199. 6 - 145. 5 million years ago
(130 % of modern level)
(7 times pre-industrial level)
(3°C above modern level)
The Jurassic is a geologic period that extends from about 199. 6± 0. 6 Ma (million years ago) to 145. Annum is one form of the Latin noun meaning Year, not a form normally used for derivatives in modern languages the accusative singular 5± 4 Ma, the end of the Triassic to the beginning of the Cretaceous. The Triassic is a geologic period and system that extends from about 251 to 199 Ma (million years ago The Cretaceous (kriːˈteɪʃəs, usually abbreviated 'K' for its German translation "Kreide" is a geologic period and system, reaching from the end of The Jurassic constitutes the middle period of the Mesozoic era, also known as the "Age of Reptiles". The Mesozoic Era is one of three geologic eras of the Phanerozoic eon. The start of the period is marked by the major Triassic-Jurassic extinction event. The start and end of the period are defined by carefully selected locations; the uncertainty in dating arises from trying to date these horizons.
The Jurassic was named by Alexandre Brongniart for the extensive marine limestone exposures of the Jura Mountains, in the region where Germany, France and Switzerland meet. Alexandre Brongniart (1770 &ndash 1847 was a French Chemist, Mineralogist, and Zoologist, who collaborated with Georges Cuvier on Limestone is a Sedimentary rock composed largely of the Mineral Calcite ( Calcium carbonate: CaCO3 The Jura Mountains are a small Mountain range located north of the Alps, separating the Rhine and Rhone rivers and forming part of Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Switzerland (English pronunciation; Schweiz Swiss German: Schwyz or Schwiiz Suisse Svizzera Svizra officially the Swiss Confederation
The Jurassic period of time is usually broken into Early, Middle, and Late Jurassic subdivisions, also known as Lias, Dogger and Malm. For general context see Jurassic. The Early Jurassic (in geology referred to as the Lower Jurassic, originally (and still in Europe the The Middle Jurassic, called the Dogger in the European system of classification is the second epoch of the Jurassic Period. The Late Jurassic (or Malm) Epoch of the Jurassic Period is the unit of geologic time from 161 The corresponding terms for the rocks are Lower, Middle, and Upper Jurassic. The faunal stages from youngest to oldest are:
|Tithonian||(150. The Late Jurassic (or Malm) Epoch of the Jurassic Period is the unit of geologic time from 161 The Tithonian is the final stage of the Late Jurassic Epoch. It spans the time between 150 8 ± 4. 0 – 145. 5 ± 4. 0 Ma)|
|Kimmeridgian||(155. Annum is one form of the Latin noun meaning Year, not a form normally used for derivatives in modern languages the accusative singular The Kimmeridgian is a stage of the Late Jurassic Epoch. It spans the time between 155 7 ± 4. 0 – 150. 8 ± 4. 0 Ma)|
|Oxfordian||(161. The Oxfordian stage is the first stage of the Late Jurassic Epoch. 2 ± 4. 0 – 155. 7 ± 4. 0 Ma)|
|Callovian||(164. The Middle Jurassic, called the Dogger in the European system of classification is the second epoch of the Jurassic Period. The Callovian is a stage on the Geologic time scale occurring 164 7 ± 4. 0 – 161. 2 ± 4. 0 Ma)|
|Bathonian||(167. In the Geologic timescale the Bathonian epoch is a stage during the Middle Jurassic, of the Mesozoic era of the Phanerozoic 7 ± 3. 5 – 164. 7 ± 4. 0 Ma)|
|Bajocian||(171. In the Geologic timescale, the Bajocian is an age of the Middle Jurassic epoch of the Jurassic period of the Mesozoic 6 ± 3. 0 – 167. 7 ± 3. 5 Ma)|
|Aalenian||(175. The Aalenian (ɑːˈliːniən is a subdivision of the Middle Jurassic epoch of the Geologic timescale that extends from about 175 6 ± 2. 0 – 171. 6 ± 3. 0 Ma)|
|Toarcian||(183. For general context see Jurassic. The Early Jurassic (in geology referred to as the Lower Jurassic, originally (and still in Europe the The Toarcian Stage was the last Faunal stage of the Early Jurassic period 0 ± 1. 5 – 175. 6 ± 2. 0 Ma)|
|Pliensbachian||(189. The Pliensbachian (also known as Charmouthian) is a stage of the Early Jurassic Epoch. 6 ± 1. 5 – 183. 0 ± 1. 5 Ma)|
|Sinemurian||(196. The Sinemurian is a stage of the Early Jurassic Epoch. It spans the time between 196 5 ± 1. 0 – 189. 6 ± 1. 5 Ma)|
|Hettangian||(199. The Hettangian is the first stage of the Early Jurassic Epoch. 6 ± 0. 6 – 196. 5 ± 1. 0 Ma)|
During the early Jurassic, the supercontinent Pangaea broke up into the northern supercontinent Laurasia and the southern supercontinent Gondwana; the Gulf of Mexico opened in the new rift between North America and what is now Mexico's Yucatan Peninsula. In Geology, a supercontinent is a Landmass comprising more than one Continental core or Craton. Pangaea, Pangæa or Pangea (pænˈdʒiːə from παν pan, meaning entire, and Γαῖα Gaea, meaning Earth in Laurasia (lɔˈreɪʃiə lɔˈreɪʒə was a Supercontinent that most recently existed as a part of the split of the Pangaean supercontinent in the late Mesozoic Gondwana (ɡɒnˈdwɑːnə originally Gondwanaland) was a southern Supercontinent that existed about 500 to 200 Ma ago The Gulf of Mexico ( Spanish: Golfo de México) is the ninth largest Body of water in the world The Yucatán Peninsula, in Southeastern Mexico, separates the Caribbean Sea from the Gulf of Mexico. The Jurassic North Atlantic Ocean was relatively narrow, while the South Atlantic did not open until the following Cretaceous Period, when Gondwana itself rifted apart.  The Tethys Sea closed, and the Neotethys basin appeared. The Tethys Ocean was a Mesozoic era Ocean that existed between the continents of Gondwana and Laurasia before the opening of the Indian The Mediterranean Basin refers to the lands around and surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea. Climates were warm, with no evidence of glaciation. "Glacial" and "Glaciation" redirect here For the geological periods see Glacial period. As in the Triassic, there was apparently no land near either pole, and no extensive ice caps existed.
The Jurassic geological record is good in western Europe, where extensive marine sequences indicate a time when much of the continent was submerged under shallow tropical seas; famous locales include the Jurassic Coast World Heritage Site and the renowned late Jurassic lagerstätten of Holzmaden and Solnhofen. The Jurassic Coast is a World Heritage Site on the English Channel coast of southern England. A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a site (such as a Forest, Mountain, Lake, Desert, Monument, Building, complex A Lagerstätte ( German; literally place of storage; plural Lagerstätten) is a sedimentary deposit that exhibits extraordinary fossil Holzmaden is a town in Baden-Württemberg, Germany that lies between Stuttgart and Ulm. The Solnhofen limestone is a Jurassic Konservat-Lagerstätte that preserves a rare assemblage of Fossilized organisms some of which such as sea jellies  In contrast, the North American Jurassic record is the poorest of the Mesozoic, with few outcrops at the surface.  Though the epicontinental Sundance Sea left marine deposits in parts of the northern plains of the United States and Canada during the late Jurassic, most exposed sediments from this period are continental, such as the alluvial deposits of the Morrison Formation. An epeiric sea (also known as an epicontinental sea) is a large but shallow body of salt water that lies over a part of a Continent. The Sundance Sea was an epeiric sea which existed in North America during the mid to late Jurassic Period of the Mesozoic Era The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page Alluvium (from the Latin, alluvius, from alluere, "to wash against" is Soil or Sediments deposited by a river or other running The Morrison Formation is a distinctive sequence of Late Jurassic Sedimentary rock that is found in the western United States which has been the most fertile source
The Jurassic was a time of calcite sea geochemistry in which low-magnesium calcite was the primary inorganic marine precipitate of calcium carbonate. A calcite sea is one in which low-magnesium Calcite is the primary inorganic marine Calcium carbonate precipitate Calcite is a carbonate mineral and the most stable polymorph of Calcium carbonate ( Ca[[carbon C]] O 3 Carbonate hardgrounds were thus very common, along with calcitic ooids, calcitic cements, and invertebrate faunas with dominantly calcitic skeletons (Stanley and Hardie, 1998, 1999). Carbonate hardgrounds are surfaces of synsedimentarily cemented carbonate layers that have been exposed on the seafloor (Wilson and Palmer 1992 Ooids are small ( Sedimentary grains usually composed of Calcium carbonate, but sometimes made up of Iron
The first of several massive batholiths were emplaced in the northern Cordillera beginning in the mid-Jurassic, marking the Nevadan orogeny. A batholith (from Greek bathos, depth + lithos, rock is a large emplacement of Igneous intrusive (also called plutonic rock that forms The American cordillera consists of an essentially continuous sequence of Mountain ranges that form the western "backbone" of North America, Central The Nevadan Orogeny was a major Mountain building event that took place along the western edge of ancient North America between the Mid to Late Jurassic  Important Jurassic exposures are also found in Russia, India, South America, Japan, Australasia, and the United Kingdom. Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country South America is a Continent of the Americas, situated entirely in the Western Hemisphere and mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. Australasia is a Region of Oceania: New Zealand, Australia, Papua New Guinea, and neighbouring Islands in the Pacific The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located
During the Jurassic, the primary vertebrates living in the seas were fish and marine reptiles. Fish are aquatic Vertebrate animals that are typically ectothermic (previously Cold-blooded) covered with scales, and equipped with two Reptiles, or members of the class Reptilia are air-breathing Cold-blooded Vertebrates that have skin covered in scales as opposed to hair or feathers The latter include ichthyosaurs, plesiosaurs and marine crocodiles, of the families Teleosauridae and Metriorhynchidae. Ichthyosaurs ( Greek for 'fish lizard' - ιχθυς / ichthyos meaning 'fish' and σαυρος / sauros meaning 'lizard' were giant Plesiosauria (ˌpliːsiəˈsɔriə ( Greek: plesios meaning 'near to' and sauros meaning 'lizard' are an order of Mesozoic Marine Crocodilia is an order of large Reptiles that appeared about 84 million years ago in the late Cretaceous Period ( Campanian stage The teleosaurids were marine Crocodilians similar to the modern Gharial that during the Early Jurassic to the Early Cretaceous. Metriorhynchids were a Clade of fully-aquatic Crocodilians that lived in seas of the Jurassic and Cretaceous periods
In the invertebrate world, several new groups appeared, including rudists (a reef-forming variety of bivalves) and belemnites. An invertebrate is an Animal lacking a Vertebral column. The group includes 98% of all animal Species — all animals except those in the Chordate Rudists are a group of bizarrely shaped marine Heterodont Bivalves that arose during the Jurassic, and became so diverse during the In nautical terminology a reef is a rock, sandbar, or other feature lying beneath the surface of the water (six fathoms or less at low water Bivalves are Molluscs belonging to the class Bivalvia. They have two-part shells and typically both valves are symmetrical along the hinge line Belemnites (or belemnoids are an extinct group of marine Cephalopod, very similar in many ways to the modern Squid and closely related to the modern Cuttlefish The Jurassic also had diverse encrusting and boring (sclerobiont) communities (see Taylor & Wilson, 2003), and it saw a significant rise in the bioerosion of carbonate shells and hardgrounds. Bioerosion describes the Erosion of hard ocean substrates by living organisms by a number of mechanisms Especially common is the ichnogenus (trace fossil) Gastrochaenolites. An ichnotaxon (plural ichnotaxa) is defined by the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature as "a Taxon based on the fossilized work of an organism" Trace fossils, also called ichnofossils (ˈɪknoʊfɒsɨl ιχνος or ikhnos meaning "trace" or "track" are geological records of biological
On land, large archosaurian reptiles remained dominant. Archosaurs ( Greek for 'ruling lizards' are a group of Diapsid Reptiles represented by Modern birds and Crocodilians This group also The Jurassic was the golden age of the great sauropods — Camarasaurus, Apatosaurus, Diplodocus, Brachiosaurus, and many others—that roamed the land late in the period; their mainstays were either the prairies of ferns, palm-like cycads and bennettitales, or the higher coniferous growth, according to their adaptations. Sauropoda (sɔˈrɒpədə or the sauropods (/ˈsɔroʊpɒd/ are a suborder or infraorder of the Saurischian ("lizard-hipped" Camarasaurus (ˌkæmərəˈsɔrəs KAM-uh-ruh-SAWR-us meaning 'chambered lizard' referring to the holes in its Vertebrae ( Greek καμαρα Diplodocus (dɪˈplɒdəkəs /daɪˈplɒdəkəs/ Diplodocus is among the most easily identifiable dinosaurs with its classic dinosaur shape long neck Brachiosaurus (ˌbrækiəˈsɔrəs meaning "arm lizard" from the Greek brachion /βραχιων meaning "arm" and sauros Prairie, from the French prairie ("meadow" "grassland" "pasture" refers to an area of land of low topographic relief that historically A fern is any one of a group of about 20000 Species of Plants classified in the phylum or division Pteridophyta, also known as Filicophyta Cycads are a group of Seed plants characterized by a large crown of compound leaves and a stout trunk. Bennettitales (the cycadeoids) is an extinct order of seed plants that first appeared in the Triassic period and became extinct toward They were preyed upon by large theropods as for example Ceratosaurus, Megalosaurus, Torvosaurus and Allosaurus. Theropods (ˈθɪərəpɒd theropoda /θiːˈrɒpədə/ 'beast feet' are a group of Bipedal Saurischian Dinosaurs Although they were primarily Ceratosaurus (ˌsɛrətəˈsɔrəs meaning 'horned lizard' in reference to the horn on its nose ( Greek κερας/κερατος keras/keratos meaning Megalosaurus (meaning "Great Lizard" from Greek, μεγαλο-/megalo- meaning 'big' 'tall' or 'great' and σαυρος/sauros Torvosaurus (ˌtɔrvoʊˈsɔrəs TOR-vo-SOR-us) is a Genus of giant carnivorous Dinosaur, relatively similar in appearance to Allosaurus (ˌæləˈsɔrəs is a Genus of large Theropod Dinosaur that lived 155 to 145 million years ago in the Late Jurassic All these belong to the 'lizard hipped' or saurischian branch of the dinosaurs. Saurischia (sɔːˈrɪskiə, from the Greek sauros ( σαυρος) meaning 'lizard' and ischion ( ισχιον) meaning 'hip joint'
During the Late Jurassic, the first birds evolved from small coelurosaur dinosaurs. Birds ( class Aves) are bipedal endothermic ( Warm-blooded) Vertebrate animals that lay eggs. eVolution is the third Album by eLDee, it was due to be released in 2008 For the prehistoric gliding reptile see Coelurosauravus. Coelurosauria (sɨˌljʊərəˈsɔriə is defined as the clade containing all Theropod Ornithischian dinosaurs were less predominant than saurischian dinosaurs, although some like stegosaurs and small ornithopods played important roles as small and medium-to-large (but not sauropod-sized) herbivores. Ornithischia (ɔrnɪˈθɪskiə) or Predentata is an extinct order of beaked herbivorous Dinosaurs The name ornithischia Known colloquially as stegosaurs the Stegosauria are a group of herbivorous Dinosaurs of the Jurassic and Early Cretaceous Periods Ornithopods (ɔrˈnɪθoʊpɒd are a group of bird-hipped Dinosaurs that started out as small Bipedal running grazers and grew in size and In the air, pterosaurs were common; they ruled the skies, filling many ecological roles now taken by birds. For other meanings see Pterodactyl (disambiguation. Pterosaurs (ˈtɛrəsɔr from the Greek πτερόσαυρος pterosauros Birds ( class Aves) are bipedal endothermic ( Warm-blooded) Vertebrate animals that lay eggs.
The arid, continental conditions characteristic of the Triassic steadily eased during the Jurassic period, especially at higher latitudes; the warm, humid climate allowed lush jungles to cover much of the landscape. The Triassic is a geologic period and system that extends from about 251 to 199 Ma (million years ago  Conifers dominated the flora, as during the Triassic; they were the most diverse group and constituted the majority of large trees. Extant conifer families that flourished during the Jurassic included the Araucariaceae, Cephalotaxaceae, Pinaceae, Podocarpaceae, Taxaceae and Taxodiaceae. The Araucariaceae are a very ancient family of Conifers They achieved maximum diversity in the Jurassic and Cretaceous periods when they existed almost The family Cephalotaxaceae is a small grouping of Conifers with three genera and about 20 species closely allied to the Taxaceae, and included in that family The family Pinaceae ( pine family) is in the order Pinales and includes many of the well-known Conifers of commercial importance such as Cedars Podocarpaceae is a large family of mainly Southern Hemisphere Conifers with 18-19 genera and about 170-200 species of Evergreen Trees and The family Taxaceae, commonly called the yew family includes three genera and about 7 to 12 species of Coniferous Plants or in other interpretations The Taxodiaceae was at one time regarded as a distinct Plant family comprising the following ten genera of Coniferous Trees Athrotaxis  The extinct Mesozoic conifer family Cheirolepidiaceae dominated low latitude vegetation, as did the shrubby Bennettitales. Cheirolepidiaceae is a family of extinct Coniferous plants The Cheirolepidiaceae were a family of conifers superficially similar to Cupressaceae that were Bennettitales (the cycadeoids) is an extinct order of seed plants that first appeared in the Triassic period and became extinct toward  Cycads were also common, as were ginkgos and tree ferns in the forest. Cycads are a group of Seed plants characterized by a large crown of compound leaves and a stout trunk. Ginkgo is a genus of highly unusual non-flowering plants with one extant species G The order Cyatheales is a Taxonomic division of the Fern subclass Cyatheatae, which includes the tree ferns. Smaller ferns were probably the dominant undergrowth. A fern is any one of a group of about 20000 Species of Plants classified in the phylum or division Pteridophyta, also known as Filicophyta Caytoniaceous seed ferns were another group of important plants during this time and are thought to have been shrub to small-tree sized.  Ginkgo-like plants were particularly common in the mid- to high northern latitudes. In the Southern Hemisphere, podocarps were especially successful, while Ginkgos and Czekanowskiales were rare. Podocarpaceae is a large family of mainly Southern Hemisphere Conifers with 18-19 genera and about 170-200 species of Evergreen Trees and 
|Lower/Early Jurassic||Middle Jurassic||Upper/Late Jurassic|
|Hettangian | Sinemurian|
Pliensbachian | Toarcian
|Aalenian | Bajocian|
Bathonian | Callovian
|Oxfordian | Kimmeridgian|