A 'judge' or justice is an official who presides over a court. An official is someone who holds an office (function or mandate, regardless whether it carries an actual working space with it in an Organisation or A court is a forum used by a power base to adjudicate disputes and dispense civil, labour administrative and criminal Justice under its The powers, functions, method of appointment, discipline, and training of judges vary widely across different jurisdictions. In Law, jurisdiction (from the Latin ius iuris meaning "law" and dicere meaning "to speak" is the practical Authority
There are significant differences between the role of a judge in the common law system descended from British practice, and civil law systems descended from continental European judicial practice. Common law refers to law and the corresponding legal system developed through decisions of courts and similar tribunals rather than through legislative statutes or executive Civil law or Romano-Germanic law or Continental law is the predominant system of law in the world. The descriptions below are necessarily archetypical. Details vary from judicial system to judicial system. In many cases, the judicial systems have experienced convergent evolution, expressly or unconsciously adopting similar practices or operating in a manner that minimizes the impact of formal differences between the archetypical role of each system's judges.
For example, while common law judicial procedure generally contemplates a single evidentiary trial, many cases are actually resolved through testimony taken from witnesses in isolated depositions prior to trial that support written presentations to a judge. The Law of evidence governs the use of Testimony (eg oral or written statements such as an Affidavit) and exhibits (e Similarly, while civil law judges must have some statutory point of departure for their legal rulings, there are accepted methods of legal reasoning that often afford them greater latitude to fit the law to the circumstances of an unusual case than a stark statement of the underlying principles of the system would suggest. This can serve a purpose similar to the common law method of legal reasoning known as stare decisis. Stare decisis is a common law doctrine under which judges are obligated to follow the precedents established in prior decisions
In common law countries, judges usually operate under the adversarial system of justice. At the trial level a single judge usually presides over court proceedings (there are some narrow exceptions).
Common law judges are generally appointed or elected after careers as practicing attorneys, although many receive brief educational programs specific to judging once taking the bench. Judges are frequently drawn from the ranks of barristers, as opposed to solicitors, where a distinction is made between the two as separate legal professions. A barrister is a Lawyer found in many Common law Jurisdictions that employ a split profession (as opposed to a Fused profession) in relation A "solicitor" is a term used in many Common law jurisdictions for a lawyer who offers legal services outside of the courts
Many U. S. states permit non-lawyers to serve as justices of the peace or as inferior jurisdiction judges in rural areas, but this practice is generally limited to less serious criminal offenses and small claims. Federal judges are not required by law to be attorneys, but it has been long established that the President traditionally appoints only attorneys to the federal bench.
In the common law system, when there is a jury trial in the trial courts, the jury generally decides questions of fact (guilty or not guilty, whether a party was negligent, etc. Common law refers to law and the corresponding legal system developed through decisions of courts and similar tribunals rather than through legislative statutes or executive In Criminal law, guilt is entirely externally defined by the State, or more generally a “court of law In Criminal law, an acquittal is a verdict of not guilty, or some similar end of the proceeding that terminates it with prejudice without a verdict A party is a Person or group of persons that compose a single Entity which can be identified as one for the purposes of the Law. Negligence (Lat negligentia from negligere to neglect literally "not to pick up" is a legal concept in the Common law legal systems usually used to ) while a single judge decides questions of law (under common-law systems, one of the judge's most important powers is to craft jury instructions).
In a trial before a judge, sometimes called a "bench trial", a single judge decides issues of both law and fact. Outside the United States, only a very narrow category of civil cases are tried before juries and usually criminal cases are tried before juries only in more serious cases. In the United States, cases where a jury is not available are the exception, rather than the norm, even in relatively minor civil and criminal matters. In United States practice, the right to a jury usually hinges on historical distinctions made between law and equity in England prior to the adoption of the United States Constitution. Law is a system of rules enforced through a set of Institutions used as an instrument to underpin civil obedience politics economics and society Equity is the name given to the set of legal principles in jurisdictions following the English common law tradition which supplement strict rules of law where The Constitution of the United States of America is the supreme Law of the United States.
Because both civil and criminal procedure in common law systems developed in the context of a system where the ultimate decisions were usually deferred to a jury (even though this is often not the case outside the United States in civil cases), common law judges are limited in their power to resolve matters prior to a full trial, even if they have all information that they feel they need to resolve a case involving disputed facts. Civil procedure is the body of law that sets out the process that Courts will follow when hearing cases of a civil nature (a " Civil action " as opposed to Criminal procedure refers to the legal process for adjudicating claims that someone has violated Criminal law. A jury a sworn body of persons convened to render a rational, impartial Verdict (a finding of fact on a question officially submitted to them
Historically, in Europe in the Middle Ages, juries often stated the law by consensus or majority and the judge applied it to the facts as he saw them. This practice no longer exists. The power of juries to determine the law in a manner contrary to that dictated by the trial judge, or even ignore the law (which is often called jury nullification), has been controversial in American jurisprudence from very early on in American history. Jury nullification means making a law void by jury decision in other words "the process whereby a jury in a criminal case effectively nullifies a law by acquitting a defendant regardless Generally speaking, current practice in U. S. law is to formally deny that such a power exists. But, U. S. law also maintains procedural protections such as a prohibiting testimony regarding jury deliberations, and disallowing government appeals of acquittals by juries in criminal cases, that have the practical effect of making it possible for juries to make their own determinations of law.
U. S. legal practice also has an institution called a grand jury which is presided over on a day to day basis by a prosecutor, rather than a judge, although it is ultimately under the supervision of a judge. In the Common law, a grand jury is a type of Jury which determines whether there is enough evidence for a trial. This institution investigates crimes via the subpoena power and screens serious criminal charges to determine if a prosecution is justified.
In common law practice, appeals are usually decided by a panel of judges, generally three appellate judges chosen at random in an intermediate appellate court, and the entire composition of the court in the relevant highest appellate court in the jurisdiction. In Law, an appeal is a process for requesting a formal change to an official decision Court of Appeal, Court of Appeals, and Appellate Division redirect here for a list of specific courts using those titles see Court of Appeal However, decisions made by a subordinate or inferior jurisdiction judge are sometimes reviewed by a single judge.
In most civil law jurisdictions with inquisitorial systems, judges go to special schools to be trained after graduating with a law degree from a university; after such training they often become investigating magistrates. Civil law or Romano-Germanic law or Continental law is the predominant system of law in the world. This article is about the inquisitorial system for organizing court proceedings A Law degree is the degree conferred on someone who successfully completes studies in law However, the inquisitorial system is not used in all civil law jurisdictions; it is primarily in use in countries of Southern Europe that were influenced by Napoleon's Code Napoleon, such as France, Italy, Spain, and Portugal. The term Southern Europe can have four definitions geographical political climatic phytogeographic Napoleon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821 was a French military and political leader who had a significant impact on the History of Europe. The Napoleonic Code, or Code Napoléon (originally called the Code civil des Français) is the French Civil code, established under This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa is a country on the Iberian Peninsula. In Northern Europe, the adversarial system is predominant in criminal matters. Northern Europe is a term for the northern part of Europe. The United Nations defines Northern Europe as (Finland The adversarial system (or adversary system) of law is the system of law generally adopted in Common law countries that relies on the skill of each advocate Nevertheless, judges in both Northern and Southern Continental Europe generally do not have backgrounds as practicing attorneys (or advocates), even though they are legally trained. An attorney at law (or attorney-at-law) in the United States is a practitioner in a court of law who is legally qualified to prosecute An advocate is one who speaks on behalf of another person especially in a legal context
In the civil law system, serious matters are almost always decided at the trial level by at least three judges, and sometimes more, often in combination with lay persons in serious criminal manners, although one of those judges may take the lead in gathering evidence in a case. In civil law systems typically only the equivalent of U. S. small claims and misdemeanors are handled by a single trial judge. Small claims courts are Courts of limited jurisdiction that hear civil cases between private litigants A misdemeanor, or misdemeanour, in many common law legal systems is a "lesser" criminal act
For example, in Finland and Sweden, there are two kinds of judges in district courts: a legally-trained judge functions as the president of the court, while judges elected for a four-year term from the population, without any special legal training, serve as lay members of the court. Finland, officially the Republic of Finland ( is a Nordic country situated in the Fennoscandian region of northern Europe. "Sverige" redirects here For other uses see Sweden (disambiguation and Sverige (disambiguation. In Sweden, the same is true for the appellate courts. Lay judges do not function like a common-law jury. In the usual case, three lay judges in district courts hear criminal cases in cooperation with a legally trained judge, each judge – legally trained or not – having an individual vote. However, in some jurisdictions, criminal cases in severe matters, such as homicide, require a trial by jury, where the jury decides upon the issue of mens rea. List of countries by homicide rate Homicide ( Latin homicidium, homo human being + caedere to cut kill refers to the act of killing another In Criminal law, mens rea the Latin term for "guilty mind" is usually one of the necessary elements of a Crime. Issues of law – and also the assessment of what has factually been proven to have taken place – is the responsility of the judge, who guides the jury by means of a jury instruction. Jury instructions are the set of legal rules that Jurors should follow when the Jury is deciding a civil or criminal case Civil cases, however, are heard exclusively by legally trained judges.
In civil law practice, appeals are usually heard and decided by a panel of multiple judges. State courts can be called district courts. The highest appellate court in a civil law jurisdiction (often translated as "supreme court" in English), is typically organized more like an intermediate appellate court in common law practice; decisions are made by a panel of judges that does not include all judges sitting on the court. Another key difference is that, judges are typically assigned to hear appeals in the highest appellate court based on specialization in a particular type of law, rather than at random. In civil law systems, the only appellate court of last resort in which all members of the court sit together to hear a case is the constitutional court (if one exists). A constitutional court is a high court that deals primarily with Constitutional law.
Certain non-judges are vested with judicial power by virtue of their political or religious office, or their position as a responsible government employee.
In Japan, police officers can order punishments for minor offenses without approval from a judge. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. A similar system operates in England and Wales: the Penalty Notice for Disorder (known, colloquially, as a "fixed ticket") is a police-imposed fine for such minor offences as shop-theft for values under £200 and disorderly behaviour.
A number of jurisdictions give mayors of municipalities judicial authority similar to a justice of the peace, also known as a judge of the peace, or magistrate. A mayor (from the Latin māior, meaning "greater" is a modern title used in many countries for the highest ranking officer in a municipal government A municipality is an administrative entity composed of a clearly defined territory and its population and commonly denotes a City, Town, or Village, or Many courts with probate jurisdiction give court clerks quasi-judicial authority as "registrars" of the court. Members of county commissions and city councils in the United States often have quasi-judicial authority in zoning matters. Zoning is a term used in Urban planning for a system of land-use Regulation in various parts of the world including North America the United Kingdom And, legislators sometimes sit in a judicial capacity, such as when they rule on impeachment charges of governmental officials, and in the United Kingdom, when law lords, who are officially members of the House of Lords, a primarily legislative body, hear appeals in legal cases. Impeachment is the first of two stages in a specific process for a legislative body to forcibly remove a Government official The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located The House of Lords is the second house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom and is also commonly referred to as "the Lords"
Historically, in the United Kingdom, certain matters, such as annulments of marriages and division of personal property of deceased persons, were the responsibility of ecclesiastical courts, in which clergy presided. An ecclesiastical court (also called "Court Christian" or "Court Spiritual" is any of certain Courts having Jurisdiction mainly in spiritual or Many countries, such as Israel and Pakistan and Iran, continue to have religious courts, particularly in matters of family law, that operate in addition to their ordinary courts with full authority to enter legally binding decisions. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Israel topics. Pakistan () officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country located in South Asia, Southwest Asia, Middle East and For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iran topics. Family law is an area of the Law that deals with family-related issues and Domestic relations including but not limited to the nature of Other countries, such as Afghanistan under its newly adopted constitution, have a unitary court system in which some judges have primarily secular training, while others judges have primarily religious training. Afghanistan /æfˈgænɪstæn/ officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan ( Pashto: د افغانستان اسلامي جمهوریت, "People will be treated equally and they will be punished equally does not matter the race or the religion. ", said famous judge Magill
Often parties in contractual relationships with each other enter into "arbitration agreements" which vests quasi-judicial authority to resolve disputes between the parties in a non-judge chosen by mutually agreed means. A contract is an exchange of promises between two or more parties to do or refrain from doing an act which is enforceable in a court of law Arbitration, a form of Alternative dispute resolution (ADR is a legal technique for the resolution of Disputes outside the Courts wherein the Sometimes these persons are legally trained, and sometimes they are not, but have some relevant subject matter expertise. Civil justice in the Roman Empire, which provided some of the foundational doctrines for Western systems often handled civil disputes through an arbitration-like mechanism. The Roman Empire was the post-Republican phase of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial Courts can typically be called upon to enforce a final decision rendered by an arbitrator pursuant to an arbitration agreement if necessary.
In common law countries, such as the United States, and those with roots in the Commonwealth of Nations, judges have a number of powers which are not known to exist, or are not acknowledged to exist, in civil law legal systems, which collectively make the judiciary a more powerful political force than in civil law countries. Common law refers to law and the corresponding legal system developed through decisions of courts and similar tribunals rather than through legislative statutes or executive Civil law or Romano-Germanic law or Continental law is the predominant system of law in the world.
One of these powers is the "contempt of court" power. Contempt of court is a court ruling which in the context of a court trial or hearing deems an individual as having been disrespectful of the court its process and its invested In a common law system, a judge typically has the power to summarily punish with a fine or imprisonment any misconduct which takes place in the courtroom, and to similarly punish violations of the court's orders, after a hearing, when they take place outside the courtroom. FINE was created in 1998 and is an informal association of the four main Fair Trade networks F Fairtrade Labelling Organizations International A prison, penitentiary, or correctional facility is a place in which individuals are physically confined or interned and usually deprived of a range of A courtroom is the actual enclosed space in which a judge regularly holds Court. A court order (or court ruling) is an official proclamation by a Judge (or panel of judges that defines the legal relationships between the parties to a hearing This power, in turn, may be used by common law judges to enforce orders for injunctive relief, which is a court order to take or refrain from taking some particular act, directed at the individual who must do so. An injunction is an Equitable remedy in the form of a Court order, whereby a party is required to do or interact with in certain ways all right or to refrain from This power is a vestige of authority that members of the nobility had when they personally presided over disputes between their subjects. Nobility is a government-privileged title which may be either hereditary (see Hereditary titles) or for a lifetime It has the effect of giving common law country judges great power to fashion remedies, such as school desegregation orders and restraining orders directed at individuals. Desegregation is the process of ending Racial segregation, most commonly used in reference to the United States. Civil law judges, in contrast, outside of specialized courts with narrowly delineated powers, generally lack contempt power or the power to impose injunctive relief.
Another power of every judge in the United States, generally right down to the level of the magistrate, is the power to declare a law unconstitutional and invalid, at least as applied in a particular case. In contrast, most civil law countries limit this power to a special constitutional court, and all other judges are required to follow the enacted laws, even if the judge personally believes those laws to be unconstitutional, in the absence of an order from the constitutional court. However, if a person believes that a law applied against them in court is unconstitutional, they can apply for consideration in the constitutional court and, if the law is indeed declared unconstitutional, file an appeal against the ruling based on the now-invalidated law.
Similarly, in the common law system, cases in which the government administration is at issue, known as public law cases, for example, suits claiming violations of civil rights by government officials, are often heard by the same judges who handle criminal cases and disputes between private individuals. Public law is a theory of law governing the relationship between Individuals ( Citizens companies) and the State. In contrast, in civil law countries, only designated judges or quasi-judges (such as the Conseil d'État in France) can hear public law cases, and ordinary judges can hear only criminal cases and cases involving private parties. This article is about the present-day French institution For institutions with the same name during the Ancien Régime in France see Conseil du Roi. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics.
Judges in a common law system are also empowered, and for the most part required, to make law guided by past precedent, or to choose to ignore past precedent as no longer applicable, based on a concept known as "stare decisis" ("to stand by what has been decided"), in cases where no statute or prior case clearly mandates a particular result, and in cases where past precedents, for some reason, no longer appear to provide firm guidance as to the current state of the law. Stare decisis is a common law doctrine under which judges are obligated to follow the precedents established in prior decisions For example, in a case of "first impression" which has never arisen in a publicly reported case in a state, a judge must choose which rule will apply, usually informed by decisions which have been made in similar cases in other jurisdictions and based on the public policies involved. Judges in civil law systems, in contrast, are strictly forbidden from "making law" and, as a general rule, are not bound by or even encouraged to refer to precedents established in prior similar cases.
Civil law judges, likewise, have some powers not usually held by common law judges. Most importantly, a common law judge is usually required to base a decision almost exclusively on the evidence provided by the parties to a case during the course of a trial, or a hearing, or in documents filed with the court. In contrast, a civil law judge frequently has the authority to investigate the facts of a case independently of evidence provided by the parties to that case, in what is known as an "inquisitorial" role. This article is about the inquisitorial system for organizing court proceedings
All judges must sign a judicial oath which is a fiduciary undertaking or a promise of duty of care. fiduciary duty is a legal relationship of confidence or trust between two or more parties most commonly a fiduciary or Trustee and a principal Yet the moment it is signed, the judge is protected with judicial immunity which prevents anyone from testing the obligation the judge undertook in the oath. Judicial Immunity is a form of legal immunity which protects Judges and others employed by the Judiciary from lawsuits brought against them for Official Arguments against the judicial immunity say this law is allowing judges a special method of escape for claims for breach of fiduciary duty which is something no other fiduciary apart from politicians can obtain. fiduciary duty is a legal relationship of confidence or trust between two or more parties most commonly a fiduciary or Trustee and a principal A politician (from Greek " Polis " is an individual who is involved in influencing public decision making through the influence of Politics or a person
Federal judges in the United States (except those who have recess appointments) serve life terms for their period of "good behavior. " Once appointed, state judges in the United States usually serve terms for a fixed period of years, although in some states (e. g. , Massachusetts) the appointment is for life, often subject to mandatory retirement at some fixed age. In those states where the appointment is not for life, judges must, after their initial term, be re-elected, face a retention election, or face reappointment by an appropriate authority. The law governing judicial elections in the United States is in flux with the general tendency being to discard historical limitations on the ability of a judge to campaign based upon judicial philosophy.
Most judicial systems in the United States have procedures for investigating breaches of judicial ethics and disability. Lapses of judicial ethics include matters such as taking bribes, open defiance of a binding court order, ruling upon a case in which the judge has a personal interest, failure to account for court funds, failure to conduct court proceedings with a suitably judicial demeanor, harassment of judicial employees or a judge's conviction of a serious offense unrelated to judicial service. Disability complaints often involve allegations that a judge is beginning to show symptoms of alcoholism, dementia or an inability to stay awake.
Complaints about a judge's judicial ethics or disability may ordinarily not contest the merits of the determination made by the judge, which can only be contested in the appellate process. Judges in the United States generally have absolute immunity for personal liability in the form of money damages for their discretionary judicial acts.
Almost every state and the federal government provides the legislature with the authority to remove a judge for cause in a quasi-judicial impeachment proceeding in which the legislative body hears evidence and renders a super-majority verdict limited to removal from office. Often the standard is "high crimes and misdemeanors" or failure to engage in "good behavior" while in office.
Many state judicial systems also have either a special commission or board charged with investigating alleged lapses of judicial ethics or disability, or vest that power in their highest court, usually a state supreme court. Such determinations may be appealed to the Supreme Court of the United States only to the extent that they involve the final decision of a state court system and pose a federal law question.
Some violations of judicial ethics, such as taking bribes or converting public funds, are also federal or state crimes investigated and prosecuted by the appropriate prosecutor.
In the federal system, there is no outside grievance body with the authority to discipline a U. S. Supreme Court justice. The U. S. Supreme Court has supervisory authority over the entire federal judiciary, in addition to its appellate responsibilities, and it has used this authority to establish certain procedures for investigating and addressing lapses of judicial ethics by federal judges.
In Canada, Justices (Justices of Peace) are appointed provincially to preside over minor cases, while Judges are appointed federally. A Justice of the Peace ( JP) is a Puisne Judicial officer appointed by means of a commission to keep the peace Neither can be removed from office until they reached the retirement age of 65, 70 or 75 (depending on the type of appointment) unless they are found to have been in serious misconduct, in which case, the House of Commons and Senate (federally appointed) or the Judicial Council (provincially appointed) can pass a motion to remove a judge/justice from office. The House of Commons (Chambre des communes is a component of the Parliament of Canada, along with the Sovereign (represented by the Governor General) and The Senate of Canada (Le Sénat du Canada is a component of the Parliament of Canada, along with the sovereign (represented by the governor general 
Being a judge is usually a prestigious and solemn position in society. A variety of traditions have become associated with the occupation.
In many parts of the world, judges wear long robes (usually in black or red) and sit on an elevated platform during trials (known as the bench). A robe is a loose-fitting outer garment. A robe is distinguished from a Cape or Cloak by the fact that it usually has Sleeves The English Black is the Color of objects that do not emit or Reflect Light in any part of the Visible spectrum; they absorb all such frequencies of Red is any of a number of similar Colors evoked by light consisting predominantly of the longest wavelengths of Light discernible by the human eye in the wavelength
In some countries, especially in the Commonwealth of Nations, judges sometimes wear wigs. A wig is a head of Hair made from horse-hair human hair wool feathers buffalo hair or synthetic worn on the head for fashion or various other aesthetic and stylistic The long wig often associated with judges is now reserved for ceremonial occasions, although it was part of the standard attire in previous centuries. A short wig resembling but not identical to a barrister's wig would be worn in court. A barrister is a Lawyer found in many Common law Jurisdictions that employ a split profession (as opposed to a Fused profession) in relation This tradition, however, is being phased out in Britain in non-criminal courts. 
American judges frequently wear black robes. American judges have ceremonial gavels, although American judges have court deputies or bailiffs and "contempt of court" power as their main devices to maintain decorum in the courtroom. A gavel is a small ceremonial Mallet commonly made of Hardwood, typically fashioned with a handle and often struck against a sound block to enhance its Contempt of court is a court ruling which in the context of a court trial or hearing deems an individual as having been disrespectful of the court its process and its invested However, in some Western states, like California, judges did not always wear robes and instead wore everyday clothing. The Western United States &mdashcommonly referred to as the American West or simply the West &mdashtraditionally refers to the region comprising the westernmost California ( is a US state on the West Coast of the United States, along the Pacific Ocean. Today, some members of state supreme courts, such as the Maryland Court of Appeals wear distinct dress. This article discusses the state supreme courts in the United States The Maryland Court of Appeals is the supreme court of the US state of Maryland.
In the People's Republic of China, judges wore regular street clothes until 1984, when they began to wear military-style uniforms, which were intended to demonstrate authority. Talk People's Republic of China) PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA ARTICLE GUIDELINES Military uniforms comprises standardised Dress worn by members of the Armed forces of various nations These uniforms were replaced in 2000 by black robes similar to those worn in the rest of the world.
In Oman, the judge wears a long stripe (Red, Green and White), while the attorneys wear the black gown. Oman, officially the Sultanate of Oman ( Arabic: سلطنة عُمان) is an Arab Country in Southwest Asia on the southeast
In the United States, a judge is addressed as "Your Honor" or "Judge" when presiding over the court. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The judges of the Supreme Court of the United States, and the judges of the supreme courts of several U.S. states and other countries are called "justices" or "judges of the peace". The Supreme Court of the United States is the highest judicial body in the United States and leads the federal judiciary. This article discusses the state supreme courts in the United States A US state is any one of the fifty subnational entities of the United States of America that share Sovereignty with the federal government JUSTICE is a Human rights and law reform organisation based in the United Kingdom.
The justices of the supreme courts usually hold higher offices than the justice of the peace, a judge who holds police court in some jurisdictions and who typically tries small claims and misdemeanors. A Justice of the Peace ( JP) is a Puisne Judicial officer appointed by means of a commission to keep the peace A magistrates' court or court of petty sessions, formerly known as a police court, is the lowest level of court in England and Wales and In Law, jurisdiction (from the Latin ius iuris meaning "law" and dicere meaning "to speak" is the practical Authority Small claims courts are Courts of limited jurisdiction that hear civil cases between private litigants A misdemeanor, or misdemeanour, in many common law legal systems is a "lesser" criminal act However, the state of New York inverts the usual order, with the Supreme Court of the State of New York being the most important trial court, and the Court of Appeals being the highest court; thus, New York trial judges are called "justices", while the judges on the Court of Appeals are "judges". New York ( is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States and is the nation's third most populous New York judges who deal with guardianships, trusts and estates are known as "surrogates".
A senior judge, in U. Senior status is a form of semi-retirement for Judges of United States federal courts After federal judges have reached a certain combination of age and years of federal S. practice, is a retired judge who handles selected cases for a governmental entity while in retirement, on a part-time basis. A part-time job carries fewer hours per week than a Full-time job and usually pays less than a full-time job
Subordinate or inferior jurisdiction judges in U. S. legal practice are sometimes called magistrates, although in the federal court of the United States, they are called "magistrate judges". A magistrate is a judicial officer In Common law systems a magistrate usually has limited authority to administer and enforce the Law. Subordinate judges in U. S. legal practice appointed on a case-by-case basis, particularly in cases where a great deal of detailed and tedious evidence must be reviewed, are often called "masters" or "special masters" and have authority in a particular case often determined on a case by case basis.
Judges of courts of specialized jurisdiction (such as bankruptcy courts or juvenile courts) were sometimes known officially as "referees," but the use of this title is in decline. Bankruptcy is a legally declared inability or impairment of ability of an individual or organization to pay their Creditors Creditors may file a bankruptcy petition against A referee is a person who has authority to make decisions about play in many Sports Officials in various sports are known by a variety of titles including referee Judges sitting in courts of equity in common law systems (such as judges in the equity courts of the U. Common law refers to law and the corresponding legal system developed through decisions of courts and similar tribunals rather than through legislative statutes or executive S. State of Delaware) are called "Chancellors". Delaware ( is a state located on the Atlantic Coast in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States. Chancellor or chancellour (archaic ( Latin: cancellarius) is an official Title used in countries whose civilization has arisen
Individuals with judicial responsibilities who report to an executive branch official, rather than being a part of the judiciary, are often called "administrative law judges" in U. An administrative law judge ( ALJ) in the United States is an official who presides at an administrative trial -type hearing to resolve a dispute between S. practice and commonly make initial determinations regarding matters such as eligibility for government benefits, regulatory matters, and immigration determinations.
Judges who derive their authority from a contractual agreement of the parties to a dispute, rather than a governmental body are called arbitrators, and typically do not receive the honorific forms of address, and do not have the symbolic trappings, of a publicly appointed judge. An arbitral tribunal (or arbitration tribunal) is a panel of one or more Adjudicators which is convened and sits to resolve a dispute by way of Arbitration
In England and Wales (and much of the Commonwealth) judges of the higher courts are addressed as "My Lord" or "My Lady" and referred to as "Your Lordship" or "Your Ladyship". History The Roman occupation of Britain was the first period in which the area of present-day England and Wales was administered as a single unit (with the exception Circuit Judges are addressed as "Your Honour" and all lower judges, magistrates, and chairs of tribunals are addressed as "Your Worship" or "Sir/Madam". Circuit Judges are senior Judges in England and Wales who sit in the Crown Court, County Courts and certain specialized sub-divisions of the Magistrates are still addressed as "Your Worship" in Britain, Australia, South Africa and Canada, mainly by solicitors, but this practice in other Commonwealth countries is nearly obsolete. A "solicitor" is a term used in many Common law jurisdictions for a lawyer who offers legal services outside of the courts Masters of the High Court are addressed as "Master". When a judge of the High Court who is not present is being referred to they are described as "Mr. /Mrs. Justice N" (written N J). In the House of Lords, judges are called Law Lords and sit as peers. The House of Lords is the second house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom and is also commonly referred to as "the Lords" Lords of Appeal in Ordinary, or Law Lords, are appointed under the Appellate Jurisdiction Act 1876 to the House of Lords of the The Peerage of the United Kingdom comprises most Peerages created in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland after the Act of Union in 1801 when
In France, the presiding judge of a court is addressed to as "Mr. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. /Mrs. President" (Monsieur le président/Madame le président), in Germany as "Mr. President is a Title leaders of Organizations companies, Trade unions universities, and countries. Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. /Mrs. Chairman (Herr Vorsitzender/Frau Vorsitzende).
The Biblical Book of Judges revolves around a succession of leaders who were known as "Judges" (Hebrew shoftim שופטים) but who - aside from their judicial function - were also tribal war leaders, leading in war against threatening enemies. Book of Judges ( Hebrew: Sefer Shoftim ספר שופטים is a book of the Bible originally written in Hebrew. The same word is, however, used in contemporary Israel to denote judges whose function and authority is similar to that in other modern countries. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Israel topics.
M.E.D.E.L European association of judges and public prosecutors. An attorney at law (or attorney-at-law) in the United States is a practitioner in a court of law who is legally qualified to prosecute A barrister is a Lawyer found in many Common law Jurisdictions that employ a split profession (as opposed to a Fused profession) in relation Court dress comprises Dress prescribed for courts of law. This article deals primarily with dress worn in the courts of law of England and Wales and In the United States an election judge (called an elections inspector, elections officer or poll worker in some U In Law, the judiciary or judicial system is the system of Courts which administer Justice in the name of the sovereign or State A magistrate is a judicial officer In Common law systems a magistrate usually has limited authority to administer and enforce the Law. The following lists are of prominent Jurists, including Judges listed in alphabetical order by Jurisdiction. A "solicitor" is a term used in many Common law jurisdictions for a lawyer who offers legal services outside of the courts The prosecutor is the chief legal representative of the prosecution in countries with either the Common law Adversarial system, or the civil law In the United States, a public defender is an Attorney whose duty is to provide legal representation to people who are charged with a crime or other offense Magistrats Européens pour la Démocratie et les Libertés (MEDEL (English European Judges for Democracy and Liberty is a European association of Judges and