|John A. Costello|
18 February 1948 – 13 June 1951
2 June 1954 – 20 March 1957
|Preceded by||Éamon de Valera (twice)|
|Succeeded by||Éamon de Valera (twice)|
|Born||20 June 1891 |
|Died||5 January 1976 (aged 84)|
|Political party||Fine Gael|
John Aloysius Costello (Irish: Seán A. The Taoiseach (ˈtiːʃəx in English t̪ˠiːʃʲəx (plural Taoisigh ( or) in Irish) also referred to as An Taoiseach ( t̪ˠiːʃʲəx is the the Events 3102 BC - Epoch (origin of the Kali Yuga. 1229 - The Sixth Crusade: Frederick II Holy Year 1948 ( MCMXLVIII) was a Leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Events 1525 - Martin Luther marries Katharina von Bora, against the Celibacy rule decreed by the Roman Catholic Church for Year 1951 ( MCMLI) was a Common year starting on Monday. Events of 1951 January Events 455 - The Vandals enter Rome, and plunder the city for two weeks Year 1954 ( MCMLIV) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1954 Gregorian calendar) Events 1600 - The Linköping Bloodbath takes place on Maundy Thursday in Linköping, Sweden. Year 1957 ( MCMLVII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar) The Tánaiste (ˈtɑːnəʃtʲə plural Tánaistí) or more formally An Tánaiste, is the deputy prime minister of Ireland. William Norton (1900 – 4 December 1963 was an Irish Labour Party politician and leader of the party from 1932 to 1960 Éamon de Valera (ˈeɪmən dɛvəˈlɛrə (born Edward George de Valera) (14 October 1882 &ndash 29 August 1975 was one of the dominant political figures in 20th century Éamon de Valera (ˈeɪmən dɛvəˈlɛrə (born Edward George de Valera) (14 October 1882 &ndash 29 August 1975 was one of the dominant political figures in 20th century Events 451 - Battle of Chalons: Flavius Aetius ' defeats Attila the Hun. Year 1891 ( MDCCCXCI) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Dublin (ˈdʌblɨn/ /ˈdʊblɨn or /ˈdʊbəlɪn/, bˠalʲə aːha klʲiəh or cliə(ɸ is both the largest city and capital of Ireland. Ireland (pronounced /ˈaɾlənd/ Éire) is the third largest island in Europe, and the twentieth-largest island in the world Events 1477 - Battle of Nancy: Charles the Bold is killed and Burgundy becomes part of France. Year 1976 ( MCMLXXVI) was a Leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Dublin (ˈdʌblɨn/ /ˈdʊblɨn or /ˈdʊbəlɪn/, bˠalʲə aːha klʲiəh or cliə(ɸ is both the largest city and capital of Ireland. Ireland (pronounced /ˈaɾlənd/ Éire) is the third largest island in Europe, and the twentieth-largest island in the world Fine Gael – The United Ireland Party, shortened to Fine Gael (ˌfina gail meaning Family of the Irish or Tribe of the Irish, is the second largest A barrister is a Lawyer found in many Common law Jurisdictions that employ a split profession (as opposed to a Fused profession) in relation John Costello may refer to John Costello (baseball, MLB pitcher John A Irish (ga ''Gaeilge'' is a Goidelic language of the Indo-European language family originating in Ireland and historically spoken by the Irish. Mac Coisdealbha; 20 June 1891 – 5 January 1976), a successful barrister, was one of the main legal advisors to the government of the Irish Free State after independence, Attorney General of Ireland from 1926–1932 and Taoiseach from 1948–1951 and 1954–1957. Events 451 - Battle of Chalons: Flavius Aetius ' defeats Attila the Hun. Year 1891 ( MDCCCXCI) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Events 1477 - Battle of Nancy: Charles the Bold is killed and Burgundy becomes part of France. Year 1976 ( MCMLXXVI) was a Leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. A barrister is a Lawyer found in many Common law Jurisdictions that employ a split profession (as opposed to a Fused profession) in relation The Irish Free State (Saorstát Éireann (1922&ndash1937 was the state established as a Dominion on 6 December 1922 under the Anglo-Irish Treaty, signed by The Attorney General (An tArd-Aighne is a constitutional officer who is the official adviser to the Government of Ireland in matters of law The Taoiseach (ˈtiːʃəx in English t̪ˠiːʃʲəx (plural Taoisigh ( or) in Irish) also referred to as An Taoiseach ( t̪ˠiːʃʲəx is the the
John A. Costello was born on 20 June 1891, in Dublin. Events 451 - Battle of Chalons: Flavius Aetius ' defeats Attila the Hun. Year 1891 ( MDCCCXCI) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Dublin (ˈdʌblɨn/ /ˈdʊblɨn or /ˈdʊbəlɪn/, bˠalʲə aːha klʲiəh or cliə(ɸ is both the largest city and capital of Ireland. Educated at the O'Connell Irish Christian Brothers School in North Dublin, and at University College Dublin, he graduated with a degree in modern languages and law. University College Dublin (UCD (An Coláiste Ollscoile Baile Átha Cliath - formally known as University College Dublin - National University of Ireland Dublin (An A degree is any of a wide range of status levels conferred by institutions of Higher education, such as universities, normally as the result of successfully completing He studied at King's Inns to become a barrister, winning the Victoria Prize there in 1913 and 1914. The King's Inns (Óstaí an Rí formally known as the Honorable Society of King's Inns ( HSKI) is the institution which controls the entry of barristers-at-law
Costello was called to the bar in 1914 and began practising as a barrister. He worked as a barrister until 1922 when he joined the staff of the Attorney General in the newly established Irish Free State. The Irish Free State (Saorstát Éireann (1922&ndash1937 was the state established as a Dominion on 6 December 1922 under the Anglo-Irish Treaty, signed by Three years later Costello was called to the inner bar and the following year, 1926, he became Attorney-General to the Cumann na nGaedhael government, led by W. T. Cosgrave. Cumann na nGaedhael (ˈkʊmən nə ˈŋɰeːɫ "Society of the Gaels" sometimes spelt Cumann na nGaedheal, was an Irish language name given William Thomas Cosgrave (Liam Tomás Mac Cosgair 6 June 1880 &ndash 16 November 1965 known generally as W While serving in this position he represented Ireland at Imperial Conferences and League of Nations meetings. The League of Nations was an International organization founded as a result of the Treaty of Versailles in 1919–1920
He was also elected a Bencher of the Honourable Society of King's Inns. Costello lost his position as Attorney-General when Fianna Fáil came to power in 1932. Fianna Fáil – The Republican Party (Fianna Fáil – An Páirtí Poblachtánach shortened to Fianna Fáil ( is currently the largest Political party in the The following year, however, he succeeded in getting elected to Dáil Éireann as a Cumann na nGaedhael, and later a Fine Gael TD. ga '''Dáil Éireann''' ( English House of Representatives of Ireland) is the principal chamber of the Oireachtas (Irish parliament Cumann na nGaedhael (ˈkʊmən nə ˈŋɰeːɫ "Society of the Gaels" sometimes spelt Cumann na nGaedheal, was an Irish language name given Fine Gael – The United Ireland Party, shortened to Fine Gael (ˌfina gail meaning Family of the Irish or Tribe of the Irish, is the second largest A Teachta Dála (ˈtʲaxtə ˈdɑːlə is a member of Dáil Éireann, the lower chamber of the Oireachtas (Parliament of the Republic of Ireland.
He lost his seat at the general election of 1943, but regained it when de Valera called a snap election in 1944. During this period he was Fine Gael's front-bench spokesman on External Affairs.
Fianna Fáil had been in power for sixteen consecutive years and had been blamed for a downturn in the economy following World War II. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including The general election results still showed Fianna Fáil to be the largest party, with twice as many seats as the nearest party, Fine Gael.
While it looked as if Fianna Fáil were heading for a seventh consecutive general election victory in a row all the other parties in the Dáil joined to form the first inter-party government in the history of the Irish state. The coalition consisted of Fine Gael, the Labour Party, the National Labour Party, Clann na Poblachta, Clann na Talmhan and several Independent TDs. The Labour Party (Páirtí an Lucht Oibre is a Democratic socialist and Social democratic Political party in the Republic of Ireland. The National Labour Party was an Irish Political party which was founded in 1944 as a breakaway from the Irish Labour Party. Clann na Poblachta n̪ˠə pʷɔbʷłəxt̪ˠə (Family of the Republic was an Irish republican political party founded by former Irish Republican Army Chief of Clann na Talmhan n̪ˠə t̪ˠałuːnˠ (literally meaning "Offspring of the Land" was an Irish political party
While it looked as if co-operation between these parties would be inconceivable a shared dislike of Fianna Fáil and Éamon de Valera overcame all other difficulties and the government was formed. Éamon de Valera (ˈeɪmən dɛvəˈlɛrə (born Edward George de Valera) (14 October 1882 &ndash 29 August 1975 was one of the dominant political figures in 20th century
Since Fine Gael was the largest party in the government it had the task of providing a suitable candidate for Taoiseach. Naturally it was assumed that its leader, Richard Mulcahy, would be offered the post. Richard James Mulcahy (Risteárd Séamus Ó Maolchatha (10 May 1886 &ndash 16 December 1971 was an Irish politician, Army general and Commander in However, he was an unacceptable choice to Clann na Poblachta and its deeply republican leader, Seán MacBride. Seán MacBride (26 January 1904 &ndash 15 January 1988 was a prominent international politician. This was due to Mulcahy's record during the Civil War. The Irish Civil War ( June 28 1922 &ndash May 24 1923) pitted supporters of the Anglo-Irish Treaty against its opponents Instead, Mulcahy unselfishly stepped aside and allowed Costello to become Taoiseach. Costello, who had never held a ministerial position and who had not sought the leadership was now the leader of a complex government. Much of its success would depend on his leadership skills.
During the campaign Clann na Poblachta had promised to repeal the External Relations Act of 1936, but did not make an issue of this when the government was being formed. The Executive Authority (External Relations Act 1936 was an enactment of the Oireachtas (Irish parliament in 1936. However, Costello and his Tánaiste, William Norton of the Labour Party, also disliked the Act. The Tánaiste (ˈtɑːnəʃtʲə plural Tánaistí) or more formally An Tánaiste, is the deputy prime minister of Ireland. William Norton (1900 – 4 December 1963 was an Irish Labour Party politician and leader of the party from 1932 to 1960 During the summer of 1948 the Cabinet discussed repealing the Act; however, no firm decision was made.
In September 1948 Costello was on an official visit to Canada when a reporter asked him about the possibility of leaving the British Commonwealth. Costello seemed angry by the question and immediately declared publicly that the government was indeed going to repeal the Act and declare a republic. A republic is a State or Country that is not led by a hereditary Monarch, but in which the people (or at least a part of its people have impact on its The news took the British Government, and even some of Costello's ministers, by surprise. Her Majesty's Government, or when the monarch is male His Majesty's Government, is the title used by the Government of the United Kingdom, based at The former had not been consulted, and following the declaration of the republic in 1948, the UK passed the Ireland Act in 1949. The Ireland Act 1949 is a British Act of Parliament which was intended to deal with the consequences of the Republic of Ireland Act 1948 as passed This guaranteed the position of Northern Ireland within the United Kingdom while at the same time granting certain rights to citizens of the Republic living in the United Kingdom. Northern Ireland (Tuaisceart Éireann Ulster Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a Country within the United Kingdom, lying in the northeast of The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Finally on 18 April 1949 the twenty-six county Irish Free State left the Commonwealth and became the Republic of Ireland. Events 1025 - Bolesław Chrobry is crowned in Gniezno, becoming the first King of Poland. Year 1949 ( MCMXLIX) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Ireland ( Irish: Éire, ˈeːrʲə is a country in north-western Europe. The last constitutional links to Britain had finally been cut. See also Kingdom of Great Britain Great Britain (Breatainn Mhòr Prydain Fawr Breten Veur Graet Breetain is the larger of the two main islands Many nationalists now saw partition as the last obstacle on the road to total national independence. Irish nationalism (Náisiúnachas Éireannach refers to political and sociological movements and sentiment that embodies a love for Irish ancestry, culture and language and The Partition of Ireland took place on 3 May 1921 under the Government of Ireland Act 1920.
In 1950 the independent-minded Minister for Health, Dr. Noel Browne, introduced the Mother and Child Scheme. The Minister for Health and Children (Aire Sláinte agus Leanaí is the senior minister at the Department of Health and Children in the Government of Ireland Noël Christopher Browne (Nollaig de Brún 20 December 1915 &ndash 21 May 1997 was an Irish Politician and doctor. The Mother and Child Scheme was a healthcare programme in the Republic of Ireland that would later become remembered as a major political crisis involving primarily The scheme would provide mothers with free maternity treatment and their children with free medical care up to the age of sixteen. However, the bill was opposed by doctors, who feared a loss of income, and Roman Catholic bishops, who feared the scheme could lead to birth control and abortion. The Cabinet was divided over the issue, many feeling that the state could not afford such a scheme. Costello and others in the Cabinet made it clear that in the face of such opposition they would not support the minister. Browne resigned from the government on 11 April 1951, and the scheme was dropped. Events 491 - Flavius Anastasius becomes Byzantine Emperor, with the name of Anastasius I. Year 1951 ( MCMLI) was a Common year starting on Monday. Events of 1951 January He immediately published his correspondence with Costello and the bishops, something which had hitherto not been done.
The Costello Government had a number of noteworthy achievements. A new record was set in house-building, the Industrial Development Authority and Córas Tráchtála were established, and the Minister for Health, Noel Browne, brought about a spectacular advance in the treatment of tuberculosis. IDA Ireland is the agency responsible for industrial development in Ireland. Ireland also joined a number of organisations such as the Organisation for European Economic Co-Operation and the Council of Europe. However, the government refused to join NATO while the British remained in Northern Ireland. The North Atlantic Treaty The scheme to supply electricity to even the remotest parts of Ireland was also accelerated.
While the "Mother and Child" incident did destabilise the government to some extent, it did not lead to its collapse as is generally thought. The government continued; however, prices were rising, a balance of payments crisis was looming, and two TDs withdrew their support for the government. These incidents added to the pressure on Costello and so he decided to call a general election for June of 1951. The Irish general election of 1951 was held on 30 May 1951 The newly elected Members of the 14th Dáil assembled at Leinster House on 13 June when the new Taoiseach The result was inconclusive but Fianna Fáil returned to power. Costello resigned as Taoiseach. It was at this election that Costello's son, Declan, was elected to the Dáil. Declan Costello (born 1 August 1926 is an Irish Jurist and former politician from the Fine Gael Party who served as a Teachta Dála (TD for
Over the next three years while Fianna Fáil was in power a dual-leadership role of Fine Gael was taking place. While Richard Mulcahy was the leader of the party, Costello, who had proved his skill as Taoiseach, remained as parliamentary leader of the party.
In the general election in June 1954 Fianna Fáil lost power. The Irish general election of 1954 was held on 14 May 1954 The newly elected Members of the 15th Dáil assembled at Leinster House on 2 June when the new Taoiseach A campaign dominated by economic issues resulted in a Fine Gael-Labour Party-Clann na Talmhan government coming to power. Costello was once again elected Taoiseach. Unfortunately the government could do little to change the ailing nature of Ireland's economy, with emigration and unemployment remaining high. Costello's government did have some success with Ireland becoming a member of the United Nations in 1955. Ireland ( Irish: Éire, ˈeːrʲə is a country in north-western Europe. The United Nations ( UN) is an International organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in International law, International security
Although the government had a comfortable majority and seemed set for a full term in office, a resumption of IRA activity in Northern Ireland and Britain caused internal strains (see Border Campaign (IRA)). This article deals with the Irish republican organisation opposed to the Anglo-Irish Treaty styling itself "Irish Republican Army" as it existed from the time of the Treaty See also Kingdom of Great Britain Great Britain (Breatainn Mhòr Prydain Fawr Breten Veur Graet Breetain is the larger of the two main islands The Border Campaign ( December 12 1956 – February 26 1962) was a campaign of Guerrilla warfare ( codenamed Operation The government took strong action against the republicans. The Government of Ireland (Rialtas na hÉireann n̪ˠə ˈheːɾʲən̪ˠ is the Cabinet that exercises executive authority in Ireland. Irish republicanism (Poblachtánachas is an ideology based on the Irish nationalist belief that all of Ireland should be a single independent Republic
In spite of supporting the government from the backbenches, Seán MacBride, the leader of Clann na Poblachta, tabled a motion of no confidence, based on the weakening state of the economy. Fianna Fáil also tabled its own motion of no confidence, and, rather than face almost certain defeat, Costello again asked President Seán T. O'Kelly to dissolve the Oireachtas. The President of Ireland (Uachtarán na hÉireann n̪ˠə ˈheːɾʲən̪ˠ is the Head of state of Ireland. Seán Thomas O'Kelly (Seán Tomás Ó Ceallaigh 25 August 1882–23 November 1966 was the second President of Ireland (1945–1959 The Oireachtas (ɛrʲaxt̪ˠasˠ is the "national parliament" or Legislature of Ireland, sometimes referred to as Oireachtas Éireann. The general election which followed in 1957 gave Fianna Fáil an overall majority and started another sixteen years of unbroken rule for the party. The Irish general election of 1957 was held on 5 March 1957 just over three weeks after the dissolution of the Dáil on 4 February
Following the defeat Costello returned to the bar and for the second time overcame the tradition that a practice could not be built up again after years of absence. In 1959, when Richard Mulcahy resigned the leadership of Fine Gael to James Dillon, Costello retired to the backbenches. James Matthew Dillon (16 September 1902 – 10 February 1986 was an Irish politician and leader of Fine Gael from 1959 to 1965 He remained on as a TD until 1969 when he retired from politics, being succeeded by Garret FitzGerald as Fine Gael Deputy for Dublin South East.
During his career he was presented with a number of awards from many universities in the United States. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the He was also a member of the Royal Irish Academy from 1948. The Royal Irish Academy ( RIA) (Acadamh Ríoga na hÉireann is an all-Ireland, independent academic body that promotes study and excellence in the Sciences In March 1975 he was made a freeman of the city of Dublin, along with his old political opponent Éamon de Valera. He practised at the bar up to a short time before his death in Dublin on 5 January 1976, at the age of 84. Events 1477 - Battle of Nancy: Charles the Bold is killed and Burgundy becomes part of France. Year 1976 ( MCMLXXVI) was a Leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar.
The following governments were led by Costello:
(Cumann na nGaedhael)
|Cumann na nGaedhael Teachta Dála for Dublin County|
Moved to newly created constituency
Newly created constituency
|Fine Gael Teachta Dála for Dublin Townships|
|Fine Gael Teachta Dála for Dublin Townships|
Newly created constituency
|Fine Gael Teachta Dála for Dublin South East|
|Attorney General of Ireland|
|Parliamentary Leader of Fine Gael|
Éamon de Valera
Éamon de Valera
|Minister for Health|
April 1951–June 1951
Éamon de Valera
|Leader of the Opposition|
Éamon de Valera
Éamon de Valera
|Leader of the Opposition|