|Flavius Claudius Julianus|
|Emperor of the Roman Empire|
Flavius Claudius Iulianus, also known as Julian the Apostate, was the last polytheist Roman Emperor. The Roman Emperor was the ruler of the Roman State during the imperial period (starting at about 27 BC The Roman Empire was the post-Republican phase of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial Polytheism is belief in or worship of multiple Gods (usually assembled in a pantheon) together with associated Mythology and Rituals
|Reign||Caesar: 6 November 355 - February 360. Events 355 - Roman Emperor Constantius II promotes his cousin Julian to the rank of Caesar, entrusting him with Events By Place Roman Empire August 11 — Claudius Silvanus, accused of treason proclaims himself Roman Emperor. This article is about the year 360 For other uses see 360 (number. Augustus: February 360 - 3 November 361. This article is about the year 360 For other uses see 360 (number. Events 644 - Umar ibn al-Khattab, the second Muslim Caliph, is killed by a Persian slave in Medina. Events By Place Roman Empire Julian the Apostate becomes Roman Emperor, and tries to restore paganism in the empire Sole Augustus: 3 November 361 -|
26 June 363
|Born||May or June 332|
|Died||26 June 363|
|Place of death||Maranga, Mesopotamia|
|Predecessor||Constantius II, cousin|
|Successor||Jovian, general present at the time of his death|
|Consort to||Helena (355)|
Julian (Latin: Flavius Claudius Iulianus, known popularly as Julian the Apostate, May or June 332 to 26 June 363), was Roman Emperor (Caesar, November 355 to February 360; Augustus, February 360 to June 363) of the Constantinian dynasty. Events 644 - Umar ibn al-Khattab, the second Muslim Caliph, is killed by a Persian slave in Medina. Events By Place Roman Empire Julian the Apostate becomes Roman Emperor, and tries to restore paganism in the empire Events 363 - Roman Emperor Julian is killed during the retreat from the Sassanid Empire. Events By Place Roman Empire March 5 — Emperor Julian moves from Antioch with an army of 90000 against the Events By Place Roman Empire Emperor Constantine I defeats the Visigoths in battle Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis, or gr ἡ Πόλις hē Polis, Latin: la CONSTANTINOPOLIS Events 363 - Roman Emperor Julian is killed during the retreat from the Sassanid Empire. Events By Place Roman Empire March 5 — Emperor Julian moves from Antioch with an army of 90000 against the Mesopotamia (from the Greek meaning "land between the rivers" is an area geographically located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers largely corresponding Flavius Iulius Constantius, known in English as Constantius II ( 7 August, 317 - November 3, 361) was a Roman Emperor For other meanings see Jovian (disambiguation. Flavius Iovianus, Anglicized to Jovian, ( 331 - 17 February The Constantinian dynasty is an informal name for the ruling family of the Roman Empire from Constantius Chlorus († 305) to the death of Julian Flavius Julius Constantius (d September 337 was a son of Western Roman Emperor Constantius Chlorus and his second wife Flavia Maximiana Theodora. Events By Place Roman Empire Emperor Constantine I defeats the Visigoths in battle Events 363 - Roman Emperor Julian is killed during the retreat from the Sassanid Empire. Events By Place Roman Empire March 5 — Emperor Julian moves from Antioch with an army of 90000 against the The Roman Emperor was the ruler of the Roman State during the imperial period (starting at about 27 BC Events By Place Roman Empire August 11 — Claudius Silvanus, accused of treason proclaims himself Roman Emperor. This article is about the year 360 For other uses see 360 (number. This article is about the year 360 For other uses see 360 (number. Events By Place Roman Empire March 5 — Emperor Julian moves from Antioch with an army of 90000 against the The Constantinian dynasty is an informal name for the ruling family of the Roman Empire from Constantius Chlorus († 305) to the death of Julian He was the last non-Christian Roman Emperor, and expended much energy during his reign attempting to supplant the growing power of Christianity within the empire with officially revived traditional Roman religious practices. Christianity ( Greek Χριστιανισμός from the word Xριστός ( Christ)is a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings Ancient Roman religion encompasses the collection of Beliefs and Rituals practised in Ancient Rome in the form of Cult practices
He is known as Julian the Apostate, because of his rejection of Christianity in favour of Theurgy (a late form of Neoplatonism), and attempt to rid the empire of Christianity. Theurgy (from Greek θεουργία) describes the practice of Rituals sometimes seen as magical in nature performed with the intention of Neoplatonism (also Neo-Platonism) is the modern term for a school of religious and mystical Philosophy that took shape in the 3rd century AD founded by Although Julian was baptized, his "apostasy" is debatable since his antipathy towards Christianity dated from an early age and it is unlikely that he was ever a very sincere Christian. In Christianity, baptism ( Greek, "immersing" "performing Ablutions " is the ritual act with the use of water by which one is admitted Julian's support of Jews, coming after the hostility of many earlier Emperors, meant that they called him Julian the Hellene. Judaism (from the Greek Ioudaïsmos, derived from the Hebrew יהודה Yehudah, " Judah " in Hebrew יַהֲדוּת Yahedut Since the time of Homer, some Greeks have called themselves Hellenes ( in Homer "Hellas" (Eλλάς and "Hellenes" were names of
In 363, Julian began a campaign against the Sassanid Empire. Events By Place Roman Empire March 5 — Emperor Julian moves from Antioch with an army of 90000 against the The Sassanid Empire or Sassanian Dynasty or Sassanian Dynasty (ساسانیان) is the name used for the third Iranian dynasty and the second Persian empire He died later that year from a wound received during a retreat during the campaign.
Flavius Claudius Julianus, born in May or June 332 in Constantinople, was the son of Julius Constantius (consul in 335), half brother of Emperor Constantine I, and his second wife, Basilina. Events By Place Roman Empire Emperor Constantine I defeats the Visigoths in battle Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis, or gr ἡ Πόλις hē Polis, Latin: la CONSTANTINOPOLIS Consul (abbrev cos; Latin plural consules) was the highest elected office of the Roman Republic and an appointive office under the Empire Events By Place Roman Empire 19 September — Dalmatius is raised to the rank of Caesar. Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus (27 February ca. 272 &ndash 22 May 337 commonly known as Constantine I, Constantine the Great, or Saint Constantine His paternal grandparents were Western Roman Emperor Constantius Chlorus and his second wife, Flavia Maximiana Theodora. The Western Roman Empire refers to the western half of the Roman Empire, from its division by Diocletian in 285 the other half of the Roman Empire was the Eastern Flavius Valerius Constantius ( March 31 c 250&ndash July 25 306) was an emperor of the Western Roman Empire (305&ndash306 Flavia Maximiana Theodora (known as Theodora was the stepdaughter of Maximian. His maternal grandfather was Julius Julianus, praetorian prefect of the Orient under emperor Licinius from 315 to 324. Praetorian prefect (Latin Praefectus praetorio) was the constant title of a high office in the Roman state that changed fundamentally in nature For other Romans of this name see Licinius (gens. Valerius Licinianus Licinius (c Events By Place Roman Empire Constantine and Licinius battle the Sarmates, the Goths and the Carpians Events By Place Roman Empire July 3 — Battle of Adrianople: Constantine I defeats Licinius, forcing him The name of Julian's maternal grandmother is unknown.
In the turmoil after the death of Constantine in 337, in order to establish himself as sole emperor, Julian's zealous Arian Christian cousin Constantius II led a massacre of Julian's family. Events By Place Roman Empire September 9 — Constantine II, Constantius II, and Constans succeed their Arianism is the theological teaching of Arius (c AD 250-336 who was ruled a heretic by the Christian church at the Council of Nicea. Flavius Iulius Constantius, known in English as Constantius II ( 7 August, 317 - November 3, 361) was a Roman Emperor Constantius II ordered the murders of many descendants from the second marriage of Constantius Chlorus and Theodora, leaving only Constantius and his brothers Constantine II and Constans I, and their cousins, Julian and Gallus (Julian's half-brother), as the surviving males related to Emperor Constantine. Flavius Claudius Constantinus, known in English as Constantine II, (316 – 340 was Roman Emperor from 337 to 340 Flavius Claudius Constantius Gallus (ca 325/326 - 354 better known as Constantius Gallus, was a member of the Constantinian dynasty and Caesar Constantius II, Constans I, and Constantine II were proclaimed joint emperors, each ruling a portion of Roman territory. Constantius II then saw to a strict Arian Christian education of Julian and Gallus.
In traditional accounts of his life, considerable weight is given to Julian’s early psychological development and education. Initially growing up in Bithynia, raised by his maternal grandmother, at the age of seven he was tutored by Eusebius, the Arian Christian Bishop of Nicomedia, and Mardonius, a Gothic eunuch. Eusebius of Nicomedia (died 341 was a bishop of Berytus (modern-day Beirut) in Phoenicia, then of Nicomedia where the imperial court resided in Bithynia The Goths ( Gothic: Gothic usvg|14px|u]]Gothic asvg|14px|a]]Gothic s A eunuch (ˈjuːnək is a Castrated man in particular one castrated early enough to have major hormonal consequences the term usually refers to those castrated in order to However, in 342, both Julian and Gallus were exiled to the imperial estate of Macellum in Cappadocia. Events By Place Europe A large earthquake strikes Cyprus. Asia Goguryeo is invaded Cappadocia (or Capadocia, Turkish Kapadokya, from Greek: Καππαδοκία / Kappadokía which in turn is from the Persian: Here Julian met the Christian bishop George. At the age of 18, the exile was lifted and he dwelt briefly in Constantinople and Nicomedia.
Julian returned to Asia Minor in 351 to study Neoplatonism under Aedesius, and later to study the Iamblichan Neoplatonism from Maximus of Ephesus. Events By Place Roman Empire March 15 — Constantius II elevates his cousin Gallus to Caesar, and puts Aedesius ( Greek, died 355 was a Neoplatonist philosopher born of a noble Cappadocian family Maximus of Ephesus (d 372 was a 4th century pagan Greek Neoplatonist. During his studies in Athens, Julian met Gregory Nazianzus and Basil of Caesarea, both later considered Christian saints. Athens (ˈæθənz Αθήνα Athina,) the Capital and largest city of Greece, dominates the Attica periphery as one of the world's Gregory of Nazianzus (329 – January 25 389) (also known as Gregory the Theologian or Gregory Nazianzen) was a 4th-century Archbishop Basil of Caesarea, also called Saint Basil the Great (c 330 – January 1, 379) (Άγιος Βασίλειος ο Μέγας Latin A saint (from the Latin sanctus) is a human being to whom has been attributed (and who has generally demonstrated a high level of Holiness and Sanctity
The later emperor’s study of Iamblichus of Chalcis and theurgy are a source of criticism from his primary chronicler, Ammianus Marcellinus. Amiricanus Gambilinus (325/330-after 391 was a fourth-century Roman historian. 
Constantine II died in 340 when he attacked his brother Constans. Constans in turn fell in 350 in the war against the usurper Magnentius. Usurpers are individuals or groups of individuals who obtain and maintain the power or rights of another by force and without legal authority Flavius Magnus Magnentius (303– August 11, 353) was a Roman usurper ( January 18, 350 – August 11, 353 This left Constantius II as the sole remaining emperor. In need of support, in 351 he made Julian's half-brother, Gallus, Caesar of the East, while Constantius II himself turned his attention westward to Magnentius, whom he defeated decisively that year. Caesar (plural Caesars Latin: Caesar (plural Caesares is a Title of imperial character In 354 Gallus, who had imposed a rule of terror over the territories under his command, was executed, and Julian was himself briefly imprisoned. However Constantius still had to deal with the Sassanid threat in the East, and so he turned to his last remaining male relative. Julian was thus summoned to the emperor in Mediolanum (Milan) and, on 6 November 355, made Caesar of the West and married to Constantius' sister, Helena. Mediolanum, the ancient Milan, was an important Celtic and then Roman centre Milan (Milano Milan (listen) is one of the largest cities in Italy, located in the plains of Lombardy. Events 355 - Roman Emperor Constantius II promotes his cousin Julian to the rank of Caesar, entrusting him with Events By Place Roman Empire August 11 — Claudius Silvanus, accused of treason proclaims himself Roman Emperor.
In the years afterwards Julian fought the Germanic tribes that tried to intrude upon the Roman Empire. The Germanic peoples are a historical group of Indo-European -speaking peoples originating in Northern Europe and identified by their use of the Germanic He won back Colonia Agrippina (Cologne) in 356, during his first campaign in Gaul. The following summer he led an army of 13,000 men to victory against the Alamanni at the Battle of Strasbourg, a major Roman victory. The Alamanni, Allemanni, or Alemanni were originally an alliance of Germanic tribes located around the upper Main river ( Germany In 358, Julian gained victories over the Salian Franks on the Lower Rhine, settling them in Toxandria in the Roman Empire, north of today's city of Tongeren, and over the Chamavi, who where expelled back to Hamaland. Salians redirects here for the eleventh-century dynasty see Salian dynasty, for Roman priests see Salii. The Lower Rhine (Niederrhein kilometers 660 to 1033 of the Rhine River flows from Bonn, Germany, to the North Sea. Toxandria is the classical name for a region between the Meuse and the Scheldt rivers in The Netherlands and Belgium. Hamaland is a non-administrative region in the east of the Netherlands that is named after the Frankish Chamavi -tribe During his residence in Gaul, Julian also attended to non-military matters. He prevented a tax increase by the Gallic praetorian prefect Florentius and personally administered the province of Belgica Secunda. Gallia Belgica was a Roman province located in what is now the southern part of the Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, northeastern
In the fourth year of his campaign in Gaul, the Sassanid Emperor Shapur II invaded Mesopotamia and took the city of Amida after a 73 day siege. Shapur II was the ninth King of the Sassanid Empire from 309 to 379 Diyarbakır (دیاربکر Diyâr-i Bekr 'land of the Bekr ' (from Persian) Kurdish Amed Zazaki language Dêrbekir Syriac In February 360, Constantius ordered Julian to send Gallic troops to his eastern army. This provoked an insurrection by troops of the Petulantes, who proclaimed Julian emperor in Paris, and led to a very swift military campaign to secure or win the allegiance of others. Petulantes was an Auxilia palatina of the Roman Empire. The Petulantes were of Germanic origin and it is possible they fought From June to August of that year, Julian led a successful campaign against the Attuarian Franks.
That same June, forces loyal to Constantius II captured the city of Aquileia on the north Adriatic coast, which was subsequently besieged by 23,000 men loyal to Julian. Aquileia (also called Aquilegia, Friulian Acuilee/Aquilee, Slovene Oglej) is an ancient Roman city in what is Civil war was avoided only by the death of Constantius II, who, in his last will, recognized Julian as his rightful successor.
Among his first actions, Julian reduced the expenses of the imperial court, removing all the eunuchs from the offices. A eunuch (ˈjuːnək is a Castrated man in particular one castrated early enough to have major hormonal consequences the term usually refers to those castrated in order to He reduced the luxury of the court established with Constantius, reducing at the same time the number of servants and of the guard. He also started the Chalcedon tribunal where some followers of Constantius were tortured and killed under supervision of magister militum Arbitio. Shortly after the death of Roman emperor Constantius II, his successor Julian the Apostate held a tribunal at the city of Chalcedon, which was then a suburb of Magister militum ( Latin for "Master of the Soldiers" was a top-level military command used in the later Roman Empire, dating from the reign of Arbitio was a Roman general ( Magister militum) and Consul who lived in the middle of the 4th century
Julian's first experience with civil administration had begun in Gaul. Properly it was a role that belonged to the Praetorian Prefect Florentius. However, he and Julian often clashed over the administration of Gaul. As Caesar and nominal ranking commander in Gaul, Julian's first priority was to drive out the barbarians who had breached the Rhine frontier. However, he sought to win over the support of the civil population, which was necessary for his operations in Gaul and also to show his largely Germanic army the benefits of Imperial rule. Therefore, it was necessary to rebuild stable and peaceful conditions in the devastated cities and countryside. For this reason, Julian ended up clashing with Florentius over the latter's support of tax increases, as mentioned above, or Florentius's own corruption in the bureaucracy.
After ascending to the imperial throne, Julian instituted political reforms distinct from his religious activities. Julian's own personality tended to ascetism and this was reflected in his new court, which was swiftly purged. Thousands of servants, eunuchs, and superfluous officials were summarily dismissed. This was Julian's attack on a system which he viewed as inefficient, corrupt, and expensive. He continually sought to reduce what he saw as burdensome and corrupt bureaucracy within the Imperial administration whether it involved civic officials, the secret agents, or the imperial post service.
Julian saw his role as emperor differently than his immediate predecessors. He made no attempt to restore the tetrarchal system begun under Diocletian. Nor did he seek to rule as an absolute autocrat. His own philosophic notions led him to idealize the reigns of Hadrian and Marcus Aurelius. In his first panegyric to Constantius, Julian described the ideal ruler as being essentially primus inter pares, operating under the laws just as his subjects. Functionally, this meant that the authority of the cities was expanded at the expense of the imperial bureaucracy as Julian sought to reduce direct imperial involvement in urban affairs. For example, city land owned by the imperial government was returned to the cities, city council members were compelled to resume civic authority, often against their will, and the tribute in gold by the cities called the aurum coronarium was made voluntary rather than a compulsory tax. Additionally, arrears of land taxes were canceled.
These reforms were not prompted by some sense of ancient liberalism. Just as he ceded much of the authority of the imperial government to the cities, Julian also took more direct control himself. For example, new taxes and corvees had to be approved by him directly rather than left to the judgment of the bureaucratic apparatus. Julian certainly had a clear idea of what he wanted Roman society to be, both in political as well as religious terms. The terrible and violent dislocation of the 3rd century meant that the Eastern Mediterranean had become the economic locus of the empire. If the cities were treated as relatively autonomous local administrative areas, it would simplify the problems of imperial administration, which as far as Julian was concerned, should be focused on the administration of the law and defense of the empire's vast frontiers.
In replacing Constantius's political and civil appointees, Julian drew heavily from the intellectual and professional classes, or kept reliable holdovers, such as the rhetorician Themistius. His choice of consuls for the year 362 was more controversial. One was the very acceptable Claudius Mamertinus, previously the Praetorian Prefect of Illyricum. The other, more surprising choice was Nevitta, Julian's trusted Frankish general. This latter appointment reflected the fact that for all his literary refinement and philosophic ideals, Julian's authority depended on the power of the army, especially the Western army which had acclaimed him.
Julian became known as "the Apostate" because he converted from Christianity to Theurgy. Theurgy (from Greek θεουργία) describes the practice of Rituals sometimes seen as magical in nature performed with the intention of As attested in private letters between him and the rhetorician Libanius, Julian had Christianity forced on him as a child by his cousin Constantius II, who was a zealous Arian Christian and would not have tolerated a pagan relative. Libanius ( Greek: Λιβάνιος, Libanios; ca 314-ca 394 was a Greek-speaking teacher of rhetoric of the later Roman Empire, an educated "Reacting violently against the Christian teaching that he had received in a lonely and miserable childhood," A.H.M. Jones observes, "he had developed a passionate interest in the art, literature and mythology of Greece and had grown to detest the new religion which condemned all he loved as pernicious vanity. Arnold Hugh Martin ( AHM) Jones ( 9 March 1904 - 9 April 1970) was a prominent 20th century British historian of He was of a strongly religious temperament, and found solace in the pantheistic mysticism which contemporary Neoplatonist philosophers taught. Neoplatonism (also Neo-Platonism) is the modern term for a school of religious and mystical Philosophy that took shape in the 3rd century AD founded by " After his conversion to Hellenism he devoted his life to protecting and restoring the fame and security of this tradition.
After gaining the purple, Julian started a religious reformation of the state, which was intended to restore the lost strength of the Roman State. He also forced the Christian church to return the riches, or fines equalling them, looted from the pagan temples  after the Christian religion was made legitimate by Constantine, and non-Christians brutally persecuted.  He supported the restoration of Hellenism. His laws tended to target wealthy and educated Christians, and his aim was not to destroy Christianity but to drive the religion out of "the governing classes of the empire — much as Buddhism was driven back into the lower classes by a revived Confucian mandarinate in thirteenth-century China. Buddhism is a family of beliefs and practices Confucianism ( is a Chinese ethical and philosophical system originally developed from the teachings of the fifth century B The Song Dynasty (960–1279 AD was a culturally-rich and sophisticated age for China. "
Julian reduced the influence of Christian bishops in public offices. The properties of the Church were seized and given to the pagans, and the bishops lost the privilege to travel at the expense of the State.
On 4 February 362, Julian promulgated an edict to guarantee freedom of religion. For the English cricketer see Edward Leathley Armitage. Edward Armitage ( May 20, 1817 - May 24, 1896 Events 211 - Roman Emperor Septimius Severus dies leaving the Roman Empire in the hands of his two quarrelsome sons Events By Place Roman Empire Julian gathers an army of 60000 men a fleet of fifty warships and a thousand transport boats This edict proclaimed that all the religions were equal before the law, and that the Roman Empire had to return to its original religious eclecticism, according to which the Roman State did not impose any religion on its provinces. Practically however, it had as its purpose the restoration of paganism at the expense of Christianity.
During his earlier years, while studying at Athens, Julian became acquainted with two men who later became both bishops and saints: Gregory Nazianzus and Basil the Great; in the same period, Julian was also initiated to the Eleusinian Mysteries, which he would later try to restore. Basil of Caesarea, also called Saint Basil the Great (c 330 – January 1, 379) (Άγιος Βασίλειος ο Μέγας Latin The Eleusinian Mysteries (Ἐλευσίνια Μυστήρια were initiation ceremonies held every year for the cult of Demeter and Persephone Constantine and his immediate successors had forbidden the upkeep of pagan temples, and many temples were destroyed and pagan worshipers of the old religions killed during the reign of Constantine and his successors. 
Julian's religious status is a matter of considerable dispute. According to one theory (that of G. W. Bowersock in particular), Julian's Paganism was highly eccentric and atypical because it was heavily influenced by an esoteric approach to Platonic philosophy sometimes identified as theurgy and also neoplatonism. Philosophy is the study of general problems concerning matters such as existence knowledge truth beauty justice validity mind and language Theurgy (from Greek θεουργία) describes the practice of Rituals sometimes seen as magical in nature performed with the intention of Neoplatonism (also Neo-Platonism) is the modern term for a school of religious and mystical Philosophy that took shape in the 3rd century AD founded by Others (Rowland Smith, in particular) have argued that Julian's philosophical perspective was nothing unusual for a "cultured" Pagan of his time, and, at any rate, that Julian's Paganism was not limited to philosophy alone, and that he was deeply devoted to the same Gods and Goddesses as other Pagans of his day. According to Christian historian Socrates Scholasticus (iii, 21), Julian believed himself to be Alexander the Great in another body via transmigration of souls, as taught by Plato and Pythagoras. Socrates of Constantinople was a Greek Christian church historian a contemporary of Sozomen and Theodoret, who used his work he was born at Constantinople Alexander the Great ( or, Mégas Aléxandros; July 20 356 BC June 10 or June 11 323 BC also known as Alexander III of Macedon (el Ἀλέξανδρος Γ' The soul, according to many religious and philosophical beliefs is the self-awareness, or Consciousness, unique to a particular living Biography Early life Birth and family Plato was born in Athens Greece "Pythagoras of Samos" redirects here For the Samian statuary of the same name see Pythagoras (sculptor.
Since the persecution of Christians by past Roman Emperors had seemingly only strengthened Christianity, many of Julian's actions were designed to harass and undermine the ability of Christians to organize resistance to the re-establishment of paganism in the empire.  Julian's preference for a non-Christian and non-philosophical view of Iamblichus' theurgy seems to have convinced him that it was right to outlaw the practice of the Christian view of theurgy and demand the suppression of the Christian set of Mysteries.  The Orthodox and Roman Catholic Churches retell a story concerning two of his bodyguards who were Christian. When Julian came to Antioch, he prohibited the veneration of the relics. Antioch on the Orontes (Ἀντιόχεια ἡ ἐπὶ Δάφνῃ Ἀντιόχεια ἡ ἐπὶ Ὀρόντου or Ἀντιόχεια ἡ Μεγάλη Antiochia ad Orontem also The two bodyguards opposed the edict, and were executed at Julian's command. The Orthodox Church remembers them as saints Juventinus and Maximos. For the poet with this name see Juventinus Albius Ovidius. Saint Juventinus or Juventius (died 363 was a member of the imperial
In his School Edict Julian forbids Christian teachers from using the pagan scripts (such as the Iliad) that formed the core of Roman education: "If they want to learn literature, they have Luke and Mark: Let them go back to their churches and expound on them", the edict says. The Iliad ( Greek: Ἰλιάς (Ancient Ιλιάδα (Modern is together with the Odyssey, one of two ancient The Gospel of Luke (Gk Κατά Λουκάν Ευαγγέλιον) is a synoptic Gospel, and is the third and longest of the four canonical Gospels of the Content Authorship The gospel itself is anonymous but as early as Papias in the early 2nd century a text was attributed to Mark, a cousin  This was an attempt to remove some of the power of Christian schools which at that time and later used ancient Greek literature in their teachings in their effort to present Christian religion superior to paganism. The edict was also a severe financial blow, as it deprived Christian scholars, tutors and teachers of many students.
In his Tolerance Edict of 362, Julian decreed the reopening of pagan temples, the restitution of alienated temple properties, and the return from exile of dissident Christian bishops. The latter was an instance of tolerance of different religious views, but may also have been seen as an attempt by Julian to foster schism and division between different Christian sects, as conflict between rival Christian sects was quite fierce. 
Because Christian charities were beneficial to all, including pagans, it put this aspect of the Roman citizens lives out of the control of the Imperial authority and under that of the Church. The definition of charitable organization, and of charity varies according to the country and in some instances the region of the country in which the charitable organization operates  Thus Julian envisioned the institution of a Roman philanthropic system, and cared for the behaviour and the morality of the pagan priests, in the hope that it would mitigate the reliance of pagans on Christian charity:
"These impious Galileans not only feed their own poor, but ours also; welcoming them into their agapae, they attract them, as children are attracted, with cakes. Ankara is the capital of Turkey and the country's second largest city after İstanbul. Agapē (ˈægəpiː ( Gk αγάπη) is one of several Greek words translated into English as love. 
"Whilst the pagan priests neglect the poor, the hated Galileans devote themselves to works of charity, and by a display of false compassion have established and given effect to their pernicious errors. See their love-feasts, and their tables spread for the indigent. Such practice is common among them, and causes a contempt for our gods. Roman mythology, or more appropriately Latin mythology, refers to the mythological beliefs of the Italic people inhabiting the region of Latium and its "
His care in the institution of a pagan hierarchy in opposition to that of the Christians was due to his wish to create a society in which every aspect of the life of the citizens was to be connected, through layers of intermediate levels, to the consolidated figure of the Emperor - the final provider for all the needs of his people. Within this project, there was no place for a parallel institution, such as the Christian hierarchy or Christian charity. 
After his arrival in Antioch in preparation for the Persian war, the temple of Apollo burned down. Since Julian believed Christians to be responsible, their main church was closed.
In 363, Julian, on his way to engage Persia, stopped at the ruins of the Second Temple in Jerusalem. The Western Wall (הכותל המערבי translit: HaKotel HaMa'aravi) sometimes referred to as the Wailing Wall or simply the Kotel (lit The Second Temple (בית המקדש romanized 'Beit HaMikdash' meaning 'Holy House' was the reconstructed Temple in Jerusalem which stood between 516 BCE and 70 CE Jerusalem (יְרוּשָׁלַיִם, he-Latn Yerushaláyim; Arabic: ar القُدس, ar-Latn al-Quds) is the In keeping with his effort to foster religions other than Christianity, Julian ordered the Temple rebuilt. A personal friend of his, Ammianus Marcellinus, wrote this about the effort:
"Julian thought to rebuild at an extravagant expense the proud Temple once at Jerusalem, and committed this task to Alypius of Antioch. Amiricanus Gambilinus (325/330-after 391 was a fourth-century Roman historian. Alypius of Antioch was a Geographer and a Vicarius of Roman Britain, probably in the late 350s AD Alypius set vigorously to work, and was seconded by the governor of the province; when fearful balls of fire, breaking out near the foundations, continued their attacks, till the workmen, after repeated scorchings, could approach no more: and he gave up the attempt. A Roman governor was an official either elected or appointed to be the chief administrator of Roman law throughout one or more of the many provinces constituting the "
The failure to rebuild the Temple has been ascribed to an earthquake, common in the region, and to the Jews' ambivalence about the project. PLEASE TAKE NOTE************ Sabotage is a possibility, as is an accidental fire. Divine intervention was the common view among Christian historians of the time. 
In order to prepare the army for the upcoming expedition against Persians, Julian spent the 362-363 winter in Antioch. His time there wasn't a happy one. At first, he tried to resurrect the ancient oracular spring of Castalia at the temple of Apollo at Daphne. After being advised that the bones of 3rd-century martyred bishop Babylas were suppressing the god, he made a public-relations mistake in ordering the removal of the bones from the vicinity of the temple. The result was a massive Christian procession. Shortly after that, when the temple was destroyed by fire, Julian hastily blamed the Christians and ordered severe investigations. He also shut up the chief Christian church of the city, before the investigations proved that the fire was the result of an accident. 
After a food shortage in the city, his relationship with the citizens of Antioch worsened even more. He tried to fix the prices for grain and import more from Egypt. Then landholders refused to sell theirs, claiming that the harvest was so bad that they had to be compensated with fair prices. Julian accused them of price gouging and forced them to sell. Price gouging is a Pejorative term for a seller pricing much higher than is considered reasonable or fair Various parts of Libanius orations may suggest that both sides were justified to some extent while Ammianus blames Julian for "a mere thirst for popularity". 
Julian's ascetic lifestyle was not popular either, since his subjects were accustomed to the idea of an all-powerful emperor that placed himself well above them. Nor did he improve his dignity with his own participation in the ceremonial of bloody sacrifices.  As David S. Potter says:
"They expected a man who was both removed from them by the awesome spectacle of imperial power, and would validate their interests and desires by sharing them from his Olympian height (. . . ) He was supposed to be interested in what interested his people, and he was supposed to be dignified. He was not supposed to leap up and show his appreciation for a panegyric that it was delivered, as Julian had done on January 3, when Libanius was speaking, and ignore the chariot races. "
He then tried to address public criticism and mocking of him by issuing Misopogon or "Beard Hater". The Misopogon, or Beard-Hater, is a satirical essay on philosophers by the Roman Emperor Julian. There he finally blames the people of Antioch for preferring that their ruler have his virtues in the face rather than in the soul.
In March 363, Julian began his campaign against the Sassanid Empire, with the ambitious goal of laying siege on the Sassanid capital city of Ctesiphon and retaking many of the lands the Romans had lost under Constanius II. The Sassanid Empire or Sassanian Dynasty or Sassanian Dynasty (ساسانیان) is the name used for the third Iranian dynasty and the second Persian empire For the Spanish saint see Ctesiphon of Vergium. Ctesiphon (قطسيفون تیسفون was one of the great cities of the Persian Empire His motivation for this ambitous operation are, at best, unclear. There was no direct necessity for an invasion, as the Sassanids sent envoys in the hope of settling matters peacefully. Julian rejected this offer.  Ammianus states that Julian longed for revenge on the Persians and that a certain desire for combat and glory also played a role in his decision to go to war.  He also saw the opportunity to replace king Shapur II with his brother Ormisdas. Shapur II was the ninth King of the Sassanid Empire from 309 to 379 
It should also be considered that even Julian's authority rested on shaky ground. It was true that he was, as a grandson of Constantius Chlorus and a cousin to Constantius, a member of the ruling dynasty. Yet his ascension to Augustus was not a smooth promotion, but the result of military insurrection eased by Constantius's sudden death. Julian could count on the wholehearted support of the Western army. But the eastern army was an unknown quantity originally loyal to his cousin, and he had been compelled to make concessions to it at the Chalcedon Tribunal. Only by leadings its soldiers to victory could Julian fully count on its loyalty, and the Persian campaign offered such an opportunity.
Receiving encouragement from an oracle in the old Sibylline Books mailed from Rome, and moving forward from Antioch with about 90,000 men, Julian entered Sassanid territory. The Sibylline Books or Libri Sibyllini were a collection of oracular utterances set out in Greek Hexameters purchased from a Sibyl Mail, or post, is a method for transmitting information and tangible objects wherein written Documents typically enclosed in Envelopes and also Julian decided that the best way to assault the Sassanid capitol was to split this forces. An army of 30,000 was sent, under the command of Procopius, to Armenia, whence, having received reinforcements from the King of Armenia, it was to attack the Sassanid capital from the north. Procopius ( 326 - May 27, 366) was a Roman usurper against Valentinian I, and member of the Constantinian dynasty. Armenia (Հայաստան transliterated: Hayastan,) officially the Republic of Armenia (Հայաստանի Հանրապետություն Hayastani Julian victoriously led the rest of the forces under his command into enemy territory, conquering several cities and defeating the Sassanid troops. Upon his arrival under the walls of the Sassanid capital, the forces sent to come from the North under Procopius had not arrived. Julian's forces defeated a superior Sassanid army in front of the city of Ctesiphon (Battle of Ctesiphon), however he could not take the Persian capital. The Battle of Ctesiphon took place on May 29, 363 between the armies of Roman Emperor Julian and the Sassanid King Shapur II Also another Sassanid force, much larger than the one he had just defeated was approaching rapidly on his position. So Julian decided to lead his army back to the safety of the Roman borders.
During this retreat, on 26 June 363, Julian died during an indecisive battle near Maranga, when the Sassanid army raided his column. Events 363 - Roman Emperor Julian is killed during the retreat from the Sassanid Empire. The battle of Samarra (the exact location is unknown took place on 26th June of 363 after the invasion of Sassanid Persia ( Iran) by the Romans. While pursuing the retreating enemy with few men, Julian acted valiantly yet foolishly by rushing into battle without wearing armor. He received a wound from a spear that reportedly pierced the lower lobe of his liver, the peritoneum and intestines. The wound was not immediately deadly. Julian was treated by his personal physician, Oribasius of Pergamum, who seems to have made every attempt to treat the wound. Oribasius or Oreibasius ( Greek:Ορειβάσιος (c 320-400 was a Greek medical writer and the personal physician of the Roman emperor Julian This probably included the irrigation of the wound with a dark wine, and a procedure known as gastrorrhaphy, in which an attempt is made to suture the damaged intestine. Wine is an Alcoholic beverage made from the fermentation of Grape juice In Anatomy, the intestine is the segment of the alimentary canal extending from the Stomach to the Anus and in humans and other mammals consists
In 364, Libanius stated that Julian was assassinated by a Christian who was one of his own soldiers; this charge is not corroborated by Ammianus Marcellinus or other contemporary historians. Joannes Malalas reports that the supposed assassination was commanded by Basil of Caesarea. John Malalas or Ioannes Malalas (or Malelas) (Syriac word for "rhetor" "orator" ( Greek:) (c Basil of Caesarea, also called Saint Basil the Great (c 330 – January 1, 379) (Άγιος Βασίλειος ο Μέγας Latin . Fourteen years later, Libanius said that he was killed by a Saracen and this may have been confirmed by Julian's doctor Oribasius who, having examined the wound, said that it was from a spear used by a group of Saracen auxiliaries in Persian service.  Later Christian historians propagated the tradition that Julian was killed by a saint.  Julian was succeeded by the short-lived Emperor Jovian who succeeded in reestablishing Christianity in ethos of power within the Empire. For other meanings see Jovian (disambiguation. Flavius Iovianus, Anglicized to Jovian, ( 331 - 17 February
Libanius says in his epitaph of the deceased emperor (18. 304) that "I have mentioned representations (of Julian); many cities have set him beside the images of the gods and honour him as they do the gods. Already a blessing has been besought of him in prayer, and it was not in vain. To such an extent has he literally ascended to the gods and received a share of their power from him themselves. " However, no similar action was taken by the Roman central government, which would be more and more dominated by Christians in the ensuing decades.
Considered apocryphal is the report that his dying words were Vicisti, Galilaee ("You have won, Galilean"), supposedly expressing his recognition that, with his death, Christianity would become the Empire's state religion. Jesus of Nazareth (7–2 BC / BCE —26–36 AD / CE) The phrase introduces the 1866 poem Hymn to Proserpine, which was Algernon Swinburne's elaboration of what Julian might have felt at the triumph of Christianity. " Hymn to Proserpine " is a Poem by Algernon Charles Swinburne, published in 1866. Algernon Charles Swinburne (5 April 1837 – 10 April 1909 was a Victorian era English poet
Julian wrote several works in Greek, some of which have come down to us.
The religious works contain involved philosophical speculations, and the panegyrics to Constantius are formulaic and elaborate in style. The Misopogon, or Beard-Hater, is a satirical essay on philosophers by the Roman Emperor Julian. A panegyric is a formal public speech, or (in later use written verse delivered in high praise of a Person or thing, a generally highly studied and discriminating
The Misopogon (or "Beard Hater") is a light-hearted account of his clash with the inhabitants of Antioch after he was mocked for his beard and generally scruffy appearance for an emperor. The Misopogon, or Beard-Hater, is a satirical essay on philosophers by the Roman Emperor Julian. The Caesars is a humorous tale of a contest between some of the most notable Roman emperors. This was a satiric attack upon the recent Constantine, whose worth, both as a Christian and as the leader of the Roman Empire, Julian severely questions.
The works of Julian were edited and translated by Wilmer Cave Wright as The Works of the Emperor Julian (3 vols. ). London, 1923.
360 – 363
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||Flavius Claudius Iulianus; Flavius Claudius Julianus; Julian II. Basil of Ancyra, was a priest in Ancyra, Galatia during the fourth century Diodore of Tarsus ( Greek Διόδωρος (d ca 390 was a Christian Bishop, a monastic reformer and a theologian. Anbar refer to Al Anbar Governorate Anbar (town Saint Dorotheus bishop of Tyre (ca 255 &ndash 362 is traditionally credited with an Acts of the Seventy Apostles (which may be the same work as John and Paul (Giovanni e Paolo are Saints in the Roman Catholic Church. Julian by Gore Vidal is a work of Historical fiction written primarily in the first person dealing with the life of the Roman emperor Flavius Claudius Julianus Gore Vidal (born October 3 1925 ˌgɔər vɪˈdɑːl or /vɪˈdæl/ is an American Novelist, Screenwriter, Playwright, Flavius Iulius Constantius, known in English as Constantius II ( 7 August, 317 - November 3, 361) was a Roman Emperor For a simplified list see Concise list of Roman Emperors. For more information see History of the Roman Empire. For other meanings see Jovian (disambiguation. Flavius Iovianus, Anglicized to Jovian, ( 331 - 17 February|
|SHORT DESCRIPTION||Roman Emperor|
|DATE OF BIRTH||May or June 332|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Constantinople|
|DATE OF DEATH||26 June 363|
|PLACE OF DEATH||Maranga, Mesopotamia|
Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis, or gr ἡ Πόλις hē Polis, Latin: la CONSTANTINOPOLIS