|Wide use||Astronomical · Gregorian · Islamic · ISO|
|Lunisolar · Solar · Lunar|
|Selected use||Assyrian · Armenian · Attic · Aztec (Tonalpohualli – Xiuhpohualli) · Babylonian · Bahá'í · Bengali · Berber · Bikram Samwat · Buddhist · Celtic · Chinese · Coptic · Egyptian · Ethiopian · Calendrier Républicain · Germanic · Hebrew · Hellenic · Hindu · Indian · Iranian · Irish · Japanese · Javanese · Juche · Julian · Korean · Lithuanian · Malayalam · Maya (Tzolk'in – Haab') · Minguo · Nanakshahi · Nepal Sambat · Pawukon · Pentecontad calendar · Rapa Nui · Roman · Soviet · Tamil · Thai (Lunar – Solar) · Tibetan · Burmese . The word Calendar consist of two words 1 Cal ( in Pashto means Year in Hindi and Persian is Sal- also means Year In current use Assyrian calendar Astronomical year numbering Bahá'í calendar Bengali calendar Astronomical year numbering is based on AD ( Anno Domini)/CE ( Common Era) year numbering but follows normal Decimal Integer numbering more strictly The Gregorian calendar is the most widely used Calendar in the world today The Islamic calendar or Muslim calendar ( Arabic: التقويم الهجري at-taqwīm al-hijrī; Persian: تقویم هجری قمری The ISO week date system is a Leap week calendar system that is part of the ISO 8601 date and time standard A lunisolar calendar is a Calendar in many Cultures whose date indicates both the Moon phase and the time of the solar Year. A solar calendar is a Calendar whose dates indicate the position of the earth on its revolution around the Sun (or equivalently the apparent position of the sun moving A lunar calendar is a Calendar that is based on cycles of the Moon phase. This article is about the calendar introduced in the 1950s See Old Assyrian calendar for the ancient calendar The Armenian calendar is the traditional calendar of Armenia. The Attic calendar is the Calendar that was in use in ancient Attica, the ancestral territory of the Athenian Polis. The Aztec calendar is the Calendar system that was used by the Aztecs as well as other Pre-Columbian peoples of central Mexico. The tonalpohualli, a Nahuatl word meaning "count of days" is a 260-day sacred period (often termed a " Year " in use in Pre-Columbian The Xiuhpohualli was a 365-day Calendar used by the Aztecs and other Pre-Columbian Nahua peoples in central Mexico The Babylonian calendar was a Lunisolar calendar with years consisting of 12 Lunar months each beginning when a new crescent moon was first sighted low The Bahá'í calendar, also called the Badí‘ calendar, used by the Bahá'í Faith, is a Solar calendar with regular years of 365 days and Leap The Bengali calendar ( বঙ্গাব্দ Bônggabdo or বাংলা সন Bangla Shôn) or Bangla calendar is a traditional solar Calendar The Berber calendar is the annual Calendar used by Berber people in North Africa. Bikram Samwat ( Bikram Sambat, or Vikram Samvat, Devnagari:बिक्रम संवत abbreviated "B The Buddhist calendar is used on mainland Southeast Asia in the countries of Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, Myanmar (formerly Burma The term Celtic calendar is used to refer to a variety of calendars used by Celtic-speaking peoples at different times in history The Chinese calendar is lunisolar, incorporating elements of a Lunar calendar with those of a Solar calendar. The Coptic calendar, also called the Alexandrian calendar, is used by the Coptic Orthodox Church and still used in Egypt The ancient civil Egyptian calendar had a year that was 365 days long and was divided into 12 months of 30 days each plus 5 extra days (epagomenes Greek ἐπαγόμεναι The Ethiopian calendar ( Amharic: የኢትዮጵያ ዘመን አቆጣጠር ye'Ītyōṗṗyā zemen āḳoṭaṭer) also called the Ge'ez calendar, The French Republican Calendar or French Revolutionary Calendar was a Calendar proposed during the French Revolution, and used by the French government The Germanic calendars were the regional agricultural Almanacs used amongst the Germanic peoples prior to the adoption of the Julian and later the Gregorian The Hebrew calendar (הלוח העברי ha'luach ha'ivri) or Jewish calendar is a Lunisolar calendar used by Jews for predominantly religious The Hellenic calendar &mdashor more properly the Hellenic calendars, for there was no uniform calendar imposed upon all of Classical Greece &mdashbegan in most Greek The Hindu calendar used in ancient times has undergone many changes in the process of regionalization and today there are several regional Indian Calendars, as The Indian national calendar (sometimes called Saka calendar) is the official civil calendar in use in India. The Iranian calendar or Solar Hejri (تقویم هجری شمسی؛ سالنمای هجری خورشیدی Taqwim Hejri Shamsi Salanmay Hejri Khurshidi) is an astronomical The Irish calendar does not observe the typical astronomical seasons (beginning in the Northern Hemisphere on the Equinoxes and Solstices, or the meteorological seasons Since January 1, 1873, Japan has used the Gregorian calendar, with local names for the months and mostly fixed holidays The Javanese calendar is a Calendar still in use by the Javanese people of Indonesia concurrently with two other important calendars the Gregorian The Juche Idea (주체사상 Juche Sasang) is the official state Ideology of North Korea and the Political system based on it The Revised Julian calendar or less formally New Calendar, is a Calendar scheme originated in 1923 which effectively discontinued the 340 years of divergence between The traditional Korean calendar is a Lunisolar calendar which like the traditional calendars of other East Asian countries was based on the Chinese calendar The Lithuanian calendar is unusual among Western countries in that neither the names of the months nor the names of the weekdays are derived from Greek or Norse mythology Malayalam calendar (also known as Malayalam Era or Kollavarsham) is a solar Sidereal calendar used in the state of Kerala in South India The Maya calendar is a system of distinct Calendars and Almanacs used by the Maya civilization of Pre-Columbian Mesoamerica, and by Tzolk'in (in the revised Guatemala Mayan languages Academy Orthography which is now preferred formerly and commonly tzolkin) is the name bestowed by The Haab' is part of the Maya calendric system used by peoples of the Pre-Columbian Maya civilization. The Republic of China calendar (民國紀元 is the method of numbering years currently used in the Republic of China ( Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen The Nanakshahi (ਨਾਨਕਸ਼ਾਹੀ nānakashāhī) calendar is a Solar calendar that was adopted by the Shiromani Gurdwara Prabhandak Committee The Lunar calendar Nepal Sambat ( Nepal Bhasa: नेपाल सम्बत is commonly used in the Kathmandu valley of Nepal. The Pentecontad Calendar is a unique agricultural Calendar system thought to be of Amorite origin in which the year is broken down into seven periods of fifty days The Rapa Nui calendar was the indigenous Lunisolar calendar of Easter Island. The Roman calendar changed its form several times in the time between the foundation of Rome and the fall of the Roman Empire. }The Tamil Calendar is used in Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Puducherry in India, and by the Tamil population in Malaysia, The Thai lunar calendar ( Thai: ปฏิทินจันทรคติ Patitin Chantarakati) (literally Against-the-Sun Moon-Ways) is Thailand The Thai solar calendar, Suriyakati (สุริยคติ has been the official and prevalent Calendar in Thailand since it was adopted by King The Tibetan calendar is a Lunisolar calendar, that is the Tibetan year is composed of either 12 or 13 Lunar months each beginning and ending with a New moon The traditional Burmese calendar is a Lunisolar calendar based on both the phases of the moon and the motion of the sun Vietnamese· Xhosa · Zoroastrian|
|Runic · Mesoamerican (Long Count – Calendar Round)|
|Julian calendar · Calendar of saints · Eastern Orthodox liturgical calendar · Liturgical year|
|Rarely used||Darian calendar · Discordian calendar|
|Display types and applications||Perpetual calendar · Wall calendar · Economic calendar|
The Julian calendar was a reform of the Roman calendar which was introduced by Julius Caesar in 46 BC and came into force in 45 BC (709 ab urbe condita). This article is about the Vietnamese holiday For the 1968 military operation that began on that holiday see Tết Offensive. By the traditional Xhosa calendar, the year began in June and ended in May when Canopus, a large star visible in the Southern Hemisphere, signalled the The Zoroastrian calendar is a religious Calendar used by members of the Zoroastrian faith and it is an approximation of the (tropical Solar calendar. The Runic calendar is a Perpetual calendar based on the 19 year long Metonic cycle of the Moon Mesoamerican calendars are the calendrical systems devised and used by the Pre-Columbian cultures of Mesoamerica. In the Mesoamerican calendars, Calendar Round dates are composed by interlacing the dates of a 260-day period ( Tzolk'in in the Maya Calendar, Tonalpohualli The Calendar of saints is a traditional Christian method of organizing a Liturgical year on the level of days by associating each day with one or more Saints The Eastern Orthodox liturgical calendar describes and dictates the rhythm of the life of the Eastern Orthodox Church. The liturgical year, also known as the Christian year, consists of the cycle of liturgical seasons in Christian churches which determines when The Darian Calendar is a proposed system of time-keeping designed to serve the needs of any possible future human settlers on the planet Mars. The Discordian or Erisian calendar is an alternative Calendar used by some adherents of Discordianism. A perpetual calendar is a Calendar which is good for a span of many years such as the Runic calendar. A wall calendar is a Calendar intended for placement on a wall Economic calendar is a type of Calendar that is intended to inform financiers and traders about the scheduled major economic numbers (like CPI, The Roman calendar changed its form several times in the time between the foundation of Rome and the fall of the Roman Empire. Ab Urbe condita (literally "from It was chosen after consultation with the astronomer Sosigenes of Alexandria and was probably designed to approximate the tropical year, known at least since Hipparchus. Sosigenes of Alexandria was named by Pliny the Elder as the Astronomer consulted by Julius Caesar for the design of the Julian calendar. A tropical year (also known as a solar year) is the length of time that the Sun takes to return to the same position in the cycle of seasons as seen from Earth Hipparchus ( Greek; ca 190 BC &ndash ca 120 BC was a Greek Astronomer, Geographer, and Mathematician of the Hellenistic It has a regular year of 365 days divided into 12 months, and a leap day is added to February every four years. A day (symbol d is a unit of Time equivalent to 24 Hours and the duration of a single Rotation of planet Earth with respect to the The month is a unit of Time, used with Calendars which is approximately as long as some natural period related to the motion of the Moon; Leap years Although the modern calendar counts a year as 365 days a complete revolution around the sun takes approximately 365 days and 6 hours Overview February was named after the Latin term februum, which means purification, via the purification ritual Februa held on February 15 in the Hence the Julian year is on average 365. 25 days long.
The Julian calendar remained in use into the 20th century in some countries as a national calendar, but it has generally been replaced by the modern Gregorian calendar. The Gregorian calendar is the most widely used Calendar in the world today It is still used by the Berber people of North Africa and by many national Orthodox churches. Berbers are the indigenous peoples of North Africa west of the Nile Valley. North Africa or Northern Africa is the Northernmost Region of the African Continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan The Eastern Orthodox Church is the second largest single Christian Communion in the world Orthodox Churches no longer using the Julian calendar typically use the Revised Julian calendar rather than the Gregorian calendar. The Revised Julian calendar or less formally New Calendar, is a Calendar scheme originated in 1923 which effectively discontinued the 340 years of divergence between
The notation "Old Style" (OS) is sometimes used to indicate a date in the Julian calendar, as opposed to "New Style" (NS), which either represents the Julian date with the start of the year as 1 January or a full mapping onto the Gregorian calendar. Old Style (or OS) and New Style (or NS) are used in English language historical studies either to indicate that the start of the Julian year Old Style (or OS) and New Style (or NS) are used in English language historical studies either to indicate that the start of the Julian year New Year See also New Year The Ancient Romans began their consular year on January 1st since 153 BC The Gregorian calendar is the most widely used Calendar in the world today
The ordinary year in the previous Roman calendar consisted of 12 months, for a total of 355 days. In addition, a 27-day intercalary month, the Mensis Intercalaris, was sometimes inserted between February and March. Mercedonius, also known as Intercalaris, was the Intercalary month added in Leap years of the Roman calendar. This intercalary month was formed by inserting 22 days after the first 23 or 24 days of February, the last five days of February becoming the last five days of Intercalaris. The net effect was to add 22 or 23 days to the year, forming an intercalary year of 377 or 378 days.
According to the later writers Censorinus and Macrobius, the ideal intercalary cycle consisted of ordinary years of 355 days alternating with intercalary years, alternately 377 and 378 days long. Censorinus, Roman Grammarian and miscellaneous writer flourished during the 3rd century AD. This article is about Macrobius the author for Macrobius the bishop of Seleucia and Calycadnum see Macrobius of Seleucia Ambrosius Theodosius Macrobius On this system, the average Roman year would have had 366¼ days over four years, giving it an average drift of one day per year relative to any solstice or equinox. Macrobius describes a further refinement wherein, for 8 years out of 24, there were only three intercalary years, each of 377 days. This refinement averages the length of the year to 365¼ days over 24 years. In practice, intercalations did not occur schematically according to these ideal systems, but were determined by the pontifices. The Pontifex Maximus was the high priest of the Ancient Roman College of Pontiffs. So far as can be determined from the historical evidence, they were much less regular than these ideal schemes suggest. They usually occurred every second or third year, but were sometimes omitted for much longer, and occasionally occurred in two consecutive years.
If managed correctly this system allowed the Roman year, on average, to stay roughly aligned to a tropical year. However, if too many intercalations were omitted, as happened after the Second Punic War and during the Civil Wars, the calendar would drift rapidly out of alignment with the tropical year. The Second Punic War (referred to as "The War Against Hannibal" by the Romans lasted from 218 to 201 BC and involved combatants in the western List of Civil wars involving Rome. There were several Roman civil wars, especially during the time of the late Republic. Moreover, since intercalations were often determined quite late, the average Roman citizen often did not know the date, particularly if he were some distance from the city. For these reasons, the last years of the pre-Julian calendar were later known as "years of confusion". The problems became particularly acute during the years of Julius Caesar's pontificate before the reform, 63 to 46 BC, when there were only five intercalary months, whereas there should have been eight, and none at all during the five Roman years before 46 BC.
The reform was intended to correct this problem permanently, by creating a calendar that remained aligned to the sun without any human intervention.
The first step of the reform was to realign the start of the calendar year (1 January) to the tropical year by making 46 BC 445 days long, compensating for the intercalations which had been missed during Caesar's pontificate. New Year See also New Year The Ancient Romans began their consular year on January 1st since 153 BC This year had already been extended from 355 to 378 days by the insertion of a regular intercalary month in February. Intercalation is the insertion of a leap day week or month into some calendar years to make the calendar follow the seasons or moon phases When Caesar decreed the reform, probably shortly after his return from the African campaign in late Quintilis (July), he added 67 (= 22 + 23 + 22) more days by inserting two extraordinary intercalary months between November and December. These months are called Intercalaris Prior and Intercalaris Posterior in letters of Cicero written at the time; there is no basis for the statement sometimes seen that they were called "Unodecember" and "Duodecember". Their individual lengths are unknown, as is the position of the Nones and the Ides within them. Because 46 BC was the last of a series of irregular years, this extra-long year was, and is, referred to as the "last year of confusion". The first year of operation of the new calendar was 45 BC.
The Julian months were formed by adding ten days to a regular pre-Julian Roman year of 355 days, creating a regular Julian year of 365 days: Two extra days were added to Ianuarius, Sextilis (Augustus) and December, and one extra day was added to Aprilis, Iunius, September and November, setting the lengths of the months to the values they still hold today:
|Months||Lengths before 45 BC||Lengths as of 45 BC|
|Februarius||28 (23/24)||28 (29)|
Macrobius states that the extra days were added immediately before the last day of each month to avoid disturbing the position of the established Roman fasti (days prescribed for certain events) relative to the start of the month. This article is about Macrobius the author for Macrobius the bishop of Seleucia and Calycadnum see Macrobius of Seleucia Ambrosius Theodosius Macrobius However, since Roman dates after the Ides of the month counted down towards the start of the next month, the extra days had the effect of raising the initial value of the count of the day after the Ides. The Roman calendar changed its form several times in the time between the foundation of Rome and the fall of the Roman Empire. Romans of the time born after the Ides of a month responded differently to the effect of this change on their birthdays. Mark Antony kept his birthday on the 14th day of Ianuarius, which changed its date from a. Marcus Antonius (in Latin: M·ANTONIVS·M·F·M·N ( c January 14 83 BC&ndash August 1, 30 BC known in English as Mark d. XVII Kal. Feb. to a. d. XIX Kal. Feb. , a date that had previously not existed. Livia kept the date of her birthday unchanged at a. Livia Drusilla, after 14 AD called Julia Augusta ( Classical Latin: LIVIA•DRVSILLA IVLIA•AVGVSTA (58 BC-29 AD was the wife of d. III Kal. Feb. , which moved it from the 28th to the 30th day of Ianuarius, a day that had previously not existed. Augustus kept his on the 23rd day of September, but both the old date (a. Augustus ( Latin: IMPERATOR·CAESAR·DIVI·FILIVS·AVGVSTVS September 23 63 BC – August 19 AD 14) born Gaius Octavius Thurinus, was d. VIII Kal. Oct. ) and the new (a. d. IX Kal. Oct. ) were celebrated in some places.
The old intercalary month was abolished. Intercalation is the insertion of a leap day week or month into some calendar years to make the calendar follow the seasons or moon phases The new leap day was dated as ante diem bis sextum Kalendas Martias, usually abbreviated as a. d. bis VI Kal. Mart. ; hence it is called in English the bissextile day. A leap year (or intercalary year) is a year containing one or more extra days (or in the case of Lunisolar calendars an extra month in order to keep the The year in which it occurred was termed annus bissextus, in English the bissextile year.
There is debate about the exact position of the bissextile day in the early Julian calendar. The earliest direct evidence is a statement of the first century jurist Celsus, who states that there were two halves of a 48-hour day, and that the intercalated day was the "posterior" half. Publius Iuventius Celsus Titus Aufidius Hoenius Severianus ( 2nd An inscription from A. D. 168 states that a. d. V Kal. Mart. was the day after the bissextile day. The 19th century chronologist Ideler argued that Celsus used the term "posterior" in a technical fashion to refer to the earlier of the two days, which requires the inscription to refer to the whole 48-hour day as the bissextile. Christian Ludwig Ideler ( September 21, 1766 &ndash August 10, 1846) German Chronologist and Astronomer, was Some later historians share this view. Others, following Mommsen, take the view that Celsus was using the ordinary Latin (and English) meaning of "posterior". Christian Matthias Theodor Mommsen ( 30 November 1817 &ndash 1 November 1903) was a German classical scholar, A third view is that neither half of the 48-hour "bis sextum" was originally formally designated as intercalated, but that the need to do so arose as the concept of a 48-hour day became obsolete. 
There is no doubt that the bissextile day eventually became the earlier of the two days. In 238 Censorinus stated that it was inserted after the Terminalia (23 February) and was followed by the last five days of February, i. Censorinus, Roman Grammarian and miscellaneous writer flourished during the 3rd century AD. e. a. d. VI, V, IV, III and prid. Kal. Mart. (which would be the 24th to 28th days of February in a common year and the 25th to the 29th days in a leap year). Hence he regarded the bissextum as the first half of the doubled day. All later writers, including Macrobius about 430, Bede in 725, and other medieval computists (calculators of Easter) followed this rule, as did the liturgical calendar of the Roman Catholic Church until 1970. This article is about Macrobius the author for Macrobius the bishop of Seleucia and Calycadnum see Macrobius of Seleucia Ambrosius Theodosius Macrobius Bede (ˈbiːd (also Saint Bede, the Venerable Bede, or (from Latin Beda (beda (c Computus ( Latin for Computation) is the Calculation of the date of Easter in the Christian calendar. Easter ( Greek: Πάσχα Pascha or Pasxa) is the most important religious feast in the Christian Liturgical year. The liturgical year, also known as the Christian year, consists of the cycle of liturgical seasons in Christian churches which determines when
During the late Middle Ages days in the month came to be numbered in consecutive day order. Consequently, the leap day was considered to be the last day in February in leap years, i. e. February 29, which is its current position. Leap years Although the modern calendar counts a year as 365 days a complete revolution around the sun takes approximately 365 days and 6 hours
Although the new calendar was much simpler than the pre-Julian calendar, the pontifices apparently misunderstood the algorithm for leap years. They added a leap day every three years, instead of every four years. According to Macrobius, the error was the result of counting inclusively, so that the four-year cycle was considered as including both the first and fourth years. This resulted in too many leap days. Augustus remedied this discrepancy after 36 years by restoring the correct frequency. Augustus ( Latin: IMPERATOR·CAESAR·DIVI·FILIVS·AVGVSTVS September 23 63 BC – August 19 AD 14) born Gaius Octavius Thurinus, was He also skipped several leap days in order to realign the year.
The historic sequence of leap years in this period is not given explicitly by any ancient source, although the existence of the triennial leap year cycle is confirmed by an inscription that dates from 9 or 8 BC. The chronologist Joseph Scaliger established in 1583 that the Augustan reform was instituted in 8 BC, and inferred that the sequence of leap years was 42, 39, 36, 33, 30, 27, 24, 21, 18, 15, 12, 9 BC, AD 8, 12 etc. Definition A chronology may be either relative &mdashthat is locating related events relative to each other&mdashor ''absolute'' &mdashlocating Joseph Justus Scaliger ( August 5 1540 &ndash January 21 1609) was a French religious leader and scholar known for expanding the This proposal is still the most widely accepted solution. It has sometimes been suggested that there was an additional bissextile day in the first year of the Julian reform, i. e. that 45 BC was also a leap year.
Other solutions have been proposed from time to time. Kepler proposed in 1614 that the correct sequence of leap years was 43, 40, 37, 34, 31, 28, 25, 22, 19, 16, 13, 10 BC, AD 8, 12 etc. Johannes Kepler (ˈkɛplɚ ( December 27 1571 &ndash November 15 1630) was a German Mathematician, Astronomer In 1883 the German chronologist Matzat proposed 44, 41, 38, 35, 32, 29, 26, 23, 20, 17, 14, 11 BC, AD 4, 8, 12 etc. , based on a passage in Dio Cassius that mentions a leap day in 41 BC that was said to be contrary to (Caesar's) rule. Lucius Cassius Dio Cocceianus ( Greek:) (c 155 or 163/164 to after 229 known in English as Cassius Dio, Dio Cassius, or Dio was In the 1960s Radke argued the reform was actually instituted when Augustus became pontifex maximus in 12 BC, suggesting the sequence 45, 42, 39, 36, 33, 30, 27, 24, 21, 18, 15, 12 BC, AD 4, 8, 12 etc. With all these solutions, except that of Radke, the Roman calendar was not finally aligned to the Julian calendar of later times until 26 February (a. Events 747 BC - Epoch (origin of Ptolemy 's Nabonassar Era 364 - Valentinian I is proclaimed d. V Kal. Mar. ) AD 4. Year 4 ( IV) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Julian calendar. On Radke's solution, the two calendars were aligned on 26 February 1 BC. Events 747 BC - Epoch (origin of Ptolemy 's Nabonassar Era 364 - Valentinian I is proclaimed Year 1 BC was a Leap year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar.
In 1999, an Egyptian papyrus was published that gives an ephemeris table for 24 BC with both Roman and Egyptian dates. Papyrus (/pəˈpaɪrəs/ (Rhymes -aɪrəs)is a thick paper-like material produced from the Pith of the papyrus plant Cyperus papyrus An ephemeris (plural ephemerides; from the Greek word ἐφήμερος ephemeros "daily" is a table of values that gives the positions of From this it can be shown that the most likely sequence was in fact 44, 41, 38, 35, 32, 29, 26, 23, 20, 17, 14, 11, 8 BC, AD 4, 8, 12 etc, very close to that proposed by Matzat. This sequence shows that the standard Julian leap year sequence began in AD 4, the 12th year of the Augustan reform, and that the Roman calendar was finally aligned to the Julian calendar in 1 BC, as in Radke's model. The Roman year also coincided with the proleptic Julian year between 32 and 26 BC. This suggests that one aim of the realignment portion of the Augustan reform was to ensure that key dates of his career, notably the fall of Alexandria on 1 August 30 BC, were unaffected by his correction. Events 30 BC - Octavian (later known as Augustus enters Alexandria, Egypt, bringing it under the control of the Roman Year 30 BC was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Julian calendar.
Roman dates before 32 BC were typically a day or two before the day with the same Julian date, so 1 January in the Roman calendar of the first year of the Julian reform was 31 December 46 BC (Julian date). New Year See also New Year The Ancient Romans began their consular year on January 1st since 153 BC Events 406 – Vandals, Alans and Suebians cross the Rhine, beginning an invasion of Gallia. Year 46 BC was the last year of the pre-Julian calendar. This year had 445 days due to the errors that had accumulated in the pre-Julian calendar A curious effect of this is that Caesar's assassination on the Ides (15th day) of March fell on 14 March 44 BC in the Julian calendar. Events 1489 - The Queen of Cyprus, Catherine Cornaro, sells her kingdom to Venice. Year 44 BC was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Julian calendar.
Immediately after the Julian reform, the twelve months of the Roman calendar were named Ianuarius, Februarius, Martius, Aprilis, Maius, Iunius, Quintilis, Sextilis, September, October, November, and December, just as they were before the reform. The old intercalary month, the Mensis Intercalaris, was abolished and replaced with a single intercalary day at the same point (i. Mercedonius, also known as Intercalaris, was the Intercalary month added in Leap years of the Roman calendar. e. five days before the end of Februarius). The first month of the year continued to be Ianuarius, as it had been since 153 BC.
The Romans later renamed months after Julius Caesar and Augustus, renaming Quintilis (originally, "the fifth month", with March = month 1) as Iulius (July) in 44 BC and Sextilis ("sixth month") as Augustus (August) in 8 BC. Augustus ( Latin: IMPERATOR·CAESAR·DIVI·FILIVS·AVGVSTVS September 23 63 BC – August 19 AD 14) born Gaius Octavius Thurinus, was Quintilis was renamed to honour Caesar because it was the month of his birth. According to a senatus consultum quoted by Macrobius, Sextilis was renamed to honour Augustus because several of the most significant events in his rise to power, culminating in the fall of Alexandria, fell in that month.
Other months were renamed by other emperors, but apparently none of the later changes survived their deaths. Caligula renamed September ("seventh month") as Germanicus; Nero renamed Aprilis (April) as Neroneus, Maius (May) as Claudius and Iunius (June) as Germanicus; and Domitian renamed September as Germanicus and October ("eighth month") as Domitianus. Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus Germanicus (August 31 AD 12 &ndash January 24 AD 41 more commonly known by his nickname Caligula (kəˈlɪɡjʊlə was a Roman Emperor Germanicus Julius Caesar ( 24 May 16 BC or 15 BC&ndash October 10, 19) Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus ( December 15, 37 – June 9, 68) born Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus, also called Titus Flavius Domitianus (24 October 51 &ndash 18 September 96 commonly known as Domitian, was a Roman Emperor who reigned from 14 September 81 until his death Germanicus Julius Caesar ( 24 May 16 BC or 15 BC&ndash October 10, 19) At other times, September was also renamed as Antoninus and Tacitus, and November ("ninth month") was renamed as Faustina and Romanus. Titus Aurelius Fulvus Boionius Arrius Antoninus ( September 19, 86 &ndash March 7 161) generally known in English as Antoninus Pius Marcus Claudius Tacitus (ca 200 - June 276 was a Roman Emperor from September 25, 275, to June 276 Annia Galeria Faustina, more familiarly referred to as Faustina the Elder ( Latin: Faustina Major; born September 21 about 100 died 141 was Commodus was unique in renaming all twelve months after his own adopted names (January to December): Amazonius, Invictus, Felix, Pius, Lucius, Aelius, Aurelius, Commodus, Augustus, Herculeus, Romanus, and Exsuperatorius. Lucius Aurelius Commodus Antoninus ( August 31, 161 – December 31, 192) was a Roman Emperor who ruled from 180 to 192 (also with
Much more lasting than the ephemeral month names of the post-Augustan Roman emperors were the names introduced by Charlemagne. Charlemagne (ˈʃɑrlɨmeɪn Carolus Magnus or Karolus Magnus meaning Charles the Great) (747 – 28 January 814 was King of the Franks from 768 to his He renamed all of the months agriculturally into Old High German. They were used until the 15th century, and with some modifications until the late 18th century in Germany and in the Netherlands (January through December): Wintarmanoth (winter month), Hornung (the month when the male red deer sheds its antlers), Lentzinmanoth (Lent month), Ostarmanoth (Easter month), Wonnemanoth (love-making month), Brachmanoth (plowing month), Heuvimanoth (hay month), Aranmanoth (harvest month), Witumanoth (wood month), Windumemanoth (vintage month), Herbistmanoth (autumn/harvest month), and Heilagmanoth (holy month).
The Julian reform set the lengths of the months to their modern values. However, a 13th century scholar, Sacrobosco, proposed a different explanation for the lengths of Julian months which is still widely repeated but is certainly wrong. Johannes de Sacrobosco or Sacro Bosco ( John of Holywood, c 1195 &ndash c  According to Sacrobosco, the original scheme for the months in the Julian Calendar was very regular, alternately long and short. From January through December, the month lengths according to Sacrobosco for the Roman Republican calendar were:
30, 29, 30, 29, 30, 29, 30, 29, 30, 29, 30, 29
He then thought that Julius Caesar added one day to every month except February, a total of 11 more days, giving the year 365 days. A leap day could now be added to the extra short February:
31, 29/30, 31, 30, 31, 30, 31, 30, 31, 30, 31, 30
He then said Augustus changed this to:
31, 28/29, 31, 30, 31, 30, 31, 31, 30, 31, 30, 31
so that the length of Augustus would not be shorter than (and therefore inferior to) the length of Iulius, giving us the irregular month lengths which are still in use.
There is abundant evidence disproving this theory. First, a wall painting of a Roman calendar predating the Julian reform has survived, which confirms the literary accounts that the months were already irregular before Julius Caesar reformed them:
29, 28, 31, 29, 31, 29, 31, 29, 29, 31, 29, 29
Also, the Julian reform did not change the dates of the Nones and Ides. The Roman calendar changed its form several times in the time between the foundation of Rome and the fall of the Roman Empire. The Roman calendar changed its form several times in the time between the foundation of Rome and the fall of the Roman Empire. In particular, the Ides were late (on the 15th rather than 13th) in March, May, July and October, showing that these months always had 31 days in the Roman calendar, whereas Sacrobosco's theory requires that March, May and July were originally 30 days long and that the length of October was changed from 29 to 30 days by Caesar and to 31 days by Augustus. Further, Sacrobosco's theory is explicitly contradicted by the 3rd and 5th century authors Censorinus and Macrobius, and it is inconsistent with seasonal lengths given by Varro, writing in 37 BC, before the Augustan reform, with the 31-day Sextilis given by the new Egyptian papyrus from 24 BC, and with the 28-day February shown in the Fasti Caeretani, which is dated before 12 BC. Censorinus, Roman Grammarian and miscellaneous writer flourished during the 3rd century AD. This article is about Macrobius the author for Macrobius the bishop of Seleucia and Calycadnum see Macrobius of Seleucia Ambrosius Theodosius Macrobius
The dominant method that the Romans used to identify a year for dating purposes was to name it after the two consuls who took office in it. Since 153 BC, they had taken office on 1 January, and Julius Caesar did not change the beginning of the year. New Year See also New Year The Ancient Romans began their consular year on January 1st since 153 BC Thus this consular year was an eponymous or named year. In addition to consular years, the Romans sometimes used the regnal year of the emperor, and by the late fourth century documents were also being dated according to the 15-year cycle of the indiction. An indiction is any of the years in a 15-year cycle used to date medieval documents throughout Europe, both East and West In 537, Justinian required that henceforth the date must include the name of the emperor and his regnal year, in addition to the indiction and the consul, while also allowing the use of local eras. Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus ( Greek: Φλάβιος Πέτρος Σαββάτιος Ιουστινιανός; known in English as Justinian I or An indiction is any of the years in a 15-year cycle used to date medieval documents throughout Europe, both East and West
In 309 and 310, and from time to time thereafter, no consuls were appointed.  When this happened, the consular date was given a count of years since the last consul (so-called "post-consular" dating). After 541, only the reigning emperor held the consulate, typically for only one year in his reign, and so post-consular dating became the norm. Similar post-consular dates were also known in the West in the early 6th century. The system of consular dating, long obsolete, was formally abolished in the law code of Leo VI, issued in 888. This article is about the Byzantine Emperor There is also an article on Pope Leo VI Leo VI "the Wise" or "the Philosopher"
Only rarely did the Romans number the year from the founding of the city (of Rome), ab urbe condita (AUC). The founding of Rome is reported by many legends which in recent times are beginning to be supplemented by more scientific reconstructions Ab Urbe condita (literally "from This method was used by Roman historians to determine the number of years from one event to another, not to date a year. Different historians had several different dates for the founding. The Fasti Capitolini, an inscription containing an official list of the consuls which was published by Augustus, used an epoch of 752 BC. Fasti, a Latin word refers to the Roman calendar and Almanac; and especially to a long possibly unfinished poem on the religious festivals In the fields of Chronology and Periodization, an epoch means an instant in time chosen as the origin of a particular Era. The epoch used by Varro, 753 BC, has been adopted by modern historians. Marcus Terentius Varro (116 BC &ndash 27 BC also known as Varro Reatinus to distinguish him from his younger contemporary Varro Atacinus, was a Roman Indeed, Renaissance editors often added it to the manuscripts that they published, giving the false impression that the Romans numbered their years. The Renaissance (from French Renaissance, meaning "rebirth" Italian: Rinascimento, from re- "again" and nascere Most modern historians tacitly assume that it began on the day the consuls took office, and ancient documents such as the Fasti Capitolini which use other AUC systems do so in the same way. However, Censorinus, writing in the 3rd century AD, states that, in his time, the AUC year began with the Parilia, celebrated on 21 April, which was regarded as the actual anniversary of the foundation of Rome. Censorinus, Roman Grammarian and miscellaneous writer flourished during the 3rd century AD. As described in the Fasti (a series of poems by Ovid) the agricultural festival of Parilia, performed annually on April 21, was aimed to cleanse both sheep Events 753 BC - Romulus and Remus found Rome ( traditional date) Because the festivities associated with the Parilia conflicted with the solemnity of Lent, which was observed until the Saturday before Easter Sunday, the early Roman church did not celebrate Easter after 21 April. Lent, in some Christian denominations, is the forty-day-long liturgical season of fasting and prayer before Easter. Events 753 BC - Romulus and Remus found Rome ( traditional date) 
While the Julian reform applied originally to the Roman calendar, many of the other calendars then used in the Roman Empire were aligned with the reformed calendar under Augustus. Augustus ( Latin: IMPERATOR·CAESAR·DIVI·FILIVS·AVGVSTVS September 23 63 BC – August 19 AD 14) born Gaius Octavius Thurinus, was This led to the adoption of several local eras for the Julian calendar, such as the Era of Actium and the Spanish Era, some of which were used for a considerable time. The Spanish era refers to the dating system used in Hispania until the 14th century when the Anno Domini system was adopted Perhaps the best known is the Era of Martyrs, sometimes also called Anno Diocletiani (after Diocletian), which was often used by the Alexandrian Christians to number their Easters during the 4th and 5th centuries and continued to be used by the Coptic and Abyssinian churches. The anno Diocletiani era or the Diocletian era or the Era of Martyrs is a method of numbering years used by Alexandrian Christians during the Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus ( ca. December 22 244 The modern historian Timothy Barnes takes December 22 as his birthdate Alexandria ( Egyptian Arabic: اسكندريه Eskendereyya; Standard Arabic: ar الإسكندرية Al-Iskandariyya; Ἀλεξάνδρεια
In the Eastern Mediterranean, the efforts of Christian chronographers such as Annianus of Alexandria to date the Biblical creation of the world led to the introduction of Anno Mundi eras based on this event. Annianus of Alexandria or Annianos was a monk who flourished in Alexandria during the Bishopric of Theophilus of Alexandria around the beginning la Anno Mundi (Latin "in the year of the World " abbreviated as AM or A The most important of these was the Aetos Kosmou, used throughout the Byzantine world from the 10th century and in Russia till 1700. Etos Kosmou ( Έτος Κόσμου) was an early Byzantine and Roman Christian chronology system of measuring time introduced by Panodorus of Alexandria In the West, Dionysius Exiguus proposed the system of Anno Domini in 525. Dionysius Exiguus ( Dennis the Little or Dennis the Short, meaning humble (c This era gradually spread through the western Christian world, once the system was adopted by Bede. Bede (ˈbiːd (also Saint Bede, the Venerable Bede, or (from Latin Beda (beda (c
The Roman calendar began the year on 1 January, and this remained the start of the year after the Julian reform. New Year See also New Year The Ancient Romans began their consular year on January 1st since 153 BC However, even after local calendars were aligned to the Julian calendar, they started the new year on different dates. The Alexandrian calendar in Egypt started on 29 August (30 August after an Alexandrian leap year). The Coptic calendar, also called the Alexandrian calendar, is used by the Coptic Orthodox Church and still used in Egypt Events 708 - Copper coins are minted in Japan for the first time (Traditional Japanese date: August 10, 708) Events 1363 - Beginning date of the Battle of Lake Poyang; the forces of two Chinese rebel leaders— Chen Youliang and Several local provincial calendars were aligned to start on the birthday of Augustus, 23 September. Events 1122 - Concordat of Worms. 1459 - Battle of Blore Heath, the first major battle of the English The indiction caused the Byzantine year, which used the Julian calendar, to begin on 1 September; this date is still used in the Eastern Orthodox Church for the beginning of the liturgical year. An indiction is any of the years in a 15-year cycle used to date medieval documents throughout Europe, both East and West Events 462 - Possible start of first Byzantine indiction cycle. The Eastern Orthodox Church is the second largest single Christian Communion in the world The liturgical year, also known as the Christian year, consists of the cycle of liturgical seasons in Christian churches which determines when When the Julian calendar was adopted in AD 988 by Vladimir I of Kiev, the year was numbered Anno Mundi 6496, beginning on 1 March, six months after the start of the Byzantine Anno Mundi year with the same number. Saint Vladimir Svyatoslavich the Great ( Old Russian: Володимеръ Святославичь, c la Anno Mundi (Latin "in the year of the World " abbreviated as AM or A Events 86 BC - Lucius Cornelius Sulla, at the head of a Roman Republic army enters in Athens, removing the Tyrant In 1492 (AM 7000), Ivan III, according to church tradition, realigned the start of the year to 1 September, so that AM 7000 only lasted for six months in Russia, from 1 March to 31 August 1492. Ivan III Vasilevich (Иван III Васильевич ( 22 January 1440, Moscow – 27 October 1505, Moscow also known as Ivan the Great Events 462 - Possible start of first Byzantine indiction cycle. Events 86 BC - Lucius Cornelius Sulla, at the head of a Roman Republic army enters in Athens, removing the Tyrant Events 1056 - Byzantine Empress Theodora becomes ill dying suddenly a few days later without children to succeed the Throne 
During the Middle Ages 1 January retained the name New Year's Day (or an equivalent name) in all Western European countries (affiliated with the Roman Catholic Church), since the medieval calendar continued to display the months from January to December (in twelve columns containing 28 to 31 days each), just as the Romans had. New Year See also New Year The Ancient Romans began their consular year on January 1st since 153 BC New Year's Day is the first day of the Year. On the modern Gregorian calendar, it is celebrated on January 1, as it was also in ancient Rome (though Western Europe at its most general meaning means 'all the countries in the West of Europe ' However, most of those countries began their numbered year on 25 December (the Nativity of Jesus), 25 March (the Incarnation of Jesus), or even Easter, as in France (see the Liturgical year article for more details). Events 274 - Roman Emperor Aurelian Jesus of Nazareth (7–2 BC / BCE —26–36 AD / CE) Events 1199 - Richard I is wounded by a crossbow bolt while fighting France which leads to his death on April 6. In Christianity the Annunciation ( grc Ευαγγελισμός της Θεοτόκου, Evangelismós tēs Theotókou in Greek) is the revelation Easter ( Greek: Πάσχα Pascha or Pasxa) is the most important religious feast in the Christian Liturgical year. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. The liturgical year, also known as the Christian year, consists of the cycle of liturgical seasons in Christian churches which determines when
In England before 1752, 1 January was celebrated as the New Year festival, but the "year starting 25th March was called the Civil or Legal Year, although the phrase Old Style was more commonly used". New Year See also New Year The Ancient Romans began their consular year on January 1st since 153 BC Old Style (or OS) and New Style (or NS) are used in English language historical studies either to indicate that the start of the Julian year  To reduce misunderstandings on the date, it was not uncommon in parish registers for a new year heading after 24 March, for example 1661, to have another heading at the end of the following December indicating "1661/62". Events 1401 - Mongol emperor Timur sacks Damascus. 1603 - James VI of Scotland This was to explain to the reader that the year was 1661 Old Style and 1662 New Style. 
Most Western European countries shifted the first day of their numbered year to 1 January while they were still using the Julian calendar, before they adopted the Gregorian calendar, many during the 16th century. New Year See also New Year The Ancient Romans began their consular year on January 1st since 153 BC The following table shows the years in which various countries adopted 1 January as the start of the year. New Year See also New Year The Ancient Romans began their consular year on January 1st since 153 BC Eastern European countries, with populations showing allegiance to the Orthodox Church, began the year on 1 September from about 988. The word orthodox, from Greek orthodoxos "having the right opinion" from orthos ("right true straight" + doxa ("opinion Events 462 - Possible start of first Byzantine indiction cycle.
|Republic of Venice||1522||1582|
|Holy Roman Empire||1544||1582|
|Dutch Republic except|
Holland and Zeeland
The Julian calendar was in general use in Europe and Northern Africa from the times of the Roman Empire until 1582, when Pope Gregory XIII promulgated the Gregorian Calendar. The Most Serene Republic of Venice ((Serenìsima Repùblica Vèneta or Repùblica de Venesia Serenissima Repubblica The Holy Roman Empire ( HRE; German Heiliges Römisches Reich (HRR, Latin Sacrum Romanum Imperium (SRI was a union of territories in Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa is a country on the Iberian Peninsula. Prussia ( Latin: Borussia, Prutenia; Prūsija Prūsija Prusy Old Prussian: Prūsa) was most recently a historic state The Kingdom of Denmark ( ˈd̥ænmɑɡ̊ (archaic ˈd̥anmɑːɡ̊ commonly known as Denmark, is a country in the Scandinavian region of northern Europe "Sverige" redirects here For other uses see Sweden (disambiguation and Sverige (disambiguation. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. The Southern Netherlands (Zuidelijke Nederlanden Países Bajos del Sur Pays-Bas du sud were a part of the Low Countries controlled by Spain ( Spanish Lorraine (Lorraine Lothringen is a historical area in present-day northeast France. Holland is a region in the western part of the Netherlands. A maritime and economic power in the 17th century Holland today consists of the Dutch provinces of Zeeland ( also called Zealand in English and Zeelandic, is a province of the Netherlands. "United Netherlands" redirects here For the "Kingdom of the United Netherlands" see United Kingdom of the Netherlands. The Kingdom of Scotland ( Gaelic: Rìoghachd na h-Alba, Scots: Kinrick o Scotland) was a State in northwest Europe Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending Tuscany (Toscana is a region in Italy. It has an area of 22990 km² and a population of about 3 England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland Serbia (Србија Srbija) officially the Republic of Serbia (Република Србија Republika Srbija) is a Landlocked Country The Roman Empire was the post-Republican phase of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial Pope Gregory XIII (January 7 1502 &ndash April 10 1585 born Ugo Boncompagni, was Pope from 1572 to 1585 The Gregorian calendar is the most widely used Calendar in the world today Reform was required because too many leap days are added with respect to the astronomical seasons on the Julian scheme. On average, the astronomical solstices and the equinoxes advance by about 11 minutes per year against the Julian year. Solstices occur twice a year when the tilt of the Earth's axis is most oriented toward or away from the Sun, causing the Sun to reach its northernmost and southernmost extremes An equinox is the event of the Sun passing over the Earth's equator in its annual cycle As a result, the calculated date of Easter gradually moved out of phase with the moon. Easter ( Greek: Πάσχα Pascha or Pasxa) is the most important religious feast in the Christian Liturgical year. While Hipparchus and presumably Sosigenes were aware of the discrepancy, although not of its correct value, it was evidently felt to be of little importance at the time of the Julian reform. Hipparchus ( Greek; ca 190 BC &ndash ca 120 BC was a Greek Astronomer, Geographer, and Mathematician of the Hellenistic However, it accumulated significantly over time: the Julian calendar gained a day about every 134 years. By 1582, it was ten days out of alignment.
The Gregorian Calendar was soon adopted by most Catholic countries (e. The Gregorian calendar is the most widely used Calendar in the world today g. Spain, Portugal, Poland, most of Italy). Protestant countries followed later, and the countries of Eastern Europe even later. In the British Empire (including the American colonies), Wednesday 2 September 1752 was followed by Thursday 14 September 1752. The British Empire was the largest empire in history and for over a century was the foremost global power. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Events 44 BC - Pharaoh Cleopatra VII of Egypt declares her son co-ruler as Ptolemy XV Caesarion. Year 1752 ( MDCCLII) was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar for European countries but not Great Britain) of Events 81 - Domitian becomes Emperor of the Roman Empire upon the death of his brother Titus. Year 1752 ( MDCCLII) was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar for European countries but not Great Britain) of For 12 years from 1700 Sweden used a modified Julian Calendar, and adopted the Gregorian calendar in 1753, but Russia remained on the Julian calendar until 1917, after the Russian Revolution (which is thus called the "October Revolution" though it occurred in Gregorian November), while Greece continued to use it until 1923. "Sverige" redirects here For other uses see Sweden (disambiguation and Sverige (disambiguation. The Swedish Calendar in use from March 1, 1700 until February 30, 1712 was one day ahead of the Julian calendar and ten days behind Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending See also Russian Revolution (1905 The Russian Revolution of 1916 refers to a series of popular revolutions in Russia, and the events surrounding them The October Revolution (Октябрьская революция Oktyabrskaya revolyutsiya) also known as the Soviet Revolution Greece (Ελλάδα transliterated: Elláda, historically, Ellás,) officially the Hellenic Republic (Ελληνική Δημοκρατία During this time the Julian calendar continued to diverge from the Gregorian. In 1700 the difference became 11 days; in 1800, 12; and in 1900, 13, where it will stay till 2100.
Although all Eastern Orthodox countries (most of them in Eastern or Southeastern Europe) had adopted the Gregorian calendar by 1927, their national churches had not. The Eastern Orthodox Church is the second largest single Christian Communion in the world Eastern Europe is a general term that refers to the Geopolitical region encompassing the easternmost part of the European continent. A revised Julian calendar was proposed during a synod in Constantinople in May 1923, consisting of a solar part which was and will be identical to the Gregorian calendar until the year 2800, and a lunar part which calculated Easter astronomically at Jerusalem. The Revised Julian calendar or less formally New Calendar, is a Calendar scheme originated in 1923 which effectively discontinued the 340 years of divergence between Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis, or gr ἡ Πόλις hē Polis, Latin: la CONSTANTINOPOLIS Jerusalem (יְרוּשָׁלַיִם, he-Latn Yerushaláyim; Arabic: ar القُدس, ar-Latn al-Quds) is the All Orthodox churches refused to accept the lunar part, so almost all Orthodox churches continue to celebrate Easter according to the Julian calendar (the Finnish Orthodox Church uses the Gregorian Easter). Structure and organization Along with the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland the Orthodox Church of Finland has a special position in Finnish law
The solar part of the revised Julian calendar was accepted by only some Orthodox churches. Those that did accept it, with hope for improved dialogue and negotiations with the Western denominations, were the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople, the Patriarchates of Alexandria, Antioch, the Orthodox Churches of Greece, Cyprus, Romania, Poland, Bulgaria (the last in 1963), and the Orthodox Church in America (although some OCA parishes are permitted to use the Julian calendar). History Early history Christianity in Byzantium existed from the time of the Twelve Apostles, but it was in the year 330 that the Roman Emperor The Greek Orthodox Church of Antioch, also known as the Eastern Orthodox Church of Antioch and All the East, the Antiochian Orthodox Church, the Orthodox Patriarchate The Church of Greece ( Greek: Ekklēsía tês Helládos, ekliˈsia tis eˈlaðos is one of the fifteen Autocephalous Eastern Orthodox churches The ancient Greek Orthodox Church of Cyprus ( Greek: Ekklēsía tês Kýprou) is one of the fourteen or fifteen independent (' autocephalous The Romanian Orthodox Church ( Biserica Ortodoxă Română in Romanian) is a Autocephalous Eastern Orthodox church History The establishment of the church was undertaken after the Treaty of Riga left large amount of territory previously under the Russian Empire, as part The Bulgarian Orthodox Church (Българска православна църква Bălgarska pravoslavna cărkva) is an Autocephalous Eastern Orthodox Church The Orthodox Church in America ( OCA) is an autocephalous Eastern Orthodox Church in North America. Thus these churches celebrate the Nativity on the same day that Western Christians do, 25 December Gregorian until 2800. Events 274 - Roman Emperor Aurelian The Orthodox Churches of Jerusalem, Russia, Macedonia, Serbia, Georgia, Ukraine, and the Greek Old Calendarists continue to use the Julian calendar for their fixed dates, thus they celebrate the Nativity on 25 December Julian (which is 7 January Gregorian until 2100). The Greek Orthodox Church of Jerusalem ( Greek: Patriarcheîon Hierosolýmōn, Arabic كنيسة الروم الأرثوذكس في القدس See also Eastern Orthodox Church Structure and organization The Slavic Orthodox Church is organized in a hierarchical structure History Origins After the fall of the First Bulgarian Empire, the Emperor Basil II acknowledged the autocephalous status of the Bulgarian The Serbian Orthodox Church ( Serbian: Српска Православна Црква / Srpska Pravoslavna Crkva; СПЦ / SPC) or the Christianity in ancient and feudal Georgia According to tradition when the Apostles were sent out to preach the Gospel to the nations of the world the Apostle This article should include material from Ukrainian Orthodox Church (Moscow Patriarchate, Ukrainian Orthodox Church - Kiev Patriarchate, Ukrainian Greek Old Calendarists ( Greek: Παλαιοημερολογίτες Paleoimerologites) are groups that separated from the Orthodox Church of Greece Events 274 - Roman Emperor Aurelian Events 1325 - Alfonso IV becomes King of Portugal. 1558 - France takes Calais, the last continental The Russian Orthodox Church has some parishes in the West which celebrate the Nativity on 25 December. See also Eastern Orthodox Church Structure and organization The Slavic Orthodox Church is organized in a hierarchical structure Parishes of the Orthodox Church in America Bulgarian Diocese, both before and after the 1976 transfer of that diocese from the Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia to the Orthodox Church in America, were permitted to use the December 25 date. The Orthodox Church in America Bulgarian Diocese is one of three ethnic Dioceses of the Orthodox Church in America (OCA The Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia (Ру́сская Правосла́вная Це́рковь Заграни́цей ru Russkaya Pravoslavnaya Tserkov' Zagranitsey The Orthodox Church in America ( OCA) is an autocephalous Eastern Orthodox Church in North America.
In Northern Africa, the Julian calendar (the Berber calendar) is still in use for agricultural purposes, and is called فلاحي fellāhī "peasant" or sاﻋﺠﻤﻲ acjamī "not Arabic". The Berber calendar is the annual Calendar used by Berber people in North Africa. The first of yennayer currently corresponds to January 14 and will do so until 2100. Events 1129 - Formal approval of the Order of the Templar at the Council of Troyes.