|Julius and Ethel Rosenberg|
Ethel and Julius Rosenberg after their conviction
|Born||May 12, 1918 (Julius)|
September 28, 1915 (Ethel)
New York City, New York, United States (both)
|Died||June 19, 1953 (aged 35) (Julius)|
June 19, 1953 (aged 37) (Ethel)
Sing Sing (both)
|Occupation||Electrical engineer (Julius), Actress, Singer, Secretary (Ethel)|
|Children||Michael Meeropol and Robert Meeropol|
Julius Rosenberg (May 12, 1918 – June 19, 1953) and Ethel Greenglass Rosenberg (September 28, 1915 – June 19, 1953) were American citizens who received international attention when they were executed having been found guilty of conspiracy to commit espionage in relation to passing information on the American atomic bomb to the Soviet Union. Events 1191 - Richard I of England marries Berengaria of Navarre. Year 1918 ( MCMXVIII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Events 48 BC - Pompey the Great is assassinated on orders of King Ptolemy of Egypt after landing in Egypt. Year 1915 ( MCMXV) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year The City of New York New York ( is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States and is the nation's third most populous The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Events 1179 - The Norwegian Battle of Kalvskinnet outside Nidaros. Year 1953 ( MCMLIII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Events 1179 - The Norwegian Battle of Kalvskinnet outside Nidaros. Year 1953 ( MCMLIII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Sing Sing Correctional Facility is a maximum security Prison in Ossining, New York, USA. Capital punishment, the death penalty or execution, is the Killing of a person by judicial process as Punishment. Electrical engineering, sometimes referred to as electrical and electronic engineering, is a field of Engineering that deals with the study and application of An actor, actress, player or thespian (see terminology) is a person who Acts in a Dramatic production and who works A secretary is either an administrative assistant in business office administration, or a certain type of mid- or high-level governmental position such as a Michael Meeropol (born 1943 is the older son of Ethel and Julius Rosenberg. Robert Meeropol (born 1947 is the younger son of Ethel and Julius Rosenberg. Events 1191 - Richard I of England marries Berengaria of Navarre. Year 1918 ( MCMXVIII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Events 1179 - The Norwegian Battle of Kalvskinnet outside Nidaros. Year 1953 ( MCMLIII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Events 48 BC - Pompey the Great is assassinated on orders of King Ptolemy of Egypt after landing in Egypt. Year 1915 ( MCMXV) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year Events 1179 - The Norwegian Battle of Kalvskinnet outside Nidaros. Year 1953 ( MCMLIII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The United States of America —commonly referred to as the A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from Nuclear reactions either fission or a combination of fission and fusion. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991
The guilt of the Rosenbergs and the appropriateness of their sentence have been subject of perennial debate; however, information released after the Cold War has been taken as confirming a charge against Julius about espionage, but not in relation to atomic bombs. Recent information does not support the charge that the Rosenbergs provided information that led to the Soviet Union developing the atomic bomb--the rationale for their execution.  According to the former Soviet agent who was Julius's contact: "He didn't understand anything about the atomic bomb and he couldn't help us. " 
Julius Rosenberg was born to a Jewish family on May 12, 1918 in New York City. Judaism (from the Greek Ioudaïsmos, derived from the Hebrew יהודה Yehudah, " Judah " in Hebrew יַהֲדוּת Yahedut Events 1191 - Richard I of England marries Berengaria of Navarre. Year 1918 ( MCMXVIII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common The City of New York His parents were poor immigrants who worked in the sweat shops of the Lower East Side in New York City. He became a leader in the Young Communist League where, in 1936, he met Ethel, whom he married three years later. The Young Communist League USA ( YCL-USA) is the fraternal Youth organization of the Communist Party USA. He graduated from the City College of New York with a degree in electrical engineering in 1939 and in 1940 joined the Army Signal Corps, where he worked on radar equipment. The City College of The City University of New York (known more commonly as the City College of New York or simply City College, CCNY, or colloquially as Electrical engineering, sometimes referred to as electrical and electronic engineering, is a field of Engineering that deals with the study and application of Radar is a system that uses electromagnetic waves to identify the range altitude direction or speed of both moving and fixed objects such as Aircraft, ships Ethel Greenglass was born on September 28, 1915, in New York City, also to a Jewish family. Events 48 BC - Pompey the Great is assassinated on orders of King Ptolemy of Egypt after landing in Egypt. Year 1915 ( MCMXV) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year The City of New York She was an aspiring actress and singer, but eventually took a secretarial job at a shipping company. She became involved in labor disputes and joined the Young Communist League, USA, where she first met Julius. The Young Communist League USA ( YCL-USA) is the fraternal Youth organization of the Communist Party USA. The Rosenbergs had two sons named Robert and Michael, who were adopted by teacher and songwriter Abel Meeropol (and took the Meeropol surname) after their parents' execution. Robert Meeropol (born 1947 is the younger son of Ethel and Julius Rosenberg. Michael Meeropol (born 1943 is the older son of Ethel and Julius Rosenberg. Abel Meeropol ( February 10, 1903 - October 30, 1986) was an American writer best known under his pseudonym Lewis Allan
According to his supposed former NKVD handler, Alexandre Feklisov, Julius Rosenberg was originally recruited by the KGB on Labor Day 1942, by former NKVD spymaster Semyon Semenov. The NKVD ( НКВД, ru Народный Комиссариат Внутренних Дел ''Narodnyy Komissariat Vnutrennikh Del'') or People's Commissariat Aleksandr Semyonovich Feklisov ( March 9, 1914 &ndash October 26, 2007) was the Soviet secret police Case Officer Labor Day is a United States Federal holiday observed on the first Monday in September A Spymaster is a Ringleader of a spy ring run by a Secret service. Semyon Markovich Semenov (1911 Odessa – 1986 was a Soviet intelligence agent  Allegedly, Julius had been introduced to Semenov by Bernard Schuster, a high-ranking member of the Communist Party USA as well as Earl Browder's personal NKVD liaison, and after Semenov was recalled to Moscow in 1944, his duties were taken over by his apprentice, Feklisov. The Communist Party of the United States of America ( CPUSA) is a Marxist-Leninist Political party in the United States. Moscow (Москва́ romanised: Moskvá, IPA: see also other names) is the Capital and the largest city of 
According to Feklisov, Julius was his most dedicated and valuable asset, providing thousands of classified reports from Emerson Radio, including a complete proximity fuze, the same design that was used to shoot down Gary Powers's U-2 in 1960. Emerson Electric Company ( NYSE: EMR is a major Multinational corporation headquartered in St A proximity fuze (also called a VT fuze for "variable time" is a fuze that is designed to detonate an explosive device automatically when the distance Francis Gary Powers ( August 17, 1929 &ndash August 1, 1977) was an American pilot whose CIA U-2 spy plane WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout Under Feklisov's administration, Julius Rosenberg is said to have recruited sympathetic individuals to the KGB’s service, including Joel Barr, Alfred Sarant, William Perl and Morton Sobell. Joel Barr, also Iozef Veniaminovich Berg and Joseph Berg ( January 1, 1916 &ndash August 1, 1998) was part of the Soviet Alfred Epaminondas Sarant, also known as Filipp Georgievich Staros and Philip Georgievich Staros ( 1918 - March 12, 1979) was an engineer William Perl, whose real name was William Mutterperl, was a student at the City College of New York. Morton Sobell (born April 11 1917) is a self-confessed spy for the Soviet Union. 
According to Feklisov's account, he was supplied by Perl, under Julius Rosenberg’s direction, with thousands of documents from the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics including a complete set of design and production drawings for the Lockheed's P-80 Shooting Star. WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout Feklisov says he learned through Julius that his brother-in-law David Greenglass was working on the top-secret Manhattan Project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory and used Julius to recruit him. David Greenglass (b in New York City) was an Atomic spy for the Soviet Union. The United States government classification system is established under Executive Order 13292, the latest in a long series of executive The World War II Manhattan Project developed the first Nuclear weapon (atomic bomb Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL (previously known at various times as Site Y, Los Alamos Laboratory, and Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory) is a 
During World War II, the USSR and the U. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including S. became allies in war, but the U.S. government was highly suspicious of Joseph Stalin's intentions. The federal government of the United States is the central United States Governmental body established by the United States Constitution. Joseph Stalin ( ნამდვილი გვარი ჯუღაშვილი|Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili; March 5 1953 was General Secretary of the Communist Party As such, the Americans did not share information or seek assistance from the Soviet Union for the Manhattan Project. The World War II Manhattan Project developed the first Nuclear weapon (atomic bomb However, the Soviets were aware of the project as a result of espionage penetration of the U. S. government and had made a number of attempts to infiltrate its operations at the University of California, Berkeley. The University of California Berkeley (also referred to as Cal, Berkeley and UC Berkeley) is a major research university located in Berkeley A number of project members — some high-profile, others lower in rank — did voluntarily give secret information to Soviet agents, many because they were sympathetic to Communism (or the Soviet Union's role in the war) and did not feel that the U. Communism is a Socioeconomic structure that promotes the establishment of an egalitarian, classless, stateless Society based S. should have a monopoly on atomic weapons. In Economics, a monopoly (from Greek monos, alone or single + polein, to sell exists when a specific individual or enterprise has sufficient 
After the war, the U. S. continued to resist efforts to share nuclear secrets, but the Soviet Union was able to produce its own atomic weapons by 1949. Its first nuclear test, "Joe 1", shocked the West with the speed in which it was produced. Nuclear weapons tests are experiments carried out to determine the effectiveness yield and explosive capability of Nuclear weapons Throughout the twentieth century most nations The RDS-1 (РДС-1 also Joe-1, was the USSR's first Nuclear weapon test, named in reference to Joseph Stalin. The term Western world, the West or the Occident ( Latin: occidens -sunset -west as distinct from the Orient) can have multiple meanings It was then discovered in January 1950 that Klaus Fuchs, a German refugee theoretical physicist working for the British mission in the Manhattan Project, had given key documents to the Russians throughout the war. Klaus Emil Julius Fuchs ( December 29, 1911 &ndash January 28, 1988) was a German -born theoretical physicist and Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. According to the 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees, a refugee is a person who owing to a well-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race Theoretical physics employs Mathematical models and Abstractions of Physics in an attempt to explain experimental data taken of the natural world See also Kingdom of Great Britain Great Britain (Breatainn Mhòr Prydain Fawr Breten Veur Graet Breetain is the larger of the two main islands Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending Through Fuchs' confession, U. S. and United Kingdom intelligence agents were able to make a case against his "courier," Harry Gold, who was arrested on May 23, 1950. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located A courier is a Person or company employed to deliver Messages packages and Mail. This page is about the Soviet agent For the jazz musician please see Harry Gold (musician. Events 1430 - Siege of Compiègne: Joan of Arc is captured by the Burgundians while leading an army to relieve Compiègne Year 1950 ( MCML) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. A former machinist at Los Alamos, Sergeant David Greenglass confessed to having passed secret information on to the USSR through Gold as well. A machinist is a person who uses Machine tools to make or modify parts primarily Metal parts a process known as Machining. David Greenglass (b in New York City) was an Atomic spy for the Soviet Union. Though he initially denied any involvement by his sister, Ethel Rosenberg, he claimed that her husband, Julius, had convinced his wife to recruit him while on a visit to him in Albuquerque, New Mexico in 1944 and that Julius had also passed secrets. New Mexico ( is a state located in the southwestern region of the United States of America. Another accused conspirator, Morton Sobell, was on vacation in Mexico City when both Rosenbergs were arrested. Morton Sobell (born April 11 1917) is a self-confessed spy for the Soviet Union. Mexico City (in Spanish: Ciudad de México, México DF, México or simply Méjico) is the Capital city of Mexico According to his story published in On Doing Time, he tried to figure out a way to reach Europe without a passport but ultimately abandoned that effort and was back in Mexico City when he was kidnapped by members of the Mexican secret police and driven to the U.S. border where he was arrested. A passport is a document issued by a national government which certifies for the purpose of international travel the identity and nationality of its holder The United Mexican States ( or commonly Mexico (ˈmɛksɪkoʊ () is a federal constitutional Republic in North America. Secret police (sometimes political police) are a Police agency which operates in Secrecy to maintain National security against internal The government claimed he had been deported, but in 1956 the Mexican government officially declared that he had never been deported. The United Mexican States are a federal presidential representative democratic Republic whose government' is Deportation, not to be confused with Extradition, generally means the expulsion of someone from a place or Country. Regardless of how he was returned to the U. S. , he was arrested and stood trial with the Rosenbergs on one count of conspiracy to commit espionage.
The trial of the Rosenbergs and Sobell began on March 6, 1951. Events 1079 - Omar Khayyám completes the Iranian calendar. 1454 - Thirteen Years' War: Delegates of Year 1951 ( MCMLI) was a Common year starting on Monday. Events of 1951 January The prosecution's primary witness, David Greenglass, stated that his sister Ethel typed notes containing U. S. nuclear secrets in the Rosenberg apartment in September 1945. He also asserted that a sketch he made of a cross section of the implosion-type atom bomb (the one dropped on Nagasaki, Japan, as opposed to the "gun method" triggering device that was in the one dropped on Hiroshima) was also turned over to Julius Rosenberg at that meeting. "Fat Man" is the codename for the Atomic bomb that was detonated over Nagasaki, Japan, by the United States on August 9 ( is the Capital and the largest city of Nagasaki Prefecture in Japan. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. Little Boy was the Codename of the Atomic bomb, developed via the "Manhattan Project" which was dropped on Hiroshima, on August 6 1945 by the The Japanese city of ( is the capital of Hiroshima Prefecture, and the largest city in the Chūgoku region of western Honshū, the largest of Japan 's
From the beginning, the trial attracted a high amount of media attention, not unlike the trial of Alger Hiss. "Popular press" redirects here note that the University of Wisconsin Press publishes under the imprint "The Popular Press" Alger Hiss (November 11 1904 – November 15 1996 was a US State Department official involved in the establishment of the United Nations. Aside from the Rosenbergs' own defense during the trial, there was not one single public expression of doubt as to their guilt in any media (even the left-wing and Communist press) before and during the trial. The first break in the media unanimity would not occur until August of 1951 when a series of articles ran in the independent left-wing newspaper The National Guardian. A newspaper is a written Publication containing News, information and Advertising, usually printed on low-cost paper called Newsprint. Only after the publication of those articles was a defense committee formed.
However, between the trial and the executions there were widespread protests and claims of Anti-semitism. For example Nobel Prize winner Jean-Paul Sartre called the case "a legal lynching which smears with blood a whole nation. Jean-Paul Charles Aymard Sartre (21 June 1905 &ndash 15 April 1980 commonly known simply as Jean-Paul Sartre (ʒɑ̃ pol saʁtʁə was a French By killing the Rosenbergs, you have quite simply tried to halt the progress of science by human sacrifice. Magic, witch-hunts, auto-da-fés, sacrifices—we are here getting to the point: your country is sick with fear. . . you are afraid of the shadow of your own bomb. " Others, including non-Communists such as Albert Einstein and Nobel-Prize-winning atomic scientist and Chemist Harold Urey, as well as Communists or left-leaning artists such as Nelson Algren, Dashiell Hammett, Jean Cocteau, Diego Rivera and Frida Kahlo, protested the position of the American Government in what some termed America's Dreyfus Affair. Albert Einstein ( German: ˈalbɐt ˈaɪ̯nʃtaɪ̯n; English: ˈælbɝt ˈaɪnstaɪn (14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955 was a German -born theoretical The Nobel Prize (Nobelpriset (Nobelprisen is a Swedish prize established in the 1895 will of Swedish chemist Alfred Nobel; it was first awarded in Peace, Literature Harold Clayton Urey ( April 29, 1893 &ndash January 5, 1981) was an American Physical chemist whose pioneering work Samuel Dashiell Hammett ( May 27, 1894 — January 10, 1961) was an American Author of Hardboiled detective Jean Maurice Eugène Clément Cocteau (5 July 1889 &ndash 11 October 1963 was a French Poet, Novelist, Dramatist, Designer, Boxing Diego Rivera (December 8 1886 &ndash November 24 1957 was born Diego María de la Concepción Juan Nepomuceno Estanislao de la Rivera y Barrientos Acosta y Rodríguez Frida Kahlo (July 6 1907 – July 13 1954 was a Mexican painter, who has achieved great international popularity Pablo Picasso wrote for a French magazine, "The hours count. Pablo Diego José Francisco de Paula Juan Nepomuceno María de los Remedios Cipriano de la Santísima Trinidad Martyr Patricio Clito Ruíz y Picasso (October 25 1881 &ndash April 8 1973 The minutes count. Do not let this crime against humanity take place. " Pope Pius XII also condemned the execution. Pope  The all-Black International Longshoremen’s Association Local 968 stopped working for a day in protest.  Cinema artists including Fritz Lang and Bertolt Brecht registered their protest. Friedrich Christian Anton "Fritz" Lang ( December 5, 1890 &ndash August 2, 1976) was an Austrian German - American (born; 10 February 1898&ndash14 August 1956 was a German Poet, Playwright, and Theatre director. 
Although the notes allegedly typed by Ethel apparently contained little that was relevant to the Soviet atomic bomb project, this was sufficient evidence for the jury to convict on the conspiracy to commit espionage charge.
It is believed that part of the reason Ethel was indicted along with Julius was so that the prosecution could use her as a 'lever' to pressure Julius into giving up the names of others who were involved.  If that was the case, it did not work. On the witness stand, Julius asserted his right under the U.S. Constitution's Fifth Amendment to not incriminate himself whenever asked about his involvement in the Communist Party or with its members. The Constitution of the United States of America is the supreme Law of the United States. The Fifth Amendment ( Amendment V) of the United States Constitution, which is part of the Bill of Rights, is related to legal procedure Ethel did similarly. Neither defendant was viewed sympathetically by the jury.
The role played by Assistant U.S. Attorney Roy Cohn, the prosecutor in the case, is controversial, since Cohn stated in his autobiography that he influenced the selection of the judge, and pushed him to impose the death penalty on both Ethel and Julius Rosenberg. United States Attorneys (also known as federal prosecutors) represent the United States federal government in United States district court and Roy Marcus Cohn ( February 20, 1927 &ndash August 2, 1986) was an American conservative Lawyer of Jewish
The Rosenbergs were convicted on March 29, 1951, and on April 5 were sentenced to death by Judge Irving Kaufman under Section 2 of the 1917 Espionage Act, 50 U.S. Code 32 (now 18 U. Events 1461 - Wars of the Roses: Battle of Towton - Edward of York defeats Queen Margaret to become King Year 1951 ( MCMLI) was a Common year starting on Monday. Events of 1951 January Events 456 - St Patrick returns to Ireland as a missionary bishop Irving Kaufman can also refer to a popular 1920s Singer. Irving Robert Kaufman ( June 24, 1910 - February The Espionage Act of 1917 was a United States federal law passed shortly after entering World War I on June 15 1917 which made it a Crime for a person The United States Code ( USC) is a compilation and Codification of the general and permanent federal Law of the United States. S. Code 794), which prohibits transmitting or attempting to transmit to a foreign government information "relating to the national defense. " The conviction helped to fuel Senator Joseph McCarthy's investigations into anti-American activities by U. The United States Senate is the Upper house of the bicameral United States Congress, the Lower house being the House of Representatives Joseph Raymond McCarthy (November 14 1908 – May 2 1957 was an American politician who served as a Republican U Anti-Americanism, often anti-American sentiment, is opposition or hostility to the people culture or policies of the United States. S. citizens. While their devotion to the Communist cause was well documented, the Rosenbergs denied the espionage charges even as they faced the electric chair. Execution by electrocution (usually referred to after its method of implementation as the Electric Chair) is an execution method originating in the United States in which the
The couple were the only two American civilians to be executed for espionage-related activity during the Cold War. Cold War is the state of conflict tension and competition that existed between the United States and the Soviet Union (USSR and their respective allies from the In imposing the death penalty, Judge Kaufman noted that he held them responsible not only for espionage but also for the deaths of the Korean War:
|“||I consider your crime worse than murder. The Korean War refers to a period of military conflict between North Korean and South Korean regimes with major hostilities lasting from June 25 1950 until the . . I believe your conduct in putting into the hands of the Russians the A-Bomb years before our best scientists predicted Russia would perfect the bomb has already caused, in my opinion, the Communist aggression in Korea, with the resultant casualties exceeding 50,000 and who knows but that millions more of innocent people may pay the price of your treason. Korea is a geographic area composed of two sovereign countries a civilization and a former state situated on the Korean Peninsula in East Asia. Indeed, by your betrayal you undoubtedly have altered the course of history to the disadvantage of our country. No one can say that we do not live in a constant state of tension. We have evidence of your treachery all around us every day for the civilian defense activities throughout the nation are aimed at preparing us for an atom bomb attack. ||”|
Their case has been at the center of the controversy over communism in the United States ever since, with supporters steadfastly maintaining that their conviction was an egregious example of persecution typical of the "hysteria" of those times (see McCarthyism) and likening it to the witch hunts that marred Salem and medieval Europe (a comparison that provided the inspiration for Arthur Miller's critically acclaimed play, The Crucible). McCarthyism is a term describing the intense anti-communist suspicion in the United States in a period that lasted roughly from the late 1940s to the late 1950s The Salem witch trials were a series of hearings before local magistrates followed by county court Trials to prosecute people accused of Witchcraft in Essex Arthur Asher Miller (October 17 1915 &ndash February 10 2005 was an American Playwright and Essayist. The Crucible by Arthur Miller is a play based upon the events in 1692, which led to the Salem Witch Trials, a series of hearings before There is also a quotation by Ethel and Julius Rosenberg saying "We are the first victims of American fascism".
After the publication of the series in The National Guardian and the formation of the National Committee to Secure Justice in the Rosenberg Case, some Americans came to believe both Rosenbergs were innocent or received too harsh a punishment, and a grassroots campaign was started to try to stop the couple's execution. For other meanings see Grass roots (disambiguation. A grassroots movement (often referenced in the context of a Political movement Pope Pius XII appealed to President Dwight D. Eisenhower to spare the couple, but he refused on February 11, 1953, and all other appeals were also unsuccessful. History See also History of the Papacy Catholics recognize the Pope as a successor to Saint Peter, who Jesus named as the "shepherd" and Pope The President of the United States is the Head of state and Head of government of the United States and is the highest political official in United States by Dwight David "Ike" Eisenhower (October 14 1890 – March 28 1969 was President of the United States from 1953 until 1961 and a five-star general Events 660 BC - Traditional founding date of Japan by Emperor Jimmu. Year 1953 ( MCMLIII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. 
The couple was executed at sundown in the electric chair at Sing Sing Correctional Facility in Ossining, New York, on June 19, 1953. Execution by electrocution (usually referred to after its method of implementation as the Electric Chair) is an execution method originating in the United States in which the Sing Sing Correctional Facility is a maximum security Prison in Ossining, New York, USA. Ossining is the name of two places in New York: Ossining (village New York Ossining (town New York, which contains the Events 1179 - The Norwegian Battle of Kalvskinnet outside Nidaros. Year 1953 ( MCMLIII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. This was delayed from the originally scheduled date of June 18 because, on June 17, Supreme Court Associate Justice William O. Douglas had granted a stay of execution. Events 618 - Coronation of the Chinese governor Li Yuan as Emperor Gaozu of Tang, the new Emperor of China, initiating three centuries Events 1462 - Vlad III the Impaler attempts to assassinate Mehmed II ( The Night Attack) forcing him to retreat The Supreme Court of the United States is the highest judicial body in the United States and leads the federal judiciary. Associate Justice or Associate Judge is the title for a member of a judicial panel who is not the Chief Justice. William Orville Douglas ( October 16, 1898 – January 19, 1980) was a United States Supreme Court Associate Justice. A stay of execution is a court order to temporarily suspend the execution of a court judgement That stay resulted from the intervention in the case of Fyke Farmer, a Tennessee lawyer whose efforts had previously met with scorn from the Rosenbergs' attorney. 
On June 18, the Court was called back into special session to dispose of Douglas' stay rather than let the execution be delayed for months while the appeal that was the basis of the stay wended its way through the lower courts. The Court did not vacate Douglas's stay until noon on June 19. Thus, the execution then was scheduled for later in the evening after the start of the Jewish Sabbath. Shabbat or Shabbos ( Hebrew: שַׁבָּת, shabbāt, shabbes, "rest/inactivity" is the Weekly Sabbath Desperately playing for more time, their lawyer, Emanuel Bloch, filed a complaint that this offended their Jewish heritage—so the execution was scheduled before sunset. Reports of the execution state that Julius died after the first application of electricity, but Ethel did not succumb immediately and was subjected to two more electrical charges before being pronounced dead. The chair was designed for a man of average size; and Ethel Rosenberg was a petite woman: this discrepancy resulted, it is claimed, in the electrodes fitting poorly and making poor electrical contact. An electrode is an Electrical conductor used to make contact with a nonmetallic part of a circuit (e Eyewitness testimony (as given by a newsreel report featured in the 1982 documentary film The Atomic Cafe) describes smoke rising from her head. A newsreel is a Documentary film that is regularly released in a public presentation place containing filmed News stories Events June 10 = Steven Spielberg 's Science fiction PG-rating film E Documentary film is a broad category of visual expression that is based on the attempt in one fashion or another to " Document " reality The Atomic Café is an acclaimed Documentary film about the beginnings of the era of Nuclear warfare, created from a broad range of archival of film from the
Ethel and Julius Rosenberg are buried at Wellwood Cemetery in Pinelawn (Suffolk County), New York. Burial, also called interment and inhumation, is the act of placing a person or object into the ground Suffolk County is a county located in the US state of New York.
The Rosenbergs' two sons, Robert and Michael, were orphaned by the executions, and no relatives dared adopt them for fear of ostracism or worse. Robert Meeropol (born 1947 is the younger son of Ethel and Julius Rosenberg. Michael Meeropol (born 1943 is the older son of Ethel and Julius Rosenberg. Ostracism ( ostrakismos) was a procedure under the Athenian democracy in which a prominent Citizen could be expelled from the City-state They were finally adopted by the songwriter Abel Meeropol and his wife Anne, and they assumed the Meeropol surname. Abel Meeropol ( February 10, 1903 - October 30, 1986) was an American writer best known under his pseudonym Lewis Allan Abel Meeropol (under the pen name of Lewis Allan) wrote the classic anti-lynching anthem "Strange Fruit", made famous by singer Billie Holiday. " Strange Fruit " is a song performed most famously by Billie Holiday. Billie Holiday (born Eleanora Fagan; April 7 1915 – July 17 1959 was an American Jazz singer and songwriter Robert and Michael co-wrote a book about the experience, We are Your Sons: The Legacy of Ethel and Julius Rosenberg (1975), and Robert wrote another book in 2004, An Execution in the Family: One Son's Journey. In 1990, Robert founded the Rosenberg Fund for Children, a non-profit foundation that provides support for children whose parents are leftist activists involved in court cases. The Rosenberg Fund for Children is a Non-profit fund founded in 1990 by Robert Meeropol and named in honor of his parents Ethel and Julius Rosenberg
Michael's daughter, Ivy Meeropol, directed a 2004 documentary about her grandparents, Heir to an Execution, which was featured at the Sundance Film Festival. Ivy Meeropol (1968 -) is the director and producer of the 2004 documentary Heir to an Execution. The Sundance Film Festival is a Film festival that takes place annually in the state of Utah, in the United States.
The E. L. Doctorow novel, The Book of Daniel, is based on the Rosenberg case as seen through the eyes of the (fictionalised) son. Edgar Lawrence Doctorow (born January 6, 1931, New York New York) is an American Author whose critically acclaimed and award winning fiction The Book of Daniel (1971 is semi-historical novel by E L Doctorow, loosely based on the trial and execution of Ethel and Julius Rosenberg. It inspired the Sidney Lumet film, Daniel, starring Timothy Hutton. Sidney Lumet (born June 25 1924) is an Academy Award -receiving American Film director, with over 50 Films to his name Daniel is a 1983 film which was adapted by E L Doctorow from his novel The Book of Daniel. Timothy T Hutton (born August 16, 1960) is an American Academy Award -winning Actor.
11. London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. New York ( is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States and is the nation's third most populous Stanley Yalkowsky, "The murder of the Rosenbergs" Crucible Publications (July 1990) ISBN 978-0962098420