Dr. John Snow
|Born||16 March 1813|
|Died||16 June 1858|
John Snow (16 March 1813 – 16 June 1858) was a British physician and a leader in the adoption of anaesthesia and medical hygiene. Events 597 BC - Babylonians capture Jerusalem, replace Jehoiachin with Zedekiah as king Year 1813 ( MDCCCXIII) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common York ( is an historic Walled city sited at the confluence of the rivers Ouse and Foss in North Yorkshire, England. England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland Events 1487 - Battle of Stoke Field, the last dying breath of the Wars of the Roses. Year 1858 ( MDCCCLVIII) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Common England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland Epidemiology is the study of factors affecting the Health and Illness of populations and serves as the foundation and Logic of interventions made in the Anesthesia, or anaesthesia (see spelling differences; from Greek grc αν- an-, "without" and grc αἲσθησις Events 597 BC - Babylonians capture Jerusalem, replace Jehoiachin with Zedekiah as king Year 1813 ( MDCCCXIII) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Events 1487 - Battle of Stoke Field, the last dying breath of the Wars of the Roses. Year 1858 ( MDCCCLVIII) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Common Anesthesia, or anaesthesia (see spelling differences; from Greek grc αν- an-, "without" and grc αἲσθησις Hygiene refers to practices associated with ensuring good health and cleanliness He is considered to be one of the fathers of epidemiology, because of his work in tracing the source of a cholera outbreak in Soho, England, in 1854. Epidemiology is the study of factors affecting the Health and Illness of populations and serves as the foundation and Logic of interventions made in the The 1854 Broad Street cholera outbreak was a severe Outbreak of Cholera that occurred near Broad Street (now renamed Broadwick Street) in Soho
Snow was born 16 March 1813 in York, England. Events 597 BC - Babylonians capture Jerusalem, replace Jehoiachin with Zedekiah as king Year 1813 ( MDCCCXIII) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common York ( is an historic Walled city sited at the confluence of the rivers Ouse and Foss in North Yorkshire, England. England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland He was the first of nine children born to William and Frances Snow in their North Street home. His neighbourhood was one of the poorest in the city and was always in danger of flooding because of its proximity to the River Ouse. The River Ouse (pronounced "ooze" is a river in North Yorkshire, England. His father worked in the local coal yards, which were constantly replenished from the Yorkshire coalfields via barges on the Ouse. Snow was baptised Anglican at the church of All Saints, North Street. Anglicanism is a tradition of Christian faith Churches in this tradition either have historical connections to the Church of England or have similar beliefs York had around forty-five Parish churches in 1300 Twenty survive in whole or in part a number surpassed in England only by Norwich, although few are currently
Snow studied in York until the age of 14, when he was apprenticed to William Hardcastle, a surgeon in Newcastle-upon-Tyne and physician to George Stephenson and family. In Medicine, a surgeon is a person who performs Surgery. Surgery is a broad category of invasive Medical treatment that involves the cutting of a Newcastle upon Tyne ( (often shortened to Newcastle) is a city and Metropolitan borough of Tyne and Wear, England George Stephenson ( 9 June 1781 &ndash 12 August 1848) was an English Civil engineer and mechanical engineer William Hardcastle was a friend of Snow's uncle, Charles Empson, who was both a witness to Hardcastle's marriage and executor of his will. Charles Empsom also went to school with Robert Stephenson and it was probably through these connections that Snow acquired his apprenticeship so far from his home town of York. Robert Stephenson FRS (16 October 1803 &ndash 12 October 1859 was an English Civil engineer. Snow later worked as a colliery surgeon. Between 1833 and 1836 he was an assistant in practice, first in Burnopfield, Durham, and then in Pateley Bridge, North Yorkshire. Burnopfield is a village in County Durham, in England. It is situated north of Stanley, close to the River Derwent. Durham (ˈdʌrəm in RP, locally ˈdʏrəm is a small city and main settlement of the City of Durham district of County Durham, England Pateley Bridge is a market town in Nidderdale in the Borough of Harrogate, North Yorkshire, England, on the River Nidd. In October 1836 he enrolled as a student at the Hunterian school of medicine in Great Windmill Street, London. A year later, he began working at the Westminster Hospital and was admitted a member of the Royal College of Surgeons of England on 2 May 1838. Westminster Hospital was founded in 1719, following a meeting in a coffee house where four men met to discuss a "charitable proposal for relieving the sick and Events 1194 - King Richard I of England gives Portsmouth its first Royal Charter. Year 1838 ( MDCCCXXXVIII) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Common He graduated from the University of London in December 1844, and was admitted to the Royal College of Physicians in 1850. The University of London is a university based primarily in London, England, UK. The Royal College of Physicians of London was the first medical institution in England to receive a Royal Charter
Snow was one of the first physicians to study and calculate dosages for the use of ether and also chloroform as surgical anaesthesia. Diethyl ether, also known as ether and ethoxyethane, is a clear colorless and highly Flammable liquid with a low Boiling point and a Chloroform, also known as trichloromethane and methyl trichloride, is a Chemical compound with formula C[[Hydrogen H]] Cl Anesthesia, or anaesthesia (see spelling differences; from Greek grc αν- an-, "without" and grc αἲσθησις He personally administered chloroform to Queen Victoria when she gave birth to the last two of her nine children, Leopold in 1853 and Beatrice in 1857. Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901 was from 20 June 1837 the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland The Prince Leopold Duke of Albany (Leopold George Duncan Albert 7 April 1853 &ndash 28 March 1884) was a member of the British Royal The Princess Beatrice (Beatrice Mary Victoria Feodore later (1885&ndash1917 Princess Henry of Battenberg; 14 April 1857 &ndash 26 October 1944 was a member of the British  This led to wider public acceptance of obstetric anaesthesia. Obstetrics (from the Latin obstare, "to stand by" is the surgical speciality dealing with the care of a woman and her offspring during Pregnancy Snow published an article on ether in 1847 entitled On the Inhalation of the Vapor of Ether. A longer work was published posthumously in 1858 entitled On Chloroform and Other Anaesthetics, and Their Action and Administration.
Snow was a skeptic of the then-dominant miasma theory that stated held that diseases such as cholera or the Black Death were caused by pollution or a noxious form of "bad air". Year 1854 ( MDCCCLIV) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Common year The miasmatic theory of disease held that Diseases such as Cholera or the Black Death were caused by a miasma (Greek language "pollution" The germ theory was not widely accepted at this time, so he was unaware of the mechanism by which the disease was transmitted, but evidence led him to believe that it was not due to breathing foul air. The germ theory, also called the pathogenic theory of medicine, is a Theory that proposes that Microorganisms are the cause of many Diseases. He first publicized his theory in an essay On the Mode of Communication of Cholera in 1849. In 1855 a second edition was published, with a much more elaborate investigation of the effect of the water-supply in the Soho, London epidemic of 1854. This article is about an area of Manhattan, New York City. For the area in London UK see Soho. London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom.
By talking to local residents (with the help of Reverend Henry Whitehead), he identified the source of the outbreak as the public water pump on Broad Street (now Broadwick Street). Reverend Henry Whitehead ( 22 September 1825 - 5 March, 1896) was a Church of England cleric and the assistant Curate Broadwick Street (formerly Broad Street is a street in Soho, City of Westminster London. Although Snow's chemical and microscope examination of a sample of the Broad Street pump water was not able to conclusively prove its danger, his studies of the pattern of the disease were convincing enough to persuade the local council to disable the well pump by removing its handle. This article is about an area of Manhattan, New York City. For the area in London UK see Soho. Although this action has been popularly reported as ending the outbreak, the epidemic may have already been in rapid decline, as explained by Snow himself:
There is no doubt that the mortality was much diminished, as I said before, by the flight of the population, which commenced soon after the outbreak; but the attacks had so far diminished before the use of the water was stopped, that it is impossible to decide whether the well still contained the cholera poison in an active state, or whether, from some cause, the water had become free from it.
Snow later used a spot map to illustrate how cases of cholera were centred around the pump. He also made a solid use of statistics to illustrate the connection between the quality of the source of water and cholera cases. Statistics is a mathematical science pertaining to the collection analysis interpretation or explanation and presentation of Data. He showed that companies taking water from sewage-polluted sections of the Thames delivered water to homes with an increased incidence of cholera. Sewage is the mainly liquid Waste containing some solids produced by humans which typically consists of washing water Feces, Urine, laundry waste and other Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into an environment that causes instability disorder harm or discomfort to the physical systems or living organisms they are in The Thames ( is a major River flowing through southern England. Snow's study was a major event in the history of public health, and can be regarded as the founding event of the science of epidemiology. History is the study of the past particularly the written record Those who study history as a Profession are called Historians Etymology Public health is "the science and art of preventing disease prolonging life and promoting health through the organised efforts and informed choices of society organisations Science (from the Latin scientia, meaning " Knowledge " or "knowing" is the effort to discover, and increase human understanding Epidemiology is the study of factors affecting the Health and Illness of populations and serves as the foundation and Logic of interventions made in the
In Snow's own words:
On proceeding to the spot, I found that nearly all the deaths had taken place within a short distance of the [Broad Street] pump. There were only ten deaths in houses situated decidedly nearer to another street-pump. In five of these cases the families of the deceased persons informed me that they always sent to the pump in Broad Street, as they preferred the water to that of the pumps which were nearer. In three other cases, the deceased were children who went to school near the pump in Broad Street. . .
With regard to the deaths occurring in the locality belonging to the pump, there were 61 instances in which I was informed that the deceased persons used to drink the pump water from Broad Street, either constantly or occasionally. . .
The result of the inquiry, then, is, that there has been no particular outbreak or prevalence of cholera in this part of London except among the persons who were in the habit of drinking the water of the above-mentioned pump well.
I had an interview with the Board of Guardians of St James's parish, on the evening of the 7th inst [Sept 7], and represented the above circumstances to them. In consequence of what I said, the handle of the pump was removed on the following day.—John Snow, letter to the editor of the Medical Times and Gazette
It was discovered later that this public well had been dug only three feet from an old cesspit that had begun to leak fecal bacteria. A baby who had contracted cholera from another source had its diapers washed into this cesspit, the opening of which was under a nearby house that had been rebuilt farther away after a fire had destroyed the previous structure, and the street was widened by the city. It was common at the time to have a cesspit under most homes. Most families tried to have their raw sewage collected and dumped in the Thames to prevent their cesspit from filling faster than the sewage could decompose into the soil.
After the cholera epidemic had subsided, government officials replaced the Broad Street Handle Pump. They had responded only to the urgent threat posed to the population, and afterwards they rejected Snow's theory. To accept his proposal would be indirectly accepting the oral-fecal method transmission of disease, which was too unpleasant for most of the public.
Public health officials today recognize the political struggles that reformers often get entangled in. During the Annual Pumphandle Lecture in England, members of the John Snow Society remove and then replace a pump handle to symbolize the continuing challenges that face public health advancements.
Snow was a vegetarian and an ardent teetotaler and believed in drinking pure water (via boiling) throughout his adult life. See also Prohibition, Temperance movement Teetotalism (or T-total is the practice and promotion of complete Abstinence from Alcoholic beverages Boiling (also called ebullition) a type of Phase transition, is the rapid vaporization of a Liquid, which typically occurs when a liquid He never married.
At the age of 45, Snow suffered a stroke while working in his London office on 10 June 1858.  He never recovered , dying on 16 June 1858 and is buried in Brompton Cemetery. Events 1487 - Battle of Stoke Field, the last dying breath of the Wars of the Roses. Year 1858 ( MDCCCLVIII) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Common Brompton Cemetery is located near Earl's Court in West Brompton, a part of the Borough of Kensington & Chelsea in west London England 
There is a plaque commemorating Snow and his 1854 study in the place of the water pump on Broad Street (now Broadwick Street) with a water pump with its handle removed, near what is now "The John Snow" public house. The spot where the pump stood is covered with red granite.
In York, there is a blue plaque to Snow on the west end of the Park Inn, a hotel in North Street. In the United Kingdom, a blue plaque is a permanent sign installed in a public place to commemorate a link between that location and a famous person or event
John Snow was voted in a poll of British doctors in 2003 as the greatest physician of all time.
Snow gives his name to John Snow College, founded in 2001 on the University of Durham's Queen's Campus in Stockton-on-Tees. John Snow College is a college of the University of Durham in England, and one of two located at Queen's Campus in Thornaby-on-Tees Durham University is a University in Durham, England. It was founded as the University of Durham (which remains its official and legal name Stockton-on-Tees is a market town in North East England. It is the major settlement in the unitary authority area and Borough of Stockton-on-Tees.
Snow is one of the heraldic supporters of the Royal College of Anaesthetists. The Royal College of Anaesthetists (RCoA is "the professional body responsible for the specialty of Anaesthesia throughout the United Kingdom "
The public health consulting firm John Snow, Inc is named after him. John Snow Inc (JSI is a Public health research and consulting firm in the United States and around the world