|Part of the Indo-Pakistani Wars|
An Indian Bofors 155 mm howitzer field gun being repositioned for aiming at Pakistani positions during the war. The name Bofors has been associated with the Iron industry for more than 350 years A howitzer is a type of Artillery piece that is characterized by a relatively short barrel and the use of comparatively small explosive charges to propel projectiles A field gun is an Artillery piece Originally the term referred to smaller Guns that could accompany a field army on the march and when in combat could be
Islamic militants ("Foreign Fighters")
|Casualties and losses|
|Indian Official Figures:|
665+ soldiers wounded
8 POW. Kargil ( Hindi: कारगील; kərɡɪl is a district of Ladakh, Jammu and Kashmir, India. ( Dogri: जम्मू और कश्मीर Urdu: جموں و کشمیر is the northernmost state of India. The term status quo ante bellum comes from Latin meaning literally as things were before the war. India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country Pakistan () officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country located in South Asia, Southwest Asia, Middle East and Secession (derived from the Latin term secessio is the act of withdrawing from an organization union or especially a political entity 
The Kargil War, also known as the Kargil conflict,(I) was an armed conflict between India and Pakistan that took place between May and July 1999 in the Kargil district of Kashmir. War is an international relations Dispute, characterized by organized Violence between National Military units India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country Pakistan () officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country located in South Asia, Southwest Asia, Middle East and Kargil ( Hindi: कारगील; kərɡɪl is a district of Ladakh, Jammu and Kashmir, India. This article is about the geographical region of greater Kashmir The cause of the war was the infiltration of Pakistani soldiers and Kashmiri militants into positions on the Indian side of the Line of Control, which serves as the de facto border between the two states. For the British newspaper and Marxist organization see Militant tendency. Names Specifically the term "Line of Control" (LOC refers to the military control line between the Indian- and Pakistani-controlled parts of the former princely state During and directly after the war, Pakistan blamed the fighting entirely on independent Kashmiri insurgents, but documents left behind by casualties and later statements by Pakistan's Prime Minister and Chief of Army Staff showed involvement of Pakistani paramilitary forces. A casualty is a person who is the victim of an accident injury or trauma. The Prime Minister of Pakistan, in Urdu وزیر اعظم Wazir-e- Azam meaning "Grand Minister", is the Head of Government The Indian Army, supported by the Indian Air Force, attacked the Pakistani positions and, with international diplomatic support, eventually forced a Pakistani withdrawal across the Line of Control (LoC). The Indian Army (Bharatiya Thalsena भारतीय थाल्सेना is one of the armed forces of India and has the responsibility for land-based The Indian Air Force (Devanāgarī भारतीय वायु सेना IAST Bhartiya Vāyu Senā is the air arm of the Armed Forces of India and has the Diplomacy is the art and practice of conducting Negotiations between representatives of groups or states
The war is one of the most recent examples of high altitude warfare in mountainous terrain, and posed significant logistical problems for the combating sides. High altitude are regions on the Earth 's surface (or in its atmosphere) that are high above Mean sea level. Mountain warfare refers to warfare in the Mountains or similarly rough terrain Military Logistics is the art and science of planning and carrying out the movement and maintenance of military forces This was the first ground war between any two countries after they had developed nuclear weapons. Nations that are known or believed to possess Nuclear weapons are sometimes referred to as the nuclear club. (India and Pakistan both test-detonated fission devices in May 1998, though the first Indian nuclear test was conducted in 1974. Nuclear fission is the splitting of the nucleus of an atom into parts (lighter nuclei) often producing Free neutrons and other smaller nuclei which may The Smiling Buddha was the first nuclear test explosion by India on May 18, 1974 at Pokhran. ) The conflict led to heightened tension between the two nations and increased defence spending on the part of India. In Pakistan, the aftermath caused instability to the government and the economy, and, on October 12, 1999, a coup d'etat by the military placed army chief Pervez Musharraf in power. The Government of Pakistan ( Urdu: حکومتِ پاکستان uses a federal parliamentary system with a President as the Head of State and an indirectly-elected Pakistan is a nation with a diverse economy that include Textiles, Chemicals, Food processing, Agriculture and other industries Events 539 BC - The army of Cyrus the Great of Persia takes Babylon. Year 1999 ( MCMXCIX) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1999 Gregorian calendar) General (ret Pervez Musharraf ( (born 11 August 1943 NI(M, HI(M, TBt, is the former Military dictator and President of
Before the Partition of India in 1947, Kargil was part of Gilgit-Baltistan, a region of many diverse linguistic, ethnic and religious groups, due in part to the many isolated valleys separated by some of the world's highest mountains. The Partition of India was the partition of the British Indian Empire which led to the creation on August 14, 1947 and August 15, Year 1947 ( MCMXLVII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Kargil ( Hindi: कारगील; kərɡɪl is a district of Ladakh, Jammu and Kashmir, India. The Northern Areas ( Urdu:,) is officially referred to by the government of Pakistan as the Federally Administered Northern Areas (FANA The First Kashmir War (1947–48) resulted in most of the Kargil region remaining an Indian territory; then, after Pakistan's defeat in the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971, the remaining areas, including strategic military posts, also passed into Indian territory. The Indo-Pakistani War of 1947, sometimes known as the First Kashmir War, was fought between India and Pakistan over the region of Kashmir from The Indo-Pakistani War of 1971 was a major military conflict between India and Pakistan.  Notably, Kargil is the only district in the Ladakh subdivision that has a Muslim majority. A district is an administrative division of an Indian state or territory. Ladakh ( Ladakhi lad̪ɑks लदाख لدّاخ "land of high passes" is a region in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir between For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation. The town and district of Kargil is in what is now called Jammu and Kashmir. ( Dogri: जम्मू और कश्मीर Urdu: جموں و کشمیر is the northernmost state of India. The town lies on the Line of Control (LOC), the de facto border for the two nations, located 120 km (75 miles) from Srinagar, facing the Northern Areas. Srinagar ( Dogri: श्रीनगर Urdu: سرینگر Kashmiri: سِرېنَگَر श्रीनगर is the capital of the disputed state The Northern Areas ( Urdu:,) is officially referred to by the government of Pakistan as the Federally Administered Northern Areas (FANA Like other areas in the Himalayas, it has a temperate climate. Summers are cool with frigid nights, while winters are long and chilly with temperatures often dropping to −40 °C (−40 °F). A national highway connecting Srinagar to Leh cuts through Kargil. Leh ( was the capital of the Himalayan kingdom of Ladakh, now the Leh District in the state of Jammu and Kashmir, India
The area that witnessed the infiltration and fighting is a 160 km long stretch on the border of the LOC, overlooking a vital highway on the Indian side of Kashmir. Apart from the district capital, Kargil, the front line in the conflict encompassed the tiny town of Drass as well as the Batalik sector, Mushko Valley and other nearby areas along the de facto border. A front line is a line of confrontation in an Armed conflict, most commonly a War. In Geology, a valley (also called a vale, dale, glen or strath and near or in Appalachia, a draw) is Borders define geographic boundaries of political entities or legal jurisdictions such as Governments States or subnational administrative The military outposts on these ridges were generally around 5,000 metres (16,000 ft) high, with a few as high as 5,600 metres (18,000 ft). A ridge is a geological feature that features a continuous elevational crest for some distance One of the main reasons why Kargil was specifically targeted for incursions was its terrain lent itself to a pre-emptive seizure. Preemptive war (or a preemptive strike) is waged in an attempt to repel or defeat a perceived inevitable offensive or Invasion, or to gain a strategic advantage in With tactically vital features and well-prepared defensive posts atop the peaks, it provided an ideal high ground for a defender akin to a fortress. Fortifications are Military Constructions and Buildings designed for defense in Warfare Humans have constructed defensive works for Any attack to dislodge the enemy and reclaim high ground in a mountain warfare would require a far higher ratio of attackers to defenders, which is further exacerbated by the high altitude and freezing temperatures. Mountain warfare refers to warfare in the Mountains or similarly rough terrain Additionally, Kargil was just 173 km (108 mi) from the Pakistani controlled town of Skardu, which was capable of providing logistical and artillery support to the Pakistani combatants. Skardu ( Urdu: سکردو is the principal town of the region Baltistan and the capital of Skardu District, one of the districts making up Pakistan's A privileged combatant is a person who takes a direct part in the hostilities of an armed conflict within the Law of war and is someone who upon capture qualifies as a Prisoner All these tactical reasons, plus the Kargil district being a Muslim majority, were probably contributing factors to why Kargil was chosen as the location to attack.
After the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971, there had been a long period of relative calm among the two neighbours - notwithstanding India's preemptive assault and capture of most of Siachen Glacier and the resulting high altitute warfare in the 1980s. The Indo-Pakistani War of 1971 was a major military conflict between India and Pakistan. see Siachen conflict for the military conflict over this area The Siachen Glacier is located in the eastern Karakoram range in the Himalaya  But during the 1990s, escalating tensions and conflict with separatists in Kashmir as well as nuclear tests by both countries in 1998 changed the scenario. Low intensity conflict (LIC is the use of Military forces applied selectively and with restraint to enforce compliance with the policies or objectives of the political Violence in Kashmir has existed in various forms mainly in Jammu and Kashmir, the Indian side of the disputed territory Nuclear weapons tests are experiments carried out to determine the effectiveness yield and explosive capability of Nuclear weapons Throughout the twentieth century most nations Despite the belligerent atmosphere, both countries signed the Lahore Declaration in February 1999 to provide a peaceful and bilateral solution to the Kashmiri issue. The Lahore Declaration was a Bilateral agreement between India and Pakistan signed on February 21, 1999 by the then- Prime Minister This article is about the political term for the term as used in Biology, see symmetry (biology. However, elements in the Military of Pakistan covertly trained and sent troops and paramilitary forces, some allegedly in the guise of mujahideen, into the Indian territory. The Pakistan Armed Forces ( Urdu: پاک عسکری) are the overall unified military forces of Pakistan A paramilitary is a force whose function and organization are similar to those of a professional military force but which are not regarded as having the same status A Mujahid (Arabic ar مجاهد, literally "struggler" is a Muslim involved in a Jihad, id est fighting in a war or The aim was to sever the link between Kashmir and Ladakh, and cause Indian forces to withdraw from the Siachen Glacier, thus forcing India to negotiate a settlement of the broader Kashmir dispute. see Siachen conflict for the military conflict over this area The Siachen Glacier is located in the eastern Karakoram range in the Himalaya Pakistan also believed that any tension in the region would internationalise the Kashmir issue, helping it to secure a speedy resolution. Yet another goal may have been to boost the morale of the decade-long rebellion in Indian Administered Kashmir by taking a proactive role. Rebellion is a refusal of obedienceIt may therefore be seen as encompassing a range of Behaviours from Civil disobedience and mass Nonviolent resistance ( Dogri: जम्मू और कश्मीर Urdu: جموں و کشمیر is the northernmost state of India. Some writers have speculated that the operation's objective may also have been as a retaliation for India's Operation Meghdoot in 1984 that seized much of Siachen Glacier. Operation Meghdoot was the name given to the attack launched by the Indian Military to capture the Siachen Glacier in the disputed Kashmir region 
According to India's then army chief Ved Prakash Malik, and many other scholars, the infiltration was code named "Operation Badr", and much of the background planning, including construction of logistical supply routes, had been undertaken much earlier. The Chief of Army Staff of the Indian Army (COAS is the highest post in the Indian Army. A code name or cryptonym is a word or name used clandestinely to refer to another name or word On more than one occasion, the army had given past Pakistani leaders (namely Zia ul Haq and Benazir Bhutto) similar proposals for an infiltration in the Kargil region in the 1980s and 1990s. General Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq ( Arabic: محمد ضياء الحق) (b Benazir Bhutto ( Sindhi: بينظير ڀٽو Urdu: بینظیر بھٹو beːnəziːɾ bɦʊʈːoː (21 June 1953 &ndash 27 December 2007 was a However, the plans had been shelved for fear of drawing the nations into all-out war.  Some analysts believe that the blueprint of attack was reactivated when Pervez Musharraf was appointed chief of army staff in October 1998. In a disclosure made by Nawaz Sharif, the then Prime Minister of Pakistan, he states that he was unaware of the preparation of the intrusion, and it was an urgent phone call from Atal Bihari Vajpayee, his counterpart in India, that informed him about the situation. Mian Muhammad Nawaz Sharif also known as Nawaz Sharif ( Urdu:) (born December 25, 1949 in Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan Atal Bihari Vajpayee (अटल बिहारी वाजपेयी əʈəl bɪhaːɾiː ʋaːdʒpeiː (born December 25 1924 The eleventh Prime Minister of India.  Responding to this, Musharraf asserted that the Prime Minister had been briefed on the Kargil operation 15 days ahead of Vajpayee's journey to Lahore on February 20. ( lahor is the capital of the Pakistani province of Punjab and is the second largest city in Pakistan after Karachi. Events 1472 - Orkney and Shetland are left by Norway to Scotland, due to a Dowry payment  Sharif had attributed the plan to Musharraf and "just two or three of his cronies", a view shared by some Pakistani writers who have stated that, only four generals, including Musharraf, knew of the plan. For the record label see Crony Records Cronyism is partiality to long-standing friends especially by appointing them to positions of authority 
There were three major phases to the Kargil War. First, Pakistan captured several strategic high points in the Indian-controlled section of Kashmir. India responded by first capturing strategic transportation routes, then militarily pushing Pakistani forces back across the Line of Control.
Because of the extreme winter weather in Kashmir, it was common practice for the Indian and Pakistan Army to abandon forward posts and reoccupy them in the spring. That particular spring, the Pakistan Army reoccupied the forward posts before the scheduled time.
In early May 1999, the Pakistan Army decided to occupy the Kargil posts, numbering around 130, and thus control the area. The Pakistan Army ( Urdu:) is the largest branch of the Pakistan military, and is mainly responsible for protection of the state borders the security of administered Troops from the elite Special Services Group as well as four to seven battalions of the Northern Light Infantry (a paramilitary regiment not part of the regular Pakistani army at that time) backed by Kashmiri guerrillas and Afghan mercenaries covertly and overtly set up bases on the vantage points of the Indian-controlled region. Special Service Group (SSG is an independent Commando division of the Pakistan Army. A battalion is a Military unit of around 500-1500 men usually consisting of between two and seven companies and typically commanded by a Lieutenant Colonel The Northern Light Infantry ( NLI) is a Light Infantry Regiment of the Pakistan Army. Guerrilla warfare is the unconventional warfare and combat with which a small group of combatants use mobile tactics (ambushes raids etc Afghanistan /æfˈgænɪstæn/ officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan ( Pashto: د افغانستان اسلامي جمهوریت, A mercenary is a person who takes part in an armed conflict who is not a national or a party to the conflict and is "motivated to take part in the hostilities essentially by Initially, these incursions were not spotted due to the heavy artillery fire by Pakistan across the Line of Control, which provided cover for the infiltrators. Suppressive fire (also known as covering fire) is a term used in Military science for firing Weapons at or in the direction of enemy forces with the But by the second week of May, the ambushing of an Indian patrol team, acting on a tip-off by a local shepherd in the Batalik sector, led to the exposure of the infiltration. An ambush is a long-established military tactic, in which the aggressors (the ambushing force use Concealment to attack a passing enemy Initially with little knowledge of the nature or extent of the encroachment, the Indian troops in the area claimed that they would evict them within a few days. However, reports of infiltration elsewhere along the LoC made it clear that the entire plan of attack was on a much bigger scale. The total area seized by the ingress is generally accepted to between 130 km² - 200 km²; Musharraf however, stated that 500 square miles (1,300 km²) of Indian territory was occupied. 
The Government of India responded with Operation Vijay, a mobilisation of 200,000 Indian troops. In the 1999 Kargil Conflict between India and Pakistan, Operation Vijay (Victory in Hindi) was the name of the successful Indian operation to However, because of the nature of the terrain, division and corps operations could not be mounted; the scale of most fighting was at the regimental or battalion level. A division is a large Military unit or formation usually consisting of around ten to thirty thousand soldiers This article is about a military unit For alternative meanings see Corps (disambiguation. A regiment is a Military unit, composed of a variable number of Battalions – commanded by a Colonel. In effect, two divisions of the Indian Army, numbering 20,000, plus several thousand from the Paramilitary forces of India and the air force were deployed in the conflict zone. A division is a large Military unit or formation usually consisting of around ten to thirty thousand soldiers The Paramilitary forces of India are those agencies of the Ministry of Defence or the Ministry of Home Affairs which act as armed forces auxiliaries and are considered The total number of Indian soldiers that were involved in the military operation on the Kargil-Drass sector was thus close to 30,000. This article describes three distinct but related terms military operations Operations as military events and operational level of war The number of infiltrators, including those providing logistical backup, has been put at approximately 5,000 at the height of the conflict.  This figure includes troops from Pakistan-administered Kashmir that were involved in the war providing additional artillery support. The Azad State of Jammu and Kashmir, usually shortened to Azad Jammu and Kashmir ( AJK) or simply Azad Kashmir (literally "free
The terrain of Kashmir is mountainous and at high altitudes; even the best roads, such as National Highway No. 1 (NH 1) from Leh to Srinagar, are only two lanes. The rough terrain and narrow roads slowed traffic, and the high altitude, which affected the ability of aircraft to carry loads, made control of NH 1A (the actual stretch of the highway which was under Pakistani fire) a priority for India. From their observation posts, the Pakistani forces had a clear line of sight to lay down indirect artillery fire on NH 1A, inflicting heavy casualties on the Indians. An observation post, temporary or fixed is a position from which soldiers can watch enemy movements to warn of approaching soldiers (such as in Trench warfare In the context of warfare direct fire means aiming through a Sight directly at the target  This was a serious problem for the Indian Army as the highway was its main logistical and supply route. The Pakistani shelling of the arterial road posed the threat of Leh being cut off, though an alternative (and longer) road to Leh existed via Himachal Pradesh. An arterial road is a moderate or high-capacity Road which is immediately below a Highway Level of service. Himachal Pradesh ( Hindi: हिमाचल प्रदेश Punjabi: ਹਿਮਾਚਲ ਪ੍ਰਦੇਸ਼ pronounced) is a state in the
The infiltrators, apart from being equipped with small arms and grenade launchers, were also armed with mortars, artillery and anti-aircraft guns. Small arms is a term used by the Armed forces to refer to Infantry Weapons such as the Firearms that an individual soldier can carry A grenade launcher is a Weapon that launches a Grenade with more accuracy higher velocity and to greater distances than a soldier could throw it by hand A mortar is a muzzle-loading Indirect fire weapon that fires shells at low velocities short ranges and high-arcing ballistic trajectories Artillery (from French artillerie) is a military Combat Arm which employs any apparātus machine Anti-aircraft warfare, or air defense, is any method of engaging hostile military Aircraft in defence of ground objectives, ground or naval forces Many posts were also heavily mined, with India later recovering nearly 9,000 anti-personnel mines according to ICBL. A land mine is an Explosive device designed to be placed on or in the ground to explode when triggered by an operator or the Proximity of a vehicle person A land mine is an Explosive device designed to be placed on or in the ground to explode when triggered by an operator or the Proximity of a vehicle person The International Campaign to Ban Landmines is a coalition of Non-governmental organizations whose goal is to abolish the production and use of Anti-personnel mines Pakistan's reconnaissance was done through unmanned aerial vehicles and AN/TPQ-36 Firefinder radars supplied by the US. Reconnaissance (also scouting) is a military and medical term denoting exploration conducted to gain information An unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV is an unpiloted Aircraft. UAVs can be remote controlled or fly autonomously based on pre-programmed flight plans or more complex dynamic  The initial Indian attacks were aimed at controlling the hills overlooking NH 1A, with high priority being given to the stretches of the highway near the town of Kargil. The majority of posts along the Line of Control were adjacent to the highway, and therefore the recapture of nearly every infiltrated post increased both the territorial gains and the security of the highway. The protection of this route and the recapture of the forward posts were thus ongoing objectives throughout the war. Though most of the posts in the vicinity of the highway were cleared by mid-June, some parts of the highway near Drass witnessed sporadic shelling until the end of the war.
Once India regained control of the hills overlooking NH 1A, the Indian Army turned to driving the invading force back across the Line of Control, but elected not to pursue forces further into the Pakistani-controlled portion of Kashmir. The Azad State of Jammu and Kashmir, usually shortened to Azad Jammu and Kashmir ( AJK) or simply Azad Kashmir (literally "free The Battle of Tololing, among other assaults, slowly tilted the combat in India's favor. The Battle of Tololing was one of the pivotal battles in the Kargil War between India 's armed forces and troops from the Northern Light Infantry who were Nevertheless, some of the posts put up a stiff resistance, including Tiger Hill (Point 5140) that fell only later in the war. A few of the assaults occurred atop hitherto unheard of peaks – most of them unnamed with only Point numbers to differentiate them – which witnessed fierce hand to hand combat. Hand-to-hand combat (sometimes abbreviated as HTH or H2H is a generic term for Close quarters fighting, particularly when the outcome is potentially fatal as in Melee As the operation was fully underway, about 250 artillery guns were brought in to clear the infiltrators in the posts that were in the line of sight. The Bofors field howitzer (infamous in India due to the Bofors scandal) played a vital role, with Indian gunners making maximum use of the terrain that assisted such an attack. The name Bofors has been associated with the Iron industry for more than 350 years A howitzer is a type of Artillery piece that is characterized by a relatively short barrel and the use of comparatively small explosive charges to propel projectiles The Bofors scandal was a major corruption Scandal in India in the 1980s the then Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi and several Terrain, or relief, is the third or vertical dimension of land surface. However, its success was limited elsewhere due to the lack of space and depth to deploy the Bofors gun. It was in this type of terrain that aerial attacks were introduced. Air power redirects here for electrical and mechanical energy supplied by air movement see Wind power The Indian Air Force launched Operation Safed Sagar but was limited by the high altitude, which in turn limited bomb loads and the number of airstrips that could be used. The Indian Air Force (Devanāgarī भारतीय वायु सेना IAST Bhartiya Vāyu Senā is the air arm of the Armed Forces of India and has the Operation Safed Sagar was the Codename assigned to the Indian Air Force 's strike to support the Ground troops during Operation Vijay that was An airport is a location where Aircraft such as airplanes, Helicopters and blimps take off and land The IAF lost a MiG-27 strike aircraft which it attributed to an engine failure as well as a MiG-21 fighter which was shot down by Pakistan; Pakistan said it shot down both jets after they crossed into its territory and one Mi-8 helicopter to Stinger SAMs. WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout Ground-attack aircraft are military aircraft designed to attack targets on the ground and are often deployed as Close air support for and in proximity to their own ground forces A flameout refers to the failure of a Jet engine caused by the extinction of the flame in the Combustion chamber. WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout A fighter aircraft is a Military aircraft designed primarily for air-to-air combat with other Aircraft, as opposed to a Bomber, which is designed WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout History Since 400 AD Chinese children have played with bamboo flying toys. The FIM-92 Stinger is a personal portable Infrared homing Surface-to-air missile developed in the United States and used by all the U A surface to air missile ( SAM) or ground-to-air missile ( GTAM) is a Missile designed to be launched from the ground to destroy Aircraft During attacks the IAF used laser-guided bombs to destroy well-entrenched positions of the Pakistani forces. A laser-guided bomb (LGB is a Precision-guided munition (PGM that uses semi-active Laser homing to strike a designated target with greater accuracy than a free-fall It is estimated that in the war, nearly 700 intruders were killed by air action alone. 
In some vital points, neither artillery nor air power could dislodge the outposts manned by the Pakistan soldiers, who were out of visible range. The Indian Army mounted some direct frontal ground assaults which were slow and took a heavy toll given the steep ascent that had to be made on peaks as high as 18,000 feet (5,500 m). Since any daylight attack would be suicidal, all the advances had to be made under the cover of darkness, escalating the risk of freezing. Accounting for the wind chill factor, the temperatures were often as low as −11 °C to −15 °C (12 °F to 5 °F) near the mountain tops. This page is for the movie "Wind Chill" For the term see Wind chill. Based on military tactics, much of the costly frontal assaults by the Indians could have been avoided if the Indian Military had chosen to blockade the supply route of the opposing force, virtually creating a siege. Military tactics ( Greek: Taktikē, the art of organizing an army are the techniques for using weapons or military units in combination for engaging and defeating The Military tactic of frontal assault is a direct hostile movement of forces towards enemy forces in a large number in an attempt to overwhelm the enemy A blockade is any effort to prevent supplies Troops information or aid from reaching an opposing force Such a move would have involved the Indian troops crossing the LoC as well as initiating aerial attacks on Pakistan soil, a manoeuvre India was not willing to exercise fearing an expansion of the theatre of war and reducing international support for its cause. In Warfare a theater or theatre is defined as a specific geographical area of conduct of armed conflict bordered by areas where no combat is taking place
Meanwhile, the Indian Navy also readied itself for an attempted blockade of Pakistani ports (primarily Karachi port) to cut off supply routes. The Indian Navy is the naval branch of the armed forces of India. The Port of Karachi ( Urdu: بندر گاہ كراچى) is Pakistan 's largest and busiest seaport, handling  Later, the then-Prime Minister of Pakistan Nawaz Sharif disclosed that Pakistan was left with just six days of fuel to sustain itself if a full-fledged war had broken out. The Prime Minister of Pakistan, in Urdu وزیر اعظم Wazir-e- Azam meaning "Grand Minister", is the Head of Government  As Pakistan found itself entwined in a prickly position, the army had covertly planned a nuclear strike on India, the news of which alarmed U.S. President Bill Clinton, resulting in a stern warning to Nawaz Sharif. The President of the United States is the Head of state and Head of government of the United States and is the highest political official in United States by William Jefferson "Bill" Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III, August 19 1946 served as the forty-second President of the United States  Two months into the conflict, Indian troops had slowly retaken most of the ridges they had lost; according to official count, an estimated 75%–80% of the intruded area and nearly all high ground was back under Indian control. 
Following the Washington accord on July 4, where Sharif agreed to withdraw the Pakistan-backed troops, most of the fighting came to a gradual halt. Events 836 - Pactum Sicardi, peace between the Principality of Benevento and the Duchy of Naples In spite of this, some of the militants still holed up did not wish to retreat, and the United Jihad Council (an umbrella for all extremist groups) rejected Pakistan's plan for a climb-down, instead deciding to fight on. For other meanings see Withdrawal (disambiguation. A withdrawal is a type of Military operation, generally meaning retreating Also known as the Muttahida Jihad Council (MJC this is a group created in the summer of 1994 by Pakistan 's Inter Services Intelligence. Extremism is a term used to describe the actions or ideologies of individuals or groups outside the perceived political center of a society or otherwise claimed to violate  Following this, the Indian army launched its final attacks in the last week of July; as soon as the last of these Jihadists in the Drass subsector had been cleared, the fighting ceased on July 26. A Mujahid (Arabic ar مجاهد, literally "struggler" is a Muslim involved in a Jihad, id est fighting in a war or Events 657 - Battle of Siffin. 811 - Battle of Pliska; Byzantine Emperor Nicephorus The day has since been marked as Kargil Vijay Diwas (Kargil Victory Day) in India. By the end of the war, India had resumed control of all territory south and east of the Line of Control, as was established in July 1972 as per the Shimla Accord. The Simla Agreement was signed between India and Pakistan at 1240am on July 3, 1972.
Pakistan was criticised by other countries for allowing its paramilitary forces and insurgents to cross the Line of Control. An insurgency is a violent internal uprising against a sovereign government that lacks the organization of a revolution Names Specifically the term "Line of Control" (LOC refers to the military control line between the Indian- and Pakistani-controlled parts of the former princely state  Pakistan's primary diplomatic response, one of plausible deniability linking the incursion to what it officially termed as "Kashmiri freedom fighters", was in the end not successful. Plausible deniability refers to the denial of blame in loose and informal chains of command where upper rungs quarantine the blame to the lower rungs Freedom fighter is a term to describe those that engage in a struggle to achieve freedom for themselves or to free others in some matter Veteran analysts argued that the battle was fought at heights where only seasoned troops could survive, so poorly equipped freedom fighters would neither have the ability nor the wherewithal to seize land and defend it. Moreover, while the army had initially denied the involvement of its troops in the intrusion, two soldiers were awarded the Nishan-E-Haider (Pakistan's highest military honour). Nishan-e-Haider ( نشان حیدر, translated as "The Mark of Haider, where Haider is the name of Ali and means Lion " abbreviated Another 90 soldiers were also given gallantry awards, most of them posthumously, confirming Pakistan's role in the episode. A posthumous recognition is a ceremonial award given after the recipient has died usually in honor of an action associated with their death India also released taped phone conversations between the Army Chief and a senior Pakistani general where the latter is recorded saying: "the scruff of [the militants] necks is in our hands," although Pakistan dismissed it as a "total fabrication". Wiretap redirects here For the radio program see WireTap (radio program Telephone tapping (or wire tapping / wiretapping in Concurrently, Pakistan made several contradicting statements, confirming its role in Kargil, when it defended the incursions saying that the LOC itself was disputed.  Pakistan also attempted to internationalize the Kashmir issue, by linking the crisis in Kargil to the larger Kashmir conflict but, such a diplomatic stance found few backers on the world stage. The Kashmir conflict refers to the Territorial dispute between 
As the Indian counter-attacks picked up momentum, Pakistani prime minister Nawaz Sharif flew to meet U. S. president Bill Clinton on July 4 to obtain support from the United States. Events 836 - Pactum Sicardi, peace between the Principality of Benevento and the Duchy of Naples Clinton rebuked Sharif, however, and asked him to use his contacts to rein in the militants and withdraw Pakistani soldiers from Indian territory. Clinton would later reveal in his autobiography that "Sharif’s moves were perplexing" since the Indian prime minister had travelled to Lahore to promote bilateral talks aimed at resolving the Kashmir problem and "by crossing the Line of Control, Pakistan had wrecked the [bilateral] talks. My Life is a 2004 Autobiography written by former President of the United States Bill Clinton, who left office on January 20 " On the other hand, he applauded Indian restraint for not crossing the LoC and escalating the conflict into an all-out war.  The other G8 nations, too, supported India and condemned the Pakistani violation of the LoC at the Cologne summit. The European Union was also opposed to the violation of the LoC. The European Union ( EU) is a political and economic union of twenty-seven member states, located primarily in  China, a long-time ally of Pakistan, did not intervene in Pakistan's favour, insisting on a pullout of forces to the LoC and settling border issues peacefully. Talk People's Republic of China) PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA ARTICLE GUIDELINES Other organizations like the ASEAN Regional Forum too supported India's stand on the inviolability of the LOC. The Association of Southeast Asian Nations, commonly referred to as ASEAN, ˈɑːsiːɑːn AH-see-ahn in English (the Official language  Faced with growing international pressure, Sharif managed to pull back the remaining soldiers from Indian territory. The joint statement issued by Clinton and Sharif conveyed the need to respect the Line of Control and resume bilateral talks as the best forum to resolve all disputes. 
The Kargil War was significant for the impact and influence of the mass media in both nations, especially on the Indian side. "Popular press" redirects here note that the University of Wisconsin Press publishes under the imprint "The Popular Press" Coming at a time of exploding growth in electronic journalism in India, the Kargil news stories and war footage were often telecast live on TV, and many websites provided in-depth analysis of the war. See Electronic publishing) See Journalism; Electronic field production Electronic journalism - known as "EJ" or " A website (alternatively web site or Web site, a back-construction from the Proper noun World Wide Web) is a collection of Web pages The conflict became the first "live" war in South Asia that was given such detailed media coverage, often to the extent of drumming up jingoistic feelings. "Live TV" redirects here For the British TV station formerly known by this name see L!VE TV. "Popular press" redirects here note that the University of Wisconsin Press publishes under the imprint "The Popular Press" Jingoism is defined in the Oxford English Dictionary as "extreme Patriotism in the form of aggressive foreign policy" The conflict soon turned into a news propaganda war, with the official press briefings of both nations producing claims and counterclaims. News propaganda is Covert Propaganda packaged as credible News without transparency as to source and motivation It reached such a stage where an outside observer listening to both Indian as well as Pakistani coverage of this conflict, would wonder whether both sides were reporting on the same conflict. The Indian government placed a temporary news embargo on information from Pakistan, even banning the telecast of the state-run Pakistani channel PTV and blocked access to online editions of Dawn newspaper. In Journalism and Public relations, a news embargo or press embargo is a request by a source that the Information or News A government-owned corporation, state-owned enterprise or government business enterprise is a legal entity created by a Government to undertake commercial The Pakistan Television Corporation (abbreviated as PTV) ( Urdu: پاکستان ٹیلیوژن کارپوریشن) is Pakistan's national Television Dawn is Pakistan 's oldest best known and most widely-read English-language newspaper The Pakistani media played up this apparent curbing of freedom of the press in India, while the latter claimed it was in the interests of national security. Freedom Constitutional or statutory protections pertaining to freedom of the press National security is the entire scope of measures undertaken by the Governments of Nation-states in providing assurance of national Sovereignty Incidentally, one of the shells fired by Pakistan troops even hit a Doordarshan transmission centre in Kargil, although coverage continued. Doordarshan (दूरदर्शन literally Tele-Vision) is the public television broadcaster of India and a division of Prasar Bharati, a public 
As the war progressed, media coverage was more intense in India compared to Pakistan. Many Indian channels were showing images from the battle zone with their troops in a style reminiscent of CNN's coverage of the Gulf War. Cable News Network, usually referred to by its Initialism CNN, is a major English language Television network founded in 1980 by Ted Turner One of the reasons for India's increased coverage was the proliferation of numerous privately owned channels vis-à-vis the Pakistani electronic media scenario which was still at a nascent stage. Electronic media are media that utilize Electronics or Electromechanical energy for the End user ( Audience) to access the content Yet another was the relatively greater transparency in the Indian media. Media Transparency is the concept of determining how and why Information is conveyed through various means In fact, at a seminar in Karachi, Pakistani journalists agreed that while the Indian government had taken the press and the people into its confidence, this was missing on the Pakistan side. Seminar is generally a form of Academic instruction either at a University or offered by a commercial or professional organization (ڪراچي) is the largest city in Pakistan. It is the world's second largest city proper behind Mumbai in terms of population which exceeds 10 million  The Indian government also ran advertisements in foreign publications like The Times and The Washington Post detailing Pakistan's role in supporting extremists in Kashmir in an attempt to garner political support for its cause during the combat. Advertising is a form of Communication that typically attempts to persuade potential Customers to Purchase or to consume more of a particular Brand The Times is a daily national Newspaper published in the United Kingdom since 1785 when it was known as The Daily Universal Register. The Washington Post is the largest and most circulated Newspaper in Washington D The definitions of state-sponsored terrorism, Terrorism, and State terrorism are controversial The print media in India and abroad was largely sympathetic to the Indian cause, with editorials in newspapers based in the west and other neutral countries observing that Pakistan was largely responsible for the incursions. An editorial, leader (UK or leading article (UK is an article in a Newspaper or Magazine that expresses the opinion of the Editor A newspaper is a written Publication containing News, information and Advertising, usually printed on low-cost paper called Newsprint. Analysts believe that the power of the Indian media, which was both larger in number and assumed to be more credible, might have acted as a force multiplier for the Indian military operation in Kargil, and served as a morale booster. Force multiplication, in military usage refers to a combination of attributes or advantages which make a given force more effective than another force of comparable size Morale, also known as esprit de corps when discussing the morale of a group is an intangible term used for the capacity of people to maintain Belief in As the fighting intensified, the Pakistani version of events found little backing on the world stage. This helped India gain valuable diplomatic recognition for its position on the issue. Diplomatic recognition in international law is a unilateral political act with domestic and international legal consequences whereby a state acknowledges an act
One of the main concerns in the international community during the Kargil crisis was that both neighbours had access to weapons of mass destruction, and if the war intensified, it could have led to nuclear war. A weapon of mass destruction ( WMD) is a weapon which can kill large numbers of humans and/or cause great damage to man-made structures (e Both countries had tested their nuclear capability a year before in 1998; India conducted its first test in 1974 while it was Pakistan's first-ever nuclear test. Nuclear weapons tests are experiments carried out to determine the effectiveness yield and explosive capability of Nuclear weapons Throughout the twentieth century most nations Many pundits believed the tests to be an indication of the escalating stakes in the scenario in South Asia. A pundit is someone who offers to mass-media his/her opinion or commentary on a particular subject area (most typically political analysis, the Social sciences With the outbreak of clashes in Kashmir just a year after the nuclear tests, many nations took notice of the conflict and desired to end it.
The first hint of the possible use of a nuclear bomb was on May 31 when Pakistani foreign secretary Shamshad Ahmad made a statement warning that an escalation of the limited conflict could lead Pakistan to use "any weapon" in its arsenal. Events 1279 BC - Rameses II (The Great (19th dynasty becomes pharaoh of Ancient Egypt. A minister for foreign affairs, or foreign minister, is a governmental cabinet minister who helps form the Foreign policy of a sovereign nation An arsenal is an establishment for the construction repair storage and issue of Weapons and Ammunition.  This was immediately interpreted as an obvious threat of a nuclear retaliation by Pakistan in the event of an extended war, and the leader of Pakistan's senate noted, "The purpose of developing weapons becomes meaningless if they are not used when they are needed. The Senate of Pakistan is the Upper house of the Bicameral Parliament of Pakistan. " Many such ambiguous statements from officials of both countries were viewed as an impending nuclear crisis. The limited nuclear arsenals of both sides, paradoxically could have led to 'tactical' nuclear warfare in the belief that a nuclear strike would not have ended in total nuclear warfare with mutual assured destruction, as could have occurred between the United States and the USSR. Mutual assured destruction ( MAD; sometimes written as mutually assured destruction) is a Doctrine of military Strategy in which a full-scale The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 Some experts believe that following nuclear tests in 1998, Pakistani military was emboldened by its nuclear deterrent cover to markedly increase coercion against India. 
The nature of the India-Pakistan conflict took a more sinister proportion when the U. S. received intelligence that Pakistani nuclear warheads were being moved towards the border. Typically a warhead is the Explosive material and Detonator that is delivered by a Missile, Rocket, or Torpedo. Bill Clinton tried to dissuade Pakistan prime minister Nawaz Sharif from nuclear brinkmanship, even threatening Pakistan of dire consequences. Brinkmanship is the practice of pushing a dangerous situation to the verge of disaster in order to achieve the most advantageous outcome According to a White House official, Sharif seemed to be genuinely surprised by this supposed missile movement and responded that India was probably planning the same. See also Executive Office of the President of the United States The White House, formerly known as the Executive Mansion, is the Official residence This was later confirmed in an article in May 2000, which stated that India too had readied at least five nuclear-tipped ballistic missiles. A ballistic missile is a Missile that follows a Sub-orbital ballistic flightpath with the objective of delivering a warhead to a predetermined target  Sensing a deteriorating military scenario, diplomatic isolation, and the risks of a larger conventional and nuclear war, Sharif ordered the Pakistani army to vacate the Kargil heights. He later claimed in his official biography that General Pervez Musharraf had moved nuclear warheads without informing him. A biography (from the Greek words bíos (βίος meaning "life" and gráphein (γράφειν meaning "to write" is an account  Recently however, Pervez Musharraf revealed in his memoirs that Pakistan’s nuclear delivery system was not operational during the Kargil war; something that would have put Pakistan under serious disadvantage if the conflict went nuclear. for other uses see Memoir (disambiguation As a literary Genre, a memoir (from the French: mémoire
Additionally, the threat of WMD included a suspected use of chemical and even biological weapons. A weapon of mass destruction ( WMD) is a weapon which can kill large numbers of humans and/or cause great damage to man-made structures (e Chemical warfare involves using the toxic properties of Chemical substances to kill injure or incapacitate an enemy. Biological warfare (BW — known as a germ warfare, biological weapons and bioweaponry — is the use of any Pathogen ( Bacterium Pakistan accused India of using chemical weapons and incendiary weapons such as napalm against the Kashmiri fighters. Incendiary devices or incendiary bombs are Bombs designed to start Fires or destroy sensitive equipment using materials such as Napalm, Thermite Napalm is the name given to any of a number of Flammable Liquids used in Warfare often jellied Gasoline. India, on the other hand, showcased a cache of gas masks, among other firearms, as proof that Pakistan may have been prepared to use non-conventional weapons. A gas mask is a Mask worn over the face to protect the wearer from inhaling airborne Pollutants and Toxic materials A firearm is a Tool that projects either single or multiple Projectiles at high velocity through a controlled explosion One militant group even claimed to possess chemical weapons; this was later found to be a hoax, and even the gas masks were most likely intended by the Pakistanis as protection from an Indian attack. A hoax is a deliberate attempt to Dupe, Deceive or trick an audience into believing or accepting that something is real when in fact it is not or that The Pakistani allegations of India using banned chemicals in its bombs were proven to be unfounded by the U. S. administration at the time and the OPCW. The Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW is an international agency located in The Hague, The Netherlands. 
The aftermath of the war saw the rise of the Indian stock market by over 30%. The Bombay Stock Exchange Limited (मुंबई शेयर बाज़ार Mumbaī Śeyar Bājār) (formerly The Stock Exchange Mumbai; popularly called The next Indian national budget included major increases in military spending. The Union Budget of India, referred to as the Annual Financial Statement in the Constitution of India, is the annual budget of the Republic of India, presented From the end of the war until February 2000, the economy of India was bullish. The economy of India, measured in USD exchange-rate terms is the twelfth largest in the world with a GDP of around $1 trillion (2008 In Investing, Financial markets are commonly believed to have market trends that can be classified as primary trends secondary trends (short-term and secular trends There was a surge in patriotism, with many celebrities pitching in towards the Kargil cause. Patriotism is commonly defined as love of and/or devotion to one's country  Indians were also angered by the death of pilot Ajay Ahuja under controversial circumstances, and especially after Indian authorities reported that Ahuja had been murdered and his body mutilated by Pakistani troops. Squadron Leader Ajay Ahuja was a fighter pilot of the Indian Air Force whose tragic death under controversial circumstances in the 1999 Kargil War in Mutilation or maiming is an act or physical injury that degrades the appearance or function of the (human body usually without causing death The war had also produced higher than expected fatalities for the Indian military, with a sizeable percentage of them including newly commissioned officers. An officer is a member of an armed force who holds a position of authority One month later, the Atlantique Incident - where a Pakistan Navy plane was shot down by India - briefly reignited fears of a conflict between the two countries. The Atlantique Incident was an event in which a Pakistan Navy Breguet Atlantique patrol plane carrying 16 people on board was shot down by the Indian Air Force Pakistan Navy ( Urdu: پاک بحریہ) is the naval branch of the Military of Pakistan.
After the war, the Indian government severed ties with Pakistan and increased defence preparedness. Since the Kargil conflict, India raised its defence budget as it sought to acquire more state of the art equipment; however, a few irregularities came to light during this period of heightened military expenditure. A military budget of an entity most often a Nation or a State, is the Budget and financial resources dedicated to raising and maintaining  There was also severe criticism of the intelligence agencies like RAW, which failed to predict either the intrusions or the identity/number of infiltrators during the war. An intelligence agency is a governmental agency that is devoted to the Information gathering (known in the context as " intelligence " Research and Analysis Wing ( RAW or R&AW) is India 's external Intelligence agency. An internal assessment report by the armed forces, published in an Indian magazine, showed several other failings, including "a sense of complacency" and being "unprepared for a conventional war" on the presumption that nuclearism would sustain peace. Conventional warfare is a form of Warfare conducted by using conventional military weapons and battlefield tactics between two or more states in open confrontation Nuclearism is a Political philosophy, which advocates that Nuclear weapons and Nuclear power are key to the maintenance of National security and It also highlighted the lapses in command and control, the insufficient troop levels and the dearth of large-calibre guns like the Bofors. Command and control can be defined as the exercise of Authority and Direction by a properly designated Commander over assigned and attached Forces The term caliber or calibre designates the interior Diameter of a tube or the exterior diameter of a wire or rod  In 2006, retired Air Chief Marshal, A. Air Chief Marshal ( Air Chf Mshl or ACM) is a senior Air officer rank which originated in and continues to be used by the Royal Air Force (RAF Y. Tipnis, alleged that the Indian Army did not fully inform the government about the intrusions, adding that the army chief Ved Prakash Malik, was initially reluctant to use the full strike capability of the Indian Air Force, instead requesting only helicopter gunship support. An attack helicopter, also known as a Helicopter Gunship, is a Military helicopter armed for attacking targets on the ground  Soon after the conflict, India also decided to complete the project - previously stalled by Pakistan - to fence the entire LOC. 
The Kargil victory was followed by the 13th Indian General Elections to the Lok Sabha, which gave a decisive mandate to the NDA government. The Lok Sabha (also titled the House of the People, by the Constitution) is the directly elected Lower house of the Parliament of India In Politics, a mandate is the Authority granted by an Electorate to act as its representative. The National Democratic Alliance ( NDA) is a coalition of political parties in India. It was re-elected to power in September–October 1999 with a majority of 303 seats out of 545 in the Lok Sabha. The Lok Sabha (also titled the House of the People, by the Constitution) is the directly elected Lower house of the Parliament of India On the diplomatic front, the conflict was a major boost to Indo-U.S. relations, as the United States appreciated Indian attempts to restrict the conflict to a limited geographic area. These ties were further strengthened following the 9/11 attacks and a general shift in foreign policy of the two nations. Relations with Israel – which had discreetly aided India with ordnance supply and matériel such as unmanned aerial vehicles and laser-guided bombs, as well as satellite imagery – also were bolstered following the end of the conflict. Relations between Israel and Republic of India did not exist until 1992 but since then the two countries have developed relationships Materiel (from the French "matériel" for equipment or hardware related to the word Material) is a term used in English to refer to the An unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV is an unpiloted Aircraft. UAVs can be remote controlled or fly autonomously based on pre-programmed flight plans or more complex dynamic Satellite imagery consists of photographs of Earth or other planets made by means of Artificial satellites. 
Faced with the possibility of international isolation, the already fragile Pakistani economy was weakened further. Pakistan is a nation with a diverse economy that include Textiles, Chemicals, Food processing, Agriculture and other industries  The morale of its forces after the withdrawal was affected as many units of the Northern Light Infantry were destroyed, and the government refused to even recognise the dead bodies of its soldiers, an issue that provoked outrage and protests in the Northern Areas. The Northern Light Infantry ( NLI) is a Light Infantry Regiment of the Pakistan Army.  Pakistan initially did not acknowledge many of its casualties, but Sharif later said that over 4,000 Pakistani troops were killed in the operation and that Pakistan had lost the conflict. Responding to this, Pakistan President Pervez Musharraf said, "It hurts me when an ex-premier undermines his own forces," and claimed that Indian casualties were more than that of Pakistan. The President of Pakistan ( Urdū: صدر Sadr-e-Mumlikat) is the Head of state of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan. 
Many in Pakistan had expected a victory over the Indian military based on Pakistani official reports on the war, but were dismayed by the turn of events and questioned the eventual retreat. Organization and command structure The headquarters of the Indian Armed Forces is in New Delhi, the capital city.  The military leadership is believed to have felt let down by the prime minister's decision to withdraw the remaining fighters. For other meanings see Withdrawal (disambiguation. A withdrawal is a type of Military operation, generally meaning retreating However, some authors, including ex-CENTCOM Commander Anthony Zinni, and ex-PM Nawaz Sharif, state that it was the General who requested Sharif to withdraw the Pakistani troops. The United States Central Command ( USCENTCOM) is a theater -level Unified Combatant Command unit of the U Anthony Charles Zinni (born September 17 1943 is a retired four-star General in the United States Marine Corps and a former Commander in Chief of U  With Sharif placing the onus of the Kargil attacks squarely on the army chief Pervez Musharraf, there was an atmosphere of uneasiness between the two. On October 12, 1999, General Musharraf staged a bloodless coup d'état, ousting Nawaz Sharif. Events 539 BC - The army of Cyrus the Great of Persia takes Babylon. Year 1999 ( MCMXCIX) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1999 Gregorian calendar)
Benazir Bhutto, an opposition leader and former prime minister, called the Kargil War "Pakistan's greatest blunder". Many ex-officials of the military and the ISI (Pakistan's principal intelligence agency) also were of the view that "Kargil was a waste of time" and "could not have resulted in any advantage" on the larger issue of Kashmir. History After independence in 1947 two new intelligence agencies were created in Pakistan called the Intelligence Bureau (IB and Military Intelligence An intelligence agency is a governmental agency that is devoted to the Information gathering (known in the context as " intelligence "  A retired Pakistani Army General, Lt Gen Ali Kuli Khan, lambasted the war as "a disaster bigger than the East Pakistan tragedy", adding that the plan was "flawed in terms of its conception, tactical planning and execution" that ended in "sacrificing so many soldiers. Lieutenant General Ali Kuli Khan Khattak was a former Chief of General Staff (CGS Commander X Corps ( Rawalpindi) and Director General Military East Pakistan ( Bengali: পূর্ব পাকিস্তান Purbo Pakistan, Urdu: مشرقی پاکستان Mashriqi Pakistan) was ".  The Pakistani media too was vocal in its criticism of the whole plan and the eventual climbdown from the Kargil heights since there were no gains to show for the loss of lives and only resulted in international condemnation for its actions. 
Despite calls by many for a probe, no public commission of inquiry was set up to investigate the people responsible for initiating the conflict. However, the Pakistani political party, PML(N) unveiled a white paper in 2006, which states that Nawaz Sharif constituted an inquiry committee that recommended a court martial for General Pervez Musharraf. The Pakistan Muslim League (N ( Urdu: پاکستان مسلم لیگ ن) is a Political party in Pakistan. A white paper is an authoritative report or guide that often addresses problems and how to solve them A court-martial (plural courts-martial) is a Military court. These military courts can determine Punishments for members of the Military subject  The party alleges that Musharraf "stole the report" after toppling the government, to save himself. The report also claims that India knew about the plan 11 months before its launch, enabling a complete victory for India on military, diplomatic and economic fronts.  A statement in June, 2008 by a former army corps commander of Pakistan that Sharif "was never briefed by the army" on the Kargil attack, had reignited the demand for a proble on the episode by legal & political groups.  Though the Kargil conflict had brought the Kashmir dispute into international focus – which was one of the aims of Pakistan – it had done so in negative circumstances that eroded its credibility, since the infiltration came just after a peace process between the two countries was underway. The sanctity of the LoC too received international recognition.
After the war, a few changes were made to the army. In recognition of the Northern Light Infantry's performance in the war - which even drew praise from a retired Indian Lt. General - the regiment was incorporated into the regular army. The war showed that despite a tactically sound plan that had the element of surprise, little groundwork had been done to gauge the politico-diplomatic ramifications.  And like previous unsuccessful infiltrations attempts like Operation Gibraltar that sparked the 1965 war, there was little coordination or information sharing among the branches of the Pakistan military. Operation Gibraltar was the name given to the failed plan by Pakistan to infiltrate the disputed Jammu and Kashmir region in north-western India and The Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 was a culmination of Skirmishes that took place between April 1965 and September 1965 between India and Pakistan. The Pakistan Armed Forces ( Urdu: پاک عسکری) are the overall unified military forces of Pakistan One U. S. Intelligence study is reported to have stated that Kargil was yet another example of Pakistan’s (lack of) grand strategy, repeating the follies of the previous wars. Grand strategy is military Strategy at the level of movement and use of an entire Nation state or Empire 's resources  All these factors contributed to a strategic failure for Pakistan in Kargil.
The brief conflict has provided considerable material for both filmmakers and authors alike in India. Some documentaries which were shot on the subject were even used by the ruling party coalition, led by BJP, in furthering its election campaign that immediately followed the war. Documentary film is a broad category of visual expression that is based on the attempt in one fashion or another to " Document " reality A coalition is an alliance among individuals during which they cooperate in joint action, each in their own Self-interest. The Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP (भारतीय जनता पार्टी, Translation: Indian People's Party) founded in 1980 is a major Political A political campaign is an organized effort which seeks to influence the decision making process within a specific group The following is a list of the major films and dramas on the subject.
Many other movies like Tango Charlie also drew heavily upon the Kargil episode, which still continues to be a plot for mainstream movies with a Malayalam movie Keerthi Chakra, being based on an incident in Kargil. Tango Charlie is a 2005 Indian film directed by Mani Shankar. Mythos (Aristotle In literature the plot comprises all the events in a story particularly rendered towards the achievement of some particular Artistic or Emotional Not to be confused with the Malay language. Malayalam (മലയാളം malayāḷaṁ) is a Dravidian language used Kirthichakra ( 2006) is based on true events that took place in the Indo-pak border of Kashmir Ladakh Jammu and Kargil The impact of the war in the sporting arena was also visible during the India-Pakistan clash in the 1999 Cricket World Cup, which coincided with the Kargil timeline. The 1999 Cricket World Cup was hosted primarily by England, but Ireland, Wales, Scotland and the Netherlands also hosted some games Definition A chronology may be either relative &mdashthat is locating related events relative to each other&mdashor ''absolute'' &mdashlocating The game witnessed heightened passions and was one of the most viewed matches in the tournament.
Note (I): Names for the conflict: There have been various names for the conflict. During the actual fighting in Kargil, the Indian Government was careful not to use the term "war", calling it a "war-like situation", even though both nations indicated that they were in a "state of war". Terms like Kargil "conflict", Kargil "incident" or the official military assault, "Operation Vijay", were thus preferred. In the 1999 Kargil Conflict between India and Pakistan, Operation Vijay (Victory in Hindi) was the name of the successful Indian operation to After the end of the war however, the Indian Government increasingly called it the "Kargil War", even though there had been no official declaration of war. Other less popularly used names included "Third Kashmir War" and Pakistan's codename given to the infiltration: "Operation Badr".
Note (II): Casualties: The exact count of Pakistan army losses has been somewhat more difficult to figure out, partly because Pakistan has not yet published an official casualties list. The US Department of State had made an early, partial estimate of close to 700 fatalities. After the end of the war, this figure was revised upwards by scholars as well as authors. Estimates on Pakistan casualties vary wildly given the problems of assessing the number of deaths in the militant ranks. According to numbers stated by Nawaz Sharif there were 4,000+ fatalities. His party Pakistan Muslim League (N) in its "white paper" on the war mentioned that more than 3,000 Mujahideens, officers and soldiers were killed. The Pakistan Muslim League (N ( Urdu: پاکستان مسلم لیگ ن) is a Political party in Pakistan.  Another major Pakistani political party, the PPP, assesses the casualties to be three thousand soldiers and irregulars, as given on their website. The Pakistan Peoples Party ( PPP) (پاکستان پیپلز پارٹی is Centre-left Political party in Pakistan affiliated with Socialist Irregular military refers to any non-standard military Being defined by exclusion there is a lot of variance in what comes under the term Indian estimates, as stated by the country's Army Chief mention 1,042 Pakistani soldiers were killed Musharraf, in his hindi version of his memoirs, titled "Agnipath", differs from all the estimates stating that 357 troops were killed with a further 665 wounded. Hindi ( Devanāgarī: hi [[wiktहिन्दी हिन्दी]] or hi [[wiktहिंदी हिंदी]] IAST:, IPA:) is  Apart from General Musharraf's figure on the number of Pakistanis wounded, the number of people injured in the Pakistan camp is not yet fully known. One Indian Pilot was officially captured during the fighting, while there were eight Pakistani soldiers who were captured during the fighting, and were repatriated on 13 August 1999;