|Gaius Julius Caesar|
|Dictator of the Roman Republic|
|Reign||October, 49 BC–March 15, 44 BC|
|Full name||Gaius Julius Caesar|
|Born||12 July 100 BC or 102 BC|
|Birthplace||Rome, Roman Republic|
|Died||15 March 44 BC (aged 56)|
|Place of death||Rome, Roman Republic|
|Predecessor||Lucius Cornelius Sulla (as Dictator of the Roman Republic)|
|Successor||Augustus (as Roman Emperor)|
|Consort||1) Cornelia Cinna minor 84 BC–68 BC|
2) Pompeia 68 BC–63 BC
3) Calpurnia Pisonis 59 BC–44 BC
|Father||Gaius Julius Caesar|
Gaius Julius Caesar (pronounced [ˈgaːius ˈjuːlius ˈkaɪsar] in Classical Latin; conventionally pronounced /ˈgaɪəs ˈdʒuːliəs ˈsiːzɚ/ in English), July 13, 100 BC – March 15, 44 BC), was a Roman military and political leader. Dictator was a Political office of the Roman Republic. The dictator was above the three branches of government in the Constitution of the Roman Republic The Roman Republic was the phase of the ancient Roman civilization characterized by a Republican form of government a period which began with the overthrow of the Year 49 BC was a year of the pre-Julian calendar. Events By place Rome Consuls Lucius Cornelius Lentulus Crus Events 44 BC - Julius Caesar, Dictator of the Roman Republic, is stabbed to death by Marcus Junius Brutus, Year 44 BC was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Julian calendar. Events 1191 - Saladin 's garrison surrenders ending the two-year Siege of Acre. Rome ( Roma ˈroma Roma is the capital city of Italy and Lazio, and is Italy's largest and most populous city with more than 2 The Roman Republic was the phase of the ancient Roman civilization characterized by a Republican form of government a period which began with the overthrow of the Events 44 BC - Julius Caesar, Dictator of the Roman Republic, is stabbed to death by Marcus Junius Brutus, Year 44 BC was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Julian calendar. Rome ( Roma ˈroma Roma is the capital city of Italy and Lazio, and is Italy's largest and most populous city with more than 2 The Roman Republic was the phase of the ancient Roman civilization characterized by a Republican form of government a period which began with the overthrow of the Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix ( Latin: L•CORNELIVS•L•F•P•N•SVLLA•FELIX (c Augustus ( Latin: IMPERATOR·CAESAR·DIVI·FILIVS·AVGVSTVS September 23 63 BC – August 19 AD 14) born Gaius Octavius Thurinus, was The Roman Emperor was the ruler of the Roman State during the imperial period (starting at about 27 BC Cornelia Cinna minor (94 BC&ndash 69 BC or 68 BC daughter of Lucius Cornelius Cinna (one of the great leaders of the Marian party)and a sister to suffect consul Year 84 BC was a year of the pre-Julian calendar. Events By place Rome End of the First Mithridatic War. Year 68 BC was a year of the pre-Julian calendar. Events By place Rome Consuls Lucius Caecilius Metellus For other Roman Women with this name see Pompeia. Pompeia (flourished 1st century BC) daughter of Quintus Pompeius Rufus, a son of a former Year 68 BC was a year of the pre-Julian calendar. Events By place Rome Consuls Lucius Caecilius Metellus Year 63 BC was a year of the pre-Julian calendar. Events By place Rome Pompey conquers Phonecia, Coele-Syria Calpurnia Pisonis ( 1st century BC) daughter of Lucius Calpurnius Piso Caesoninus, was a Roman woman, third and last wife of Julius Caesar Year 59 BC was a year of the pre-Julian calendar. Events By place Rome Consuls Gaius Julius Caesar and Year 44 BC was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Julian calendar. Julia Caesaris ( Classical Latin: IVLIA•CAESARIS 83 or 82 BC-54 BC was the daughter of Gaius '''Julius Caesar''' the dictator, by his The Julio-Claudian Dynasty refers to the first five Roman Emperors: Augustus (Octavian Tiberius, Caligula (Gaius Claudius, and Gaius Julius Caesar (ca 140 BC–85 BC was a Roman senator supporter and brother-in-law of Gaius Marius, and father of Julius Caesar, the later dictator Aurelia Cotta or Aurelia (120 BC-54 BC was the mother of dictator Gaius Julius Caesar. Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States Events 1174 - William I of Scotland, a key rebel in the Revolt of 1173-1174, is captured at Alnwick by forces loyal to Events 44 BC - Julius Caesar, Dictator of the Roman Republic, is stabbed to death by Marcus Junius Brutus, Year 44 BC was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Julian calendar. The Roman Republic was the phase of the ancient Roman civilization characterized by a Republican form of government a period which began with the overthrow of the A military is an Organization authorized by its Nation to use force usually including use of Weapons in defending its Country (or by attacking Politics Politics is the process by which groups of people make decisions He played a critical role in the transformation of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire. The Roman Republic was the phase of the ancient Roman civilization characterized by a Republican form of government a period which began with the overthrow of the The Roman Empire was the post-Republican phase of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial
A politician of the populares tradition, he formed an unofficial triumvirate with Marcus Licinius Crassus and Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus which dominated Roman politics for several years, opposed in the Roman Senate by optimates like Marcus Porcius Cato and Marcus Calpurnius Bibulus. Populares ("favoring the people" singular popularis) were Aristocratic leaders in the late Roman Republic who tended to use the See also the First Triumvirate (Argentina which came to power in 1811 Marcus Licinius Crassus ( Latin: M·LICINIVS·P·F·P·N·CRASSVS (ca Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus, commonly known as Pompey /'pɑmpi/ Pompey the Great or Pompey the Triumvir ( Classical Latin abbreviation The Roman Senate was a political institution in Ancient Rome. Optimates (singular optimas, The Best of Men, Italian: ottimati; also known as the priests or boni, the Marcus Porcius Catō Uticensis (95 BC&ndash46 BC known as Cato the Younger ( Cato Minor) to distinguish him from his great-grandfather ( Cato the Elder Marcus Calpurnius Bibulus (d 48 BC was a politician of the late Roman Republic. His conquest of Gaul extended the Roman world all the way to the Atlantic Ocean, and he also conducted the first Roman invasion of Britain in 55 BC; the collapse of the triumvirate, however, led to a stand-off with Pompey and the Senate. Gaul (Gallia was the Roman name for the region of Western Europe comprising present day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western During his Gallic Wars, Julius Caesar invaded' Britain twice in 55 and 54 BC. The Roman Senate was a political institution in Ancient Rome. Leading his legions across the Rubicon, Caesar began a civil war in 49 BC from which he became the undisputed master of the Roman world. Rubicon ( Rubicō, Italian: Rubicone) is a 29 km long River in northern Italy. The Roman civil war of 49 BC sometimes called Caesar's Civil War, is one of the last conflicts within the Roman Republic. Year 49 BC was a year of the pre-Julian calendar. Events By place Rome Consuls Lucius Cornelius Lentulus Crus
After assuming control of government, he began extensive reforms of Roman society and government. He was proclaimed dictator for life (dictator perpetuus), and heavily centralised the bureaucracy of the Republic. Dictator was a Political office of the Roman Republic. The dictator was above the three branches of government in the Constitution of the Roman Republic The Latin title dictator perpetuo (engl "dictator in perpetuity" "dictator for eternity" sometimes incorrectly given as dictator perpetuus However, a group of senators, led by Caesar's former friend Marcus Junius Brutus, assassinated the dictator on the Ides of March (March 15) in 44 BC, hoping to restore the normal running of the Republic. Marcus Junius Brutus (85&ndash42 BC or Quintus Servilius Caepio Brutus was a Roman senator of the late Roman Republic. The Ides of March ( Latin: Idus Martiae is the name of the date 15 March in the Roman calendar. However, the result was another Roman civil war, which ultimately led to the establishment of a permanent autocracy by Caesar's adopted heir, Gaius Octavianus. List of Civil wars involving Rome. There were several Roman civil wars, especially during the time of the late Republic. An autocracy is a Form of government in which the Political power is held by a single self-appointed ruler Augustus ( Latin: IMPERATOR·CAESAR·DIVI·FILIVS·AVGVSTVS September 23 63 BC – August 19 AD 14) born Gaius Octavius Thurinus, was In 42 BC, two years after his assassination, the Senate officially sanctified Caesar as one of the Roman deities. Roman mythology, or more appropriately Latin mythology, refers to the mythological beliefs of the Italic people inhabiting the region of Latium and its
Much of Caesar's life is known from his own Commentaries (Commentarii) on his military campaigns, and other contemporary sources such as the letters and speeches of his political rival Cicero, the historical writings of Sallust, and the poetry of Catullus. Marcus Tullius Cicero ( Classical Latin ˈkikeroː usually ˈsɪsərəʊ in English January 3, 106 BC &ndash December 7, 43 BC was a Roman For the philosopher see Sallustius; for other uses see Sallust (disambiguation. For persons with a Cognomen "Catulus" see Lutatius Gaius Valerius Catullus (ca Many more details of his life are recorded by later historians, such as Appian, Suetonius, Plutarch, Cassius Dio and Strabo. Gaius Suetonius Tranquillus, commonly known as Suetonius (ca 69/75 &ndash after 130 was an equestrian and a historian during the Roman Empire. Lucius Mestrius Plutarchus ( Greek: Μέστριος Πλούταρχος c Lucius Cassius Dio Cocceianus ( Greek:) (c 155 or 163/164 to after 229 known in English as Cassius Dio, Dio Cassius, or Dio was Strabo ( Greek: Στράβων 63/64 BC – ca AD 24 was a Greek historian, geographer and philosopher.
Caesar was born into a patrician family, the gens Julia, which claimed descent from Iulus, son of the legendary Trojan prince Aeneas, supposedly the son of the goddess Venus. The term " patrician " originally referred to a group of elite families in Ancient Rome, including both their natural and In Ancient Rome, a gens (pl gentes) was a Clan, Caste, or group of Families, that shared a common name (the Julius (fem Julia) is the Nomen of the gens Julia, an important Patrician family of Ancient Rome supposed to have descended from In Greek and Roman mythology, Ascanius was the son of Aeneas and Creusa. Troy ( Greek: grc Τροία Troia, also, Ilion; Latin: Trōia, Īlium, Hittite: Wilusa or This article is about the Roman hero For other uses see Aeneas (disambiguation. Venus was a major Roman Goddess principally associated with Love, Beauty and fertility, the equivalent of the Greek goddess  The cognomen "Caesar" originated, according to Pliny the Elder, with an ancestor who was born by caesarean section (from the Latin verb to cut, caedo, caedere, cecidi, caesum). The cognomen (plural cognomina) was originally the third name of an Ancient Roman in the Roman naming convention. Gaius or Caius Plinius Secundus, ( AD 23 – August 25, AD 79 better known as Pliny the Elder, was an ancient Author A Caesarean section (or Cesarean section in American English) also known as C-section, is a form of Childbirth in which a surgical  The Historia Augusta suggests three alternative explanations: that the first Caesar had a thick head of hair (Latin caesaries); that he had bright grey eyes (Latin oculis caesiis); or that he killed an elephant (caesai in Moorish) in battle. The Augustan History ( Lat Historia Augusta) is a late Roman collection of biographies in Latin of the Roman Emperors their junior  Caesar issued coins featuring images of elephants, suggesting that he favoured this interpretation of his name. 
Despite their ancient pedigree, the Julii Caesares were not especially politically influential, having produced only three consuls. Consul (abbrev cos; Latin plural consules) was the highest elected Political office of the Roman Republic and the Empire. Caesar's father, also called Gaius Julius Caesar, reached the rank of praetor, the second highest of the Republic's elected magistracies, and governed the province of Asia, perhaps through the influence of his prominent brother-in-law Gaius Marius. Gaius Julius Caesar (ca 140 BC–85 BC was a Roman senator supporter and brother-in-law of Gaius Marius, and father of Julius Caesar, the later dictator Praetor was a title granted by the government of Ancient Rome to men acting in one of two official capacities the commander of an Army, either before The Roman province of Asia, also called Phrygia was an administrative unit added to the late Republic. This article is about the Roman statesman who reorganized the army and was seven times Consul  His mother, Aurelia Cotta, came from an influential family which had produced several consuls. Aurelia Cotta or Aurelia (120 BC-54 BC was the mother of dictator Gaius Julius Caesar. Marcus Antonius Gnipho, an orator and grammarian of Gaulish origin, was employed as Caesar's tutor. Marcus Antonius Gnipho ( fl 1st century BC) was a grammarian and teacher of Rhetoric of Gaulish origin who taught in Ancient Rome. Gaul (Gallia was the Roman name for the region of Western Europe comprising present day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western  Caesar had two sisters, both called Julia. Julia is the name of two daughters of proconsul Gaius Julius Caesar and Aurelia Cotta, the parents of dictator Gaius Julius Caesar. Little else is recorded of Caesar's childhood. Suetonius and Plutarch's biographies of him both begin abruptly in Caesar's teens; the opening paragraphs of both appear to be lost. Gaius Suetonius Tranquillus, commonly known as Suetonius (ca 69/75 &ndash after 130 was an equestrian and a historian during the Roman Empire. Lucius Mestrius Plutarchus ( Greek: Μέστριος Πλούταρχος c 
Caesar's formative years were a time of turmoil. The Social War was fought from 91 to 88 BC between Rome and her Italian allies over the issue of Roman citizenship, while Mithridates of Pontus threatened Rome's eastern provinces. This article is about the conflict between Rome and her Italian allies between 91 and 88 BC For the Athenian conflict with its allies between 357 and 355 BC see Citizenship in the time of Ancient Rome was a privileged status afforded to certain individuals with respect to laws property and governance See Mithridates for people and concepts with the same name Mithridates VI (Μιθριδάτης 132&ndash63 BC also known as Mithridates Geography The Black Sea region loosely called Pontus by various scholars has a steep rocky coast with rivers that cascade through the gorges of the coastal ranges Domestically, Roman politics was divided between politicians known as optimates and populares, neither of which had a common agenda and so cannot be considered a political party or even a faction. Optimates (singular optimas, The Best of Men, Italian: ottimati; also known as the priests or boni, the Populares ("favoring the people" singular popularis) were Aristocratic leaders in the late Roman Republic who tended to use the The optimates were those politicians who pursued their agendas through traditional, constitutional routes in the Senate; the populares those who preferred to bypass traditional procedure and pursue their agendas by appealing directly to the electorate. The Roman Senate was a political institution in Ancient Rome. Caesar's uncle Marius was a popularis, Marius' protégé Lucius Cornelius Sulla was an optimas, and in Caesar's youth their rivalry led to civil war. Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix ( Latin: L•CORNELIVS•L•F•P•N•SVLLA•FELIX (c
Both Marius and Sulla distinguished themselves in the Social War, and both wanted command of the war against Mithridates, which was initially given to Sulla; but when Sulla left the city to take command of his army, a tribune passed a law transferring the appointment to Marius. Tribune (from the Latin: tribunus; Byzantine Greek form τριβούνος) was a title shared by 2–3 elected magistracies in the Sulla responded by marching on Rome, reclaiming his command and forcing Marius into exile, but when he left on campaign Marius returned at the head of a makeshift army. He and his ally Lucius Cornelius Cinna seized the city and declared Sulla a public enemy, and Marius's troops took violent revenge on Sulla's supporters. Lucius Cornelius Cinna (d 84 BC was a four-time Consul of the Roman Republic, serving consecutive terms from 87 to 84 BC and a member of the ancient Roman Marius died early in 86 BC, but his followers remained in power. 
In 85 BC Caesar's father died suddenly while putting on his shoes one morning, without any apparent cause, and at sixteen, Caesar was the head of the family. The following year he was nominated to be the new Flamen Dialis, high priest of Jupiter, as Merula, the previous incumbent, had died in Marius's purges. The Flamen Dialis was an important position in Roman religion In Roman mythology, Jupiter was the king of the gods and the god of Sky and Thunder. Lucius Cornelius Merula (d 87 BC was a politician and priest of the late Roman Republic.  Since the holder of that position not only had to be a patrician but also be married to a patrician, he broke off his engagement to Cossutia, a girl of wealthy equestrian family he had been betrothed to since boyhood, and married Cinna's daughter Cornelia. Cornelia Cinna minor (94 BC&ndash 69 BC or 68 BC daughter of Lucius Cornelius Cinna (one of the great leaders of the Marian party)and a sister to suffect consul 
Then, having brought Mithridates to terms, Sulla returned to finish the civil war against Marius' followers. After a campaign throughout Italy he seized Rome at the Battle of the Colline Gate in November 82 BC and had himself appointed to the revived office of dictator; but whereas a dictator was traditionally appointed for six months at a time, Sulla's appointment had no term limit. The battle of the Colline Gate, fought in November of 82 BC, was the final battle by which Sulla secured control of Rome following the civil war against his rivals Dictator was a Political office of the Roman Republic. The dictator was above the three branches of government in the Constitution of the Roman Republic Statues of Marius were destroyed and Marius' body was exhumed and thrown in the Tiber. Cinna was already dead, killed by his own soldiers in a mutiny.  Sulla's proscriptions saw hundreds of his political enemies killed or exiled. Not to be confused with prescription and other meanings of proscription. Caesar, as the nephew of Marius and son-in-law of Cinna, was targeted. He was stripped of his inheritance, his wife's dowry and his priesthood, but refused to divorce Cornelia and was forced to go into hiding. The threat against him was lifted by the intervention of his mother's family, which included supporters of Sulla, and the Vestal Virgins. In Ancient Rome, the Vestal Virgins ( sacerdos Vestalis) were the virgin Holy female Priests of Vesta, the Goddess of the Sulla gave in reluctantly, and is said to have declared that he saw many a Marius in Caesar. 
Rather than returning to Rome, Caesar joined the army, serving under Marcus Minucius Thermus in Asia and Servilius Isauricus in Cilicia. Marcus Minucius Thermus was Propraetor of Asia in 80 BC. Julius Caesar 's first assignment was to the office of this man The Roman province of Asia, also called Phrygia was an administrative unit added to the late Republic. Geography Cilicia extended along the Aegean coast east from Pamphylia, to Mount Amanus ( Gavurdağı Mount) which separated it from Syria He served with distinction, winning the Civic Crown for his part in the siege of Mytilene. The Civic Crown ( Latin: corona civica) was a Chaplet of common Oak leaves woven to form a crown. Mytilene ( Greek: Μυτιλήνη - Mitilíni) is the Capital City of Lesbos, a Greek Island in the Aegean Sea On a mission to Bithynia to secure the assistance of King Nicomedes's fleet, he spent so long at his court that rumours of an affair with the king arose, which would persist for the rest of his life. Description Several major cities sat on the fertile shores of the Propontis (which is now known as Sea of Marmara) Nicomedia, Chalcedon, Cius Nicomedes IV Philopator, was the king of Bithynia, from c 94 BC to 75/4 BC.  Ironically, the loss of his priesthood had allowed him to pursue a military career: the Flamen Dialis was not permitted to touch a horse, sleep three nights outside his own bed or one night outside Rome, or look upon an army. 
In 80 BC, after two years in office, Sulla resigned his dictatorship, re-established consular government and, after serving as consul, retired to private life. Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix ( Latin: L•CORNELIVS•L•F•P•N•SVLLA•FELIX (c  Caesar later ridiculed Sulla's relinquishing of the dictatorship—"Sulla did not know his political ABC's".  He died two years later in 78 BC and was accorded a state funeral.  Hearing of Sulla's death, Caesar felt safe enough to return to Rome. Lacking means since his inheritance was confiscated, he acquired a modest house in the Subura, a lower class neighborhood of Rome. The Suburra is the modern Italian name for a neighborhood of Rome; in Antiquity the word was usually spelled Subura, and was a Red-light district.  His return coincided with an attempted anti-Sullan coup by Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, but Caesar, lacking confidence in Lepidus's leadership, did not participate. Marcus Aemilius Lepidus (120 BC &ndash 77 BC was a Roman statesman  Instead he turned to legal advocacy. He became known for his exceptional oratory, accompanied by impassioned gestures and a high-pitched voice, and ruthless prosecution of former governors notorious for extortion and corruption. Extortion, outwresting, or exaction is a criminal offense, which occurs when a person Unlawfully obtains either money property or services Political corruption is the use of governmental powers by government officials for illegitimate private gain Even Cicero praised him: "Come now, what orator would you rank above him. Marcus Tullius Cicero ( Classical Latin ˈkikeroː usually ˈsɪsərəʊ in English January 3, 106 BC &ndash December 7, 43 BC was a Roman . . ?" Aiming at rhetorical perfection, Caesar travelled to Rhodes in 75 BC to study under Apollonius Molon, who had previously taught Cicero. Rhetoric has had many definitions no simple definition can do it justice Rhodes (Ρόδος Ródos, ˈɾo̞ðo̞s Rodi ردوس Rodos; Ladino: Rodi or Rodes) is a Greek island 
On the way across the Aegean Sea, Caesar was kidnapped by Cilician pirates and held prisoner in the Dodecanese islet of Pharmacusa. Etymology In ancient times there were various explanations for the name Aegean. Geography Cilicia extended along the Aegean coast east from Pamphylia, to Mount Amanus ( Gavurdağı Mount) which separated it from Syria Piracy is Robbery committed at sea or sometimes on shore without a commission from a sovereign Nation (as distinct from Privateering The Dodecanese ( Greek Δωδεκάνησα Dodekánisa 'twelve islands' are a group of 12 larger plus 150 smaller Greek islands in the Aegean Pharmakonisi, or Farmakonisi (Gr Φαρμακονήσι is a small Greek island of the Dodecanese prefecture  He maintained an attitude of superiority throughout his captivity. When the pirates thought to demand a ransom of twenty talents of gold, he insisted they ask for fifty. The talent ( Latin: talentum, from Ancient Greek: "scale balance" is an ancient unit of Mass. After the ransom was paid, Caesar raised a fleet, pursued and captured the pirates, and imprisoned them in Pergamon. The governor of Asia refused to execute them as Caesar demanded, preferring to sell them as slaves, but Caesar returned to the coast and had them crucified on his own authority, as he had promised to when in captivity – a promise the pirates had taken as a joke. The Roman province of Asia, also called Phrygia was an administrative unit added to the late Republic. He then proceeded to Rhodes, but was soon called back into military action in Asia, raising a band of auxiliaries to repel an incursion from Pontus. Auxiliaries (from Latin: auxilia = "supports" formed the standing non-citizen corps of the Roman army of the Principate (30 BC&ndash284 AD
On his return to Rome he was elected military tribune, a first step on the cursus honorum of Roman politics. Tribune (from the Latin: tribunus; Byzantine Greek form τριβούνος) was a title shared by 2–3 elected magistracies in the The cursus honorum ( Latin: "course of honors" or "honors race" was the sequential order of Public offices held by aspiring The war against Spartacus took place around this time (73 - 71 BC), but it is not recorded what role, if any, Caesar played in it. The Third Servile War, also called the Gladiator War and The War of Spartacus by Plutarch, was the last of a series of unrelated and unsuccessful slave Spartacus (c 109 BC-71 BC according to Roman historians was a Slave who became the leader (or possibly one of several leaders in the unsuccessful slave He was elected quaestor for 69 BC, and during that year he delivered the funeral oration for his aunt Julia, widow of Marius, and included images of Marius, unseen since the days of Sulla, in the funeral procession. Quaestors were originally appointed by the Consuls to investigate criminal acts and determine if the consul needed to take public action His own wife Cornelia also died that year. After her funeral Caesar went to serve his quaestorship in Hispania under Antistius Vetus. Hispania was the name given by the Romans to the whole of the Iberian Peninsula (modern Portugal, Spain, Andorra, Gibraltar While there he is said to have encountered a statue of Alexander the Great, and realised with dissatisfaction he was now at an age when Alexander had the world at his feet, while he had achieved comparatively little. Alexander the Great ( or, Mégas Aléxandros; July 20 356 BC June 10 or June 11 323 BC also known as Alexander III of Macedon (el Ἀλέξανδρος Γ' He requested, and was granted, an early discharge from his duties, and returned to Roman politics. On his return he married Pompeia, a granddaughter of Sulla. For other Roman Women with this name see Pompeia. Pompeia (flourished 1st century BC) daughter of Quintus Pompeius Rufus, a son of a former  He was elected aedile and restored the trophies of Marius's victories; a controversial move given the Sullan regime was still in place. Aedile ( Aedilis, from aedes aedis "temple" "building" was an office of the Roman Republic. He also brought prosecutions against men who had benefited from Sulla's proscriptions, and spent a great deal of borrowed money on public works and games, outshining his colleague Marcus Calpurnius Bibulus. Marcus Calpurnius Bibulus (d 48 BC was a politician of the late Roman Republic. He was also suspected of involvement in two abortive coup attempts. 
63 BC was an eventful year for Caesar. The Kunsthistorisches Museum ( English: "Museum of Art History" in Vienna, housed in its festive palatial building on Ringstraße, crowned Vienna ( in Wien; see also other names) is the Capital of Austria, and is also one of the nine States of Austria. He persuaded a tribune, Titus Labienus, to prosecute the optimate senator Gaius Rabirius for the political murder, 37 years previously, of the tribune Lucius Appuleius Saturninus, and had himself appointed as one of the two judges to try the case. Titus Labienus (ca 100 BC– March 17, 45 BC was a professional Roman soldier in the late Roman Republic. There is also Gaius Rabirius (poet Gaius Rabirius was a senator who was involved in the death of Lucius Appuleius Saturninus. Lucius Appuleius Saturninus (d December 100 BC was a Roman Demagogue and Tribune; he was a political ally of Gaius Marius, and his downfall Rabirius was defended by both Cicero and Quintus Hortensius, but was convicted of perduellio (treason). Marcus Tullius Cicero ( Classical Latin ˈkikeroː usually ˈsɪsərəʊ in English January 3, 106 BC &ndash December 7, 43 BC was a Roman Quintus Hortensius Hortalus (114 - 50 BC was a Roman Orator and advocate In the early days of Ancient Rome, perduellio was the term for the capital offense of High treason. While he was exercising his right of appeal to the people, the praetor Quintus Caecilius Metellus Celer adjourned the assembly by taking down the military flag from the Janiculum hill. Quintus Caecilius Metellus Celer (before 103 BC or c 100 BC &ndash 59 BC was a Consul in 60 BC and son of Quintus Caecilius Metellus Nepos, or according to some Labienus could have resumed the prosecution at a later session, but did not do so: Caesar's point had been made, and the matter was allowed to drop.  Labienus would remain an important ally of Caesar over the next decade.
The same year, Caesar ran for election to the post of Pontifex Maximus, chief priest of the Roman state religion, after the death of Quintus Caecilius Metellus Pius, who had been appointed to the post by Sulla. The Pontifex Maximus was the high priest of the Ancient Roman College of Pontiffs. Quintus Caecilius Metellus Pius (ca 130 BC or 127 BC &ndash 63 BC was a pro- Sullan state figure He ran against two powerful optimates, the former consuls Quintus Lutatius Catulus and Publius Servilius Vatia Isauricus. Quintus Lutatius Catulus (c 120-61 BC sometimes called Capitolinus was the son of Quintus Lutatius Catulus. Publius Servilius Vatia Isauricus (b c 134 BC son of Gaius Servilius Vatia and wife Caecilia Metella daughter of Quintus Caecilius Metellus Macedonicus, There were accusations of bribery by all sides. Caesar is said to have told his mother on the morning of the election that he would return as Pontifex Maximus or not at all, expecting to be forced into exile by the enormous debts he had run up to fund his campaign. In any event he won comfortably, despite his opponents' greater experience and standing, possibly because the two older men split their votes.  The post came with an official residence on the Via Sacra. The Via Sacra (Sacred Road is the Main street of Ancient Rome, leading from the top of the Capitoline Hill, through some of the most important 
When Cicero, who was consul that year, exposed Catiline's conspiracy to seize control of the republic, Catulus and others accused Caesar of involvement in the plot. Lucius Sergius Catilina (108 BC–62 BC known in English as Catiline, was a Roman Politician of the 1st century BC who is best known for the  Caesar, who had been elected praetor for the following year, took part in the debate in the Senate on how to deal with the conspirators. During the debate, Caesar was passed a note. Marcus Porcius Cato, who would become his most implacable political opponent, accused him of corresponding with the conspirators, and demanded that the message be read aloud. Marcus Porcius Catō Uticensis (95 BC&ndash46 BC known as Cato the Younger ( Cato Minor) to distinguish him from his great-grandfather ( Cato the Elder Caesar passed him the note, which, embarrassingly, turned out to be a love letter from Cato's half-sister Servilia. Servilia Caepionis (b c107 BC - d after 42 BC is one of the few Roman women cited by ancient sources mainly due to her being the mistress of Julius Caesar, mother Caesar argued persuasively against the death penalty for the conspirators, proposing life imprisonment instead, but a speech by Cato proved decisive, and the conspirators were executed.  The following year a commission was set up to investigate the conspiracy, and Caesar was again accused of complicity. On Cicero's evidence that he had reported what he knew of the plot voluntarily, however, he was cleared, and one of his accusers, and also one of the commissioners, were sent to prison. 
While praetor in 62 BC, Caesar supported Metellus Celer, now tribune, in proposing controversial legislation, and the pair were so obstinate they were suspended from office by the Senate. Caesar attempted to continue to perform his duties, only giving way when violence was threatened. The Senate was persuaded to reinstate him after he quelled public demonstrations in his favour. 
That year the festival of the Bona Dea ("good goddess") was held at Caesar's house. In Roman mythology, Bona Dea (literally " the good goddess " was the Goddess of Fertility, Healing, Virginity, No men were permitted to attend, but a young patrician named Publius Clodius Pulcher managed to gain admittance disguised as a woman, apparently for the purpose of seducing Caesar's wife Pompeia. Publius Clodius Pulcher (born around 92 BC died January 18, 52 BC was a Roman Politician of the Populares cause chiefly remembered for his For other Roman Women with this name see Pompeia. Pompeia (flourished 1st century BC) daughter of Quintus Pompeius Rufus, a son of a former He was caught and prosecuted for sacrilege. Caesar gave no evidence against Clodius at his trial, careful not to offend one of the most powerful patrician families of Rome, and Clodius was acquitted after rampant bribery and intimidation. Nevertheless, Caesar divorced Pompeia, saying that "my wife ought not even to be under suspicion. "
After his praetorship, Caesar was appointed to govern Hispania Ulterior (Outer Iberia), but he was still in considerable debt and needed to satisfy his creditors before he could leave. During the Roman Republic, Hispania Ulterior (English Further Spain) was a region of Hispania roughly located The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra He turned to Marcus Licinius Crassus, one of Rome's richest men. Marcus Licinius Crassus ( Latin: M·LICINIVS·P·F·P·N·CRASSVS (ca In return for political support in his opposition to the interests of Pompey, Crassus paid some of Caesar's debts and acted as guarantor for others. Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus, commonly known as Pompey /'pɑmpi/ Pompey the Great or Pompey the Triumvir ( Classical Latin abbreviation Even so, to avoid becoming a private citizen and open to prosecution for his debts, Caesar left for his province before his praetorship had ended. In Hispania he conquered the Callaici and Lusitani, being hailed as imperator by his troops, reformed the law regarding debts, and completed his governorship in high esteem. The Gallaeci, Callaeci, or Callaici were a Pre- Roman Celtic single or various tribes living in the northwest of the Iberian Peninsula The Lusitanians (or Lusitani in Latin) were an Indo-European people living in the western Iberian Peninsula long before it became the Roman The Latin word Imperator was a title originally roughly equivalent to commander during the period of the Roman Republic. 
Being hailed as imperator entitled Caesar to a triumph. A Roman triumph ( la [[wikttriumphus triumphus]], Old Latin la triumpus, attested as the exclamation la TRIVMPE in the Carmen Arvale; via However, he also wanted to stand for consul, the most senior magistracy in the republic. Consul (abbrev cos; Latin plural consules) was the highest elected office of the Roman Republic and an appointive office under the Empire If he were to celebrate a triumph, he would have to remain a soldier and stay outside the city until the ceremony, but to stand for election he would need to lay down his command and enter Rome as a private citizen. He could not do both in the time available. He asked the senate for permission to stand in absentia, but Cato blocked the proposal. Faced with the choice between a triumph and the consulship, Caesar chose the consulship. 
Three candidates stood for the consulship: Caesar, Marcus Calpurnius Bibulus, who had been aedile with Caesar several years earlier, and Lucius Lucceius. Lucius Lucceius, Roman Orator and historian friend and correspondent of Cicero. The election was dirty. Caesar canvassed Cicero for support, and made an alliance with the wealthy Lucceius, but the establishment threw its financial weight behind the conservative Bibulus, and even Cato, with his reputation for incorruptibility, is said to have resorted to bribery in his favour. Caesar and Bibulus were elected as consuls for 59 BC. 
Caesar was already in Crassus's political debt, but he also made overtures to Pompey, who was unsuccessfully fighting the Senate for ratification of his eastern settlements and farmland for his veterans. Marcus Licinius Crassus ( Latin: M·LICINIVS·P·F·P·N·CRASSVS (ca Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus, commonly known as Pompey /'pɑmpi/ Pompey the Great or Pompey the Triumvir ( Classical Latin abbreviation Pompey and Crassus had been at odds since they were consuls together in 70 BC, and Caesar knew if he allied himself with one he would lose the support of the other, so he endeavoured to reconcile them. Between the three of them, they had enough money and political influence to control public business. This informal alliance, known as the First Triumvirate (rule of three men), was cemented by the marriage of Pompey to Caesar's daughter Julia. See also the First Triumvirate (Argentina which came to power in 1811 Julia Caesaris ( Classical Latin: IVLIA•CAESARIS 83 or 82 BC-54 BC was the daughter of Gaius '''Julius Caesar''' the dictator, by his  Caesar also married again, this time Calpurnia, daughter of Lucius Calpurnius Piso Caesoninus, who was elected to the consulship for the following year. Calpurnia Pisonis ( 1st century BC) daughter of Lucius Calpurnius Piso Caesoninus, was a Roman woman, third and last wife of Julius Caesar Lucius Calpurnius Piso Caesoninus was a Statesman of Ancient Rome and the father-in-law of Julius Caesar through his daughter Calpurnia Pisonis 
Caesar proposed a law for the redistribution of public lands to the poor, a proposal supported by Pompey, by force of arms if need be, and by Crassus, making the triumvirate public. Pompey filled the city with soldiers, and the triumvirate's opponents were intimidated. Bibulus attempted to declare the omens unfavourable and thus void the new law, but was driven from the forum by Caesar's armed supporters. His lictors had their fasces broken, two tribunes accompanying him were wounded, and Bibulus himself had a bucket of excrement thrown over him. The lictor, derived from the Latin ligare (to bind was a member of a special class of Roman civil servant with special tasks of attending and guarding Fasces (ˈfæsiːz a Plurale tantum, from the Latin word fascis, meaning "bundle" symbolize summary power and Jurisdiction In fear of his life, he retired to his house for the rest of the year, issuing occasional proclamations of bad omens. These attempts to obstruct Caesar's legislation proved ineffective. Roman satirists ever after referred to the year as "the consulship of Julius and Caesar". 
When Caesar and Bibulus were first elected, the aristocracy tried to limit Caesar's future power by allotting the woods and pastures of Italy, rather than governorship of a province, as their proconsular duties after their year of office was over.  With the help of Piso and Pompey, Caesar later had this overturned, and was instead appointed to govern Cisalpine Gaul (northern Italy) and Illyricum (the western Balkans), with Transalpine Gaul (southern France) later added, giving him command of four legions. Cisalpine Gaul ( Latin: Gallia Cisalpina, meaning " Gaul on this side of the Alps " was the Roman name for a geographical area (later The Roman province of Illyricum replaced the formerly independent kingdom of Illyria. Gallia Narbonensis ( Narbonese Gaul) was a Roman province located in what is now Languedoc and Provence, in southern France. His term of office, and thus his immunity from prosecution, was set at five years, rather than the usual one.  When his consulship ended, Caesar narrowly avoided prosecution for the irregularities of his year in office, and quickly left for his province. 
Caesar was still deeply in debt, and there was money to be made as a provincial governor, whether by extortion or by military adventurism. The Gallic Wars were a series of Military campaigns waged by the Roman proconsul Julius Caesar against several Gallic tribes, lasting from Caesar had four legions under his command, two of his provinces, Illyricum and Gallia Narbonensis, bordered on unconquered territory, and independent Gaul was known to be unstable. The Roman province of Illyricum replaced the formerly independent kingdom of Illyria. Gallia Narbonensis ( Narbonese Gaul) was a Roman province located in what is now Languedoc and Provence, in southern France. Rome's allies the Aedui had been defeated by their Gallic rivals, with the help of a contingent of Germanic Suebi under Ariovistus, who had settled in conquered Aeduan land, and the Helvetii were mobilising for a mass migration, which the Romans feared had warlike intent. Aedui, Haedui or Hedui (Gr Aidouoi) are Gallic people of Gallia Lugdunensis, who inhabited the country between the Arar ( Saone) and Liger The Germanic peoples are a historical group of Indo-European -speaking peoples originating in Northern Europe and identified by their use of the Germanic The Suebi or Suevi (from Proto-Germanic * swēbaz based on the Proto-Germanic root * swē- meaning "one's own" Ariovistus was a leader of the Suebi and other allied Germanic peoples in the second quarter of the 1st century BC The Helvetii were a Celtic tribe and the main occupants of the Swiss plateau in the 1st century BC Caesar raised two new legions and defeated first the Helvetii, then Ariovistus, and left his army in winter quarters in the territory of the Sequani, signaling that his interest in the lands outside Gallia Narbonensis would not be temporary. 
He began his second year with double the military strength he had begun with, having raised another two legions in Cisalpine Gaul during the winter. The legality of this was dubious, as the Cisalpine Gauls were not Roman citizens. In response to Caesar's activities the previous year, the Belgic tribes of north-eastern Gaul had begun to arm themselves. The Belgae were a group of tribes living in northern Gaul in the 1st century BC and later also attested in Britain. Caesar treated this as an aggressive move, and, after an inconclusive engagement against a united Belgic army, conquered the tribes piecemeal. Meanwhile, one legion, commanded by Crassus' son Publius, began the conquest of the tribes of the Armorican peninsula. Armorica or Aremorica is the name given in ancient times to the part of Gaul that includes the Brittany Peninsula and the territory between the 
During the spring of 56 BC the Triumvirate held a conference at Luca (modern Lucca) in Cisalpine Gaul. Lucca is a city in Tuscany, northern central Italy, situated on the river Serchio in a fertile plain near (but not on the Ligurian Sea Rome was in turmoil, and Clodius' populist campaigns had been undermining relations between Crassus and Pompey. Publius Clodius Pulcher (born around 92 BC died January 18, 52 BC was a Roman Politician of the Populares cause chiefly remembered for his The meeting renewed the Triumvirate and extended Caesar's proconsulship for another five years. Crassus and Pompey would be consuls again, with similarly long-term proconsulships to follow: Syria for Crassus, the Hispanian provinces for Pompey.  The conquest of Armorica was completed when Caesar defeated the Veneti in a naval battle, while young Crassus conquered the Aquitani of the south-west. The Veneti were a seafaring Celtic people who lived in the Brittany peninsula ( France) which in Roman times formed part of an area called Aremorica The Aquitani ( Latin for Aquitanians) were a people living in what is now southwestern France, between the Pyrenees and the Garonne By the end of campaigning in 56 BC only the Morini and Menapii of the coastal Low Countries still held out. The Morini were a Belgic tribe in the time of the Roman Empire. The Menapii were a Belgic tribe of northern Gaul in pre-Roman and Roman times 
In 55 BC Caesar repelled an incursion into Gaul by the Germanic Usipetes and Tencteri, and followed it up by building a bridge across the Rhine and making a show of force in Germanic territory, before returning and dismantling the bridge. The Tencteri and Usipetes were Germanic tribes located on the eastern bank of the lower Rhine in the 1st century BC The Tencteri and Usipetes were Germanic tribes located on the eastern bank of the lower Rhine in the 1st century BC Late that summer, having subdued the Morini and Menapii, he crossed to Britain, claiming that the Britons had aided the Veneti against him the previous year. His intelligence was poor, and although he gained a beachhead on the Kent coast he was unable to advance further, and returned to Gaul for the winter.  He returned the following year, better prepared and with a larger force, and achieved more. He advanced inland, establishing Mandubracius of the Trinovantes as a friendly king and bringing his rival, Cassivellaunus, to terms. Mandubracius or Mandubratius was a king of the Trinovantes of south-eastern Britain in the 1st century BC. The Trinovantes or Trinobantes were one of the Celtic Tribes that lived in pre- Roman Britain. Cassivellaunus was a historical British chieftain who led the defence against Julius Caesar 's second expedition to Britain in 54 BC. But poor harvests led to widespread revolt in Gaul, led by Ambiorix of the Eburones, forcing Caesar to campaign through the winter and into the following year. Ambiorix was together with Catuvolcus, prince of the Eburones, leader of a Belgic tribe of north-eastern Gaul ( Gallia Belgica) where The Eburones ( Greek:, Strabo) were a people of Germanic descent that lived in the upper north of Gallia largely between the Rhine and the With the defeat of Ambiorix, Caesar believed Gaul was now pacified. 
While Caesar was in Britain his daughter Julia, Pompey's wife, had died in childbirth. Caesar tried to resecure Pompey's support by offering him his great-niece Octavia in marriage, alienating Octavia's husband Gaius Marcellus, but Pompey declined. Octavia Minor (69 - 11 BC also known as Octavia the Younger or simply Octavia, was the sister of the first Roman Emperor, Augustus (known also See Gaius Claudius Marcellus for other men of this name or Gaius Claudius Marcellus Maior for his cousin consul of 49 BC In 53 BC Crassus was killed leading a failed invasion of Parthia. An invasion is a military offensive consisting of all or large parts of the Armed forces of one geopolitical entity aggressively entering territory Parthia ( Middle Persian: اشکانیان Ashkâniân) was an Iranian civilization situated in the northeastern part of modern Iran Rome was on the edge of violence. Pompey was appointed sole consul as an emergency measure, and married Cornelia, daughter of Caesar's political opponent Quintus Metellus Scipio, whom he invited to become his consular colleague once order was restored. Cornelia Metella ( 1st century BC) was the daughter of Quintus Caecilius Metellus Pius Scipio Nasica. The Triumvirate was dead. 
In 52 BC another, larger revolt erupted in Gaul, led by Vercingetorix of the Arverni. Vercingetorix (werkiŋˈɡetoriks in Latin) born around 82 BC died 46 BC was chieftain of the Arverni, originating from the Arvernian city of The Arverni were a Gallic tribe that inhabited the present-day region of Clermont-Ferrand, France. Vercingetorix managed to unite the Gallic tribes and proved an astute commander, defeating Caesar in several engagements including the Battle of Gergovia, but Caesar's elaborate siege-works at the Battle of Alesia finally forced his surrender. The Battle of Gergovia took place in 52 BC in Gaul at Gergovia the chief town of the Arverni. The Battle of Alesia or Siege of Alesia took place in September 52 BC around the Gallic Oppidum of Alesia, a major town centre and  Despite scattered outbreaks of warfare the following year, Gaul was effectively conquered. The following is a list of Roman Battles fought by the Roman Kingdom, the Roman Republic, the Roman Empire, and sometimes the Byzantine Empire
Titus Labienus was Caesar's most senior legate during his Gallic campaigns, having the status of propraetor. Titus Labienus (ca 100 BC– March 17, 45 BC was a professional Roman soldier in the late Roman Republic. A legatus (often anglicized as legate) was a general in the Roman army, equivalent to a modern general officer A promagistrate is a person who acts in and with the authority and capacity of a magistrate, but without holding a magisterial office  Other prominent men who served under him included his relative Lucius Julius Caesar, Crassus' sons Marcus and Publius, Cicero's brother Quintus, Decimus Brutus, and Mark Antony. In Ancient Rome several men of the Julii Caesares family were named Lucius Julius Caesar. Quintus Tullius Cicero (102 BC &ndash 43 BC was the younger brother of the celebrated Orator, Philosopher and Statesman Marcus Tullius For others with this cognomen see Albinus (cognomen. Decimus Junius Brutus Albinus (born circa 85 BC died 43 BC was a Roman politician Marcus Antonius (in Latin: M·ANTONIVS·M·F·M·N ( c January 14 83 BC&ndash August 1, 30 BC known in English as Mark 
Plutarch claimed that the army had fought against three million men in the course of the Gallic Wars, of whom 1 million died, and another million were enslaved. The Gallic Wars were a series of Military campaigns waged by the Roman proconsul Julius Caesar against several Gallic tribes, lasting from The history of slavery uncovers many different forms of human exploitation across many cultures throughout history 300 tribes were subjugated and 800 cities were destroyed.  Almost the entire population of the city of Avaricum (Bourges) (40,000 in all) was slaughtered. Avaricum was an Oppidum in ancient Gaul, near what is now the city of Bourges.  Julius Caesar reports that 368,000 of the Helvetii left home, of whom 92,000 could bear arms, and only 110,000 returned after the campaign. The Helvetii were a Celtic tribe and the main occupants of the Swiss plateau in the 1st century BC  However, in view of the difficulty of finding accurate counts in the first place, Caesar's propagandistic purposes, and the common gross exaggeration of numbers in ancient texts, the totals of enemy combatants in particular are likely to be far too high. Furger-Gunti considers an army of more than 60,000 fighting Helvetii extremely unlikely in the view of the tactics described, and assumes the actual numbers to have been around 40,000 warriors out of a total of 160,000 emigrants.  Delbrück suggests an even lower number of 100,000 people, out of which only 16,000 were fighters, which would make the Celtic force about half the size of the Roman body of ca. 30,000 men. 
In 50 BC, the Senate, led by Pompey, ordered Caesar to return to Rome and disband his army because his term as Proconsul had finished. Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus, commonly known as Pompey /'pɑmpi/ Pompey the Great or Pompey the Triumvir ( Classical Latin abbreviation Moreover, the Senate forbade Caesar to stand for a second consulship in absentia. Caesar thought he would be prosecuted and politically marginalised if he entered Rome without the immunity enjoyed by a Consul or without the power of his army. Pompey accused Caesar of insubordination and treason. On January 10, 49 BC Caesar crossed the Rubicon (the frontier boundary of Italy) with only one legion and ignited civil war. Events 49 BC - Julius Caesar crosses the Rubicon, signaling the start of civil war. Rubicon ( Rubicō, Italian: Rubicone) is a 29 km long River in northern Italy. Legio XIII, known after 31 BC as Gemina (the "twin legion" is one of the more historically remarkable Roman legions. The Roman civil war of 49 BC sometimes called Caesar's Civil War, is one of the last conflicts within the Roman Republic. Upon crossing the Rubicon, Caesar is reported to have quoted the Athenian playwright Menander, saying alea iacta est, "the die is cast". Menander ( Greek:, Menandros; ca 342&ndash291 BC Greek Dramatist, the best-known representative of Athenian New Comedy, was the son Alea iacta est (also seen as alea jacta est) is Latin for "The die
The Optimates, including Metellus Scipio and Cato the Younger, fled to the south, having little confidence in the newly raised troops especially since so many cities in northern Italy had voluntarily capitulated. An attempted stand by a consulate legion in Samarium resulted in the consul being handed over by the defenders and the legion surrendering without significant fighting. Despite greatly outnumbering Caesar, who only had his Thirteenth Legion with him, Pompey had no intention to fight. Legio XIII, known after 31 BC as Gemina (the "twin legion" is one of the more historically remarkable Roman legions. Caesar pursued Pompey to Brindisium, hoping to capture Pompey before the trapped Senate and their legions could escape. Brindisi can also refer to a song in which a company is exhorted to drink such as the "Tea-Cup Brindisi" in Gilbert and Sullivan 's " The Pompey managed to elude him, sailing out of the harbor before Caesar could break the barricades.
Lacking a naval force since Pompey had already scoured the coasts of all ships for evacuation of his forces, Caesar decided to head for Hispania saying "I set forth to fight an army without a leader, so as later to fight a leader without an army. " Leaving Marcus Aemilius Lepidus as prefect of Rome, and the rest of Italy under Mark Antony as tribune, Caesar made an astonishing 27-day route-march to Hispania, rejoining two of his Gallic legions, where he defeated Pompey's lieutenants. Marcus Aemilius Lepidus ( Latin: M·AEMILIVS·M·F·Q·N·LEPIDVSborn ca 90 BC died 13 BC, was a Patrician Roman politician Marcus Antonius (in Latin: M·ANTONIVS·M·F·M·N ( c January 14 83 BC&ndash August 1, 30 BC known in English as Mark Hispania was the name given by the Romans to the whole of the Iberian Peninsula (modern Portugal, Spain, Andorra, Gibraltar He then returned east, to challenge Pompey in Greece where on July 10, 48 BC at Dyrrhachium Caesar barely avoided a catastrophic defeat when the line of fortification was broken. Greece (Ελλάδα transliterated: Elláda, historically, Ellás,) officially the Hellenic Republic (Ελληνική Δημοκρατία Events 48 BC - Battle of Dyrrhachium, Julius Caesar barely avoids a catastrophic defeat to Pompey in Macedonia. The Battle of Dyrrachium (or Dyrrhachium on 10 July 48 BC, was a battle of Caesar's civil war in modern Albania. He decisively defeated Pompey, despite Pompey's numerical advantage (nearly twice the number of infantry and considerably more cavalry), at Pharsalus in an exceedingly short engagement in 48 BC. The Battle of Pharsalus was a decisive battle of Caesar's Civil War.
In Rome, Caesar was appointed dictator, with Mark Antony as his Master of the Horse; Caesar resigned this dictatorate after 11 days and was elected to a second term as consul with Publius Servilius Vatia as his colleague. Dictator was a Political office of the Roman Republic. The dictator was above the three branches of government in the Constitution of the Roman Republic Marcus Antonius (in Latin: M·ANTONIVS·M·F·M·N ( c January 14 83 BC&ndash August 1, 30 BC known in English as Mark The Master of the Horse was (and in some cases is a historical position of varying importance in several European nations Publius Servilius Vatia Isauricus was a Roman Consul elected in 48 BC along with Gaius Julius Caesar.
He pursued Pompey to Alexandria, where Pompey was murdered by a former Roman officer serving in the court of King Ptolemy XIII. Alexandria ( Egyptian Arabic: اسكندريه Eskendereyya; Standard Arabic: ar الإسكندرية Al-Iskandariyya; Ἀλεξάνδρεια Ptolemy XIII Theos Philopator ( Greek: Πτολεμαῖος Θεός Φιλοπάτωρ, Ptolemaĩos Theós Philopátōr, lived 62 BC/61 BC– Caesar then became involved with the Alexandrine civil war between Ptolemy and his sister, wife, and co-regent queen, the Pharaoh Cleopatra VII. Pharaoh is the title given in modern parlance to the ancient Egyptian kings of all periods Cleopatra VII Philopator (in Greek, Κλεοπάτρα Φιλοπάτωρ; January 69 BC &ndash 30 BC was a Hellenistic ruler of Egypt Perhaps as a result of Ptolemy's role in Pompey's murder, Caesar sided with Cleopatra; he is reported to have wept at the sight of Pompey's head, which was offered to him by Ptolemy's chamberlain Pothinus as a gift. Pothinus (early 1st century BC to 48 or 47 BC a Eunuch, was Regent for Pharaoh Ptolemy XIII of the Ptolemaic dynasty of Ancient In any event, Caesar defeated the Ptolemaic forces in 47 BC in the Battle of the Nile and installed Cleopatra as ruler, with whom he is suspected to have fathered a son, Caesarion. The Battle of the Nile ( 47 BC) saw the combined Roman - Egyptian armies of Julius Caesar and Cleopatra VII defeat those of the Ptolemy XV Philopator Philometor Caesar, nicknamed Caesarion (little Caesar Greek: Πτολεμαῖος ΙΕʹ Φιλοπάτωρ Φιλομήτωρ Καῖσαρ Caesar and Cleopatra celebrated their victory of the Alexandrine civil war through a triumphant procession on the Nile in the spring of 47 B. C. The royal barge was accompanied by 400 additional ships, introducing Caesar to the luxurious lifestyle of the Egyptian pharoahs.
Caesar and Cleopatra never married: they could not do so under Roman Law. The institution of marriage was only recognised between two Roman citizens; Cleopatra was Queen of Egypt. In Roman eyes, this did not constitute adultery, and Caesar is believed to have continued his relationship with Cleopatra throughout his last marriage, which lasted 14 years and produced no children. Cleopatra visited Rome on more than one occasion, residing in Caesar's villa just outside Rome across the Tiber. The Tiber ( Latin Tiberis, Italian Tevere) is the third-longest River in Italy, rising in the Apennine mountains
After spending the first months of 47 BC in Egypt, Caesar went to the Middle East, where he annihilated King Pharnaces II of Pontus in the Battle of Zela; his victory was so swift and complete that he mocked Pompey's previous victories over such poor enemies. The Middle East is a Subcontinent with no clear boundaries often used as a synonym to Near East, in opposition to Far East. Pharnaces II (in Greek Φαρνάκης, died 47 BC was the son of the great Mithridates VI of Pontus, a famed enemy of the Roman Republic. The Battle of Zela was a battle fought in 47 BC between Julius Caesar and Pharnaces II of Pontus. Thence, he proceeded to Africa to deal with the remnants of Pompey's senatorial supporters. He quickly gained a significant victory at Thapsus in 46 BC over the forces of Metellus Scipio (who died in the battle) and Cato the Younger (who committed suicide). The Battle of Thapsus took place on April 6 46 BC near Thapsus (modern Ras Dimas, Tunisia) Nevertheless, Pompey's sons Gnaeus Pompeius and Sextus Pompeius, together with Titus Labienus, Caesar's former propraetorian legate (legatus propraetore) and second in command in the Gallic War, escaped to Hispania. Gnaeus Popmeius should not be confused with his father Gnaeus Pompeius '''Magnus''', known as "Pompey the Great Titus Labienus (ca 100 BC– March 17, 45 BC was a professional Roman soldier in the late Roman Republic. A legatus (often anglicized as legate) was a general in the Roman army, equivalent to a modern general officer A promagistrate is a person who acts in and with the authority and capacity of a magistrate, but without holding a magisterial office Caesar gave chase and defeated the last remnants of opposition in the Battle of Munda in March 45 BC. For the World War II battle see Battle of Munda Point. The Battle of Munda took place on March 17, 45 BC in During this time, Caesar was elected to his third and fourth terms as consul in 46 BC (with Marcus Aemilius Lepidus) and 45 BC (without colleague). Marcus Aemilius Lepidus ( Latin: M·AEMILIVS·M·F·Q·N·LEPIDVSborn ca 90 BC died 13 BC, was a Patrician Roman politician
While he was still campaigning in Hispania, the Senate began bestowing honours on Caesar in absentia. Hispania was the name given by the Romans to the whole of the Iberian Peninsula (modern Portugal, Spain, Andorra, Gibraltar Caesar had not proscribed his enemies, instead pardoning almost all, and there was no serious public opposition to him.
Great games and celebrations were held on April 21 to honour Caesar’s victory at Munda.
On Caesar's return to Italy in September 45 BC, he filed his will, naming his grand-nephew Gaius Octavius (Octavian) as the heir to everything, including his title. Augustus ( Latin: IMPERATOR·CAESAR·DIVI·FILIVS·AVGVSTVS September 23 63 BC – August 19 AD 14) born Gaius Octavius Thurinus, was Caesar also wrote that if Octavian died before Caesar did, Marcus Junius Brutus would be the next heir in succession. Marcus Junius Brutus (85&ndash42 BC or Quintus Servilius Caepio Brutus was a Roman senator of the late Roman Republic.
Caesar tightly regulated the purchase of state-subsidised grain, and forbade those who could afford privately supplied grain from purchasing from the grain dole. He made plans for the distribution of land to his veterans, and for the establishment of veteran colonies throughout the Roman world.
In 63 BC Caesar had been elected Pontifex Maximus, and one of his roles as such was settling the calendar. A complete overhaul of the old Roman calendar proved to be one of his most long lasting and influential reforms. The Roman calendar changed its form several times in the time between the foundation of Rome and the fall of the Roman Empire. In 46 BC, Caesar established a 365-day year with a leap year every fourth year (this Julian Calendar was subsequently modified by Pope Gregory XIII in 1582 into the modern Gregorian calendar). The Julian calendar, a reform of the Roman calendar, was introduced by Julius Caesar in 46 BC and came into force in 45 BC (709 Ab urbe condita Pope Gregory XIII (January 7 1502 &ndash April 10 1585 born Ugo Boncompagni, was Pope from 1572 to 1585 The Gregorian calendar is the most widely used Calendar in the world today As a result of this reform, a certain Roman year (mostly equivalent to 46 BC in the modern Calendar) was made 445 days long, to bring the calendar into line with the seasons. The month of July is named after Julius in his honour.
The Forum of Caesar, with its Temple of Venus Genetrix, was built among many other public works. The Forum of Caesar, also known as Caesaris, is a section of the Forum Romanum in Rome The Temple of Venus Genetrix is a temple in the Forum of Caesar, Rome, dedicated to the Roman Goddess Venus Genetrix, the
All of the pomp, circumstance, and public taxpayers' money being spent incensed certain members of the Roman Senate. One of these was Caesar's closest friend, Marcus Junius Brutus. Marcus Junius Brutus (85&ndash42 BC or Quintus Servilius Caepio Brutus was a Roman senator of the late Roman Republic.
Ancient biographers describe the tension between Caesar and the Senate, and his possible claims to the title of king. The assassination of Julius Caesar occurred in Ancient Rome on the Ides of March ( March 15) in 44 BC when a group of senators, led by Gaius Vincenzo Camuccini ( February 22 1771 - September 2 1844) was an Italian painter of Neoclassic histories and religious These events would be the principal motive for Caesar's assassination by his political opponents in the Senate.
Plutarch records that at one point, Caesar informed the Senate that his honours were more in need of reduction than augmentation, but withdrew this position so as not to appear ungrateful. Lucius Mestrius Plutarchus ( Greek: Μέστριος Πλούταρχος c He was given the title Pater Patriae ("Father of the Fatherland"). Pater Patriae (plural Patres Patriae) also seen as Parens Patriae, is a Latin Honorific meaning " Father He was appointed dictator a third time, and then nominated for nine consecutive one-year terms as dictator, effectually making him dictator for ten years. He was also given censorial authority as praefectus morum (prefect of morals) for three years.
The Senate named Caesar Dictator Perpetuus, "dictator for life" or "perpetual dictator". Roman mints printed a denarius coin with this title and his profile on one side, and with an image of the goddess Ceres and Caesar's title of Augur Pontifex Maximus on the reverse. The Roman Currency system included the denarius (plural denarii) after 211 BC a small Silver coin, The Pontifex Maximus was the high priest of the Ancient Roman College of Pontiffs. While printing the title of dictator was significant, Caesar's image was not, as it was customary to print consuls and other public officials on coins during the Republic.
According to Cassius Dio, a senatorial delegation went to inform Caesar of new honours they had bestowed upon him in 44 BC. Lucius Cassius Dio Cocceianus ( Greek:) (c 155 or 163/164 to after 229 known in English as Cassius Dio, Dio Cassius, or Dio was Caesar received them while sitting in the Temple of Venus Genetrix, rather than rising to meet them. The Temple of Venus Genetrix is a temple in the Forum of Caesar, Rome, dedicated to the Roman Goddess Venus Genetrix, the According to Dio, this was a chief excuse for the offended senators to plot his assassination. He wrote that a few of Caesar's supporters blamed his failure to rise on a sudden attack of diarrhoea, but his enemies discounted this in observing that he had walked home unaided.
Suetonius wrote that Caesar failed to rise in the temple either because he was restrained by Cornelius Balbus or that he balked at the suggestion he should rise. Gaius Suetonius Tranquillus, commonly known as Suetonius (ca 69/75 &ndash after 130 was an equestrian and a historian during the Roman Empire. Suetonius also gave the account of a crowd assembled to greet Caesar upon his return to Rome. A member of the crowd placed a laurel wreath on the statue of Caesar on the Rostra. A laurel wreath is a circular Wreath made of interlocking branches and leaves of the Bay Laurel ( Laurus nobilis Lauraceae) an aromatic The Rostra or Rostra Vetera was the platform located within the Comitium of the Roman Forum beside the Curia from which Orators The tribunes Gaius Epidius Marcellus and Lucius Caesetius Flavius ordered that the wreath be removed as it was a symbol of Jupiter and royalty. Tribune (from the Latin: tribunus; Byzantine Greek form τριβούνος) was a title shared by 2–3 elected magistracies in the The fear of Caesar becoming autocrat thus ending the Roman Republic, grew stronger when someone placed a diadem on the statue of Caesar on the Rostra. Lucius Caesetius Flavius (fl 1st century BC was a Roman politician and tribune of the people ( tribunus plebis) Caesar had the tribunes censored from office through his official powers. According to Suetonius, he was unable to disassociate himself with the title of monarch from this point forward. His biographer also gives the story that a crowd shouted to him "rex", the Latin word for king. Caesar replied, "I am Caesar, not Rex", a pun on the Roman name coming from the title. Also, at the festival of the Lupercalia, while he gave a speech from the Rostra, Mark Antony, who had been elected co-consul with Caesar, attempted to place a crown on his head several times. A festival is an event usually and ordinarily staged by a local community which centers on some unique aspect of that community For the saint by the name 'Lupercus' see Marcellus of Tangier. Marcus Antonius (in Latin: M·ANTONIVS·M·F·M·N ( c January 14 83 BC&ndash August 1, 30 BC known in English as Mark Caesar put it aside to be used as a sacrifice to Jupiter Opitimus Maximus. In Roman mythology, Jupiter was the king of the gods and the god of Sky and Thunder.
Plutarch and Suetonius are similar in their depiction of these events, but Dio combines the stories writing that the tribunes arrested the citizens who placed diadems or wreaths on statues of Caesar. He then places the crowd shouting "rex" on the Alban Hill with the tribunes arresting a member of this crowd as well. The plebeian protested that he was unable to speak his mind freely. Caesar then brought the tribunes before the senate and put the matter to a vote, thereafter removing them from office and erasing their names from the records.
Suetonius adds that Lucius Cotta proposed to the Senate that Caesar should be granted the title of "king" for it was prophesied that only a king would conquer Parthia. Parthia ( Middle Persian: اشکانیان Ashkâniân) was an Iranian civilization situated in the northeastern part of modern Iran Caesar intended to invade Parthia, a task which would later give considerable trouble to Mark Antony during the second triumvirate.
Brutus began to conspire against Caesar with his friend and brother-in-law Cassius and other men, calling themselves the Liberatores ("Liberators"). Marcus Junius Brutus (85&ndash42 BC or Quintus Servilius Caepio Brutus was a Roman senator of the late Roman Republic. For the Roman consul see Gaius Cassius Longinus (consul 171 BC. Liberatores ("Liberators" is the Latin name that the assassins of Julius Caesar gave themselves Many plans were discussed by the group, as documented by Nicolaus of Damascus:
|“||The conspirators never met openly, but they assembled a few at a time in each other's homes. Nicolaus of Damascus ( Greek, Nikolāos Damaskēnos) was a Syrian Historian and Philosopher who lived during the Augustan There were many discussions and proposals, as might be expected, while they investigated how and where to execute their design. Some suggested that they should make the attempt as he was going along the Sacred Way, which was one of his favorite walks. The Via Sacra (Sacred Road is the Main street of Ancient Rome, leading from the top of the Capitoline Hill, through some of the most important Another idea was for it to be done at the elections during which he had to cross a bridge to appoint the magistrates in the Campus Martius; they should draw lots for some to push him from the bridge and for others to run up and kill him. For the pioneer fortification at Marietta Ohio see Campus Martius Marietta For the park in Detroit Michigan, see Campus Martius Park A third plan was to wait for a coming gladiatorial show. The advantage of that would be that, because of the show, no suspicion would be aroused if arms were seen prepared for the attempt. But the majority opinion favoured killing him while he sat in the Senate, where he would be by himself since only Senators would be admitted, and where the many conspirators could hide their daggers beneath their togas. The Roman Senate was a political institution in Ancient Rome. A dagger (from Vulgar Latin: 'daca' - a Dacian Knife) is a typically double-edged blade used for Stabbing or thrusting This article is about the aviation term for the Roman garment see Toga. This plan won the day.||”|
Two days before the assassination of Caesar, Cassius met with the conspirators and told them that, should anyone discover the plan, the conspirators were to turn their knives on themselves.
On the Ides of March (March 15; see Roman calendar) of 44 BC, a group of senators called Caesar to the forum for the purpose of reading a petition, written by the senators, asking him to hand power back to the Senate. The Ides of March ( Latin: Idus Martiae is the name of the date 15 March in the Roman calendar. Events 44 BC - Julius Caesar, Dictator of the Roman Republic, is stabbed to death by Marcus Junius Brutus, The Roman calendar changed its form several times in the time between the foundation of Rome and the fall of the Roman Empire. However, the petition was a fake. Mark Antony, having vaguely learned of the plot the night before from a terrified Liberator named Servilius Casca, and fearing the worst, went to head Caesar off at the steps of the forum. Marcus Antonius (in Latin: M·ANTONIVS·M·F·M·N ( c January 14 83 BC&ndash August 1, 30 BC known in English as Mark Publius Servilius Casca was one of the assassins of Gaius Julius Caesar in 44 BC However, the group of senators intercepted Caesar just as he was passing the Theatre of Pompey, located in the Campus Martius, and directed him to a room adjoining the east portico. The Theatre of Pompey (Latin Theatrum Pompeium, Italian Teatro di Pompeo) is an ancient building of the Roman Republic era begun in 61 BC For the pioneer fortification at Marietta Ohio see Campus Martius Marietta For the park in Detroit Michigan, see Campus Martius Park
As Caesar began to read the false petition, Tillius Cimber, who had handed him the petition, pulled down Caesar's tunic. Lucius Tullius (or Tillius) Cimber was a Roman senator, one of the Assassins of Julius Caesar and the one to give the signal for the A tunic is any of several types of Clothing for the body with or without Sleeves and of various lengths reaching from the hips to the ankles While Caesar was crying to Cimber "But that is violence!" ("Ista quidem vis est!"), the aforementioned Casca produced his dagger and made a glancing thrust at the dictator's neck. Publius Servilius Casca was one of the assassins of Gaius Julius Caesar in 44 BC Caesar turned around quickly and caught Casca by the arm, saying in Latin "Casca, you villain, what are you doing?" Casca, frightened, shouted "Help, brother" in Greek ("ἀδελφέ, βοήθει!", "adelphe, boethei!"). Within moments, the entire group, including Brutus, was striking out at the dictator. Caesar attempted to get away, but, blinded by blood, he tripped and fell; the men continued stabbing him as he lay defenseless on the lower steps of the portico. According to Eutropius, around sixty or more men participated in the assassination. For the Byzantine officer see also Eutropius (Byzantine official (396-397 He was stabbed 23 times.  According to Suetonius, a physician later established that only one wound, the second one to his chest, had been lethal. 
The dictator's last words are not known with certainty, and are a contested subject among scholars and historians alike. The version best known in the English-speaking world is the Latin phrase Et tu, Brute? ("even you, Brutus?" or "you too, Brutus?"); this derives from Shakespeare's Julius Caesar, where it actually forms the first half of a macaronic line: "Et tu, Brute? Then fall, Caesar. Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. " Et tu Brute? " ("You too Brutus?" or "And you Brutus?" or "Even you Brutus?" is a Latin phrase often used poetically to represent Julius Caesar is a tragedy by William Shakespeare, believed to have been written in 1599 Macaronic refers to text spoken or written using a mixture of Languages sometimes including Bilingual puns particularly when the languages are used in the same context " Shakespeare's version evidently follows in the tradition of the Roman historian Suetonius, who reports that Caesar's last words were the Greek phrase "καὶ σύ, τέκνον;" (transliterated as "Kai su, teknon?": "You too, my child?" in English). Gaius Suetonius Tranquillus, commonly known as Suetonius (ca 69/75 &ndash after 130 was an equestrian and a historian during the Roman Empire. Greek (el ελληνική γλώσσα or simply el ελληνικά — "Hellenic" is an Indo-European language, spoken today by 15-22 million people mainly  Plutarch, on the other hand, reports that Caesar said nothing, pulling his toga over his head when he saw Brutus among the conspirators. Lucius Mestrius Plutarchus ( Greek: Μέστριος Πλούταρχος c 
According to Plutarch, after the assassination, Brutus stepped forward as if to say something to his fellow senators; they, however, fled the building.  Brutus and his companions then marched to the Capitol while crying out to their beloved city: "People of Rome, we are once again free!". They were met with silence, as the citizens of Rome had locked themselves inside their houses as soon as the rumour of what had taken place had begun to spread.
A wax statue of Caesar was erected in the forum displaying the 23 stab wounds. A crowd who had amassed there started a fire, which badly damaged the forum and neighboring buildings. In the ensuing chaos Mark Antony, Octavian (later Augustus Caesar), and others fought a series of five civil wars, which would end in the formation of the Roman Empire. Marcus Antonius (in Latin: M·ANTONIVS·M·F·M·N ( c January 14 83 BC&ndash August 1, 30 BC known in English as Mark Augustus ( Latin: IMPERATOR·CAESAR·DIVI·FILIVS·AVGVSTVS September 23 63 BC – August 19 AD 14) born Gaius Octavius Thurinus, was
The result unforeseen by the assassins was that Caesar's death precipitated the end of the Roman Republic. The Roman middle and lower classes, with whom Caesar was immensely popular, and had been since Gaul and before, were enraged that a small group of high-browed aristocrats had killed their champion. Antony did not give the speech that Shakespeare penned for him more than 1600 years later ("Friends, Romans, countrymen, lend me your ears..."), but he did give a dramatic eulogy that appealed to the common people, a reflection of public opinion following Caesar's murder. Julius Caesar is a tragedy by William Shakespeare, believed to have been written in 1599 Antony, who had been drifting apart from Caesar, capitalised on the grief of the Roman mob and threatened to unleash them on the Optimates, perhaps with the intent of taking control of Rome himself. Optimates (singular optimas, The Best of Men, Italian: ottimati; also known as the priests or boni, the But Caesar had named his grand nephew Gaius Octavian his sole heir, giving him the immensely powerful Caesar name as well as making him one of the wealthiest citizens in the Republic. Augustus ( Latin: IMPERATOR·CAESAR·DIVI·FILIVS·AVGVSTVS September 23 63 BC – August 19 AD 14) born Gaius Octavius Thurinus, was Gaius Octavian was also, for all intents and purposes, the son of the great Caesar, and consequently also inherited the loyalty of much of the Roman populace. Octavian, only aged 19 at the time of Caesar's death, proved to be dangerous, and while Antony dealt with Decimus Brutus in the first round of the new civil wars, Octavian consolidated his position. Later Mark Antony would marry Caesar's lover Cleopatra.
In order to combat Brutus and Cassius, who were massing an army in Greece, Antony needed both the cash from Caesar's war chests and the legitimacy that Caesar's name would provide any action he took against the two. A new Triumvirate was formed (the second and final one) with Octavian, Antony, and Caesar's loyal cavalry commander Lepidus as the third member. This Second Triumvirate deified Caesar as Divus Iulius and, seeing that Caesar's clemency had resulted in his murder, brought back the horror of proscription, abandoned since Sulla. See also the Second Triumvirate (Argentina which held power in 1812 Not to be confused with prescription and other meanings of proscription. It proscribed its enemies in large numbers in order to seize even more funds for the second civil war against Brutus and Cassius, whom Antony and Octavius defeated at Philippi. The Battle of Philippi was the final battle in the Wars of the Second Triumvirate between the forces of Mark Antony and Octavian (the Second Triumvirate A third civil war then broke out between Octavian on one hand and Antony and Cleopatra on the other. This final civil war, culminating in Antony and Cleopatra's defeat at Actium, resulted in the ascendancy of Octavian, who became the first Roman emperor, under the name Caesar Augustus. The Battle of Actium was the decisive engagement in the Final War of the Roman Republic between the forces of Octavian and the combined forces of Mark Antony In 42 BC, Caesar was formally deified as Divus Iulius, and Caesar Augustus henceforth became Divi filius ("Son of a god").
Caesar originally planned to invade Parthia, Scythia, the Caucasus and move on to Germania through Eastern Europe. Parthia ( Middle Persian: اشکانیان Ashkâniân) was an Iranian civilization situated in the northeastern part of modern Iran In Classical Antiquity, Scythia ( Greek Skuthia) was the area in Eurasia inhabited by the Scythians, from the 8th The Caucasus ( also referred to as North Caucasus) is a geopolitical region located between Europe Asia & Middle East Germania was the Latin Exonym for These plans were thwarted by his assassination. 
Caesar may have suffered from epilepsy. Epilepsy is a common chronic Neurological disorder that is characterized by recurrent unprovoked seizures. He had four documented episodes of what were probably complex partial seizures. He may additionally have had absence seizures in his youth. Absence seizures are one of several kinds of Seizures These seizures are sometimes referred to as petit mal seizures (from the French for "little illness" There is family history of epilepsy amongst his ancestors and descendants. The earliest accounts of these seizures were made by the biographer Suetonius who was born after Caesar's death. Gaius Suetonius Tranquillus, commonly known as Suetonius (ca 69/75 &ndash after 130 was an equestrian and a historian during the Roman Empire. However, the claim of epilepsy is disputed by some historians and is countered by a claim of hypoglycemia, which sometimes causes epileptic-like fits. Hypoglycemia or hypoglycaemia is the medical term for a pathologic state produced by a lower than normal level of Glucose ( sugar) in the blood 
Caesar was considered during his lifetime to be one of the best orators and authors of prose in Rome—even Cicero spoke highly of Caesar's rhetoric and style.  Among his most famous works were his funeral oration for his paternal aunt Julia and his Anticato, a document written to blacken Cato's reputation and respond to Cicero's Cato memorial. Julia Caesaris (ca 130 BC - 69 BC was a daughter of Gaius Julius Caesar II and Marcia (daughter of consul Quintus Marcius Rex) The Anticato (sometimes Anti-Cato; Latin: Anticatones) was a Polemic written by Julius Caesar in hostile reply to Marcus Porcius Catō Uticensis (95 BC&ndash46 BC known as Cato the Younger ( Cato Minor) to distinguish him from his great-grandfather ( Cato the Elder Unfortunately, the majority of his works and speeches have been lost to history.
Other works historically attributed to Caesar, but whose authorship is doubted, are:
These narratives, apparently simple and direct in style— to the point that Caesar's Commentarii are commonly studied by first and second year Latin students— are highly sophisticated advertisements for his political agenda, most particularly for the middle-brow readership of minor aristocrats in Rome, Italy, and the provinces.
Historians place the generalship of Caesar as one of the greatest military strategists and tacticians who ever lived, along with Alexander the Great, Sun Tzu, Hannibal, Genghis Khan and Napoleon Bonaparte. Historians place the generalship of Julius Caesar ( 100 BC - 44 BC) on the level of such geniuses as Alexander the Great, Hannibal and Napoleon Alexander the Great ( or, Mégas Aléxandros; July 20 356 BC June 10 or June 11 323 BC also known as Alexander III of Macedon (el Ἀλέξανδρος Γ' Sun Tzu ( ("Master Sun" also called Sun Wu ( is traditionally considered to be the author of The Art of War (also simply called the Hannibal (Pronounced in Phoenician: Hanniba'al means " Ba'al is my grace " or " Ba'al has given me grace " 247 BC &ndash Genghis Khan ( or;, Chinggis Khaan, ʧiŋgɪs χaːŋ Činggis Qaɣan; 1162–1227 born (meaning "ironworker" was the Mongol founder Napoleon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821 was a French military and political leader who had a significant impact on the History of Europe. Caesar suffered occasional tactical defeats, such as Battle of Gergovia during the Gallic War and the Battle of Dyrrhachium during the Civil War. However, his tactical brilliance was highlighted by such feats as his circumvallation of Alesia during the Gallic War, the rout of Pompey's numerically superior forces at Pharsalus during the Civil War, and the complete destruction of Pharnaces' army at Battle of Zela. The Battle of Pharsalus was a decisive battle of Caesar's Civil War.
Caesar's successful campaigning in any terrain and under all weather conditions owes much to the strict but fair discipline of his legionaries, whose admiration and devotion to him were proverbial due to his promotion of those of skill over those of nobility. Caesar's infantry and cavalry were first rate, and he made heavy use of formidable Roman artillery and his army's superlative engineering abilities. There was also the legendary speed with which he manoeuvred his troops; Caesar's army sometimes marched as many as 40 miles (64 km) a day. His Commentaries on the Gallic Wars describe how, during the siege of one Gallic city built on a very steep and high plateau, his engineers tunnelled through solid rock, found the source of the spring from which the town was drawing its water supply, and diverted it to the use of the army. The town, cut off from their water supply, capitulated at once.
Using the Latin alphabet as it existed in the day of Caesar (i. The name Caesar probably originated from a dialect of Latium which did not share the Rhotacism of the Roman dialect e. , without lower case letters, "J", or "U"), Caesar's name is properly rendered "GAIVS IVLIVS CAESAR". The form "CAIVS" is also attested using the old Roman pronunciation of letter C as G; it is an antique form of the more common "GAIVS". It is often seen abbreviated to "C. IVLIVS CAESAR". (The letterform "Æ" is a ligature, which is often encountered in Latin inscriptions where it was used to save space, and is nothing more than the letters "ae". Epigraphy (ἐπιγραφολογία from Greek ἐπιγραφή — "inscription" is the study of inscriptions or epigraphs engraved ) In Classical Latin, it was pronounced [ˈgaːius ˈjuːlius ˈkaisar].  In the days of the late Roman Republic, many historical writings were done in Greek, a language most educated Romans studied. The Roman Republic was the phase of the ancient Roman civilization characterized by a Republican form of government a period which began with the overthrow of the Young wealthy Roman boys were often taught by Greek slaves and sometimes sent to Athens for advanced training, as was Caesar's principal assassin, Brutus. Athens (ˈæθənz Αθήνα Athina,) the Capital and largest city of Greece, dominates the Attica periphery as one of the world's Marcus Junius Brutus (85&ndash42 BC or Quintus Servilius Caepio Brutus was a Roman senator of the late Roman Republic. In Greek, during Caesar's time, his family name was written Καίσαρ, reflecting its contemporary pronunciation. The Ancient Greek language is the historical stage in the development of the Hellenic language family spanning the Archaic (c Thus his name is pronounced in a similar way to the pronunciation of the German Kaiser. Kaiser is the German title meaning " Emperor " with Kaiserin being the female equivalent " Empress " This German name was phonemically but not phonetically derived from the Middle Ages Ecclesiastical Latin, in which the familiar part "Caesar" is [ˈtʃeːsar], from which the modern English pronunciation is derived, as well as the title of Czar. Ecclesiastical Latin (sometimes called Church Latin) is the Latin dialect as used in documents of the Roman Catholic Church and in its Latin liturgies Tsar csar and tzar redirect here For other uses see Tsar (disambiguation.
His name is also remembered in Norse mythology, where he is manifested as the legendary king Kjárr. Norse mythology comprises the indigenous pre-Christian religion, beliefs and Legends of the Scandinavian peoples including those who settled on Iceland Kjárr, or Kíarr, is a figure of Norse mythology that is believed to be the reflection of the Roman Emperors In Old Norse sources he appears 
Roman society viewed the passive role during sex, regardless of gender, to be a sign of submission or inferiority. Indeed, Suetonius says that in Caesar's Gallic triumph, his soldiers sang that, "Caesar may have conquered the Gauls, but Nicomedes conquered Caesar. " According to Cicero, Bibulus, Gaius Memmius, and others (mainly Caesar's enemies), he had an affair with Nicomedes IV of Bithynia early in his career. Marcus Calpurnius Bibulus (d 48 BC was a politician of the late Roman Republic. Gaius Memmius (incorrectly called Gemellus, "The Twin" Roman Orator and Poet, Tribune of the people (66 BC friend of Nicomedes IV Philopator, was the king of Bithynia, from c 94 BC to 75/4 BC. The tales were repeated, referring to Caesar as the Queen of Bithynia, by some Roman politicians as a way to humiliate and degrade him. It is possible that the rumors were spread only as a form of character assassination. Caesar himself, according to Cassius Dio, denied the accusations under oath. Lucius Cassius Dio Cocceianus ( Greek:) (c 155 or 163/164 to after 229 known in English as Cassius Dio, Dio Cassius, or Dio was  This form of slander was popular during this time in the Roman Republic to demean and discredit political opponents. A favorite tactic used by the opposition was to accuse a popular political rival as living a Hellenistic lifestyle based on Greek & Eastern culture, where homosexuality and a lavish lifestyle were more acceptable than the conservative traditions of the Romans.
Catullus wrote two poems suggesting that Caesar and his engineer Mamurra were lovers, but later apologised. For persons with a Cognomen "Catulus" see Lutatius Gaius Valerius Catullus (ca Mamurra ( fl 1st century BC) was a Roman military officer who served under Julius Caesar. 
Mark Antony charged that Octavian had earned his adoption by Caesar through sexual favors. Marcus Antonius (in Latin: M·ANTONIVS·M·F·M·N ( c January 14 83 BC&ndash August 1, 30 BC known in English as Mark Augustus ( Latin: IMPERATOR·CAESAR·DIVI·FILIVS·AVGVSTVS September 23 63 BC – August 19 AD 14) born Gaius Octavius Thurinus, was Suetonius described Antony's accusation of an affair with Octavian as political slander. The boy Octavian was to become the first Roman emperor following Caesar's death. 
Julius Caesar was voted the title Divus ("god") after his death.
During his life, he received many honours, including titles such as Pater Patriae (Father of the Fatherland), Pontifex Maximus (Highest Priest), and Dictator. Pater Patriae (plural Patres Patriae) also seen as Parens Patriae, is a Latin Honorific meaning " Father The Pontifex Maximus was the high priest of the Ancient Roman College of Pontiffs. A dictator is an Authoritarian ruler (eg Absolutist or autocratic) who assumes sole and absolute power without hereditary ascension such as an Absolute The many titles bestowed on him by the Senate are sometimes cited as a cause of his assassination, as it seemed inappropriate to many contemporaries for a mortal man to be awarded so many honours.
As a young man he was awarded the Corona Civica (civic crown) for valour while fighting in Asia Minor. The Civic Crown ( Latin: corona civica) was a Chaplet of common Oak leaves woven to form a crown. Anatolia (Anadolu Ανατολία Anatolía) or Asia minor, comprising most of modern Turkey, is the geographic region bounded by the Black
Caesar's cognomen would eventually become a title. The cognomen (plural cognomina) was originally the third name of an Ancient Roman in the Roman naming convention. The title became the German Kaiser and Slavic Tsar/Czar. Kaiser is the German title meaning " Emperor " with Kaiserin being the female equivalent " Empress " Tsar csar and tzar redirect here For other uses see Tsar (disambiguation. As the last tsar in nominal power was Simeon II of Bulgaria whose reign ended in 1946; for two thousand years after Julius Caesar's assassination, there was at least one head of state bearing his name. Royal history Simeon is the son of Tsar Boris III and Tsaritsa Giovanna di Savoia. This title was greatly promulgated by the Bible, for its famous verse "Render unto Caesar the things which are Caesar’s, and unto God the things that are God’s". Etymology According to the Online Etymology Dictionary, the word bible is from Latin biblia, traced from the same word through Medieval Latin and Late Latin
For the marble bust from Arles discovered in 2007 and in 2008 alleged to be Caesar's likeness, and the ensuing controversy, see Arles portrait bust. In the Rhone River near Arles, southern France, divers from the French Department of Subaquatic Archaeological Research headed by Michel L'Hour discovered in September-October
Bust of Julius Caesar in Naples National Archaeological Museum, photographed March 1997
bust in Naples National Archaeological Museum, photograph published in 1902
Bust of Julius Caesar
Bust of Julius Caesar from the British Museum Source: George Willis Botsford, A History of Rome, McMillan, 1921
Bust in the Altes Museum, photographed before 2008
Modern bronze statue of Julius Caesar, Rimini, Italy
Gaius Julius Caesar, Art History Museum, Vienna, Austria, photographed before 2008
Lucius Afranius and
Quintus Caecilius Metellus Celer
|Consul of the Roman Republic|
with Marcus Calpurnius Bibulus
Lucius Calpurnius Piso Caesoninus and Aulus Gabinius
Lucius Cornelius Lentulus Crus and Gaius Claudius Marcellus Maior
|Consul of the Roman Republic|
with Publius Servilius Vatia Isauricus
Quintus Fufius Calenus
and Publius Vatinius
Quintus Fufius Calenus
and Publius Vatinius
|Consul of the Roman Republic|
with Marcus Aemilius Lepidus
Gaius Julius Caesar
alone without colleague
Gaius Julius Caesar
and Marcus Aemilius Lepidus
|Consul of the Roman Republic|
alone without colleague
Gaius Julius Caesar
and Marcus Antonius
Gaius Julius Caesar
alone without colleague
|Consuls of the Roman Republic|
with Marcus Antonius
Aulus Hirtius and
Gaius Vibius Pansa Caetronianus
Lucius Cornelius Sulla, then lapsed
|Dictator of the Roman Republic|
46 BC-44 BC
none, term limited
to 6 months normally
|(military title— see note following)|
Imperator of the Roman Republic
(Imperium 'ends' with Roman Triumph)
|Imperator of the Roman Republic|
|NAME||Caesar, Gaius Julius|
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||Julius Caesar|
|SHORT DESCRIPTION||Roman dictator|
|DATE OF BIRTH||July 12, 100 BC|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Rome, Roman Republic|
|DATE OF DEATH||March 15, 44 BC|
|PLACE OF DEATH||Rome, Roman Republic|
Events 1191 - Saladin 's garrison surrenders ending the two-year Siege of Acre. Rome ( Roma ˈroma Roma is the capital city of Italy and Lazio, and is Italy's largest and most populous city with more than 2 The Roman Republic was the phase of the ancient Roman civilization characterized by a Republican form of government a period which began with the overthrow of the Events 44 BC - Julius Caesar, Dictator of the Roman Republic, is stabbed to death by Marcus Junius Brutus, Year 44 BC was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Julian calendar. Rome ( Roma ˈroma Roma is the capital city of Italy and Lazio, and is Italy's largest and most populous city with more than 2 The Roman Republic was the phase of the ancient Roman civilization characterized by a Republican form of government a period which began with the overthrow of the