The assassination of John F. Kennedy, the thirty-fifth President of the United States, took place on Friday, November 22, 1963, in Dallas, Texas, USA at 12:30 p. Governors of Texas John Bowden Connally Jr ( February 27 1917 June 15 1993) was a powerful American politician, serving as Governor A limousine (or limo) is a longer than normal Luxury car. The chassis may have been extended by the manufacturer or by an independent coach builder traditionally John Fitzgerald "Jack" Kennedy (May 29 1917&ndashNovember 22 1963 often referred to by his initials JFK, was the thirty-fifth President of The President of the United States is the Head of state and Head of government of the United States and is the highest political official in United States by Events 498 - Kofi Aseidu- After the death of Anastasius II, Symmachus is elected Pope in the Lateran Year 1963 ( MCMLXIII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the m. CST (18:30 UTC). The Central Time Zone observes Standard time by subtracting six hours from UTC during standard time ( UTC−6) and five hours during Daylight saving John F. Kennedy was fatally wounded by gunshots while riding with his wife Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis in a Presidential Motorcade. John Fitzgerald "Jack" Kennedy (May 29 1917&ndashNovember 22 1963 often referred to by his initials JFK, was the thirty-fifth President of Gunshot is also a British hip hop group A gunshot is the discharge of a Firearm, and the Sound effect thereof A motorcade is a procession of vehicles used to transport a Very important person, usually a political figure The ten-month investigation of the Warren Commission of 1963–1964, the United States House Select Committee on Assassinations (HSCA) of 1976–1979, and other government investigations concluded that the President was assassinated by Lee Harvey Oswald. The President's Commission on the Assassination of President Kennedy, known unofficially as The Warren Commission, was established on November 29, 1963 The United States House of Representatives Select Committee on Assassinations was established in 1976 to investigate the John F Lee Harvey Oswald (October 18 1939 &ndash November 24 1963 was according to three United States government investigations the assassin of U This conclusion was initially met with widespread support among the American public, but polls conducted after the original 1966 Gallup poll show a majority of the public hold beliefs contrary to these findings. The Gallup Poll is the division of Gallup that regularly conducts public Opinion polls in the United States and more than 140 countries around the world  The assassination is still the subject of widespread speculation and has spawned numerous conspiracy theories, though none of these theories have been proven. There are many conspiracy theories regarding the '''assassination of United States President John F
Kennedy had chosen to visit Dallas for three main reasons: to help generate more campaign funds in advance of the November 1964 presidential election; to begin his quest for re-election; and, because the Kennedy-Johnson ticket barely won Texas (and had lost Dallas) in 1960, to mend political fences among several leading Texas Democratic Party members who appeared to be fighting politically amongst themselves. Please DO NOT flip the colors -->The United States presidential election of 1964 was one of the most lopsided presidential elections in the history of the United States Texas ( is a state geographically located in the South Central United States and is also known as the Lone Star State. The basic decision on the November trip to Texas was made at a meeting of President Kennedy, Vice President Johnson, and Texas Governor John Connally on June 5, 1963. John Bowden Connally Jr ( February 27 1917 June 15 1993) was a powerful American politician, serving as Governor Events 70 - Titus and his Roman Legions breach the middle wall of Jerusalem in the Siege of Jerusalem Year 1963 ( MCMLXIII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The trip also included a first stop in Houston for a 3,200-person dinner for senior Congressman Albert Thomas, who was considering not seeking re-election. Albert Langston Thomas ( April 12, 1898 – February 15, 1966) was a Democratic Congressman from Houston Texas for 29 On September 26, 1963, the two daily Dallas newspapers confirmed plans of the November visit. Events 46 BC - Julius Caesar dedicates a Year 1963 ( MCMLXIII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar.
There were concerns about security, because as recently as October 24, 1963, United States Ambassador to the United Nations, Adlai Stevenson, had been jeered, jostled, struck by a protest sign, and spat upon during a visit to Dallas. Events 69 - Second Battle of Bedriacum, forces under Antonius Primus the commander of the Danube armies loyal to Vespasian, defeat Year 1963 ( MCMLXIII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The United States Ambassador to the United Nations (full title Representative of the United States of America to the United Nations, with the rank and status This is about the mid-20th-century politician and diplomat for other American politicians so named see Adlai Stevenson (disambiguation. The danger from a concealed sniper on the Dallas trip was also of concern. READ DISCUSSION PAGE BEFORE MAKING ANY EDITS TO CAPTION BELOW http//en President Kennedy had mentioned it the morning he was assassinated, as had the Secret Service agents when they were fixing the motorcade route. The motorcade route was described in both Dallas newspapers on November 19, 1963, and a map of the route was published on November 21, 1963. Events 1095 - The Council of Clermont, called by Pope Urban II to discuss sending the First Crusade to the Holy Land Year 1963 ( MCMLXIII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Events 164 BC - Judas Maccabaeus, son of Mattathias of the Hasmonean family restores the Temple in Jerusalem. Year 1963 ( MCMLXIII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. 
It was planned that Kennedy would travel from Love Field airport in a motorcade through downtown Dallas (including Dealey Plaza) to give a speech at the Dallas Trade Mart. Dallas Love Field is a city-owned public-use Airport located five Nautical miles (9 km) northwest of the Central business district of Dallas Market Center, located along Stemmons Freeway in Dallas, Texas (USA sits on of land and spans more than. The car in which he was traveling was a 1961 Lincoln Continental, open-top, modified limousine. The Lincoln Continental, an automobile produced by the Lincoln division of Ford Motor Company, began for the 1939 model year A presidential car with a bulletproof top was not yet in service in 1963, although plans for such a top were presented in October 1963.
Just before 12:30 p. This article considers the detailed timeline of events before during and after the assassination of John F The Single-Bullet Theory (or Magic-Bullet Theory, as m. CST, Kennedy’s limousine entered Dealey Plaza and slowly approached the Texas School Book Depository head-on. Dealey Plaza (ˈdiːli in the historic West End district of downtown Dallas, Texas ( U The Texas School Book Depository (now the Dallas County Administration Building) is the former name of a seven-floor building located on Dealey Plaza in downtown Nellie Connally, wife of the governor, turned around to Kennedy, who was sitting behind her, and commented, "Mr. President, you can't say Dallas doesn't love you," which President Kennedy acknowledged. 
When the Presidential limousine turned and passed the Depository and continued down Elm Street, shots were fired at Kennedy; the great majority of witnesses recalled hearing three shots.  There was hardly any reaction in the crowd to the first shot, many later saying they thought they had heard a firecracker or the exhaust backfire of a vehicle. For other meanings of the term see Backfire. A Back-fire or backfire is an explosion in the Inlet manifold, Carburetor  President Kennedy and Texas Governor John Connally, sitting beside his wife in front of the Kennedys in the limousine, both turned abruptly from looking to their left to looking to their right. Connally immediately recognized the sound of a high powered rifle. "Oh, no, no, no", he said as he turned further right, and then started to turn left, attempting to see President Kennedy behind him. 
According to the Warren Commission and the House Select Committee on Assassinations, as President Kennedy waved to the crowds on his right, a shot entered his upper back, penetrated his neck, and exited his throat. James William "Ike" Altgens (April 28 1919 &ndash December 12 1995 was an American photographer and field reporter for the Associated He raised his clenched fists up to his neck and leaned forward and to his left, as Mrs. Kennedy put her arms around him in concern. Governor Connally also reacted, as the same bullet penetrated his back, chest, right wrist, and left thigh. The Single-Bullet Theory (or Magic-Bullet Theory, as He yelled, "My God, they are going to kill us all!"
The final shot took place when the Presidential limousine was passing in front of the John Neely Bryan north pergola concrete structure. John Neely Bryan ( December 24, 1810 – September 8, 1877) was a Presbyterian farmer lawyer and tradesman in the United States A pergola is a Garden feature forming a shaded walk or passageway of pillars that support cross beams and a sturdy open lattice upon which woody vines are trained As the shot was heard, a fist-size hole exploded out from the right side of President Kennedy's head, covering the interior of the car and a nearby motorcycle officer with blood and brain tissue. 
Secret Service agent Clint Hill was riding on the left front running board of the car immediately behind the Presidential limousine. Mary Ann Moorman (born) was a witness to the assassination of U For the Crystal Palace football player of the same name see Clint Hill (footballer Clinton J A running board is a car or truck accessory part a narrow step fitted under the side doors of the vehicle Sometime after the shot that hit the president in the back, Hill jumped off and ran to overtake the limousine.  After the president had been shot in the head, Mrs. Kennedy climbed onto the rear of the limousine, though she later had no recollection of doing so.  Hill believed she was reaching for something, perhaps a piece of the president's skull.  He jumped onto the back of the limousine, pushed Mrs. Kennedy back into her seat, and clung to the car as it exited Dealey Plaza and sped to Parkland Memorial Hospital. Parkland Memorial Hospital is a Hospital located at 5201 Harry Hines Boulevard, just west of Oak Lawn in Dallas, Texas (
Governor Connally, riding in the same limousine in a seat in front of the President, was also critically injured but survived. Doctors later stated that after the governor was shot, his wife pulled him onto her lap, and the resulting posture helped close his front chest wound (which was causing air to be sucked directly into his chest around his collapsed right lung).
James Tague, a spectator and witness to the assassination, also received a minor wound to his right cheek while standing 270 feet (82 m) in front of where Kennedy was shot. James "Jim" Thomas Tague (born October 17 1936 Plainfield Indiana) was a witness to the assassination of U The injury occurred when a bullet or bullet fragment struck a nearby curb. 
The Presidential limousine was passing a grassy knoll on the north side of Elm Street at the moment of the fatal head shot. Dealey Plaza (ˈdiːli in the historic West End district of downtown Dallas, Texas ( U As the motorcade left the plaza, police officers and spectators ran up the knoll and from a railroad bridge over Elm Street (the Triple Underpass), to the area behind a five-foot (1. 5 m) high stockade fence atop the knoll, separating it from a parking lot. No sniper was found.  S. M. Holland, who had been watching the motorcade on the Triple Underpass, testified that "immediately" after the shots were fired, he went around the corner where the overpass joined the fence but did not see anyone running from the area. 
Lee Bowers, a railroad switchman sitting in a two-story tower, had an unobstructed view of the rear of the stockade fence atop the grassy knoll during the shooting. Lee Edward Bowers Jr ( January 12, 1925, Dallas Texas – August 9, 1966, Dallas Texas was a key witness to the assassination He saw a total of four men in the area between his tower and Elm Street: a middle-aged man and a younger man, standing 10 to 15 feet (3 to 5 m) apart near the Triple Underpass, who did not seem to know each other, and one or two uniformed parking lot attendants. At the time of the shooting, he saw "something out of the ordinary, a sort of milling around", which he could not identify, but he did not see a gunman. Bowers testified that one or both of the men were still there when motorcycle officer Clyde Haygood ran up the grassy knoll to the back of the fence.  In a 1966 interview, Bowers clarified that the two men he saw were on the opposite side of the stockade fence from him, and that no one was behind the fence at the time the shots were fired. 
Meanwhile, Howard Brennan, a steamfitter who was sitting across the street from the Texas School Book Depository, notified police that as he watched the motorcade go by, he heard a shot come from above, and looked up to see a man with a rifle make another shot from a corner window on the sixth floor. Howard Leslie Brennan ( Oklahoma, March 20, 1919 – Kaufman Texas, December 22, 1983) was a witness to the assassination A pipefitter (also called steamfitter) is a tradesman who lays out assembles fabricates maintains and repairs piping systems He had seen the same man minutes earlier looking out the window.  Brennan gave a description of the shooter, which was broadcast to all Dallas police at 12:45 p. m. , 12:48 p. m. , and 12:55 p. m.
As Brennan spoke to the police in front of the building, they were joined by Harold Norman and James Jarman, Jr. , two employees of the Texas School Book Depository who had watched the motorcade from windows at the southeast corner of the fifth floor.  The two reported that they and a third companion, Bonnie Ray Williams, heard three gunshots come from directly over their heads, and that plaster fell from the ceiling.  Norman also heard the sounds of a bolt action rifle and those of cartridges dropping on the floor above them. 
Of the 104 earwitnesses in Dealey Plaza who are on record with an opinion as to the direction from which the shots came, 56 (53. 8%) thought that they came from the direction of the Texas School Book Depository, 35 (33. 7%) thought that they came from the area of the grassy knoll or the Triple Underpass, 8 (7. 7%) thought the shots came from a location entirely distinct from the knoll or the Depository, and 5 (4. 8%) thought they heard shots from two locations. 
Lee Harvey Oswald, reported missing to the Dallas police by his supervisor at the Depository, was arrested an hour and 20 minutes after the assassination for killing a Dallas police officer, J.D. Tippit, who had spotted Oswald walking along a sidewalk. Lee Harvey Oswald (October 18 1939 &ndash November 24 1963 was according to three United States government investigations the assassin of U J D Tippit ( September 18, 1924 – November 22, 1963) was a Police officer with the Dallas, Texas Police Department He was captured in a nearby movie theater. Oswald resisted, attempting to shoot the arresting officer with a pistol, and was forcibly restrained by the police. He was charged with the murders of Tippit and Kennedy later that night.  Oswald denied shooting anyone and claimed he was a patsy. scapegoat was a Goat that was driven off into the wilderness as part of the ceremonies of Yom Kippur, the Day of Atonement in Judaism during the times  Oswald's case never came to trial because two days later, while being escorted to an armored van for transfer from Dallas Police Headquarters to the Dallas County Jail, he was shot and killed by Jack Ruby. Jacob Rubenstein (March 25 1911 – January 3 1967 who legally changed his name to Jack Leon Ruby in 1947 was an American Nightclub operator from
A 6. In March 1963 Lee Harvey Oswald, alias "A Hidell" purchased a 6 5 x 52 mm Italian Carcano (sometimes improperly called a Mannlicher-Carcano) M91/38 bolt-action rifle was found on the 6th floor of the Texas Book Depository by Deputy Constable Seymour Weitzman and Deputy Sheriff Eugene Boone soon after the assassination of President Kennedy. Carcano is the frequently used name for a series of Italian Bolt-action military rifles Carcano is the frequently used name for a series of Italian Bolt-action military rifles A constable is a person holding a particular office most commonly in law enforcement. SHERIFF is a telecom fraud detection and management system originally developed by BT and MCI.  The recovery was filmed by Tom Alyea of WFAA-TV. WFAA-TV, channel 8 is the ABC television affiliate serving the Dallas / Fort Worth Texas DMA ( 5th largest nationwide)  This footage shows the rifle to be a Mannlicher-Carcano, and it was later verified by photographic analysis commissioned by the HSCA that the rifle filmed was the same one later identified as the assassination weapon.  Against the Oswald backyard photographs, "one notch in the stock at [a] point that appears very faintly in the photograph" matched, as well as the rifle's dimensions. 
A bullet found on Connally's hospital stretcher was ballistically matched to this rifle.  The previous March, the rifle had been bought by Lee Harvey Oswald under the name "A. Hidell" and delivered to a post office box in Dallas. A post office box (often abbreviated PO Box or PO Box) is a uniquely-addressable lockable box located on the premises of a Post office station  According to the Warren Commission Report, a partial palm print of Oswald was also found on the barrel of the gun. 
The staff at Parkland Hospital's Trauma Room 1 who treated Kennedy observed that his condition was "moribund", meaning that he had no chance of survival upon arriving at the hospital. This article considers the detailed timeline of events before during and after the assassination of John F Dr. George Gregory Burkley, determined the head wound was the cause of death. Dr. Burkley signed President Kennedy's death certificate. 
At 1:00 p. m. , CST (19:00 UTC), after all heart activity had ceased and after a priest administered the last rites, the President was pronounced dead. "We never had any hope of saving his life", one doctor said.  The priest who administered the last rites to Kennedy told The New York Times that the President was already dead by the time he had arrived at the hospital, and he had to draw back a sheet covering the President's face to administer the sacrament of Extreme Unction. A priest or priestess is a person having the authority or power to administer religious rites in particular rites of sacrifice to and propitiation of a deity or deities Anointing of the Sick is the ritual anointing of a sick person and is a Sacrament of the Catholic Church. Kennedy's death was officially announced by White House Acting Press Secretary Malcolm Kilduff  at 1:33 p. See also Executive Office of the President of the United States The White House, formerly known as the Executive Mansion, is the Official residence m. CST (19:33 UTC).  Governor Connally, meanwhile, was taken to emergency surgery, where he underwent two operations that day.
A few minutes after 2:00 p. m. CST (20:00 UTC), and after a confrontation between Dallas police and Secret Service agents, Kennedy's body was placed in a casket and taken from Parkland Hospital and driven to Air Force One. WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout The casket was then loaded aboard the airplane through the rear door, where it remained at the rear of the passenger compartment, in place of a removed row of seats. The body was removed before a forensic examination could be conducted by the Dallas County coroner, which violated Texas state law (the murder was a state crime and occurred under Texas legal jurisdiction). At that time, it was not a federal offense to kill the President of the United States. 
Vice-President Johnson (who had been riding two cars behind Kennedy in the motorcade through Dallas and was not injured) became President of the United States upon Kennedy's death. At 2:38 p. m. Johnson took the oath of office on board Air Force One just before it departed Love Field.
After Air Force One landed at Andrews Air Force Base, just outside Washington, D.C., Kennedy's body was taken to Bethesda Naval Hospital for an immediate autopsy. Andrews Air Force Base is a United States Air Force base in Prince George's County, Maryland, United States. Washington DC ( formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington, the District, or simply D Bethesda is an Unincorporated area in southern Montgomery County Maryland, just Northwest of Washington D The National Naval Medical Center in Bethesda Maryland, United States, also known as the Bethesda Naval Hospital, is considered the flagship of the An autopsy, also known as a post-mortem examination, necropsy, or obduction, is a Medical procedure that consists of a thorough Examination The autopsy (about 8 to 11 p. m. EST on November 22) was followed by embalming and cosmetic funeral preparation (about 11 p. The Eastern Time Zone ( ET) of the Western Hemisphere falls mostly along the east coast of North America and the west coast of South America Events 498 - Kofi Aseidu- After the death of Anastasius II, Symmachus is elected Pope in the Lateran m. to 4 a. m. ) in the morgue at Bethesda, in a room adjacent to the autopsy theater. This was done by a team of private mortuary personnel, who made an unusual trip to the hospital for this procedure. The autopsy of President Kennedy performed the night of November 22 at the Bethesda Naval Hospital led the three examining pathologists to conclude that the bullet wound to the head was fatal, and the bullet had:
"[E]ntered Kennedy's head through a small hole in the scalp in the rear of the president's head, on the right hand side'. Events 498 - Kofi Aseidu- After the death of Anastasius II, Symmachus is elected Pope in the Lateran . . . [with a] final exit of this missile, or fragments of it, through a large lateral defect in the right parietal region of the skull over the right ear". The parietal bones are bones in the Human Skull and form by their union the sides and roof of the Cranium. 
The report addressed a second missile which "entered Kennedy's upper back above the shoulder blade, passed through the strap muscles at the base of his neck, bruising the upper tip of the right lung without puncturing it, then exiting the front (anterior) neck", in a wound that was destroyed by the tracheotomy incision. Tracheotomy and tracheostomy are Surgical procedures on the neck to open a direct airway through an incision in the trachea (the windpipe  This autopsy finding was not corroborated by the President's personal physician, Dr Burkley, who recorded, on the death certificate, a bullet to have hit Kennedy at "about" the level of the third thoracic vertebra (Image). The 12 thoracic vertebrae compose the middle segment of the Vertebral column, between the Cervical vertebrae and the Lumbar vertebrae. Supporting this location along with the bullet hole in the shirt worn by Kennedy (Image) and the bullet hole in the suit jacket worn by Kennedy (Image) which show bullet holes between 5 and 6 inches (12. 5-15 cm) below Kennedy's collar (Image). However, photographic analysis of the motorcade, including a new pre-assassination film released in 2006 (color film), shows that the President's jacket was bunched below his neckline, and was not lying smoothly along his skin, so the clothing measurements have been subject to historical criticism as being untrustworthy on the matter of the exact location of the back wound.  Dr. J. Thornton Boswell's face sheet diagram from the autopsy sheet is sometimes used to support a lower back wound (Image). However, in 1966 Boswell noted that this drawing was never intended to be scale-exact, and he re-drew it for the benefit of The Baltimore Sun on November 25, 1966, placing an X at the higher spot(Image). The Baltimore Sun (officially just The Sun) is Maryland ’s largest general circulation daily newspaper and provides comprehensive coverage Events 1034 - Máel Coluim mac Cináeda, King of Scots dies Donnchad, the Year 1966 ( MCMLXVI) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. Boswell stated that his measurements of 5. 5 inches(14 cm) from the ear and shoulder properly locate the wound, and these are inconsistent with a wound at the third thoracic vertebra.  Moreover, all three Bethesda doctors authenticated for the HSCA autopsy photographs showing an entry wound at the level of C6 (the sixth cervical vertebra, at the base of the neck), which is the entry level as determined by the HSCA investigation on the basis of photographic and X-ray evidence from the autopsy. The United States House of Representatives Select Committee on Assassinations was established in 1976 to investigate the John F In Vertebrates cervical vertebrae (singular vertebra) are those vertebrae immediately behind (posterior to the Skull.
Later federal agencies such as the Assassination Records Review Board criticized the autopsy on several grounds including destruction from burning of the original draft of the autopsy report and notes taken by Cmdr. The Assassination Records Review Board was created as a result of an act passed by the US Congress in 1992 entitled the "President John F James Humes at the time of the autopsy, and failure to maintain a proper chain of custody of all of the autopsy materials. 
The President's body was then brought back to the White House and placed in the East Room in a closed casket for 24 hours but was privately and briefly viewed during this time by the Kennedy family and some close friends. The State funeral of John F Kennedy took place during the three days that followed his assassination The Sunday following the assassination, his flag-draped closed casket was moved to the Capitol for public viewing. Throughout the day and night, hundreds of thousands lined up to view the guarded casket.
Representatives from over 90 countries, including the Soviet Union, attended the funeral on November 25 (which was his son's third birthday). The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 Events 1034 - Máel Coluim mac Cináeda, King of Scots dies Donnchad, the John Fitzgerald Kennedy Jr (November 25 1960 – July 16 1999 often referred to as John F After the service, the casket was taken by caisson to Arlington National Cemetery for burial. A limber is a two-wheeled Cart designed to support the trail of an Artillery piece, allowing it to be towed Arlington National Cemetery, in Arlington Virginia, is a military cemetery in the United States, established during the American Civil War
No radio or television stations broadcasted the assassination live because the area through which the motorcade was traveling was not considered important enough for a live broadcast. Radio is the transmission of signals by Modulation of electromagnetic waves with frequencies below those of visible Light. Television ( TV) is a widely used Telecommunication medium for sending ( Broadcasting) and receiving moving Images, either monochromatic Most media crews were not even with the motorcade but were waiting instead at the Dallas Trade Mart in anticipation of Kennedy's arrival. Those members of the media that were with the motorcade were riding at the rear of the procession.
The Dallas police were recording their radio transmissions over two channels. A frequency designated as Channel One was used for routine police communications. A second channel, designated Channel Two, was an auxiliary channel, which was dedicated to the president's motorcade. Up until the time of the assassination, most of the broadcasts on this channel consisted of Police Chief Jesse Curry's announcements of the location of the motorcade as it wound through the streets of Dallas.
President Kennedy's last seconds traveling through Dealey Plaza were recorded on silent 8 mm film for the 26. 8 mm film is a motion picture film format in which the filmstrip is eight Millimeters wide 6 seconds before, during, and immediately following the assassination. This famous film footage was taken by garment manufacturer and amateur cameraman Abraham Zapruder, in what became known as the Zapruder film. The Zapruder film is a silent 8 mm color home movie of the presidential motorcade of John F Frame enlargements from the Zapruder film were published by Life magazine shortly after the assassination. The footage was repeatedly shown on television, starting in 1975, sometimes omitting the fatal head shot.
Zapruder was not the only one who photographed at least part of the assassination. A total of 32 photographers were in Dealey Plaza. Amateur movies taken by Orville Nix, Marie Muchmore, and Charles Bronson (not the actor) captured the fatal shot, although at a greater distance than Zapruder. Orville Orhel Nix (16 April 1911 – 17 January 1972 Dallas Texas was a witness to the assassination of U Marie M Muchmore ( 5 August 1909, Ardmore Oklahoma – 26 April 1990, Dallas Texas) was one of the witnesses to the Charles Bronson (born Charles Dennis Buchinsky, Lithuanian name Karolis Bučinskis, November 3, 1921 – August 30, Other motion picture films were taken in Dealey Plaza at or around the time of the shooting by Robert Hughes, F. Mark Bell, Elsie Dorman, John Martin Jr. , Patsy Paschall, Tina Towner, James Underwood, Dave Wiegman, Mal Couch, Thomas Atkins, and an unknown woman in a blue dress on the south side of Elm Street. Malcom Ollie Couch Jr (born 12 July 1938 Dallas Texas, USA was the founder and president of the Tyndale Theological Seminary.  Still photos were taken by Phillip Willis, Mary Moorman, Hugh W. Mary Ann Moorman (born) was a witness to the assassination of U Betzner Jr. , Wilma Bond, Robert Croft, and many others. The lone professional photographer in Dealey Plaza who was not in the press cars was Ike Altgens, photo editor for the Associated Press in Dallas. James William "Ike" Altgens (April 28 1919 &ndash December 12 1995 was an American photographer and field reporter for the Associated The Associated Press ( AP) is an American News agency. The AP is a Cooperative owned by its contributing Newspapers radio
An unidentified woman, nicknamed the Babushka Lady by researchers, might have been filming the presidential motorcade during the assassination because she was seen apparently doing so on film and photographs taken by the others. The Babushka Lady is a nickname for an unknown woman who might have filmed the presidential motorcade in Dealey Plaza during the John F
Previously unknown, color footage filmed on the assassination day by George Jefferies was released on February 20, 2007 by the Sixth Floor Museum, Dallas, Texas. Events 1472 - Orkney and Shetland are left by Norway to Scotland, due to a Dowry payment Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. The film does not include depiction of the actual shooting, having been taken roughly 90 seconds beforehand and a couple of blocks away. The only detail relevant to the investigation of the assassination is a clear view of Kennedy's bunched suit jacket, just below the collar, which has led to different calculations about how low in the back Kennedy was first shot (see discussion above).
After arresting Oswald and collecting physical evidence at the crime scenes, the Dallas Police held Oswald at the police headquarters for interrogation. Oswald was questioned all afternoon about both the Tippit shooting and the assassination of the President. He was questioned intermittently for approximately 12 hours between 2:30 p. m. , on November 22, and 11 a. Events 498 - Kofi Aseidu- After the death of Anastasius II, Symmachus is elected Pope in the Lateran m. , on November 24. Events 380 - Theodosius I makes his adventus, or formal  Throughout this interrogation Oswald denied any involvement with either the assassination of President Kennedy or the murder of Patrolman Tippit.  Captain Fritz of the homicide and robbery bureau did most of the questioning, keeping only rudimentary notes.  Days later he wrote a report of the interrogation from notes he made afterwards.  There were no stenographic or tape recordings. Representatives of other law enforcement agencies were also present, including the FBI and the U. S. Secret Service, and occasionally participated in the questioning.  Several of the FBI agents present wrote contemporaneous reports of the interrogation. 
During the evening of November 22, the Dallas Police Department performed paraffin tests on Oswald's hands and right cheek in an apparent effort to determine, by means of a scientific test, whether Oswald had recently fired a weapon. Events 498 - Kofi Aseidu- After the death of Anastasius II, Symmachus is elected Pope in the Lateran In chemistry paraffin is the common name for the Alkane Hydrocarbons with the general formula C n H2 n +2  The results were positive for the hands and negative for the right cheek.  However, because of the unreliability of these tests, the Warren Commission did not rely on the results of the test in making their findings. 
Oswald provided little information during his questioning. Frequently, however, he was confronted with evidence which he could not explain, and he resorted to statements which were found to be false.  Dallas authorities were not able to complete their investigation into the assassination of Kennedy because of interruptions from the FBI and the murder of Oswald by Jack Ruby.
The FBI was the first authority to complete an investigation. On November 24, 1963, just hours after Lee Harvey Oswald was murdered, FBI Director, J. Edgar Hoover, said that he wanted "something issued so we can convince the public that Oswald is the real assassin. Events 380 - Theodosius I makes his adventus, or formal Year 1963 ( MCMLXIII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. WikipediaManual of Style (biographies#Postnominal initials AssassiNation is the sixth album by Krisiun, released in 2006 on Century Media. " On December 9, 1963, only 17 days after the assassination, the FBI report was issued and given to the Warren Commission. Events 536 - Byzantine General Belisarius enters Rome while the Ostrogothic garrison peacefully leaves the city Year 1963 ( MCMLXIII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Then, the FBI stayed on as the primary investigating authority for the commission.
The FBI stated that only three bullets were fired during the assassination; the Warren Commission agreed with the FBI investigation that only three shots were fired but disagreed with the FBI report on which shots hit Kennedy and which hit Governor Connally. The FBI report claimed that the first shot hit President Kennedy, the second shot hit Governor Connally, and the third shot hit Kennedy in the head, killing him. In contrast, the Warren Commission concluded that one of the three shots missed, one of the shots hit Kennedy and then struck Connally, and a third shot struck Kennedy in the head, killing him.
The FBI's murder investigation was reviewed by the House Select Committee on Assassinations in 1979. The congressional Committee concluded:
- The Federal Bureau of Investigation adequately investigated Lee Harvey Oswald prior to the assassination and properly evaluated the evidence it possessed to assess his potential to endanger the public safety in a national emergency.
- The Federal Bureau of Investigation conducted a thorough and professional investigation into the responsibility of Lee Harvey Oswald for the assassination.
- The Federal Bureau of Investigation failed to investigate adequately the possibility of a conspiracy to assassinate the President.
- The Federal Bureau of Investigation was deficient in its sharing of information with other agencies and departments. 
The FBI has received added scrutiny by Kennedy assassination researchers because of the actions of FBI agent James Hosty. Hosty appeared in Oswald's address book. The FBI provided to the Warren Commission a typewritten transcription of Oswald's address book, in which Hosty's name and phone number were omitted. Two days before the assassination, Oswald went to the FBI office in Dallas to meet with Hosty, and when he found that Hosty was not in the office at the time, Oswald left an envelope for Hosty with a letter inside. After Oswald was murdered by Jack Ruby, Hosty's supervisor ordered Hosty to destroy the letter, and he did so by tearing the letter up and flushing it down the toilet. Jacob Rubenstein (March 25 1911 – January 3 1967 who legally changed his name to Jack Leon Ruby in 1947 was an American Nightclub operator from Months later, when Hosty testified before the Warren Commission, he did not disclose this connection with Oswald. This information became public later and was investigated by the U. S. House Select Committee on Assassinations. 
Sgt. Davis, of the Dallas Police Department, believed he had prepared stringent security precautions, in an attempt to prevent demonstrations like those marking the Stevenson visit would not happen again. But Winston Lawson of the Secret Service, who was in charge of the planning, told the Dallas Police not to assign its usual squad of experienced homicide detectives to follow immediately behind the President's car. This police protection was routine for both visiting presidents and for motorcades of other visiting dignitaries. Police Chief Jesse Curry later testified that had his men been in place, the murder might have been prevented, because they carried submachine guns and rifles to take out any attackers, or at least they might have been able to stop Oswald before he left the building. Jesse Edward Curry ( October 3, 1913 &ndash June 22, 1980) was chief of the Dallas police at the time John F 
The first official investigation of the assassination was established by President Johnson on November 29, 1963, a week after the assassination. The President's Commission on the Assassination of President Kennedy, known unofficially as The Warren Commission, was established on November 29, 1963 Events 1777 - San Jose California, is founded as el Pueblo de San José de Guadalupe Year 1963 ( MCMLXIII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The commission was headed by Earl Warren, Chief Justice of the United States and became universally (but unofficially) known as the Warren Commission. Earl Warren ( March 19, 1891 July 9, 1974) was the 14th Chief Justice of the United States and the only person ever elected thrice The Chief Justice of the United States is the head of the judicial branch of the government of the United States, and presides over the U
In late September 1964, after a 10-month investigation, the Warren Commission Report was published. The Commission concluded that it could not find any persuasive evidence of a domestic or foreign conspiracy involving any other person(s), group(s), or country(ies). The Commission found that Lee Harvey Oswald acted alone in the murder of Kennedy, and that Jack Ruby acted alone in the murder of Oswald. The theory that Oswald acted alone is informally called the Lone gunman theory. The lone gunman theory is the nickname given to the conclusion reached by the Warren Commission that U The commission also concluded that only three bullets were fired during the assassination and that Lee Harvey Oswald fired all three bullets from the Texas School Book Depository behind the motorcade. The Commission also laid out several scenarios concerning the timing of the shots, but that the three shots were fired in a time period ranging from approximately 4. 8 to in excess of 7 seconds. 
The commission also concluded that:
It noted that three empty shells were found in the sixth floor in the book depository, and a rifle identified as the one used in the shooting – Oswald's Italian military surplus 6. 5x52 mm Model 91/38 Carcano – was found hidden nearby. The Commission offered as a likely explanation that the same bullet that wounded Kennedy also caused all of Governor Connally's wounds. This single bullet then backed out of Connally's left thigh and was found on a stretcher in the hospital. This theory has become known as the "single bullet theory" or the "magic" bullet theory (as it is commonly referred to by its critics and detractors). The Single-Bullet Theory (or Magic-Bullet Theory, as
The Commission also looked into other matters beside who killed the President and criticized weaknesses in security, which has resulted in greatly increased security whenever the President travels. The unpublished supporting documents for the Warren Commission Report are due to be released by 2017. The Commission's unpublished records were initially sealed for 75 years (to 2039) under a general National Archives policy that applied to all federal investigations by the executive branch of government, a period "intended to serve as protection for innocent persons who could otherwise be damaged because of their relationship with participants in the case. List of archives A national archive is a central Archive maintained by a Nation. ”
Almost immediately after the Warren Commission Report was issued, some began seriously questioning its conclusions. A multitude of books and articles criticizing the Warren Commission's findings have been written. The Commission's conclusions have also gradually but continually lost widespread acceptance from the American public and various prominent government officials. Yet subsequent reinvestigations by special panels on the Kennedy assassination have, with one exception – the HSCA's controversial Dictabelt evidence – come to the same main conclusions as the Warren Commission did in 1964. The Dictabelt evidence relating to the assassination of John F
In 1968 a panel of four medical experts appointed by Attorney General Ramsey Clark met in Washington, D. The United States Attorney General is the head of the United States Department of Justice (see) concerned with legal affairs and is the chief law enforcement William Ramsey Clark (born December 18 1927 is a lawyer and former United States Attorney General. C. to examine various photographs, X-ray films, documents, and other evidence pertaining to the death of President Kennedy. The Clark Panel determined that Kennedy was struck by two bullets fired from above and behind him, one of which traversed the base of the neck on the right side without striking bone and the other of which entered the skull from behind and destroyed its upper right side.  The chain of custody of the evidence on which the panel reached its conclusions has been called into question. Clark raised this issue with President Johnson.  In 1979 the House Select Committee on Assassinations subjected the photos and X-rays from the autopsy to scientific investigation by a panel of experts and concluded the materials were authentic.  However, in contrast with this view, the Assassination Records Review Board said in 1998: "[T]he persons handling the autopsy records did not create a complete and contemporaneous accounting of the number of photographs nor was a proper chain of custody established for all of the autopsy materials. "
The U. S. President's Commission on CIA activities within the United States was set up under President Gerald Ford in 1975 to investigate the activities of the CIA within the United States. Gerald Rudolph Ford Jr (July 14 1913 December 26 2006 was the thirty-eighth President of the United States, serving from 1974 to 1977 and the fortieth Vice President near as long as it used to be several months ago It has been actively summarized and split into sub-articles and there is a dynamic talk page discussion of all The commission was led by Vice President Nelson Rockefeller, and is sometimes referred to as the Rockefeller Commission. Nelson Aldrich Rockefeller ( July 8, 1908 January 26, 1979) was the forty-first Vice President of the United States, the forty-ninth
Part of the commission's work dealt with the Kennedy assassination, specifically the head snap as seen in the Zapruder film (first shown to the general public in 1975), and the possible presence of E. Howard Hunt and Frank Sturgis in Dallas. The Zapruder film is a silent 8 mm color home movie of the presidential motorcade of John F Everette Howard Hunt Jr ( October 9 1918 – January 23 2007) was an American Author and spy. Frank Anthony Sturgis (December 9 1924 – December 4 1993 born Frank Angelo Fiorini, was one of the Watergate burglars  The commission concluded that neither Hunt nor Sturgis were in Dallas at the time of the assassination, and that the head snap did not necessarily imply a shot from the front. 
Fifteen years after the Warren Commission issued its report, a congressional committee named the House Select Committee on Assassinations reviewed the Warren Commission report and the underlying FBI report on which the Commission heavily relied. The United States House of Representatives Select Committee on Assassinations was established in 1976 to investigate the John F The United States House of Representatives Select Committee on Assassinations was established in 1976 to investigate the John F The Committee criticized the performance of both the Warren Commission and the FBI for failing to investigate whether other people conspired with Oswald to murder President Kennedy.  The Committee Report concluded that:
"[T]he FBI's investigation of whether there had been a conspiracy in President Kennedy's assassination was seriously flawed. The conspiracy aspects of the investigation were characterized by a limited approach and an inadequate application and use of available resource. " (footnote 12)
The Committee found the Warren Commission's investigation equally flawed: "[T]he subject that should have received the Commission's most probing analysis — whether Oswald acted in concert with or on behalf of unidentified co-conspirators the Commission's performance, in the view of the committee, was in fact flawed. " (footnote 13)
The Committee believed another primary cause of the Warren Commission's failure to adequately probe and analyze whether or not Oswald acted alone arose out of the lack of cooperation by the CIA. Finally, the Committee found that the Warren Commission inadequately investigated for a conspiracy because of: "[T]ime pressures and the desire of national leaders to allay public fears of a conspiracy. "
The committee concluded that Lee Harvey Oswald fired three shots at President John F. Kennedy. The second and third shots he fired struck the President. The third shot he fired killed him. The HSCA agreed with the single bullet theory but concluded that it occurred at a time during the assassination that differed from what the Warren Commission had theorized. Their theory, based primarily on Dictabelt evidence, was that President Kennedy was assassinated probably as a result of a conspiracy. The Dictabelt evidence relating to the assassination of John F In a political sense conspiracy refers to a group of persons united in the goal of usurping or overthrowing an established political power They proposed that four shots had been fired during the assassination; Oswald fired the first, second, and fourth bullets, and that (based on the acoustic evidence) there was a high probability that an unnamed second assassin fired the third bullet, but missed, from President Kennedy's right front, from a location concealed behind the grassy knoll picket fence.
Many years after the House Select Committee on Assassinations issued its report, the attorney G. Robert Blakey for the House Select Committee on Assassinations issued a statement to the news media calling into question the honesty of the CIA in its dealings with the Committee and the accuracy of the information given to it.
Blakey told ABC News that the conclusion that a conspiracy existed in the assassination was established by both witness testimony and acoustic evidence:
The shot from the grassy knoll is not only supported by the acoustics, which is a tape that we found of a police motorcycle broadcast back to the district station. This article is about the American news organization See also ABC News (disambiguation ABC News is a division of American It is corroborated by eyewitness testimony in the plaza. There were 20 people, at least, who heard a shot from the grassy knoll. 
The sole acoustic evidence relied on by the committee to support its conclusion of a fourth gunshot (and a gunman on the grassy knoll) in the JFK assassination, was a Dictabelt recording alleged to be from a stuck transmitter on a police motorcycle in Dealey Plaza during the assassination.  The evidence was presented by Mark R. Weiss and Ernest Aschkenasy, acoustical experts from Queens College, who would later become part of the 1974 panel that concluded that the 18½ minute gap in the Watergate tapes was because that section was erased. Queens College, located in Flushing, Queens, New York City, is one of the senior Colleges of the City University of New York. The Watergate tapes, also known as the Nixon tapes are a collection of recordings of conversations between U 
After the committee finished its work, however, an amateur researcher listened to the recording and discovered faint crosstalk of transmissions from another police radio channel known to have been made a minute after the assassination.  Further, the Dallas motorcycle policeman thought to be the source of the sounds followed the motorcade to the hospital at high speed, his siren blaring, immediately after the shots were fired. Yet the recording is of a mostly idling motorcycle, eventually determined to have been at JFK's destination, the Dallas Trade Mart, miles from Dealey Plaza.
Several years later, in 1981, a special panel of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) disputed the evidence of a fourth shot, contained on the police Dictabelt. The National Academy of Sciences (NAS is a corporation in the United States whose members serve Pro bono as "advisers to the nation on science  The panel concluded it was simply random noise, perhaps static, recorded about a minute after the shooting while Kennedy's motorcade was en route to Parkland Hospital.
The NAS experts, headed by physicist Norman F. Ramsey of Harvard, reached that conclusion after studying the sounds on the two radio channels Dallas police were using that day. Routine transmissions were made on Channel One and recorded on a Dictaphone machine at police headquarters. An auxiliary frequency, Channel Two, was dedicated to the president's motorcade and used primarily by Dallas Police Chief Jesse Curry; its transmissions were recorded on a separate Gray Audograph disc machine. The Gray Audograph was a Dictation format introduced in 1945 It recorded sound by pressing grooves into soft Vinyl discs like the competing but incompatible
The conclusion by the NAS was then rebutted in 2001 in a Science and Justice article by D. B. Thomas, a government scientist and JFK assassination researcher.  Thomas concluded the HSCA finding of a second shooter was correct and that the NAS panel's study was flawed. Thomas surmises that the Dictaphone needle jumped and created an overdub on Channel One.  In response to Thomas's findings, Michael O'Dell concluded in his report that the prior reports relied on incorrect timelines and made unfounded assumptions that, when corrected, do not support the identification of gunshots on the recording. 
In 2003, ABC News aired the results of their investigation of the assassination in a news-documentary program called Peter Jennings Reporting: The Kennedy Assassination — Beyond Conspiracy. Peter Charles Archibald Ewart Jennings, CM (July 29 1938 &ndash August 7 2005 was a Canadian-American Journalist and News anchor. Based on computer diagrams and recreations done by Dale K. Myers, ABC News concluded that the sound recordings on the Dictabelt could not have come from Dealey Plaza and that the Police Officer H. Dale K Myers (born 1955 is a computer animator and author who was honored in 2004 with an Emmy Award from the National Academy of Television Arts and Sciences B. McLain was correct in his assertions that he had not yet entered Dealey Plaza at the time of the assassination. 
In 2005, an article in Science & Justice by Ralph Linsker, Richard Garwin, Herman Chernoff, Paul Horowitz, and Norman Foster Ramsey, Jr. re-analyzed the acoustic synchronization evidence, rebutting Thomas' 2001 argument as well as correcting errors in the 1982 NAS report, while supporting the NAS report's finding that the sounds alleged to be gunshots occurred about a minute after the assassination. Science & Justice is a British Forensics journal One notable article was an analysis by Dr Richard Lawrence Garwin (born April 19, 1928 in Cleveland Ohio) is an American Physicist. Herman Chernoff (born July 1, 1923) is an American applied Mathematician, Statistician and Physicist formerly Paul Horowitz (born 1942 is a US physicist and electrical engineer, known primarily for his work in Electronics design as well as for his Norman Foster Ramsey Jr (born August 27, 1915, in Washington DC) is an American Physicist.  Followup articles in Science & Justice have been published. 
All of the Warren Commission's records were submitted to the National Archives in 1964. List of archives A national archive is a central Archive maintained by a Nation. The unpublished portion of those records was initially sealed for 75 years (to 2039) under a general National Archives policy that applied to all federal investigations by the executive branch of government, a period "intended to serve as protection for innocent persons who could otherwise be damaged because of their relationship with participants in the case. List of archives A national archive is a central Archive maintained by a Nation. ” The 75-year rule no longer exists, supplanted by the Freedom of Information Act of 1966 and the JFK Records Act of 1992. The Freedom of Information Act ( FOIA) is the implementation of freedom of information legislation in the United States The President John F Kennedy Assassination Records Collection Act of 1992, or the JFK Records Act, is a public law passed by the United States Congress, effective By 1992, 98% of the Warren Commission records had been released to the public.  Six years later, at the conclusion of the Assassination Records Review Board's work, all Warren Commission records, except those records that contained tax return information, were available to the public with only minor redactions. The Assassination Records Review Board was created as a result of an act passed by the US Congress in 1992 entitled the "President John F Tax returns in the United States are reports filed with the Internal Revenue Service (IRS or with the state or local Tax collection agency ( California In the study of Literature, redaction can refer to a form of Editing, in which multiple source texts are combined together ( redacted) and are  The remaining Kennedy assassination related documents are scheduled to be released to the public by 2017, twenty-five years after the passage of the JFK Records Act.
Several pieces of evidence and documentation are described to have been lost, cleaned, or missing from the original chain of evidence (e. g. , limousine cleaned out at hospital, Connally's suit dry-cleaned, Oswald's military intelligence file destroyed in 1973, Connally's Stetson hat and shirt sleeve gold cufflink missing, etc. )
On May 19, 2044, the 50th anniversary of the death of Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis, if her last child has died, the Kennedy library will release to the public a 500-page transcript of an oral history about John F. Events 1535 - French explorer Jacques Cartier sets sail on his second voyage to North America with three ships 110 men and 2044 ( MMXLIV) will be a Leap year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. The John F Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum is the Presidential library and Museum of the 35th President of the United States, John F Kennedy given by Mrs. Kennedy before her death in 1994.
The Assassination Records Review Board was not commissioned to make any findings or conclusions. The Assassination Records Review Board was created as a result of an act passed by the US Congress in 1992 entitled the "President John F Its purpose was to release documents to the public in order to allow the public to draw its own conclusions. From 1992 until 1998, the Assassination Records Review Board gathered and unsealed about 60,000 documents, consisting of over 4 million pages.  All remaining documents are to be released by 2017.
An official investigation by the House Select Committee on Assassinations (HSCA), conducted from 1976 to 1979, concluded that Oswald assassinated President Kennedy as a result of a probable conspiracy. This conclusion of a likely conspiracy contrasts with the earlier conclusion by the Warren Commission that the President was assassinated by a lone gunman.
In the ensuing four decades since the assassination, theories have been proposed or published that detail organized conspiracies to kill the President. These theories implicate, among others, Cuban President Fidel Castro, the anti-Castro Cuban community, President Johnson, the Mafia, the FBI, the CIA, the masonic order and the Soviet Bloc – or perhaps some combination of these. The Republic of Cuba (ˈkjuːbə or) consists of the island of Cuba (the largest and second-most populous island of the Greater Antilles) Isla de la Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz (born August 13 1926 is a Cuban revolutionary leader who was prime minister of Cuba from December 1959 to December 1976 and then president until The Mafia (also known as Cosa Nostra) is a Sicilian Criminal Secret society which is believed to have first developed in the mid-19th century During the Cold War, the term Communist Bloc (or Soviet Bloc) was used to refer to the Soviet Union and countries it either controlled or that were
Others claim that Oswald was not involved at all. Shortly after his arrest, Oswald insisted he was a "patsy". scapegoat was a Goat that was driven off into the wilderness as part of the ceremonies of Yom Kippur, the Day of Atonement in Judaism during the times Oswald never admitted any participation in the assassination and was murdered two days after being taken into police custody.
Some polls indicate a large number of Americans are suspicious of official government conclusions – primarily the Warren Commission's findings – regarding the assassination. A 2003 ABC News poll found that 70% of respondents suspected there was an assassination plot.  These same polls also show that there is no agreement on who else may have been involved.
The motorcade consisted of numerous cars, police motorcycles and press buses:
In North America and around the world, there was a stunned reaction to the assassination. Around the world there was a stunned reaction to the assassination of John F Schools across the U. S. and Canada dismissed their students early, and 54% of Americans stopped their normal activities on the day.  In the days following people wept, lost their appetite, found difficulty sleeping, and suffered nausea, nervousness, and sometimes anger. 
The event left a lasting impression on many people. It is said that everyone remembers where they were when they heard about the Kennedy assassination.