Республикасы Qazaq Keñestik Socialistik Respublikasi; Казахская World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including In 1947, two years after the end of the war, the Semipalatinsk Test Site, the USSR's main nuclear weapon test site was founded near the city of Semey. The Semipalatinsk Test Site (STS was the primary testing venue for the Soviet Union 's Nuclear weapons. A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from Nuclear reactions either fission or a combination of fission and fusion. Nuclear weapons tests are experiments carried out to determine the effectiveness yield and explosive capability of Nuclear weapons Throughout the twentieth century most nations Semey ( Семей; also transliterated as Semij or Semei, and known by its former name of Semipalatinsk (Семипалатинск
The period of World War II marked an increase in industrialization and increased mineral extraction in support of the war effort. is a process of social and economic change whereby a human group is transformed from a Pre-industrial society into an industrial one Mining is the extraction of valuable Minerals or other geological materials from the earth usually (but not always from an Ore body At the time of Soviet leader Joseph Stalin's death, however, Kazakhstan still had an overwhelmingly agricultural-based economy. Joseph Stalin ( ნამდვილი გვარი ჯუღაშვილი|Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili; March 5 1953 was General Secretary of the Communist Party In 1953, Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev initiated the ambitious "Virgin Lands" program to turn the traditional pasture lands of Kazakhstan into a major grain-producing region for the Soviet Union. Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev (April 17 1894 – September 11 1971 served as First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1953 to 1964 following The Virgin Lands Campaign was an initiative by Nikita Khrushchev to open up vast tracts of unseeded (virgin The Virgin Lands policy brought mixed results. However, along with later modernizations under Soviet leader Leonid Brezhnev, it accelerated the development of the agricultural sector which remains the source of livelihood for a large percentage of Kazakhstan's population. By 1959, Kazakhs made up 30% of the population. The Kazakhs (also spelled Kazaks, Qazaqs; Kazakh: Қазақтар qɑzɑqtɑr Russian: Казахи the English name is transliterated Ethnic Russians accounted for 43%. The Russian people (Русские— Russkie) are an East Slavic Ethnic group, primarily living in Russia and neighboring countries
Growing tensions within Soviet society led to a demand for political and economic reforms, which came to a head in the 1980s. A factor that has contributed to this immensely was Lavrentii Beria's decision to test a nuclear bomb on the territory of Kazakh SSR in Semipalatinsk (also known as Semey) in 1949. Lavrentiy Pavlovich Beria (ლავრენტი პავლეს ძე ბერია Lavrenti Pavles dze Beria; Russian: Лаврентий Павлович This had a catastrophic ecological and biological effect which was felt generations later, and Kazakh anger toward the Soviet system has escalated. In December 1986, mass demonstrations by young ethnic Kazakhs, later called Jeltoksan riot, took place in Almaty to protest the replacement of the First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Kazakh SSR Dinmukhamed Konayev with Gennady Kolbin from the Russian SFSR. Jeltoqsan ( Желтоқсан; English: December) Riot of 1986 was a spontaneous nationwide In the following days protests spread to Almaty ( Алматы; formerly known as Alma-Ata ( Алма-Ата) also Verniy, (Верный is the largest city in Kazakhstan Dinmukhamed (Dimash Akhmeduly Konayev (Дінмұхаммед (Димаш Ахметұлы Қонаев Динмухаммед Ахмедович Кунаев born in Verny now Gennady Kolbin (Геннадий Колбин 1927-1998 was the First Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Kazakh SSR from December Governmental troops suppressed the unrest, several people were killed and many demonstrators were jailed. In the waning days of Soviet rule, discontent continued to grow and find expression under Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev's policy of glasnost. Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev ( Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachyov;; born 2 March 1931 in Privolnoye Stavropol Krai) is a Russian politician (Гла́сность)is literally defined as publicity and sometimes figuratively interpreted as "tipping a vase to let someone see into the vase but not the bottom of the vase"
Caught up in the groundswell of Soviet republics seeking greater autonomy, Kazakhstan declared its sovereignty as a republic within the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics in October 1990. Astana ( Kazakh: Астана آستانه former names include Akmola, Akmolinsk, Tselinograd, and Aqmola) is the capital Sovereignty is the exclusive Right to control a Government, a country, a people or oneself Following the August 1991 aborted coup attempt in Moscow and the subsequent dissolution of the Soviet Union, Kazakhstan declared independence on December 16, 1991. Moscow (Москва́ romanised: Moskvá, IPA: see also other names) is the Capital and the largest city of The Soviet Union 's collapse into independent nations began early in 1985 Independence is the Self-government of a Nation, Country, or State by its residents and population or some portion thereof generally exercising Events 755 - An Lushan revolts against Chancellor Yang Guozhong at Fanyang, initiating the An Shi Rebellion Year 1991 ( MCMXCI) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar. It was the last of the Soviet republics to declare independence.
The years following independence have been marked by significant reforms to the Soviet-style economy and political monopoly on power. In Economics, a monopoly (from Greek monos, alone or single + polein, to sell exists when a specific individual or enterprise has sufficient Under Nursultan Nazarbayev, who initially came to power in 1989 as the head of the Communist Party of Kazakhstan and was eventually elected President in 1991, Kazakhstan has made significant progress toward developing a market economy. Nursultan Abishuly Nazarbayev ( Kazakh: Нұрсұлтан Әбішұлы Назарбаев æbəʃʊˈlɯ nɑzɑrˈbɑjəf Russian: Нурсултан The Communist Party of Kazakhstan ( Qazaqstan Kommunistik Partiyasi) is a Political party in Kazakhstan. A market economy is a realized Social system based on the Division of labour in which the prices of Goods and Services are determined in a The country has enjoyed significant economic growth since 2000, partly due to its large oil, gas, and mineral reserves. An oil is a substance that is in a viscous Liquid state ( "oily") at ambient temperatures or slightly warmer and is This page is about the physical properties of gas as a state of matter
But, democracy has not improved much since 1991. "In June 2007, Kazakhstan's parliament passed a law granting President Nursultan Nazarbayev lifetime powers and privileges, including access to future presidents, immunity from criminal prosecution, and influence over domestic and foreign policy. Critics say he has become a de facto "president for life. " Over the course of his ten years in power, Nazarbayev has repeatedly censored the press through arbitrary use of "slander" laws, blocked access to opposition web sites (9 November 1999), banned the Wahhabi religious sect (5 September 1998), drawn criticism from Amnesty International for excessive executions following specious trials (March 21, 1996) and harsh prison conditions (13 August 1996), and refused demands that the governors of Kazakhstan's 14 provinces be elected, rather than appointed by the president (April 7, 2000). Events 694 - Egica, a king of the Visigoths of Hispania, accuses Jews of aiding Muslims sentencing all Year 1999 ( MCMXCIX) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1999 Gregorian calendar) Wahhabism ( Arabic: Al-Wahhābīyya الوهابية or Wahabism is a conservative reformist call of Sunni Islam attributed to Events 1590 - Alexander Farnese 's army forces Henry IV of France to raise the siege of Paris. Year 1998 ( MCMXCVIII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar) Events 630 - Byzantine emperor Heraclius restores the True Cross to Jerusalem. Year 1996 ( MCMXCVI) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar) Events 3114 BC - According to the Lounsbury correlation the start of the Maya calendar. Year 1996 ( MCMXCVI) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar) Events 529 - First draft of Corpus Juris Civilis (a fundamental work in Jurisprudence) is issued by Eastern Roman Emperor 2000 ( MM) was a Leap year that started on Saturday of the Common Era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. "
Kazakhstan is a presidential republic. Nursultan Abishuly Nazarbayev ( Kazakh: Нұрсұлтан Әбішұлы Назарбаев æbəʃʊˈlɯ nɑzɑrˈbɑjəf Russian: Нурсултан The Government of Kazakhstan oversees a presidential Republic. The politics of Kazakhstan takes place in the framework of a presidential Republic, whereby the President of Kazakhstan is Head of state and President is a Title leaders of Organizations companies, Trade unions universities, and countries. A republic is a State or Country that is not led by a hereditary Monarch, but in which the people (or at least a part of its people have impact on its The president is the head of state. Head of state is the generic term for the individual or collective office that serves as the chief public representative of a Monarchic or Republican Nation-state The president also is the commander in chief of the armed forces and may veto legislation that has been passed by the Parliament. A commander-in-chief is the Commander of a nation's Military forces or significant element of those forces A veto, Latin for "I forbid" is used to Denote that a certain party has the right to stop unilaterally a certain piece of Legislation. TalkParliament#Screen-size. -->A  parliament is a Legislature, especially in those The prime minister chairs the Cabinet of Ministers and serves as Kazakhstan's head of government. There are three deputy prime ministers and 16 ministers in the Cabinet. Karim Masimov has served as the Prime Minister since 10 January 2007. Karim Kajymqanuly Massimov ( Мәсімов Кәрім Қажымқанұлы, See also Kazakhstan political shakeup of 2007 See also Kazakhstan political Events 49 BC - Julius Caesar crosses the Rubicon, signaling the start of civil war. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century.
Kazakhstan has a bicameral Parliament, made up of the lower house (the Majilis) and upper house (the Senate). A lower house is one of two chambers of a Bicameral Legislature, the other chamber being the Upper house. The Majilis (also transliterated as Mazhilis; "Assembly" in Kazakh) is the lower house of the Bicameral Parliament of Kazakhstan, known An upper house is one of two chambers of a Bicameral Legislature, the other chamber being the Lower house. A senate is a Deliberative body, often the Upper house or chamber of a Legislature or Parliament. Single mandate districts popularly elect 67 seats in the Majilis; there also are ten members elected by party-list vote rather than by single mandate districts. The Senate has 39 members. Two senators are selected by each of the elected assemblies (Maslikhats) of Kazakhstan's 16 principal administrative divisions (14 provinces, plus the cities of Astana and Almaty). The president appoints the remaining seven senators. Majilis deputies and the government both have the right of legislative initiative, though the government proposes most legislation considered by the Parliament.
On the December 1 of 2007, it was revealed that Kazakhstan has been chosen to chair OSCE for the year 2010. Astana ( Kazakh: Астана آستانه former names include Akmola, Akmolinsk, Tselinograd, and Aqmola) is the capital
Elections to the Majilis in September 2004 yielded a lower house dominated by the pro-government Otan party, headed by President Nazarbayev. Elections in Kazakhstan are held on a national level to elect a President and the the Parliament, which is divided into two bodies the Majilis (Assembly Nur-Otan ( Kazakh: Нұр Отан - Fatherland 's ray of light is the largest Political party in Kazakhstan with over 762000 members Two other parties considered sympathetic to the president, including the agrarian-industrial bloc AIST and the Asar party, founded by President Nazarbayev’s daughter, won most of the remaining seats. The African Institute of Science and Technology (AIST is a university system concept developed by the Nelson Mandela Institution aimed toward bringing the highest level Asar ( All Together) was a Political party in Kazakhstan. At the last Legislative elections, 19 September and 3 October 2004 the party Opposition parties, which were officially registered and competed in the elections, won a single seat during elections that the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe said fell short of international standards.
In 1999, Kazakhstan applied for observer status at the Council of Europe Parliamentary Assembly. The Council of Europe (Conseil de l'Europe is the oldest International organisation working towards European integration, being founded in 1949 The Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe (PACE which held its first session in Strasbourg on 10 August 1949, can be considered the The official response of the Assembly was that Kazakhstan could apply for full membership, because it is partially located in Europe, but that they would not be granted any status whatsoever at the Council until their democracy and human rights records improved. Democracy is a form of government in which the supreme power is held completely by the people under a free electoral system Human rights refers to the "basic Rights and freedoms to which all humans are entitled
On December 4, 2005, Nursultan Nazarbayev was reelected in a landslide victory. "December 4th" redirects here For the song by Jay-Z, see December 4th (song. Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Nursultan Abishuly Nazarbayev ( Kazakh: Нұрсұлтан Әбішұлы Назарбаев æbəʃʊˈlɯ nɑzɑrˈbɑjəf Russian: Нурсултан The electoral commission announced that he had won over 90% of the vote. The Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) concluded the election did not meet international standards despite some improvements in the administration of the election. Xinhua News Agency reported that observers from the People's Republic of China, responsible in overseeing 25 polling stations in Astana, found that voting in those polls was conducted in a "transparent and fair" manner. Talk People's Republic of China) PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA ARTICLE GUIDELINES Astana ( Kazakh: Астана آستانه former names include Akmola, Akmolinsk, Tselinograd, and Aqmola) is the capital  Furthermore, Western governments did not express much criticism.
On August 17, 2007, elections to the lower house of parliament were held with the ruling Nur-Otan coalition winning every seat with 88% of the vote. Events 986 - A Byzantine army was destroyed in the pass of Trajan's Gate by the Bulgarians under the Comitopuli Nur-Otan ( Kazakh: Нұр Отан - Fatherland 's ray of light is the largest Political party in Kazakhstan with over 762000 members None of the opposition parties have reached the benchmark 7% level of the seats. This has lead some in the local media to question the competence and charisma of the opposition party leaders. Opposition parties made accusations of serious irregularities in the election. 
Kazakhstan's National Security Committee (KNB) was established on 13 June 1992. Events 1525 - Martin Luther marries Katharina von Bora, against the Celibacy rule decreed by the Roman Catholic Church for Year 1992 ( MCMXCII) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar) It includes the Service of Internal Security, Military Counterintelligence, Border Guard, several Commando units, and Foreign Intelligence (Barlau). The latter is considered by many as the most important part of KNB. Its director is Major General Omirtai Bitimov. Major General or Major-General is a Military rank used in many countries
With an area of 2. Kazakhstan is located in Central Asia, northwest of the People's Republic of China, though the area of the country west of the Ural River The following is a list of cities towns townships and villages in Kazakhstan. 7 million square kilometers (1. Square Kilometre ( US spelling square kilometer) symbol km2, is a decimal multiple of the SI unit of 05 million sq. mi), Kazakhstan is the ninth-largest country in the world and the largest landlocked country in the world. The square mile is an imperial and US unit of Area equal the area of a square of one statute mile. A landlocked country is commonly defined as one enclosed or nearly enclosed by land It is equivalent to the size of Western Europe. Western Europe at its most general meaning means 'all the countries in the West of Europe ' It shares borders of 6,846 kilometers (4,254 mi) with Russia, 2,203 kilometers (1,369 mi) with Uzbekistan, 1,533 kilometers (953 mi) with China, 1,051 kilometers (653 mi) with Kyrgyzstan, and 379 kilometers (235 mi) with Turkmenistan. Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending Uzbekistan, officially the Republic of Uzbekistan ( Uzbek: O‘zbekiston Respublikasi or Ўзбекистон Республикаси is a doubly Talk People's Republic of China) PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA ARTICLE GUIDELINES Kyrgyzstan (ˈkɻ̩gɪztɑn (AmE or /'kɝgəztan/ (BrE Kyrgyz: Кыргызстан; Russian: Киргизия or Киргизстан or Кыргызстан Turkmenistan ( Türkmenistan; also known as Turkmenia) is a Turkic country in Central Asia. Major cities include Astana, Almaty, Karagandy, Shymkent, Atyrau and Oskemen. Astana ( Kazakh: Астана آستانه former names include Akmola, Akmolinsk, Tselinograd, and Aqmola) is the capital Almaty ( Алматы; formerly known as Alma-Ata ( Алма-Ата) also Verniy, (Верный is the largest city in Kazakhstan Karaganda, also spelled Karagandy ( Қарағанды Караганда is the capital of Karagandy Province in Kazakhstan. Shymkent (Шымкент is the capital city of South Kazakhstan Province, the most populated region in Kazakhstan. Atyrau (Атырау ɑtɪˈɾaw named Guryev during the Soviet era) is a city in Kazakhstan, and the capital of Atyrau Province. Oskemen ( Kazakh: Өскемен, Öskemen; Russian: Усть-Каменогорск Ust-Kamenogorsk) is the capital of the East While located primarily in Asia, a small portion of Kazakhstan is also located west of the Urals in Eastern Europe. 
The terrain extends west to east from the Caspian Sea to the Altay Mountains and north to south from the plains of Western Siberia to the oases and deserts of Central Asia. The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed body of water on Earth by area variously classed as the world's largest lake or a full-fledged Sea. The Altai Mountains (Алтай Altay; Алтай 阿尔泰山脉 are a Mountain range in central Asia, where Russia, Siberia (Сиби́рь Sibir) is the name given to the vast region constituting almost all of Northern Asia and for the most part currently serving Central Asia is a region of Asia from the Caspian Sea in the west to central China in the east and from southern Russia in the north to northern Pakistan in the south The Kazakh Steppe(plain), with an area of around 804,500 square kilometres (310,600 sq. Kazakh Steppe or Kirghiz Steppe, is a vast region of open grassland in northern Kazakhstan and adjacent portions of Russia, extending to the east of mi), occupies one-third of the country and is the world's largest dry steppe region. In physical Geography, a steppe ( German, from степь - "a flat and arid land" степ - /stɛp/ тал - tal дала - /dɑlɑ/ pronounced The steppe is characterized by large areas of grasslands and sandy regions. Grasslands (also called greenswards) are areas where the Vegetation is dominated by Grasses ( Poaceae) and other Herbaceous (non-woody Important rivers and lakes include: the Aral Sea, Ili River, Irtysh River, Ishim River, Ural River, Syrdariya, Charyn River and gorge, Lake Balkhash, and Lake Zaysan. The Aral Sea ( Kazakh: Арал Теңізі Aral Tengizi, Orol dengizi Russian: Аральскοе мοре Tajik / Persian: Daryocha-i The Ili River (Іле İle, Или 伊犁河 Yili He is a River in northwestern China ( Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture of the Xinjiang Irtysh (Иртыш; Kazakh: Ertis / Эртiс; Иртеш|İrteş; Chinese: Erqisi / 额尔齐斯河) a River in Siberia Ishim River (Иши́м Kazakh: Esil) is a River running through Kazakhstan and Russia. The Ural (Урал Kazakh: Жайық, Jayıq or Zhayyq) known as Yaik before 1775, is a river flowing through Syr Darya (Сырдария Сирдарё Sirdaryoسيردريا also transliterated Syrdarya or Sirdaryo) is a River in Central Asia Lake Balqash ( Kazakh: kk Балқаш Көлі, also Balkhash from the Russian ru Озеро Балхаш) is a Lake in southeastern Lake Zaysan (Зайсан көлі озеро Зайсан is a freshwater Lake, ca
The climate is continental, with hot summers and colder winters. Continental climate is a Climate that is characterized by Winter Temperatures cold enough to support a fixed period of Snow cover each Year Summer is one of the four Temperate Seasons Summer marks the warmest time of year with the longest days Winter is one of the four Seasons of Temperate zones Calculated astronomically, it begins on the Solstice and ends on the Equinox Precipitation varies between arid and semi-arid conditions.
The Charyn Canyon is 150–300 metres deep and 80 kilometres long, cutting through the red sandstone plateau and stretching along the Charyn River gorge in northern Tian Shan ("Heavenly Mountains", 200 km east of Almaty) at . Charyn Canyon is an 80 km canyon in Kazakhstan on the Charyn River, 200 km east of Almaty, close to the Chinese border Sandstone is a Sedimentary rock composed mainly of Sand -size Mineral or rock grains. The Tian Shan (天山 Pinyin: Tiān Shān "celestial mountains" also commonly spelled Tien Shan, is a Mountain range located in Central Almaty ( Алматы; formerly known as Alma-Ata ( Алма-Ата) also Verniy, (Верный is the largest city in Kazakhstan The steep canyon slopes, columns and arches rise to heights of 150–300 m. A column in Structural engineering is a vertical structural element that transmits through compression, the weight of the structure above to other structural An arch is a structure that spans a space while supporting weight (e The inaccessibility of the canyon provided a safe haven for a rare ash tree that survived the Ice Age and is nowadays also grown in some other areas. An ash can be any of four different tree genera from four very distinct families; most commonly in a combined form (e An ice age is a period of long-term reduction in the Temperature of the Earth 's surface and atmosphere resulting in an expansion of continental Ice sheets Bigach crater is a Pliocene or Miocene impact asteroid crater, 8 kilometres (5 mi) in diameter and estimated at 5 ± 3 million years old at . Bigach is an impact crater in Kazakhstan. It is 8 km in Diameter and the age is estimated to be 5 ± 3 Million The Pliocene epoch (spelled Pleiocene in some older texts is the period in the Geologic timescale that extends The Miocene is a geological epoch of the Neogene period and extends from about 23 Asteroids, sometimes called Minor planets or planetoids', are bodies—primarily of the inner Solar System —that are smaller than planets but
Kazakhstan is divided into 14 provinces (облыстар). Kazakhstan is divided into 14 Provinces ( облыстар / oblystar; singular облысы / oblysy; области / oblasti; singular область ||} The provinces of Kazakhstan are divided into districts (pl Kazakhstan is divided into 14 Provinces ( облыстар / oblystar; singular облысы / oblysy; области / oblasti; singular область The provinces are subdivided into districts (аудандар). ||} The provinces of Kazakhstan are divided into districts (pl
Each province is headed by an Akim (provincial governor) appointed by the president. Municipal Akims are appointed by province Akims. The Government of Kazakhstan transferred its capital from Almaty to Astana on December 10, 1997. Events 1041 - Empress Zoe of Byzantium elevates her adoptive son to the throne of the Eastern Roman Empire as Michael V Year 1997 ( MCMXCVII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1997 Gregorian calendar
The government of Kazakhstan plans to double its Gross domestic product (GDP) by 2008 and triple it by 2015 as compared to 2000. The Baikonur Cosmodrome ( Kazakh: Байқоңыр ғарыш айлағы, Bayqoñır ğarış aylağı; Russian: Космодром A spaceport or cosmodrome is a site for launching Spacecraft, by analogy with Seaport for Ships or Airport for Aircraft Kazakhstan is the largest nation and economy in Central Asia, and the ninth largest nation by area in the world GDP growth has been stable in the last five years, at a rate higher than 9%. Buoyed by high world crude oil prices, GDP growth figures were in 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, and 2005: 9. Petroleum ( L petroleum, from Greek πετρέλαιον, lit 8%, 13. 2%, 9. 5%, 9. 2%, 9. 4%, and 9. 2%, respectively. Other major exports of Kazakhstan include wheat, textile, and livestock. Kazakhstan forecasts that it will become the world's leading exporter of uranium by the year 2010.
Kazakhstan's monetary policy is generally considered by outside observers to be well-managed. Monetary policy is the process by which the Government, Central bank, or monetary authority of a country controls (i the Supply of Money, Its principal challenge since 2002 has been to manage strong foreign currency inflows without sparking inflation. In economics inflation or price inflation is a rise in the general level of prices of goods and services over a period of time Since that time, inflation has not been under control, registering at 6. 6% in 2002, 6. 8% in 2003, and 6. 4% in 2004, higher than forecast levels of 5. 3%-6. 0%. In 2000 Kazakhstan became the first former Soviet republic to repay all of its debt to the International Monetary Fund (IMF), 7 years ahead of schedule. The International Monetary Fund ( IMF) is an International organization that oversees the Global financial system by following the Macroeconomic In March 2002, the U.S. Department of Commerce granted Kazakhstan market economy status under U.S. trade law. The United States Department of Commerce is the Cabinet department of the United States government concerned with promoting Economic growth A market economy is a realized Social system based on the Division of labour in which the prices of Goods and Services are determined in a The Trade Act of 2002 (; US Trade Promotion Authority Act) grants the President of the United States the authority to negotiate Trade deals with other This change in status recognized substantive market economy reforms in the areas of currency convertibility, wage rate determination, openness to foreign investment, and government control over the means of production and allocation of resources.
In September 2002 Kazakhstan became the first country in the CIS to receive an investment-grade credit rating from a major international credit rating agency. A credit rating assesses the Credit worthiness of an individual Corporation, or even a country As of late December 2003, Kazakhstan's gross foreign debt was about $22. 9 billion. Total governmental debt was $4. 2 billion. This amounts to 14% of GDP. There has been a noticeable reduction in the ratio of debt to GDP observed in past years; the ratio of total governmental debt to GDP in 2000 was 21. 7%, in 2001 it was 17. 5%, and in 2002 it was 15. 4%.
The upturn in economic growth, combined with the results of earlier tax and financial sector reforms, has dramatically improved government finances from the 1999 budget deficit level of 3. Economic growth is the increase in the amount of the goods and services produced by an economy over time Tax reform is the process of changing the way Taxes are collected or managed by the Government. A budget deficit occurs when an Entity (often a Government) spends more Money than it takes in 5% of GDP to a deficit of 1. 2% of GDP in 2003. Government revenues grew from 19. 8% of GDP in 1999 to 22. 6% of GDP in 2001, but decreased to 16. 2% of GDP in 2003. In 2000, Kazakhstan adopted a new tax code in an effort to consolidate these gains. "Tax code" redirects here For the term as used in the United Kingdom PAYE system see Tax code (PAYE. On November 29, 2003 the Law on Changes to Tax Code was adopted, which reduced tax rates. Events 1777 - San Jose California, is founded as el Pueblo de San José de Guadalupe Year 2003 ( MMIII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. Comparison of Tax Rates around the world is a difficult and somewhat subjective enterprise The value added tax fell from 16% to 15%, the social tax from 21% to 20%, and the personal income tax from 30% to 20%. Value added tax ( VAT) or goods and services tax ( GST) is a consumption Tax levied on value added. (On July 7, 2006 the personal income tax was reduced even further to a flat rate of 5% for personal income in the form of dividends and 10% for other personal income. Events 1456 - A retrial verdict acquits Joan of Arc of heresy 25 years after her death Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ) Kazakhstan furthered its reforms by adopting a new land code on June 20, 2003, and a new customs code on April 5, 2003. Events 451 - Battle of Chalons: Flavius Aetius ' defeats Attila the Hun. Year 2003 ( MMIII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. Events 456 - St Patrick returns to Ireland as a missionary bishop Year 2003 ( MMIII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar.
Energy is the leading economic sector. KazMunayGas is the state-owned oil and gas company of Kazakhstan. In Physics and other Sciences energy (from the Greek grc ἐνέργεια - Energeia, "activity operation" from grc ἐνεργός Production of crude oil and natural gas condensate in Kazakhstan amounted to 51. Natural gas is a Gaseous Fossil fuel consisting primarily of Methane but including significant quantities of Ethane, Propane, 2 million tons in 2003, which was 8. Units of mass There are three similar units of Mass called the ton: Long ton (simply ton in countries such as the United 6% more than in 2002. Kazakhstan raised oil and gas condensate exports to 44. 3 million tons in 2003, 13% higher than in 2002. Gas production in Kazakhstan in 2003 amounted to 13. 9 billion cubic meters (491 billion cu. ft), up 22. The cubic foot is an imperial and US customary (non- metric) unit of Volume, used in the United States Canada and the United Kingdom 7% compared to 2002, including natural gas production of 7. 3 billion cubic meters (258 billion cu. ft); Kazakhstan holds about 4 billion tons of proven recoverable oil reserves and 2,000 cubic kilometers (480 cu mi) of gas. The cubic foot is an imperial and US customary (non- metric) unit of Volume, used in the United States Canada and the United Kingdom CM3 redirects here If you were looking for the 3rd game in the Cooking Mama series abbreviated as CM3 see here. A cubic mile is an Imperial / US customary (non- SI non- metric) unit of Volume, used in the United States. Industry analysts believe that planned expansion of oil production, coupled with the development of new fields, will enable the country to produce as much as 3 million barrels (477,000 m³) per day by 2015, lifting Kazakhstan into the ranks of the world's top 10 oil-producing nations. An oil field is a region with an abundance of Oil wells extracting Petroleum (crude oil from below ground Kazakhstan's 2003 oil exports were valued at more than $7 billion, representing 65% of overall exports and 24% of the GDP. Major oil and gas fields and their recoverable oil reserves are Tengiz with 7 billion barrels (1. Oil reserves are the estimated quantities of Crude oil that are claimed to be recoverable under existing Economic and operating conditions Tengiz field (Tengiz is Kazakh for "sea" in western Kazakhstan, is located in the low-lying wetlands along the northeast shores of the Caspian Sea. 1 km³); Karachaganak with 8 billion barrels (1. Karachaganak Field is a gas condensate field in Kazakhstan. It is located about 150 km east from the city of Oral (Uralsk in the northwest of Kazakhstan 3 km³) and 1,350 km³ of natural gas); and Kashagan with 7 to 9 billion barrels (1. Kashagan Field is an Oil field located in Kazakhstan. The field is situated in the northern part of the Caspian sea close to the Kazakhstan city of Atyrau 1 to 1. 4 km³).
Kazakhstan instituted an ambitious pension reform program in 1998. A pension is a steady income given to a person upon Retirement, typically in the form of a guaranteed annuity. As of January 1, 2005, the pension assets were about $4. New Year See also New Year The Ancient Romans began their consular year on January 1st since 153 BC Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. 1 billion. There are 16 saving pension funds in the republic. The State Accumulating Pension Fund, the only state-owned fund, could be privatized as early as 2006. Privatization is the incidence or process of transferring ownership of business from the Public sector (government to the Private sector (business The country's unified financial regulatory agency oversees and regulates the pension funds. The pension funds' growing demand for quality investment outlets triggered rapid development of the debt securities market. A security is a Fungible, Negotiable instrument representing financial value Pension fund capital is being invested almost exclusively in corporate and government bonds, including Government of Kazakhstan Eurobonds. In Finance, a bond is a Debt security, in which the authorized issuer owes the holders a debt and is obliged to repay the principal and Interest The Kazakhstani banking system is developing rapidly. The banking system's capitalization now exceeds $1 billion. The National Bank has introduced deposit insurance in its campaign to strengthen the banking sector. The National Bank of Kazakhstan (Қазақстан Ұлттық Банкі is the Central bank of Kazakhstan. Several major foreign banks have branches in Kazakhstan, including ABN AMRO, Citibank, and HSBC. ABN AMRO is a Dutch bank currently owned by RFS Holdings BV, a consortium of Royal Bank of Scotland Group, Fortis Bank Nederland, and Banco Santander Citibank is a major international Bank, founded in 1812 as the City Bank of New York, later First National City Bank of New York. HSBC Holdings plc ( (,,,) is a Public limited company incorporated in England and Wales, headquartered in London. Raiffeisen Zentralbank and UniCredit have both recently entered the Kazakhstan's financial services market through acquisitions and stakebuilding. Raiffeisen Zentralbank is a Co-operative Bank based and founded in Austria and operating throughout central and eastern Europe. UniCredit SpA () is an Italy -based pan-European bank with over 40 million customers and operations in 22 countries
Agriculture accounted for 10. Agriculture in Kazakhstan remains a small scale sector of Kazakhstan's economy. Agriculture in Kazakhstan remains a small scale sector of Kazakhstan's economy. 3% of Kazakhstan's GDP in 2005.  Grain (Kazakhstan is the seventh-largest producer in the world) and livestock are the most important agricultural commodities. Livestock is the term used to refer (singularly or plurally to a Domesticated Animal intentionally reared in an agricultural setting to produce such as Food Agricultural land occupies more than 846,000 square kilometres (327,000 sq. mi). The available agricultural land consists of 205,000 square kilometres (79,000 sq. mi) of arable land and 611,000 square kilometres (236,000 sq. mi) of pasture and hay land. Pasture is land with Herbaceous vegetation cover used for grazing of Ungulate Livestock as part of a Farm or Ranch. Chief livestock products are dairy products, leather, meat, and wool. Dairy products are generally defined as Foodstuffs produced from Milk. Leather is a material created through the Tanning of hides and Skins of Animals primarily Cattlehide The Tanning process In modern English usage meat most often refers to Animal tissue used as food mostly Skeletal muscle and associated Fat, but it may also refer Wool is the fiber derived from the specialized skin cells called follicles of animals in the Caprinae family principally sheep, but the hair of certain species The country's major crops include wheat, barley, cotton, and rice. Wheat ( Triticum spp is a worldwide cultivated grass from the Levant area of the Middle East. Barley ( Hordeum vulgare) is an annual Cereal Grain, which serves as a major animal Feed crop, with smaller amounts used for Cotton is a soft staple Fibre that grows around the seeds of the cotton plant ( Gossypium sp Rice is a Cereal foodstuff which forms an important part of the diet of many people worldwide and as such it is a staple food for many Wheat exports, a major source of hard currency, rank among the leading commodities in Kazakhstan's export trade. In Economics, an export is any good or Commodity, Transported from one country to another country in a Legitimate fashion Hard currency or strong currency, in Economics refers to a globally traded Currency that can serve as a reliable and stable Store of value. In 2003 Kazakhstan harvested 17. 6 million tons of grain in gross, 2. 8% higher compared to 2002. Kazakh agriculture still has many environmental problems from mismanagement during its years in the Soviet Union. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 Some Kazakh wine is produced in the mountains to the east of Almaty. Kazakhstan wine is Wine made in the Central Asia country of Kazakhstan.
Kazakhstan is thought to be one of the original homes of the apple, particularly the wild ancestor of Malus domestica, Malus sieversii. The apple is the pomaceous Fruit of the apple tree Species Malus domestica in the Rose family Rosaceae. An ancestor is a Parent or ( recursively) the parent of an ancestor (i Malus sieversii is a wild apple native to the mountains of Central Asia in southern Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan It has no common name in English, but is known in Kazakhstan, where it is native, as 'alma'. In fact, the region where it is thought to originate is called Almaty, or 'rich with apple'. Almaty ( Алматы; formerly known as Alma-Ata ( Алма-Ата) also Verniy, (Верный is the largest city in Kazakhstan  This tree is still found wild in the mountains of Central Asia in southern Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Xinjiang, China. Central Asia is a region of Asia from the Caspian Sea in the west to central China in the east and from southern Russia in the north to northern Pakistan in the south Kyrgyzstan (ˈkɻ̩gɪztɑn (AmE or /'kɝgəztan/ (BrE Kyrgyz: Кыргызстан; Russian: Киргизия or Киргизстан or Кыргызстан Tajikistan (təˈdʒɪkɨstæn or /təˈdʒiːkɨstæn/ Тоҷикистон tɔʤikɪsˈtɔn or, Persian تاجیکستان taajikestaan officially the Republic of Xinjiang ( Uyghur: شىنجاڭ Shinjang;; Postal map spelling: Sinkiang; Turkish: Sincan, Sincan Uygur Özerk China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National
Kazakhstan has an abundant supply of accessible mineral and fossil fuel resources. Aktau (Ақтау Aqtaw; Актау Aktau) until 1992 Shevchenko (Шевченко is a city in Kazakhstan 's Mangyshlak ||-||-|-||-||-||-||-||-||-|} A port is a facility for receiving Ships and transferring cargo The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed body of water on Earth by area variously classed as the world's largest lake or a full-fledged Sea. Kazakhstan owns large reserves of energy resources and therefore the energy policy of Kazakhstan has influence over the world's overall energy supply Development of petroleum, natural gas, and mineral extraction has attracted most of the over $40 billion in foreign investment in Kazakhstan since 1993 and accounts for some 57% of the nation's industrial output (or approximately 13% of gross domestic product). Petroleum ( L petroleum, from Greek πετρέλαιον, lit Natural gas is a Gaseous Fossil fuel consisting primarily of Methane but including significant quantities of Ethane, Propane, According to some estimates, Kazakhstan has the second largest uranium, chromium, lead, and zinc reserves, the third largest manganese reserves, the fifth largest copper reserves, and ranks in the top ten for coal, iron, and gold. Uranium (jʊˈreɪniəm is a silvery-gray Metallic Chemical element in the Chromium (ˈkroʊmiəm is a Chemical element which has the symbol Cr and Atomic number 24 Characteristics Lead has a dull luster and is a dense, Ductile, very soft highly Zinc (ˈzɪŋk from Zink is a Metallic Chemical element with the symbol Zn and Atomic number 30 Manganese (ˈmæŋgəniːz is a Chemical element, designated by the symbol Mn. Copper (ˈkɒpɚ is a Chemical element with the symbol Cu (cuprum and Atomic number 29 Iron (ˈаɪɚn is a Chemical element with the symbol Fe (ferrum and Atomic number 26 Gold (ˈɡoʊld is a Chemical element with the symbol Au (from its Latin name aurum) and Atomic number 79 It is also an exporter of diamonds and potassium. In Mineralogy, diamond is the allotrope of carbon where the carbon atoms are arranged in Potassium (pəˈtæsiəm is a Chemical element. It has the symbol K (kalium from qalīy Atomic number 19 and Atomic mass 39 Perhaps most significant for economic development, Kazakhstan also currently has the 11th largest proven reserves of both oil and natural gas. An oil is a substance that is in a viscous Liquid state ( "oily") at ambient temperatures or slightly warmer and is Natural gas is a Gaseous Fossil fuel consisting primarily of Methane but including significant quantities of Ethane, Propane, 
In total, there are 160 deposits with over 2. 7 billion tons of petroleum. Oil explorations have shown that the deposits on the Caspian shore are only a small part of a much larger deposit. The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed body of water on Earth by area variously classed as the world's largest lake or a full-fledged Sea. It is said that 3. 5 billion tons of oil and 2. 5 trillion cubic meters of gas could be found in that area. Overall the estimate of Kazakhstan's oil deposits is 6. 1 billion tons. However, there are only 3 refineries within the country, situated in Atyrau, Pavlodar, and Shymkent. A refinery is composed of a group of Chemical engineering unit processes and Unit operations used for Refining certain materials or converting Atyrau (Атырау ɑtɪˈɾaw named Guryev during the Soviet era) is a city in Kazakhstan, and the capital of Atyrau Province. Pavlodar (Павлодар is a city in northeastern Kazakhstan and capital of Pavlodar Province. Shymkent (Шымкент is the capital city of South Kazakhstan Province, the most populated region in Kazakhstan. These are not capable of processing the total crude output so much of it is exported to Russia. In 2006, Kazakhstan was producing approximately 1,426 million barrels (226,700,000 m³) of oil daily and 23. 5 billion cubic metres of natural gas annually. 
Kazakhstan has stable relationships with all of its neighbors. Foreign relations of Kazakhstan are primarily based on economic and political security Kazakhstan is also a member of the United Nations, Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe, Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council and Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC). The United Nations ( UN) is an International organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in International law, International security The Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council ( EAPC) a NATO institution is a multilateral forum created to improve relations between NATO and non-NATO countries in The Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC is an International organization with a permanent delegation to the United Nations. It is an active participant in the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation Partnership for Peace program. The North Atlantic Treaty Partnership for Peace (PfP is a North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO program aimed at creating trust between NATO and other states in Europe and the former Kazakhstan is also a member of the Commonwealth of Independent States, the Economic Cooperation Organization and the Shanghai Cooperation Organization. The Economic Cooperation Organization ( ECO) is an intergovernmental International organization involving seven Asian and three European nations The Shanghai Cooperation Organisation ( SCO) is an Intergovernmental mutual-security organization which was founded in 2001 by the leaders of China, The nations of Kazakhstan, Russia, Belarus, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan established the Eurasian Economic Community in 2000 to re-energize earlier efforts at harmonizing trade tariffs and the creation of a free trade zone under a customs union. Belarus ( Belarusian Беларусь / Biełaruś is a Landlocked country in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the north and east The Eurasian Economic Community ( EurAsEC or EAEC or EEC) was put into motion on 10 October 2000 when Belarus, On the December 1 of 2007, it was revealed that Kazakhstan has been chosen to chair OSCE for the year 2010.
Since independence in 1991, Kazakhstan has pursued what is known as the multidimensional foreign policy (многовекторная внешняя политика), seeking equally good relations with two large neighbors, Russia and China, and the United States and the West generally. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The policy has yielded results in the oil and gas sector, where companies from the U. S. , Russia, China, and Europe are present at all major fields, and in the multidimensional directions of oil export pipelines out of Kazakhstan. Kazakhstan also enjoys strong, and rapidly developing, political and economic ties with Turkey.
Kazakhstan possesses the most major Soviet cosmodrome, where the first man was launched in space as well as Soviet space shuttle Buran and the well-known space station Mir. The Buran spacecraft ( Буран "Snowstorm" or "Blizzard") GRAU index 11F35 K1, was the only fully completed and operational Mir (Мир which can mean both Peace and World, and was the name given to peasant communes in pre-revolutionary Russia was a Soviet (and Russia currently leases approximately 6,000 km² (2,300 mi²) of territory enclosing the Baikonur Cosmodrome space launch site in south central Kazakhstan. The Baikonur Cosmodrome ( Kazakh: Байқоңыр ғарыш айлағы, Bayqoñır ğarış aylağı; Russian: Космодром
On June 18, 2006, Kazakhstan became a space-faring nation in its own right when its first commercial satellite, KazSat 1, was launched from the Baikonur Cosmodrome on a Russian-built and operated Proton rocket. Events 618 - Coronation of the Chinese governor Li Yuan as Emperor Gaozu of Tang, the new Emperor of China, initiating three centuries Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. KazSat 1 (ҚазСат the first Kazakh space Satellite, was launched on June 18, 2006 by Proton-K rocket (made by Khrunichev Space Center The Proton rocket 
In September 2006, President Nazarbayev visited the United States. While in Washington, President Nazarbayev unveiled the Monument of Independence of Kazakhstan and addressed a large gathering of the political and business elite on Kazakhstan's approach to nuclear nonproliferation.
The US Census Bureau International Database list the current population of Kazakhstan as 16,763,795, while United Nations sources such as the World Bank give a 2002 estimate of 14,794,830. As of 2003 there is a discrepancy between reputable sources as to the population of Kazakhstan. A population pyramid, also called age-sex pyramid and age structure diagram, is a graphical illustration that shows the distribution of various age groups in a Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The United States Census Bureau (officially Bureau of the Census as defined in Title) is the government agency that is responsible for the United States Census The United Nations ( UN) is an International organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in International law, International security The World Bank is an internationally supported Bank that provides financial and technical assistance to developing countries for development programs (e
The ethnic Kazakhs represent 59. The Kazakhs (also spelled Kazaks, Qazaqs; Kazakh: Қазақтар qɑzɑqtɑr Russian: Казахи the English name is transliterated 2% of the population and ethnic Russians 25. There has been a substantial population of Russians in Kazakhstan since the 19th century 6%, with a rich array of other groups represented, including Tatars, Uzbeks, Bashkirs, Uyghurs and Ukrainians. Tatars ( Tatar: Tatarlar/Татарлар sometimes spelled Tartars, are a Turkic -speaking ethnic group or multiple ethnic groups The Uzbeks (Self designation sg O‘zbek, pl O‘zbeklar) are a Turkic people of Central Asia. The Bashkirs, a Turkic people, live in Russia, mostly in the republic of Bashkortostan. The Uyghur (also spelled Uygur, Uighur, Uigur, Uyghur: ئۇيغۇر) are a Turkic people of Central Asia. Ukrainians (Українці Ukrayintsi,) are an East Slavic Ethnic group primarily living in Ukraine, or more broadly— Citizens Some minorities such as Russian Germans (esp. The German minority in Russia and the Soviet Union was created from several sources and in several waves Volga Germans), Ukrainians and Russian political opponents of the regime had been deported to Kazakhstan in the 1930s and 1940s by Stalin; some of the bigger Soviet labor camps existed in the country. The Volga Germans (Wolgadeutsche or Russlanddeutsche) were Ethnic Germans living along the Volga River in the region of southern European Russia A labor camp is a simplified detention facility where inmates are engaged in Penal labor. Significant Russian immigration also connected with Virgin Lands Campaign and Soviet space program during Khrushchev era. The Virgin Lands Campaign was an initiative by Nikita Khrushchev to open up vast tracts of unseeded (virgin The Soviet space program consisted of initiatives within the Soviet Union by competing design groups Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev (April 17 1894 – September 11 1971 served as First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1953 to 1964 following  There is also a small but active Jewish community. PLEASE TAKE NOTE************ Before 1991 there were one million Volga Germans in Kazakhstan; most of them emigrated to Germany following the breakup of the Soviet Union. The Volga Germans (Wolgadeutsche or Russlanddeutsche) were Ethnic Germans living along the Volga River in the region of southern European Russia Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 Most members of the smaller Pontian Greek minority have emigrated to Greece. The term Pontic Greeks, Pontian Greeks, Pontians or Greeks of Pontus (Πόντιοι Ποντιακός Ελληνισμός or gr Έλληνες Greece (Ελλάδα transliterated: Elláda, historically, Ellás,) officially the Hellenic Republic (Ελληνική Δημοκρατία
Kazakhstan is a bilingual country: the Kazakh language, spoken by 64. Kazakh (also Qazaq and variants natively kk Qazaq tili, kk Қазақ тілі; pronounced tˈlə is a Turkic language closely related to 4% of the population, has the status of the "state" language, while Russian, which is spoken by almost all Kazakhstanis, is declared the "official" language, and is used routinely in business. Russian ( transliteration:,) is the most geographically widespread language of Eurasia, the most widely spoken of the Slavic languages
The 1990s were marked by the emigration of many of the country's Russians and Volga Germans, a process that began in the 1970s; this was a major factor in giving the autochthonous Kazakhs a majority along with higher Kazakh birthrates and ethnic Kazakh immigration from the People's Republic of China, Mongolia, and Russia. The Russian people (Русские— Russkie) are an East Slavic Ethnic group, primarily living in Russia and neighboring countries The Volga Germans (Wolgadeutsche or Russlanddeutsche) were Ethnic Germans living along the Volga River in the region of southern European Russia Talk People's Republic of China) PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA ARTICLE GUIDELINES Mongolia (mɒŋˈɡoʊliə, literally Mongol country/nation,) is a Landlocked Country in East Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending In the early twenty first century, Kazakhstan has become one of the leading nations in international adoptions. International adoption, or intercountry adoption is a type of Adoption in which an individual or couple becomes the legal and permanent parents of a child born in another country This has recently sparked some criticism in the Parliament of Kazakhstan, due to the concerns about safety and treatment of the children abroad and the questions regarding the low level of population in Kazakhstan.
The Kazakh term қазақстандықтар (Russian: казахстанцы) (Kazakhstanis) was coined to describe all citizens of Kazakhstan, including non-Kazakhs. Akyns ( Kazakh: ақын/aqın Kyrgyz: Акын/Akyn Russian: акын) are improvising Poets and Singers in  The word "Kazakh" is generally used to refer to people of actual Kazakh descent (including those living in China, Afghanistan, Turkey, Uzbekistan and other countries).
The ethnonym Kazakh is derived from an ancient Turkic word "independent, a free spirit". It is the result of Kazakhs' nomadic horseback culture and is related to the term "cossack". The Cossacks (Каза́ки́ Kazaki; Козаки́ Kozaki; Kozacy are a group of martial people living in the southern Steppe regions of Eastern The Avestan/Old Persian (See Indo-European languages) word "stan" means "land" or "place of". Avestan is an Eastern Old Iranian language that was used to compose the sacred hymns and canon of the Zoroastrian Avesta. The Old Persian language is one of the two attested Old Iranian languages (besides Avestan)
Islam is the largest religion in Kazakhstan, followed by Russian Orthodox Christianity. By tradition the Kazaks are Sunni Muslims of the Hanafi school, and the Russians are Russian Orthodox Mazar of Khoja Ahmed Yasawi ( is an unfinished Mausoleum in the city of Türkistan (or Hazrat-e Turkestan) south Kazakhstan. Khwaja Ahmad Yasavi (Xoja Ahmad Yassivi also spelled Khoja Ahmad Yasawi, Ahmet Yasevi, Ahmed Yesevi or Ata Yesevi) born in For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation. See also Eastern Orthodox Church Structure and organization The Slavic Orthodox Church is organized in a hierarchical structure
According to the CIA World Factbook and other latest sources from U.S. Department of State; 47% of Kazakhstan's population follow the Islam (mostly Sunni Muslim), 46% are Christians (including Russian Orthodox 44%, Protestant 2%) and other 7% (including Atheist, Shamanist, Buddhist, Bahá'í, etc). The World Factbook ( ISSN; also known as the CIA World Factbook) is an annual publication of the Central Intelligence Agency of the For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation. Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam. Sunni Islam is also referred to as Ahl as-Sunnah wa’l-Jamā‘h (Arabic A Christian is a person who adheres to Christianity, a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth See also Eastern Orthodox Church Structure and organization The Slavic Orthodox Church is organized in a hierarchical structure Protestantism refers to the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated in the 16th century Protestant Reformation. Atheism Buddhism is a family of beliefs and practices The Bahá'í Faith is a Religion founded by Bahá'u'lláh in nineteenth-century Persia, emphasizing the spiritual unity of all humankind 
The country has historically hosted a wide variety of ethnic groups with varying religions. Tolerance to other societies has become a part of the Kazakh culture. The foundation of an independent republic, following the disintegration of the USSR, has launched a great deal of changes in every aspect of people’s lives. Religiosity of the population, as an essential part of any cultural identity, has undergone dynamic transformations as well.
After decades of suppressed culture, the people were feeling a great need for exhibiting their ethnic identity – in part through religion. Pavlodar (Павлодар is a city in northeastern Kazakhstan and capital of Pavlodar Province. Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam. Sunni Islam is also referred to as Ahl as-Sunnah wa’l-Jamā‘h (Arabic Quantitative research shows that for the first years after the establishment of the new laws, waiving any restrictions on religious beliefs and proclaiming full freedom of confessions, the country experienced a huge spike in religious activity of its citizens. Hundreds of mosques, synagogues, churches, and other religious structures were built in a matter of years. All represented religions benefited from increased number of members and facilities. Many confessions that were absent before independence made their way into the country, appealing to hundreds of people. The government supported this activity, and has done its best to provide equality among all religious organizations and their followers. In late 1990’s, however, a slight decline in religiosity occurred.
Radical religious organizations, despite a popular belief, are of little danger to the national security. The few organizations that were uncovered are being investigated thoroughly by the proper committee. Therefore, Kazakhstan has a very diverse, stable, and safe religious background – a truly exceptional occurrence.
However, some reported occurrences of persecution against Hare Krishnas and Jehovah's Witnesses for proselytizing has raised concern in the international community. Despite popular belief, the 'persecution' amounts to nothing more than legal action caused by questionable documentation related to the houses which were built by the groups.   
Education is universal and mandatory through to the secondary level and the adult literacy rate is 99.5%. Following independence from the Soviet Union a major economic depression cut "public financing" for education in Kazakhstan, "which dropped from 6% of Gross domestic KIMEP (a Russian language acronym for Kazakhstan Institute of Management Economics and Strategic Research) is an institution of higher education in Australia See also Education List of countries by Literacy rate, as included in the United Nations Development Programme Report 2007/2008 Education consists of three main educational phases: primary education (forms 1–4), basic general education (forms 5–9) and senior level education (forms 10–11 or 12) divided into continued general education and professional education. Primary education is the first stage of Compulsory education. (Primary education is preceded by one year of pre-school education. ) These three levels of education can be followed in one institution or in different ones (e. g. primary school, then secondary school). Recently, several secondary schools, specialized schools, magnet schools, gymnasiums, lyceums, linguistic and technical gymnasiums, have been founded. A magnet school is a School which offers specialized courses or curricula. A gymnasium (pronounced with ɡ- in several languages is a type of school providing Secondary education in some parts of Europe, comparable to English grammar This article is about Lyceum as school or as public hall Lyceum can also be short for Lyceum Theatre. Secondary professional education is offered in special professional or technical schools, lyceums or colleges and vocational schools. Technical school is a general term used for Two-year college which provide mostly Employment -preparation skills for trained labor, such as Welding This article is about Lyceum as school or as public hall Lyceum can also be short for Lyceum Theatre. College ( Latin collegium) is a term most often used today to denote an Educational Institution. ATTENTION *** This article is not "Vocational education in the United States"
At present, there are universities, academies, and institutes, conservatories, higher schools and higher colleges. A university is an institution of Higher education and Research, which grants Academic degrees in a variety of subjects An academy ( Greek Ἀκαδημία is an institution of higher learning research or honorary membership An institute is a permanent Organizational body created for a certain purpose There are three main levels: basic higher education that provides the fundamentals of the chosen field of study and leads to the award of the Bachelor's degree; specialized higher education after which students are awarded the Specialist's Diploma; and scientific-pedagogical higher education which leads to the Master's Degree. Higher education is Education that is provided by universities, vocational universities, Community colleges Liberal arts colleges A bachelor's degree is usually an Undergraduate Academic degree awarded for a course or major that generally lasts for three four or in some cases and Postgraduate education leads to the Kandidat Nauk (Candidate of Sciences) and the Doctor of Sciences. See also Postgraduate Training in Education Postgraduate education (synonymous in North America with graduate education, and sometimes described With the adoption of the Laws on Education and on Higher Education, a private sector has been established and several private institutions have been licensed.
The Ministry of Education of Kazakhstan runs a highly successful Bolashak scholarship, which is annually awarded to approximately three hundred applicants. Bolashak is a Scholarship which is awarded to the best students from Kazakhstan. A scholarship is an award of access to an institution or a financial aid award for an individual student scholar for the purpose of furthering their Education The scholarship funds their education in institutions abroad, including the prestigious Oxford and Ivy League universities. Oxford is currently bidding for the 2010 Wikimania Conference Oxford () is a city, and the County town of Oxfordshire, The Ivy League is an Athletic conference comprising eight private institutions of higher education in the Northeastern United States. The terms of the program include mandatory return to Kazakhstan for at least five years of employment.
Before the Russian colonisation, the Kazakhs had a well-articulated culture based on their nomadic pastoral economy. Before the Russian conquest the Kazaks had a well-articulated culture based on their Nomadic pastoral economy Traditional Kazakh food revolves around Mutton and Horse meat and as well as various milk products. The modern state of Kazakhstan is home to the Kazakh State Kurmangazy Orchestra of Folk Instruments the Kazakh State Philharmonic Orchestra the Kazakh National Opera and the Kazakh State Kazakhstanis consistently perform well in Olympic competitions especially in boxing The religious part of the Kazakh wedding ceremony is called Neke Qiyu (Неке Қию Although Islam was introduced to most of the Kazakhs in the fifteenth century, the religion was not fully assimilated until much later. As a result, it coexisted with earlier elements of Tengriism. Tengriism ( Tengerism, Tengrianism, Tengrianizm, Tengricilik) was the major belief of the Mongols and Turkic peoples before Traditional Kazakh belief held that separate spirits inhabited and animated the earth, sky, water, and fire, as well as domestic animals. To this day, particularly honored guests in rural settings are treated to a feast of freshly killed lamb. Such guests are sometimes asked to bless the lamb and to ask its spirit for permission to partake of its flesh. Besides lamb, many other traditional foods retain symbolic value in Kazakh culture.
Traditional moral values of Kazakhs are respect of the elders and hospitality to strangers.
In the national cuisine, livestock meat can be cooked in a variety of ways and is usually served with a wide assortment of traditional bread products. Refreshments often include black tea and traditional milk-derived drinks such as ayran, shubat and kymyz. Ayran or airan (from Turkish ayran) is a drink made of Yoghurt and water popular in Turkey, Armenia, Azerbaijan Kumis ( Turkish:kımız Mongolian:airag is a fermented dairy product traditionally made from mare's milk A traditional Kazakh dinner involves a multitude of appetisers on the table, followed by a soup and one or two main courses such as pilaf and besbarmak. Pilaf, also called polao, pilau or pulao, is a dish in which a grain such as Rice or cracked wheat is browned in oil and then cooked in a Besh barmak (from беш 'five' бес 'five' and Kazakh and Kyrgyz бармақ 'finger'is a popular dish in Kazakhstan and also eaten in Kyrgyzstan.
Because livestock was central to the Kazakhs' traditional lifestyle, most of their nomadic practices and customs relate in some way to livestock. Kazakhs have historically been very affectionate about horse-riding. Traditional curses and blessings invoked disease or fecundity among animals, and good manners required that a person ask first about the health of a man's livestock when greeting him and only afterward inquire about the human aspects of his life. Even today many Kazakhs express interest in equestrianism and horse-racing.
Kazakhstan is home to a large number of prominent contributors to literature, science and philosophy: Abai Kunanbaiuli, Al-Farabi, Mukhtar Auezov, Gabit Musrepov, Kanysh Satpayev, Mukhtar Shahanov, Saken Seifullin, Zhambyl Zhabaev, among many others. Abay Ibrahim Qunanbayuli ( Kazakh: Абай (Ибраһим Құнанбайұлы, Russian Абай Ибрагим Кунанбаев TemplateInfobox Muslim scholars --> Abū Nasr Muhammad ibn al-Farakh al-Fārābi ( Nastaliq:) or Abū Nasr al-Fārābi Mukhtar Auezov (Kazakh Мұхтар Омарханұлы Әуезов, Russian Мухтар Омарханович Ауэзов, September 28, 1897 Gabit (Makhmudovich Musirepov (Ғабит Махмұтұлы Мүсірепов (Ğabït Maxmutulı Müsirepov; Габит Махмудович Мусрепов &mdash Kanysh Imantayevich Satpayev (Қаныш Имантайұлы Сәтбаев — is one of the founders of Soviet Metallogeny, principal advocate and the first president of Muhtar Shahanov ( Мұхтар Шаханов) (born 2 July 1942 in Otrar, Kazakhstan) See also Saken Seifullin ( Сәкен Сейфуллин, 15 October 1894, Akmola uezd, Akmola Province, Russian Empire — Zhambyl Zhabayev (28 February 1846 in Semirechye – 22 June 1945 in Alma-Ata; Kazakh: Жамбыл Жабаев also known as Jambul Jabayev was a
Kazakhstan has developed itself as a formidable sports-force on the world arena in the following fields: boxing, chess, kickboxing, skiing, gymnastics, water-polo, cycling, martial arts, heavy-athletics, horse-riding, tri-athlon, track-hurdles, sambo, greco-roman wrestling, billiards. Besh barmak (from беш 'five' бес 'five' and Kazakh and Kyrgyz бармақ 'finger'is a popular dish in Kazakhstan and also eaten in Kyrgyzstan. The following are all well-known Kazakhstani athletes and world-championship medalists: Bekzat Sattarkhanov, Vassili Zhirov, Alexander Vinokourov, Bulat Zhumadilov, Mukhtarkhan Dildabekov, Olga Shishigina, Andrey Kashechkin, Aliya Yusupova, Dmitriy Karpov, Darmen Sadvakasov, Yeldos Ikhsangaliyev, Aidar Kabimollayev, Yermakhan Ibraimov, Vladimir Smirnov, among others. Bekzat Sattarkhanov ( April 4, 1980 in Shymkent – December 31, 2000 in Shymkent) was a Kazakh boxer Vassiliy "The Tiger" Jirov (born April 4, 1974 in Balqash, Kazakhstan) is a professional Kazakh boxer and former Alexander Nikolaevich Vinokourov, also written Alexandre Vinokourov, (Алексaндр Николаевич Винокуров born September 16, 1973 Bulat Jumadilov (born April 22, 1973) is a Kazakh boxer who competed in the Men's Flyweight (&ndash 51 kg at the 2000 Summer Olympics Mukhtarkhan Dildabekov (born March 19, 1976) is a Kazakh boxer best known to win the silver medal in the Super Heavyweight division(+91 kg Olga Shishigina (born December 23, 1968 in Almaty) is a retired Kazakh athlete who mainly competed in the 100 metres hurdles Andrey Kashechkin ( Kazakh: Андрей Кашечкин, born March 21, 1980) is a banned Kazakhstani Road racing cyclist Aliya Yussupova ( Tatar: Aliə Maqsut qızı Yosıpova Алия Максут кызы Йосыпова Russian Алия Махсутовна Юсупова Dmitriy Karpov (born July 23, 1981 in Karaganda) is an athlete from Kazakhstan who competes in Decathlon and Heptathlon Darmen Sadvakasov (born 28 April 1979) is a Kazakhstani chess grandmaster. Yeldos Ikhsangaliyev (born 8 July 1978) is a Kazakhstani judoka. Aidar Kabimollayev (born 26 January 1983) is a Kazakhstani Judoka He finished in joint fifth place in the lightweight (73 kg division at the Yermakhan Ibraimov (born January 1, 1972) is a Kazakh boxer who competed in the Light Middleweight (71 kg at the 2000 Summer Olympics Vladimir Smirnov is the name of the following people Vladimir Alexeyevich Smirnov (b
Kazakhstan features a lively music culture, evident in massive popularity of SuperStar KZ, a local offspring of Simon Fuller's Pop Idol. SuperStar KZ 3 SuperStar KZ Season 3 premiered on Perviy Kanal Evraziya at 1150am on Sunday November 11 2005. Pop Idol was a British Television series which debuted on ITV on October 5 2001; the show was a talent contest to decide Almaty is considered to be the musical capital of the Central Asia, recently enjoying concerts by well-known artists such as Deep Purple, Tokyo Hotel, Atomic Kitten, Dima Bilan, Loon, Craig David, Black Eyed Peas, Eros Ramazzotti, Jose Carreras, Ace of Base among others. Almaty ( Алматы; formerly known as Alma-Ata ( Алма-Ата) also Verniy, (Верный is the largest city in Kazakhstan Deep Purple are an English rock band formed in Hertfordshire in 1968 Tokio Hotel hoˈtɛl}} is a German band founded in Magdeburg, Germany in 2001 by singer Bill Kaulitz, guitarist Tom Kaulitz drummer Gustav Schäfer and Atomic Kitten are an English Girl group from Liverpool composed of Elizabeth McClarnon, Natasha Hamilton, and Jennifer Frost Dima Bilan (Дима Билан birth name Viktor Nikolaevich Belan, ru Виктор Николаевич Белан 24 December, 1981 in Ust-Dzheguta The loons (eg North America or divers (eg UK/Ireland are a group of aquatic birds found in many parts of North America and northern Eurasia Craig Ashley David (born 5 May 1981) is an English R&B Singer-songwriter. The Black Eyed Peas is an American hip hop group from Los Angeles. Eros Luciano Walter Ramazzotti (born on October 28, 1963) known simply as Eros Ramazzotti, is an Italian Singer and Songwriter WikipediaWikiProject Opera#Infoboxes --> Josep Carreras i Coll (born December 5, 1946, Barcelona Ace of Base is a pop band from Gothenburg, Sweden, comprising Ulf Ekberg (Buddha and siblings Jonas Berggren (Joker and
During the recent years, Kazakhstan has experienced somewhat of a revival of the Kazakh language, which is returning into mainstream usage both in media, law, business as well as the general society. This is widely approved by Kazakh people and the international organisations as a way of preserving the national identity and culture, but has in some cases caused anxiety among Russian-Kazakhstanis, Russia-sponsored special-interest groups in Kazakhstan and some high-ranking politicians in Russia.
The Parliament is considering the introduction of Latin based Kazakh alphabet to replace Cyrillic based. The Kazakh alphabets are the alphabets used to write the Kazakh language. The reasons that are popularly cited are cultural considerations and the Turkic nature of the Kazakh language. Turkic languages such as Turkish and Uzbek use the Latin alphabet. However, the imposition of the Latin alphabet in Kazakhstan would involve massive costs of translation and replacement of the vast Kazakh literature.
|Date||English name||Local name||Notes|
|January 1||New Year's Day||Жаңа жыл / Новый Год|
|January 7||Eastern Orthodox Christmas||Рождество Христово||Not an official state holiday, but a day-off. New Year See also New Year The Ancient Romans began their consular year on January 1st since 153 BC New Year's Day is the first day of the Year. On the modern Gregorian calendar, it is celebrated on January 1, as it was also in ancient Rome (though Events 1325 - Alfonso IV becomes King of Portugal. 1558 - France takes Calais, the last continental|
|Last day of Hajj||Qurban Ait*||Құрбан айт|
|March 8||International Women's Day||Халықаралық әйелдер күні / Международный женский день|
|March 22||Nauryz Meyrami||Наурыз мейрамы||Traditionally a springtime holiday marking the beginning of a new year, sometimes as late as April 21. The Hajj (حج is a pilgrimage to Mecca (Makkah It is the largest annual pilgrimage in the world Events 1618 - Johannes Kepler discovers the third law of planetary motion. International Women's Day ( IWD) is marked on March 8 every year Events 238 - Gordian I and his son Gordian II are proclaimed Roman emperor. Nowrūz ( /noruz/ ↔, (English New Day various local pronunciations and spellings) is the traditional Iranian New year Holiday celebrated Events 753 BC - Romulus and Remus found Rome ( traditional date)|
|May 1||Kazakhstan People’s Unity Day||Қазақстан халқының бірлігі мерекесі / Праздник единства народа Казахстана|
|May 9||World War II Victory Day||Жеңіс күні / День Победы||A holiday in the former Soviet Union carried over to present-day Kazakhstan and other former republics. Events 305 - Diocletian and Maximian retire from the office of Roman Emperor. May Day occurs on May 1 and refers to any of several Public holidays In many countries May Day is synonymous with International Workers' Day, or Labour Events 1457 BC - Battle of Megiddo (15th century BC between Thutmose III and a large Canaanite coalition under the King of For the song see Den Pobedy In the Russian Federation and some Former USSR countries Victory Day marks the capitulation The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991|
|August 30||Constitution Day||Қазақстан Республикасының Конституциясы күні / День Конституции Республики Казахстан|
|October 25||Republic Day||Республика күні / День Республики|
|December 16||Independence Day||Тәуелсіздік күні / День независимости|
* Eid al-Adha, the Islamic Feast of the Sacrifice. Events 1363 - Beginning date of the Battle of Lake Poyang; the forces of two Chinese rebel leaders— Chen Youliang and Constitution Day is a Holiday to honor the Constitution of a country Events 1147 - The Portuguese, under Afonso I, and Crusaders from England and Flanders conquer Lisbon after a Republic Day is the name of a Public holiday in several countries to commemorate the day when they first became Republics January 9th in Republika Events 755 - An Lushan revolts against Chancellor Yang Guozhong at Fanyang, initiating the An Shi Rebellion An Independence Day is an annual celebration commemorating the Anniversary of a Nation 's assumption of independent Statehood, usually after ceasing Eid al-Adha ( Arabic: عيد الأضحى ‘Īd ul-’Aḍḥā, Urdu: بقرعید or the Festival of Sacrifice is a religious festival celebrated