The Jyllands-Posten Muhammad cartoons controversy began after twelve editorial cartoons, most of which depicted the Islamic prophet Muhammad, were published in the Danish newspaper Jyllands-Posten on 30 September 2005. An editorial cartoon, also known as a political cartoon, is an illustration or Comic strip containing a political or Social message that usually IMPORTANT PLEASE READ ##### For all questions relating to the addition of (pbuh peace be upon him or other honorifics The Kingdom of Denmark ( ˈd̥ænmɑɡ̊ (archaic ˈd̥anmɑːɡ̊ commonly known as Denmark, is a country in the Scandinavian region of northern Europe ˈjylænsˌ pʰʌsd̥n̩ ( English: The Morning Newspaper "The Jutland Post") commonly shortened to Jyllands-Posten or JP Events 1399 - Henry IV is proclaimed King of England. 1744 - France and Spain defeat the Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The newspaper announced that this publication was an attempt to contribute to the debate regarding criticism of Islam and self-censorship. Arguments critical to religion in general or specific to monotheism such as the Existence of God, are not dealt with here Self-censorship is the act of censoring or classifying one's own work ( Blog, Book (s Film (s or other means of expression out
Danish Muslim organizations, who objected to the depictions, responded by holding public protests attempting to raise awareness of Jyllands-Posten's publication. The controversy deepened when further examples of the cartoons were reprinted in newspapers in more than fifty other countries. A controversy or dispute is a commencement of a conflict between statements of accepted fact and a new or unaccepted proposal that disagrees with argues against This is a list of Newspapers that have reprinted the Jyllands-Posten Muhammad cartoons or printed new cartoons depicting Muhammad in response to the controversy.
This led to protests across the Muslim world, some of which escalated into violence with police firing on the crowds (resulting in more than 100 deaths, altogether), including setting fire to the Danish Embassies in Syria, Lebanon and Iran, storming European buildings, and desecrating the Danish, Dutch, Norwegian and German flags in Gaza City. Flag desecration is a term applied to various acts that intentionally deface a Flag, most often a National flag (though other flags can be defaced as well The national flag of Denmark, Dannebrog, is red with a white Scandinavian cross that extends to the edges of the flag the vertical part of the The flag of Norway is red with an indigo blue Scandinavian cross outlined in white that extends to the edges of the flag the vertical part of the cross is shifted The flag of Germany is a Tricolour consisting of three equal horizontal bands displaying the national colours of Germany: Black, Gaza (غزة, עַזָּה ʕazzā is the largest city in the Gaza Strip and the Palestinian territories. While a number of Muslim leaders called for protesters to remain peaceful, other Muslim leaders across the globe, including Mahmoud al-Zahar of Hamas, issued death threats. Mahmud al-Zahar (محمود الزهار (born 1945 is a co-founder of Hamas and a member of the Hamas leadership in the Palestinian occupied Gaza Strip. Ḥamas (ar حركة حماس acronym ar حركة المقاومة  Various groups, primarily in the Western world, responded by endorsing the Danish policies, including "Buy Danish" campaigns and other displays of support. The term Western world, the West or the Occident ( Latin: occidens -sunset -west as distinct from the Orient) can have multiple meanings Danish Prime Minister Anders Fogh Rasmussen described the controversy as Denmark's worst international crisis since World War II. The Prime Minister of Denmark (statsminister is the Head of government in Danish politics. Anders Fogh Rasmussen (⁽ˈ⁾ɑnɐs foˀ ˈʀɑsmusn̩, informally known as Anders Fogh ( ˈfoːˀ ⁽ˈ⁾ɑnɐs ˈfɔʊ̯ˀ or simply Fogh, (born January The Kingdom of Denmark ( ˈd̥ænmɑɡ̊ (archaic ˈd̥anmɑːɡ̊ commonly known as Denmark, is a country in the Scandinavian region of northern Europe An international crisis is a Crisis between nations There are many definitions of an international crisis World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including 
Some critics of the cartoons described them as Islamophobic or racist, and argued that they are blasphemous to people of the Muslim faith, are intended to humiliate a Danish minority, or are a manifestation of ignorance about the history of Western imperialism. Islamophobia is a Neologism that refers to Prejudice or Discrimination against Islam or Muslims The term itself dates back to the List of racism-related topics|Racism by country Racism, by its simplest definition is the belief that race is the primary determinant of human traits and capacities and that Blasphemy is the disrespectful use of the name of one or more gods. Imperialism has two meanings one describing an action and the other describing an attitude The imperialism referred to dates from colonialism to the current conflicts in the Middle East. See Colony and Colonization for examples of colonialism which do not refer to Western colonialism There have been many conflicts in the Middle East since the time of the Ancient Near East up until Modern times. 
Supporters have said that the cartoons illustrated an important issue in a period of Islamic terrorism and that their publication is a legitimate exercise of the right of free speech, explicitly tied to the issue of self-censorship. Freedom of speech is the freedom to speak freely without Censorship or Limitation. They claim that Muslims were not targeted in a discriminatory way since unflattering cartoons about other religions are frequently printed. Unlike most discrimination policies discrimination between, which is the discernment of qualities and recognition of the differences focused here discrimination against is A religion is a set of Tenets and practices often centered upon specific Supernatural and moral claims about Reality, the Cosmos  They question whether some of the riots were spontaneous outpourings as they took place where no spontaneous demonstrations are allowed, and whether the images of Muhammad per se are offensive to Muslims, as thousands of illustrations of Muhammad have appeared in books by and for Muslims. 
Some of the cartoons can be difficult to fully understand for those without knowledge of certain Danish language metaphors or awareness of individuals of note to the Danish public. Below are descriptions explanations for Danish cultural references and Furthermore, certain cartoons have captions written in Danish, and one is written in Persian.
Events and reactions
Primary parties involved
On September 17, 2005, the Danish newspaper Politiken ran an article under the headline "Dyb angst for kritik af islam" ("Profound anxiety about criticism of Islam"). See also Jyllands-Posten Muhammad cartoons controversy This is the timeline of the Jyllands-Posten Muhammad cartoons controversy. See also Jyllands-Posten Muhammad cartoons controversy This is the timeline of the Jyllands-Posten Muhammad cartoons controversy. Below are descriptions explanations for Danish cultural references and The Akkari-Laban dossier (ملف عكّاري لبن is a 43 page document which was created by a group of Danish Muslim Clerics from multiple This is a list of Newspapers that have reprinted the Jyllands-Posten Muhammad cartoons or printed new cartoons depicting Muhammad in response to the controversy. The publication of satirical cartoons of the Islamic prophet Muhammad in the Danish newspaper Jyllands-Posten on September 30 Editors Wikipedia is not a venue for publishing *your* opinions Social consequences Andrea Santoro, an Italian Catholic Priest, was killed on February 5, 2006, in ˈjylænsˌ pʰʌsd̥n̩ ( English: The Morning Newspaper "The Jutland Post") commonly shortened to Jyllands-Posten or JP The Islamic Society in Denmark (Islamisk Trossamfund is a Muslim religious organisation in Denmark led by Ahmad Abu Laban, which has played a significant The Kingdom of Denmark ( ˈd̥ænmɑɡ̊ (archaic ˈd̥anmɑːɡ̊ commonly known as Denmark, is a country in the Scandinavian region of northern Europe The term Muslim world (or Islamic world) has several meanings Events 1176 - The Battle of Myriokephalon is fought 1462 - The Battle of Świecino (or Battle of Żarnowiec Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. This article is about the Danish paper Politiken For the Swedish paper Politiken see Folkets Dagblad Politiken. The article discussed the difficulty encountered by the writer Kåre Bluitgen, who was initially unable to find an illustrator who was prepared to work with Bluitgen on his children's book Koranen og profeten Muhammeds liv (English: The Qur'an and the life of the Prophet Muhammad ISBN 87-638-0049-7). Kåre Bluitgen (born May 10, 1959) is a Danish writer and journalist whose works include a biography of Muhammad. For the vector -based drawing program by Adobe Systems, see Adobe Illustrator. English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States The Qur’an ( القرآن, literally "the recitation" also sometimes transliterated as Qur’ān, Koran, Alcoran Three artists declined Bluitgen's proposal before one agreed to assist anonymously. According to Bluitgen:
One [artist declined], with reference to the murder in Amsterdam of the film director Theo van Gogh, while another [declined, citing the attack on] the lecturer at the Carsten Niebuhr Institute in Copenhagen. Theo van Gogh (ˈteːjoː vɑnˈxɔx ( July 23, 1957 – November 2, 2004) was a Dutch Film director, Television producer Carsten Niebuhr or Karsten Niebuhr ( March 17, 1733 &ndash April 26, 1815) was a German Mathematician, 
In October 2004, a lecturer at the Niebuhr institute at the University of Copenhagen had been assaulted by five assailants who opposed his reading of the Qur'an to non-Muslims during a lecture. The University of Copenhagen (Københavns Universitet is the oldest and largest University and research institution in Denmark. The Qur’an ( القرآن, literally "the recitation" also sometimes transliterated as Qur’ān, Koran, Alcoran 
The refusal of the first three artists to participate was seen as evidence of self-censorship and led to much debate in Denmark, with other examples for similar reasons soon emerging. Self-censorship is the act of censoring or classifying one's own work ( Blog, Book (s Film (s or other means of expression out Comedian Frank Hvam declared that he would (hypothetically) dare to urinate on the Bible on television, but not on the Qur'an. Frank Hvam (born September 12, 1970) is a Danish stand-up-comedian.  The translators of an essay collection critical of Islam also wished to remain anonymous due to concerns about violent reprisals.
On September 30, 2005, the daily newspaper Jyllands-Posten ("The Jutland Post") published an article entitled "Muhammeds ansigt" ("The face of Muhammad"). Events 1399 - Henry IV is proclaimed King of England. 1744 - France and Spain defeat the Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. A newspaper is a written Publication containing News, information and Advertising, usually printed on low-cost paper called Newsprint. This article is about the region of Denmark. For the World War I naval battle see Battle of Jutland. The article consisted of twelve cartoons (of which only some depicted Muhammad) and an explanatory text, in which Flemming Rose, Jyllands-Posten's culture editor, commented:
The modern, secular society is rejected by some Muslims. Flemming Rose (born March 11 1958) is a Danish journalist author and the current cultural editor at the Danish newspaper Secularism is generally the assertion that governmental practices or institutions should exist separately from Religion or religious beliefs They demand a special position, insisting on special consideration of their own religious feelings. It is incompatible with contemporary democracy and freedom of speech, where you must be ready to put up with insults, mockery and ridicule. It is certainly not always attractive and nice to look at, and it does not mean that religious feelings should be made fun of at any price, but that is of minor importance in the present context. [. . . ] we are on our way to a slippery slope where no-one can tell how the self-censorship will end. That is why Morgenavisen Jyllands-Posten has invited members of the Danish editorial cartoonists union to draw Muhammad as they see him. [. . . ]
After the invitation from Jyllands-Posten to around forty different artists to give their interpretation of Muhammad, twelve caricaturists chose to respond with a drawing each. A caricaturist is an artist who specializes in drawing Caricatures List of caricaturists Oguz Aral (1936-2004 William Auerback-Levy Many also commented on the surrounding self-censorship debate. Three of these twelve cartoons were illustrated by Jyllands-Posten's own staff, including the "bomb in turban" and "niqābs" cartoons. A niqāb ( Arabic: نِقاب) is a Veil which covers the face worn by some Muslim women as a part of sartorial hijāb.
On February 19, Rose explained his intent further In the Washington Post:
The cartoonists treated Islam the same way they treat Christianity, Buddhism, Hinduism and other religions. Events 197 - Roman Emperor Septimius Severus defeats usurper Clodius Albinus in the Battle of Lugdunum And by treating Muslims in Denmark as equals they made a point: We are integrating you into the Danish tradition of satire because you are part of our society, not strangers. The cartoons are including, rather than excluding, Muslims.
In October 2005, the Danish daily Politiken polled thirty-one of the forty-three members of the Danish cartoonist association. This article is about the Danish paper Politiken For the Swedish paper Politiken see Folkets Dagblad Politiken. Twenty-three said they would be willing to draw Muhammad. One had doubts, one would not be willing because of fear of possible reprisals and six cartoonists would not be willing because they respected the Muslim ban on depicting Muhammad. 
Part of a series on
|Notable contemporary critics|
|Events since 2001|
September 11, 2001 attacks
Having received petitions from Danish imams, eleven ambassadors from Muslim-majority countries asked for a meeting with Danish Prime Minister Anders Fogh Rasmussen in 12 October 2005, in order to discuss what they perceived as an "on-going smearing campaign in Danish public circles and media against Islam and Muslims". This article lists various controversies related to Islam and Muslims. Arguments critical to religion in general or specific to monotheism such as the Existence of God, are not dealt with here Criticism of Muhammad has existed since the 7th century when Muhammad was attacked by his non-Muslim Arab contemporaries for preaching Monotheism, Muslims believe that the Qur'an is the literal word of God as recited to Muhammad through the angel Gabriel. See also Islamism This article is about criticism of the Islamic political and religious movement known as Islamism Criticism of Islamism A dhimmi ( ذمي, collectively أهل الذمة, ahl al-dhimma, the people of the dhimma or pact of protection Ottoman Turkish Eurabia is a political Neologism used to refer to a Europe which allies itself to and becomes subsumed by the Arab World. See also Islam and Judaism Islam and antisemitism looks at the teaching of Islam relating to Jews and Judaism and the attitudes of the The relationship between Islam and domestic violence is disputed Islamism ( Islam + ism; Arabic: al-'islāmiyya) a set of ideologies holding that Islam is not only Islamophobia is a Neologism that refers to Prejudice or Discrimination against Islam or Muslims The term itself dates back to the Jihad (جهاد ʤɪhæːd an Islamic term, is a religious duty of Muslims. Persecution of Muslims refers to the Religious persecution inflicted upon Muslims Persecution may refer to beating torture confiscation or destruction Qutbism (also Kotebism Qutbiyya or Qutbiyyah is the radical strain of Islamist ideology and activism based on the thought and writings of Sayyid Qutb, an Islamist The Satanic Verses controversy refers to the controversy surrounding Salman Rushdie 's novel The Satanic Ayaan Hirsi Ali ( Ayaan Xirsi Cali; born Ayaan Hirsi Magan 13 November 1969 in Mogadishu, Somalia) is a Dutch Irshad Manji (born 1968 is a Canadian Feminist, Author, journalist, activist and professor of leadership Daniel Pipes (born September 9 1949 is a American historian and political commentator who particularly focuses on the Middle East and Islam. Ibn Warraq (born 1946 is the Pen name of a Secularist author of Pakistani origin and founder of the Institute for the Secularisation of Islamic Society Philippe de Villiers (born Viscount Philippe Le Jolis de Villiers de Saintignon on March 25, 1949) was the Mouvement pour la France Geert Wilders ('xert 'ʋildərs 'ʋildəʁs}} born 6 September 1963) is a Dutch Politician. Robert Bruce Spencer (born 1962 is an American author who writes articles and books relating to Islam and Islamic terrorism. Theo van Gogh (ˈteːjoː vɑnˈxɔx ( July 23, 1957 – November 2, 2004) was a Dutch Film director, Television producer Afshin Ellian (born 27 February, 1966 in Tehran, Iran) is a Dutch professor of law, Philosopher, and Poet Not to be confused with the pseudonym of L Frank Baum Hugh Fitzgerald is the vice-president of Jihad Watch. Susanne Winter is a lawyer and politician for the right-wing Freedom Party of Austria in the southern Austrian city of Graz. Moazzam Begg (born 1968 is one of nine British Muslims who were held in Extrajudicial detention in the Guantanamo Bay detainment camp, in Osama bin Laden, with some spelling variations is the name used in English to refer to (أسامة بن محمد بن عوض بن لادن born 10 March The War in Afghanistan, which began on October 7 2001 as the U The Guantanamo Bay Detention Camp is a controversial United States Detention center operated by Joint Task Force Guantanamo since 2002 in Guantanamo March 11, 2002 Mecca girl's schools fire killed at least fourteen students but was especially notable for complaints made that Saudi Arabia's religious police stopped The Iraq War, also known as the Second Gulf War, the Occupation of Iraq, or the War in Iraq, is an ongoing Military campaign The Qur'an desecration controversy of 2005 began when Newsweek's April 30 issue contained a report about U On October 30, 2005, Theresia Morangke (15 Alfita Poliwo (17 and Yarni Sambue (17 were beheaded by militants in the Poso region on the Indonesian island Fox News Channel journalists Olaf Wiig, a New Zealander Photojournalist, and Steve Centanni, an American reporter Beginning in 2004 accounts of Abuse, Torture, Sodomy and Homicide of Prisoners held in the Abu Ghraib prison in Iraq The Egyptian identification card controversy resulted from a ruling of the Supreme Administrative Council of Egypt on December 16, 2006 against the The Flying Imams controversy (sometimes humorously referred to as sheiks on a plane, a reference to the movie Snakes on a Plane) is a controversy concerning The In mid-June 2007 Salman Rushdie, British - Indian novelist and author of controversial novel The Satanic Verses, was bestowed the honour of being The Pope Benedict XVI Islam controversy arose from a lecture delivered on 12 September 2006 by Pope Benedict XVI at the University of Regensburg The Lars Vilks Muhammad drawings controversy began in July 2007 with a series of Drawings by Swedish artist Lars Vilks which depicted the Fitna is a 2008 short film by Dutch parliamentarian Geert Wilders. Anders Fogh Rasmussen (⁽ˈ⁾ɑnɐs foˀ ˈʀɑsmusn̩, informally known as Anders Fogh ( ˈfoːˀ ⁽ˈ⁾ɑnɐs ˈfɔʊ̯ˀ or simply Fogh, (born January Events 539 BC - The army of Cyrus the Great of Persia takes Babylon. Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. In a letter, the ambassadors mentioned not only the issue of the Muhammad cartoons, but also a recent indictment against Radio Holger, and statements by MP Louise Frevert and the Minister of Culture, Brian Mikkelsen. Radio Holger is a Danish radio station transmitting in Metropolitan Copenhagen. Louise Frevert (born May 31, 1953) is a former member of the Danish parliament, born in Frederiksberg. Brian Arthur Mikkelsen (born 31 January 1966) is a Danish politician  It concluded:
We deplore these statements and publications and urge Your Excellency’s government to take all those responsible to task under law of the land in the interest of inter-faith harmony, better integration and Denmark's overall relations with the Muslim world.
The government answered the ambassadors' request for a meeting with Rasmussen with a letter only: "The freedom of expression has a wide scope and the Danish government has no means of influencing the press. The Politics of Denmark takes place in a framework of a parliamentary, Representative democratic, Constitutional monarchy, in which the However, Danish legislation prohibits acts or expressions of blasphemous or discriminatory nature. The offended party may bring such acts or expressions to court, and it is for the courts to decide in individual cases. "
The ambassadors maintained that they had never asked for Jyllands-Posten to be prosecuted; possibly, the non-technical phrase of the letter, "to take NN to task under law", meant something like "to hold NN responsible within the limits of the law".  Rasmussen replied: "Even a non-judicial intervention against Jyllands-Posten would be impossible within our system". 
The Egyptian Minister of Foreign Affairs, Aboul Gheit, wrote several letters to the Prime Minister of Denmark and to the United Nations Secretary-General explaining that they did not want the Prime Minister to prosecute Jyllands-Posten; they only wanted "an official Danish statement underlining the need for and the obligation of respecting all religions and desisting from offending their devotees to prevent an escalation which would have serious and far-reaching consequences". A minister for foreign affairs, or foreign minister, is a governmental cabinet minister who helps form the Foreign policy of a sovereign nation The Secretary-General of the United Nations is the head of the Secretariat, one of the principal organs of the United Nations.  Subsequently, the Egyptian government played a leading role in defusing the issue in the Middle East. 
The refusal to meet the ambassadors has been criticized by the Danish political opposition, twenty-two Danish ex-ambassadors, and former Minister of Foreign Affairs, Uffe Ellemann-Jensen. In Politics, the opposition comprises one or more political parties or other organized groups that are opposed to the Government, party or group Uffe Ellemann-Jensen ɛləmæn ˈjɛnsn̩ informal ˈɛləˌmænˀ (born 1941 was Minister for Foreign Affairs of Denmark in the Conservative led Poul Schlüter 
On October 27, 2005, a number of Muslim organizations filed a complaint with the Danish police claiming that Jyllands-Posten had committed an offence under section 140 and 266b of the Danish Criminal Code. Events 312 - Constantine the Great is said to have received his famous Vision of the Cross. Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Danish penalty law ( Straffeloven) is the codification of the central legal text and constitutes the foundation of the Kingdom of Denmark 's criminal law 
On 6 January 2006, the Regional Public Prosecutor in Viborg discontinued the investigation as he found no basis for concluding that the cartoons constituted a criminal offence. Events 1066 - Harold Godwinson is crowned King of England. 1205 - Philip of Swabia becomes King Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. The prosecutor is the chief legal representative of the prosecution in countries with either the Common law Adversarial system, or the civil law Viborg, is a town located in central Jutland, Denmark. It is the seat of both Viborg municipality and Region Midtjylland. In the sociological field, crime is the breach of a rule or Law for which some governing authority or force may ultimately prescribe a Punishment His reason is based on his finding that the article concerns a subject of public interest and, further, on Danish case law which extends editorial freedom to journalists when it comes to a subject of public interest. The public interest refers to the "common well-being" or "general welfare Case law' (also known as decisional law or judicial precedent) is that body of reported Judicial opinions in countries that have Common law He stated that, in assessing what constitutes an offence, the right to freedom of speech must be taken into consideration. He stated that the right to freedom of speech must be exercised with the necessary respect for other human rights, including the right to protection against discrimination, insult and degradation, but no apparent violation of the law had occurred. Human rights refers to the "basic Rights and freedoms to which all humans are entitled  In a new hearing, the Director of Public Prosecutors in Denmark agreed. 
Two imams who had been granted sanctuary in Denmark, dissatisfied with the reaction of the Danish Government and Jyllands-Posten, created a forty-three-page document entitled "Dossier about championing the prophet Muhammad peace be upon him. The Akkari-Laban dossier (ملف عكّاري لبن is a 43 page document which was created by a group of Danish Muslim Clerics from multiple An imam (إمام plural ائمة A'immah, امام is an Islamic leader often the leader of a Mosque and/or community " This consisted of several letters from Muslim organisations explaining their case including allegations of the mistreatment of Danish Muslims, citing the Jyllands-Posten cartoons (including the false claim that said publication was a government-run newspaper) and also supplementing the following causes of "pain and torment" for the authors:
Appended to the dossier were multiple clippings from Jyllands-Posten, multiple clippings from Weekendavisen, some clippings from Arabic-language papers and three additional images which also had no connection with Denmark.
The imams claimed that the three additional images were sent anonymously by mail to Muslims who were participating in an online debate on Jyllands-Posten, and were apparently included to illustrate the perceived atmosphere of Islamophobia in which they lived.  On February 1 BBC World incorrectly reported that one of them had been published in Jyllands-Posten. Events 1327 - Teenaged Edward III is crowned King of England, but the country is ruled by his mother Queen  This image was later found to be a wire-service photo of a contestant at a French pig-squealing contest.  One of the other two additional images (a photo) portrayed a Muslim being mounted by a dog while praying, and the other (a cartoon) portrayed Muhammad as a demonic paedophile. Equipped with the dossier, the two imams circulated it throughout the Muslim world, presenting their case to many influential religious and political leaders, asking for support. A politician (from Greek " Polis " is an individual who is involved in influencing public decision making through the influence of Politics or a person 
The dossier contained such statements as the following:
The inclusion in the dossier of the cartoons from Weekendavisen was possibly a misunderstanding, as these were more likely intended as parodies of the pompousness of Jyllands-Posten's cartoons than as comments on Muhammad in their own right.  They consist of reproductions of works such as the Mona Lisa (caption: For centuries, a previously unknown society has known that this is a painting of the Prophet, and guarded this secret. Mona Lisa (also known as La Gioconda) is a 16th century portrait painted in oil on a Poplar panel by The back page's anonymous artist is doing everything he can to reveal this secret in his contribution. He has since then been forced to go underground, fearing for the wrath of a crazy albino imam). This is an obvious parody of the Da Vinci Code. The Da Vinci Code is a controversial mystery / detective Novel by US author Dan Brown, published in 2003 by Doubleday
At a 6 December 2005 summit of the Organisation of the Islamic Conference, with many heads of state in attendance, the dossier was handed around on the sidelines first, and eventually an official communiqué was issued, demanding that the United Nations impose international sanctions upon Denmark. Events 1060 - Béla I of Hungary is crowned king of Hungary 1240 - Mongol invasion of Rus: Kiev Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC is an International organization with a permanent delegation to the United Nations. Head of state is the generic term for the individual or collective office that serves as the chief public representative of a Monarchic or Republican Nation-state The United Nations ( UN) is an International organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in International law, International security International sanctions are actions taken by Countries against others for political reasons either Unilaterally or Multilaterally. 
In response to protests from Muslim groups, Jyllands-Posten published two open letters on its website, each of them in a Danish and an Arabic version. Danish ( d̥ænsɡ̊ is one of the North Germanic languages (also called Scandinavian languages a sub-group of the Germanic branch of the Arabic (ar الْعَرَبيّة (informally ar عَرَبيْ) in terms of the number of speakers is the largest living member of the Semitic language  The second letter, dated 30 January 2006, also has an English version:
In our opinion, the 12 drawings were sober. Events 1648 - Eighty Years' War: The Treaty of Münster is signed ending the conflict between the Netherlands and Spain Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States They were not intended to be offensive, nor were they at variance with Danish law, but they have indisputably offended many Muslims for which we apologize.
On February 26, the cartoonist who had drawn the "bomb in turban" picture, the most controversial of the twelve, explained:
There are interpretations of it [the drawing] that are incorrect. Events 747 BC - Epoch (origin of Ptolemy 's Nabonassar Era 364 - Valentinian I is proclaimed The general impression among Muslims is that it is about Islam as a whole. It is not. It is about certain fundamentalist aspects, that of course are not shared by everyone. But the fuel for the terrorists’ acts stem from interpretations of Islam. [. . . ] if parts of a religion develop in a totalitarian and aggressive direction, then I think you have to protest. We did so under the other 'isms.
In 2005, the Muhammad cartoons controversy received only minor media attention outside of Denmark. This is a list of Newspapers that have reprinted the Jyllands-Posten Muhammad cartoons or printed new cartoons depicting Muhammad in response to the controversy. Six of the cartoons were first reprinted by the Egyptian newspaper El Fagr on October 17, 2005, along with an article strongly denouncing them, but publication did not provoke any condemnations or other reactions from religious or government authorities. El Fagr (also Al Fagr, Al Fager, or classical Arabic al-Fajr الفجر "The dawn" is an Egyptian independent newsweekly Events 539 BC - King Cyrus The Great of Persia marches into the city of Babylon, releasing the Jews from almost Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Between October 2005 and the end of January 2006, examples of the cartoons were reprinted in major European newspapers from the Netherlands, Germany, Scandinavia, Belgium and France. The Netherlands ( Dutch:, ˈnedərlɑnt is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which consists of the Netherlands the Netherlands Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. Terminology and usage As a cultural term "Scandinavia" has no official definition and is subject to usage by those who identify with the culture in question as well The Kingdom of Belgium is a Country in northwest Europe. It is a founding member of the European Union and hosts its headquarters as well as those This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Very soon after, as protests grew, there were further re-publications around the globe, but primarily in continental Europe. Continental Europe, also referred to as mainland Europe or simply the Continent, is the Continent of Europe, explicitly excluding European
Notable for a lack of republication of the cartoons were most major newspapers in Canada, the USA and the United Kingdom, where editorials covered the story without including them. Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Several newspapers were closed and editors fired or arrested for their decision or intention to re-publish the cartoons, including the shutting down of a 60 year old Malaysian newspaper permanently. This is a list of Newspapers that have reprinted the Jyllands-Posten Muhammad cartoons or printed new cartoons depicting Muhammad in response to the controversy. The Sarawak Tribune was an English-language Malaysian Newspaper published in Kuching, Sibu and Bintulu, in
A consumer boycott was organised in Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, and other Middle East countries. Social consequences Andrea Santoro, an Italian Catholic Priest, was killed on February 5, 2006, in A boycott is a form of Consumer activism involving the act of voluntarily abstaining from using buying or dealing with someone or some other organization as an expression of The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, KSA ( المملكة العربية السعودية, al-Mamlaka al-ʻArabiyya as-Suʻūdiyya) or Suudi The State of Kuwait ( دولة الكويت IPA [dawlatt̪ alkuwajt̪]) is a sovereign Arab Emirate on the coast of the Persian Gulf, enclosed  For weeks, numerous demonstrations and other protests against the cartoons took place worldwide. Rumours spread via SMS and word-of-mouth. Short Message Service ( SMS) is a Communications protocol allowing the interchange of short text messages between mobile telephone devices. Word of mouth, is a reference to the passing of Information by verbal means especially recommendations but also general information in an informal person-to-person  On February 4, 2006, the Danish and Norwegian embassies in Syria were set ablaze, although with no injuries. Events 211 - Roman Emperor Septimius Severus dies leaving the Roman Empire in the hands of his two quarrelsome sons Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. Norway ( Norwegian: Norge ( Bokmål) or Noreg ( Nynorsk) officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a Constitutional Syria ( سوريّة or) officially the Syrian Arab Republic (Arabic ar الجمهورية العربية السورية In Beirut, the Danish Embassy was set on fire, leaving one protester dead. Beirut (بيروت Bayrūt) is the Capital and Largest city of Lebanon with a population of over 2 A diplomatic mission is a group of people from one State or an international Inter-governmental organization (such as the United Nations) present in  The Danish embassy in Teheran was also torched. Tehran (or Teheran) ( Persian: تهران Tehrān) is the capital and largest City of Iran, and the administrative center of  Altogether, at least 139 people were killed in protests, most due to police firing on the crowds, mainly in Nigeria, Libya, Pakistan and Afghanistan.
Several death threats and reward offers for killing those responsible for the cartoons were made, resulting in the cartoonists going into hiding. A death threat is a threat, often made anonymously, against a person to kill him or her  Four ministers have resigned amidst the controversy, among them Roberto Calderoli and Laila Freivalds. Roberto Calderoli (born 18 April 1956) is an Italian politician a member of the Senate of Italy Laila Ligita Freivalds (born June 22, 1942) is a Latvian born Swedish Social Democratic politician and a former Swedish  In India, Haji Yaqoob Qureishi, a minister in the Uttar Pradesh state government, announced in February 2006 a cash reward of Rs 51 crore (roughly about US$11 million) for anyone who beheads "the Danish cartoonist" who caricatured Prophet Mohammad. India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country Uttar Pradesh (उत्तर प्रदेश اتر پردیش pronounced, Translation: Northern Province) referred to as '''U Stories without links will be removed. News stories must be in English  Subsequently, a case was filed against Haji Yaqoob Qureishi in the Lucknow district court in Uttar Pradesh and demands were made for his dismissal by eminent Muslim scholars in New Delhi. Lucknow is also a mansion in New Hampshire Lucknow ( लखनऊ لکھنؤ Lakhnaū) is the capital city of Uttar Pradesh New Delhi (नई दिल्ली ਨਵੀਂ ਦਿੱਲੀ نئی دلی is the Capital city of India.  Condoleezza Rice, Secretary of State of the United States accused Iran and Syria of organizing many of the recent protests in Iran, Syria and Lebanon. Condoleezza Rice (born November 14 1954 is the 66th United States The United States Secretary of State (commonly abbreviated as SecState) is the head of the United States Department of State, concerned with Foreign affairs Government-organized demonstrations or state demonstrations are demonstrations which are organized by the government of that nation 
The Western media dubbed the series of demonstrations organized in February 2006 by certain Middle Eastern governments and radical clerics as the "Cartoon Intifada". 
On September 9, 2006, the BBC News reported that the Muslim boycott of Danish goods had reduced Denmark's total exports by 15. Events 1000 - Battle of Svolder, Viking Age. 1379 - Treaty of Neuberg, splitting the Austrian Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. 5% between February and June. This was attributed to a decline in Middle East exports by approximately 50%. "The cost to Danish businesses was around 134 million euros ($170m), when compared with the same period last year, the statistics showed. " However, the Guardian newspaper in the UK also reported, "While Danish milk products were dumped in the Middle East, fervent rightwing Americans started buying Bang & Olufsen stereos and Lego. Bang & Olufsen ( B&O,) is a Danish company that designs and manufactures high end Audio products Television sets and Telephones Lego, officially trademarked LEGO, is a line of construction Toys manufactured by the Lego Group, a privately In the first quarter of this year Denmark’s exports to the US soared 17%. "
One year after the publication of the original cartoons, a video surfaced showing members of the Danish People's Party's youth wing engaged in a contest of drawing pictures that insult Muhammad. The Danish People's Party (Dansk Folkeparti is a social conservative, National conservative political party in Denmark. Publicity surrounding the contest led to renewed tension between the Islamic world and Denmark, with the OIC and many countries weighing in. The Danish government condemned the youths, and those who were depicted in the video went into hiding after receiving death threats.
Two weeks into this episode, a Danish artists' group, "Defending Denmark", claimed responsibility for the video and said it had infiltrated the Danish People's Party Youth for 18 months claiming "to document (their) extreme right wing associations". The definition of an artist is wide-ranging and covers a broad spectrum of Activities to do with creating Art, practicing the Arts and/or demonstrating Far right, extreme right, ultra-right, or radical right are terms used to discuss the qualitative or quantitative position a group 
A few days later a new episode surfaced, when a member of the Social-liberal youth movement stated, that members of the movement had also drawn pictures of Muhammad during a weekend meeting. Radikal Ungdom af 1994 (Literally Radical Youth of 1994 often RU) the youth wing of the Danish Political party Det Radikale Venstre Unlike the Danish People's Party Youth's drawings, this episode was not condoned by the youth movement, but was done by individuals.
All four videos of the controversy can be seen here.
On February 12, 2008, Danish police arrested three men (two Tunisians and one Danish national originally from Morocco) suspected of planning to assassinate Kurt Westergaard, the cartoonist who drew the Bomb in the Turban cartoon. Events 1429 - English Forces under Sir John Fastolf defend a supply convoy carrying rations to the army besieging Orleans from attack by the 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Tunisia (تونس Tūnis officially the Tunisian Republic ( is a country located in North Africa. Kurt Westergaard (born July 13, 1935) is a Danish Cartoonist who created the controversial Cartoon of the Muslim prophet Shortly afterwards, the Dane was released without charge; the two Tunisians were not charged either, but expelled to Tunisia. Despite this, Westergaard has since been under police protection. He has said he is angry that a "perfectly normal everyday activity [drawing political cartoons] which I used to do by the thousand was abused to set off such madness. "
The next day, February 13, 2008, Jyllands-Posten, and many other Danish newspapers including Politiken and Berlingske Tidende, reprinted Westergaard's Bomb in the Turban cartoon, as a statement of commitment to freedom of speech. Events 1258 - Baghdad falls to the Mongols, and the Abbasid Caliphate is destroyed 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common This article is about the Danish paper Politiken For the Swedish paper Politiken see Folkets Dagblad Politiken. Berlingske Tidende is a Danish daily Newspaper. Founded in 1749 by Ernst Henrich Berling, it is the oldest Danish newspaper still  The liberal newspaper Politiken had been critical of the original publication of the cartoons, but reprinted this one now as a gesture of solidarity in the face of a specific threat. 
In Denmark, some public disturbances with burnt-out cars and a school set ablaze has followed these events, but the police are unsure if it is directly related to the cartoons controversy or the fact that the two Tunisians were subsequently sentenced to deportation without a trial.  Other sources close to the origin of the riots in the Nørrebro district of Copenhagen said that the riots, which started before the arrests, were wholly unrelated to the cartoons controversy and were rather set off by police harassment of ethnic minorities in areas of Copenhagen, and indeed some disturbances had occurred even in the days preceding the arrests. Nørrebro is the common name for an area in Copenhagen, Denmark located beyond the historic city center (the Indre By) and beyond the location of  Peaceful demonstrations were held in Copenhagen after Friday prayers, with the flags of Hizb ut-Tahrir prominent. Hizb ut-Tahrir (حزب التحرير Party of Liberation is an international Pan-Islamist, Sunni, vanguard political party whose goal is to combine all Muslim 
On February 19, 2008, "Egypt banned editions of four foreign newspapers including the New York-based Wall Street Journal and Britain's The Observer for reprinting the controversial Danish cartoons criticizing the Prophet Muhammad". Events 197 - Roman Emperor Septimius Severus defeats usurper Clodius Albinus in the Battle of Lugdunum 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common This article is about the country of Egypt For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Egypt topics. 
The events culminated on June 2, 2008 with an attempt to blow up the Danish embassy in Islamabad. Events 455 - The Vandals enter Rome, and plunder the city for two weeks 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common |name = Islamabad|native_name = |nickname = |settlement_type = Capital City |total_type 
Freedom of speech was guaranteed in law by the Danish Constitution in 1849, as it is today by The Constitutional Act of Denmark, of June 5, 1953. Editors Wikipedia is not a venue for publishing *your* opinions The publication of satirical cartoons of the Islamic prophet Muhammad in the Danish newspaper Jyllands-Posten on September 30 Freedom of speech is the freedom to speak freely without Censorship or Limitation. Events 70 - Titus and his Roman Legions breach the middle wall of Jerusalem in the Siege of Jerusalem Year 1953 ( MCMLIII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar.  It is defended vigorously. It was suspended during the German occupation of Denmark in World War II. Nazi Germany’s occupation of Denmark began with Operation Weserübung 9 April 1940, and lasted until German forces withdrew World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including Freedom of expression is also protected by the European Convention on Human Rights and the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. The Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (also called the "European Convention on Human Rights" and "ECHR" was adopted under the The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights is a United Nations Treaty based on the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, created in
The Danish newspapers are privately owned and independent from the government, and Danish freedom of expression is quite far-reaching, even by Western standards. This is a list of Newspapers in Denmark National BT Berlingske Tidende Dagbladet Arbejderen In the past, this has provoked official protests from Germany about printing neo-nazi propaganda, and from Russia for "solidarity with terrorists. The term neo-Nazism refers to post- World War II Political movements Social movements and ideologies seeking to revive Nazism, " The organization Reporters Without Borders ranks Denmark at the top of its Worldwide Press Freedom Index for 2005. 
Religion is often portrayed in ways that some other societies may consider illegal blasphemy.  While Jyllands-Posten has published satirical cartoons depicting Christian figures, it also rejected unsolicited surreal cartoons in 2003 which depicted Jesus, opening them to accusations of a double standard. ˈjylænsˌ pʰʌsd̥n̩ ( English: The Morning Newspaper "The Jutland Post") commonly shortened to Jyllands-Posten or JP Satire is often strictly defined as a literary genre or form; although in practice it is also found in the graphic and Performing arts In satire human Surreal humour is a form of humour, laughingly in a style related to the artistic ambitions of the surrealists, based on bizarre Juxtapositions absurd situations A double standard refers to one class of entities being treated differently from another class of entities and implies an unfair or unjustified differentiation  In February 2006, Jyllands-Posten also refused to publish Holocaust denial cartoons offered by an Iranian newspaper. International Holocaust Cartoon Contest was a cartoon competition sponsored by the Iranian newspaper  Six of the less controversial entries were later published by Dagbladet Information, after the editors consulted the main rabbi in Copenhagen, and three cartoons were in fact later reprinted in Jyllands-Posten. Information (enfɒmæˈɕoːˀn full name Dagbladet Information ( enfɒmæˈɕoːˀn is a Danish newspaper published Monday through Saturday  After the competition had finished, Jyllands-Posten also reprinted the winning and runner-up cartoons. Runner-up is a term used to denote a participant which finishes in second place in any of a variety of competitive endeavors most notably sporting events and Beauty pageants 
Owing to the traditions of aniconism in Islam, the majority of art concerning Muhammad is calligraphic in nature. Aniconism is the practice or belief in avoiding or shunning the graphic representation of divine beings or religious figures or in different manifestations any human beings or living Art refers to a diverse range of Human activities creations and expressions that are appealing to the Senses or Emotions of a human individual Islamic calligraphy, equally known as Arabic calligraphy, is the art of writing and by extension of bookmaking The Qur'an condemns idolatry, and pictoral forms are seen as ostensibly close to idol worship. The Qur’an ( القرآن, literally "the recitation" also sometimes transliterated as Qur’ān, Koran, Alcoran Idolatry is usually defined as Worship of any Cult image, Idea, or object, as opposed to the worship of a monotheistic God. These are found in Ahadith [plural of Hadith]: "Ibn ‘Umar reported Allah’s Messenger (pbuh) having said: Those who paint pictures would be punished on the Day of Resurrection and it would be said to them: Breathe soul into what you have created. Hadith ( ar الحديث, pl aḥadīth; lit. "narrative" are oral Traditions relating to the words and deeds of the Islamic TemplateInfobox Muslim scholars --> Abdullah ibn Umar (عبدالله بن عمر بن الخطاب (ca For the Jewish honorific see Honorifics for the dead in Judaism Peace be upon him. This article concerns itself with Jesus Christ Christian, Islamic and other religious interpretations of resurrection in general The soul, according to many religious and philosophical beliefs is the self-awareness, or Consciousness, unique to a particular living "
Within Muslim communities, views have varied regarding pictorial representations. Shi'a Islam has been generally tolerant of pictorial representations of human figures, including Muhammad.  Contemporary Sunni Islam generally forbids any pictorial representation of Muhammad, but has had periods allowing depictions of Muhammad's face covered with a veil or as a featureless void emanating light. Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam. Sunni Islam is also referred to as Ahl as-Sunnah wa’l-Jamā‘h (Arabic A few contemporary interpretations of Islam, such as some adherents of Wahhabism and Salafism, are entirely aniconistic and condemn pictorial representations of any kind. Wahhabism ( Arabic: Al-Wahhābīyya الوهابية or Wahabism is a conservative reformist call of Sunni Islam attributed to Aniconism is the practice or belief in avoiding or shunning the graphic representation of divine beings or religious figures or in different manifestations any human beings or living The Taliban, while in power in Afghanistan, banned television, photographs and images in newspapers and destroyed paintings including frescoes in the vicinity of the Buddhas of Bamyan. The Taliban ( طالبان, also anglicised as Taleban; translation "students" is a Sunni Islamist, predominately Afghanistan /æfˈgænɪstæn/ officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan ( Pashto: د افغانستان اسلامي جمهوریت, Fresco (plural either frescos or frescoes) is any of several related Painting types done on Plaster on walls or The Buddhas of Bamyan ( - but hay-e bamiyaan) were two monumental statues of standing Buddhas carved into the side of a cliff in the Bamyan valley 
In Muslim societies, insulting the Islamic prophet Muhammad is considered one of the gravest of all crimes. Some interpretations of the Shariah, in particular the relatively fringe Salafi (Wahabi) group, state that any insult to Muhammad warrants death. Sharia ( Arabic: ar شريعة) is the body of Islamic Religious law. 
However, the Organization of the Islamic Conference has denounced calls for the death of the Danish cartoonists. The Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC is an International organization with a permanent delegation to the United Nations. OIC's Secretary General Ekmeleddin Ihsanoglu stated in a press release:
The Secretary General appeals to the Muslims to stay calm and peaceful in the wake of sacrilegious depiction of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) which has deeply hurt their feelings. Prof Dr Ekmeleddin İhsanoğlu (born 1943 is a Turkish Science historian and currently the Secretary-General of the Organisation of the Islamic Conference For the Jewish honorific see Honorifics for the dead in Judaism Peace be upon him. He has stated that Islam being the religion of tolerance, mercy and peace teaches them to defend their faith through democratic and legal means. 
Many Muslims have explained their anti-cartoon stance as against insulting pictures and not so much as against pictures in general. According to the BBC:
It is the satirical intent of the cartoonists and the association of the Prophet with terrorism, that is so offensive to the vast majority of Muslims.
Why is the insult so deeply felt by some Muslims? Of course, there is the prohibition on images of Muhammad. But one cartoon, showing the Prophet wearing a turban shaped as a bomb with a burning fuse, extends the caricature of Muslims as terrorists to Muhammad. In this image, Muslims see a depiction of Islam, its prophet and Muslims in general as terrorists. This will certainly play into a widespread perception among Muslims across the world that many in the West harbour a hostility towards – or fear of – Islam and Muslims.
Fundamentalist Islam has recently been characterized as a problem in Europe, while disillusionment with multiculturalism is on the rise in Denmark. Minimum estimates of Muslim populations in Western Europe (EU 27 plus Norway Iceland and Switzerland as a percentage of total country population The term multiculturalism generally refers to a state of racial, cultural and ethnic diversity within the Demographics of a specified Islamic fundamentalism Arabic: usul (from usul the "fundamentals"] is a term used to describe religious ideologies seen as advocating a return to the The term multiculturalism generally refers to a state of racial, cultural and ethnic diversity within the Demographics of a specified  This was further fuelled by Mullah Krekar stating that "the number of Muslims is expanding like mosquitoes. Najmuddin Faraj Ahmad (born July 7, 1956) Mullah Krekar ( Kurdish:مهلا کریکارis " The UNCHR Special Rapporteur, on the other hand, saw xenophobia and racism in Europe as the root of the controversy, particularly singling out Denmark. The United Nations Commission on Human Rights ( UNCHR) was a functional commission within the overall framework of the United Nations. Special Rapporteur is a title given to individuals working on behalf of the United Nations who bear a specific mandate from the UN Human Rights Council (or the former Xenophobia is an intense and/or irrational dislike and sometimes fear of people from other countries List of racism-related topics|Racism by country Racism, by its simplest definition is the belief that race is the primary determinant of human traits and capacities and that 
Some commentators see the publications of the cartoons and the riots that took place in response, as part of a coordinated effort to show Muslims and Islam in a bad light, thus influencing public opinion in the West in aid of various political projects, for example to support further military intervention in the Middle East.  Most commentators in Europe framed the dispute as one between Islam and freedom of expression, which was a useful banner "under which the most diverse sectors of society can unite in the name of ‘European values’: feminists and Christian conservatives, social democrats and neoliberals, nationalists and multiculturalists, civil rights activists and consumption-oriented hedonists. Feminism is a discourse that involves various movements theories, and Philosophies which are concerned with the issue of Gender difference, advocate The Christian right is a term used predominantly in the United States to describe a spectrum of right-wing Christian political and social movements and Social democracy is a Political ideology of the left and centre-left Originally coined by its critics and opponents " neoliberalism " is a label referring to the recent reemergence of Economic liberalism or Classical liberalism The term nationalism can refer to an Ideology, a sentiment, a form of Culture, or a Social movement that focuses on the Nation The term multiculturalism generally refers to a state of racial, cultural and ethnic diversity within the Demographics of a specified Hedonism is the Philosophy that Pleasure is of ultimate importance, the most important pursuit "
The controversy was used to highlight a supposedly irreconcilable rift between Europeans and Islam - as the journalist Andrew Mueller put it: "I am concerned that the ridiculous, disproportionate reaction to some unfunny sketches in an obscure Scandinavian newspaper may confirm that . . . Islam and the West are fundamentally irreconcilable" - and many demonstrations in the Middle-East were encouraged by the regimes there for their own purposes. Different groups used this tactic for different purposes, some more explicitly than others: for example anti-immigrant groups, nationalists, feminists, classical liberals and national governments. Nativism is an Opposition to immigration which originated in United States politics with roots in the country's historic role as a Melting pot. Classical liberalism (also known as traditional liberalism, Laissez-faire liberalism, Market liberalism or in much of the world 
Muslim critics have also accused the West, in particular the EU, of double standards in adopting laws that outlaw Holocaust denial. Holocaust denial is the claim that the Genocide of Jews during World War II —usually referred to as The Holocaust —did not occur in the Denmark, along with Britain and Sweden, have particularly libertarian traditions concerning Holocaust denial and pressed for wording in a recent EU legislation that would avoid criminalizing debates about the Holocaust and would ensure that films and plays about the Holocaust would not be censored. 
Among others, Iran's supreme leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei blamed a "Zionist conspiracy" for the row over the cartoons. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iran topics. (fa علی حسینی خامنهای born 17 July 1939 also known as Ali Khamenei, is an Iranian Azeri politician and cleric A conspiracy theory attributes the ultimate cause of an event or chain of events (usually Political, Social or Historical events or the concealment  The Palestinian envoy to Washington alleged the Likud party concocted distribution of Muhammad caricatures worldwide in a bid to create a clash between the West and the Muslim world. Palestinian people or Palestinians ( الشعب الفلسطيني, ash-sha`b al-filasTīni; الفلسطينيون, al-filasTīnīyyūn Likud (ליכוד lit Consolidation) is the major centre-right political party in Israel. 
Other commentators see Islamists jockeying for influence both in Europe and the Islamic Ummah, who tried (unsuccessfully) to widen the split between the USA and Europe, and simultaneously bridge the split between the Sunnis and the Shia. Islamism ( Islam + ism; Arabic: al-'islāmiyya) a set of ideologies holding that Islam is not only Ummah (أمة is an Arabic word meaning Community or Nation. It is commonly used to mean either the collective nation of states, or (in the Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam. Sunni Islam is also referred to as Ahl as-Sunnah wa’l-Jamā‘h (Arabic 
Regimes in the Middle East have been accused of taking advantage of the controversy, and adding to it, in order to demonstrate their Islamic credentials, distracting from their failures by setting up an external enemy, and "(using) the cartoons [. . . ] as a way of showing that the expansion of freedom and democracy in their countries would lead inevitably to the denigration of Islam. " Mahmoud Ahmadinejad announced a Holocaust Conference, supported by the OIC, to uncover what he called the "myth" used to justify the creation of Israel. Mahmoud Ahmadinejad (محمود احمدینژاد; born October 28, 1956) is the sixth and current President of the Islamic Republic of Iran The Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC is an International organization with a permanent delegation to the United Nations.  Ahmadinejad started voicing doubt about the veracity of the holocaust at the same OIC conference in Mecca that served to spread the Akkari-Laban dossier to leaders of the Muslim world. The Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC is an International organization with a permanent delegation to the United Nations. The Akkari-Laban dossier (ملف عكّاري لبن is a 43 page document which was created by a group of Danish Muslim Clerics from multiple 
Critics of political correctness see the cartoon controversy as a sign that attempts at judicial codification of such concepts as respect, tolerance and offense have backfired on their advocates, "leaving them without a leg to stand on" and in retreat again:
The issue will almost certainly lead to a revisiting of the lamentable laws against "hate speech" in Europe, and with any luck to a debate on whether these laws are more likely to destroy public harmony than encourage it. Political correctness (adjectivally politically correct; both forms commonly abbreviated to PC) is a term applied to Language, ideas policies or behavior Respect is esteem for or a sense of the worth or excellence of a person a personal quality or ability or something considered as a manifestation of a personal quality or ability Muslim activists are finding out why getting into a negative-publicity fight is as inadvisable as wrestling with a pig: You get dirty and the pig enjoys it.
Numerous comparisons have been offered in public discourse comparing earlier controversies over propriety of speech and art with the controversy that surrounded the Jyllands-Posten cartoons. Tension often exists between political freedom, particularly Freedom of speech, and certain examples of art literature speech or other acts considered by some to be sacrilegious Some examples include:
And a later controversy: