|Born||Joel Emmanuel Hägglund|
October 7, 1879
|Died||November 19, 1915 (aged 36)|
|Cause of death||execution by firing squad|
|Occupation||Songwriter, labor activist and member of the Industrial Workers of the World|
Joe Hill, born Joel Emmanuel Hägglund, and also known as Joseph Hillström (October 7, 1879 – November 19, 1915) was a Swedish-American songwriter, labor activist and member of the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW), also known as the Wobblies. Events 3761 BC - The epoch (origin of the modern Hebrew calendar ( Proleptic Julian calendar) Year 1879 ( MDCCCLXXIX) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Gävle is a city in east central Sweden with 68700 inhabitants ( 2005) "Sverige" redirects here For other uses see Sweden (disambiguation and Sverige (disambiguation. Events 1095 - The Council of Clermont, called by Pope Urban II to discuss sending the First Crusade to the Holy Land Year 1915 ( MCMXV) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year The State of Utah (ˈjuːtɔː or) is a western state of the United States. Capital punishment, the death penalty or execution, is the Killing of a person by judicial process as Punishment. A songwriter is someone who writes the Lyrics to songs the Musical composition (chords or Melody to songs or both A trade union or labour union is an organization of workers who have banded together to achieve common goals in key areas such as wages hours and working conditions forming The Industrial Workers of the World ( IWW or the Wobblies) is an international union currently headquartered in Cincinnati Ohio, USA Events 3761 BC - The epoch (origin of the modern Hebrew calendar ( Proleptic Julian calendar) Year 1879 ( MDCCCLXXIX) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Events 1095 - The Council of Clermont, called by Pope Urban II to discuss sending the First Crusade to the Holy Land Year 1915 ( MCMXV) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year Swedish Americans are Americans of Swedish descent most often related to the large groups of immigrants from Sweden in the late nineteenth century and early A songwriter is someone who writes the Lyrics to songs the Musical composition (chords or Melody to songs or both A trade union or labour union is an organization of workers who have banded together to achieve common goals in key areas such as wages hours and working conditions forming The Industrial Workers of the World ( IWW or the Wobblies) is an international union currently headquartered in Cincinnati Ohio, USA He was executed for murder after a controversial trial. Murder is the unlawful killing of another human person with Malice aforethought, as defined in Common Law countries After his death, he became the subject of several folk songs. Folk music can have a number of different meanings including Traditional music: The original meaning of the term "folk music" was synonymous
Hill was born in Gävle, a city in the province of Gästrikland, Sweden. Gävle is a city in east central Sweden with 68700 inhabitants ( 2005) is a historical province or landskap on the eastern coast of Sweden. "Sverige" redirects here For other uses see Sweden (disambiguation and Sverige (disambiguation. He emigrated to the United States in 1902, where he became a migrant laborer, moving from New York City to Cleveland, Ohio, and eventually to the West Coast. The City of New York Cleveland is a City in the US state of Ohio and the County seat of Cuyahoga County, the most populous county in the state He was in San Francisco, California, at the time of the 1906 earthquake. The City and County of San Francisco is the fourth most populous city Hill joined the Wobblies around 1910, when he was working on the docks in San Pedro, California. San Pedro is a beach community within Los Angeles California, USA In late 1910 he wrote a letter to the IWW newspaper Industrial Worker, identifying himself as a member of the Portland, Oregon IWW local. The Industrial Worker, "the voice of revolutionary industrial unionism" is the newspaper of the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW a radical Portland is a city located in the Northwestern United States, near the Confluence of the Willamette and Columbia rivers
Hill rose in the IWW organization and traveled widely, organizing workers under the IWW banner, writing political songs and satirical poems, and making speeches. He coined the phrase "pie in the sky", which appeared in his song "The Preacher and the Slave" (a parody of the then well-known hymn "In the Sweet Bye and Bye"). "The Preacher and the Slave" is a song written by Joe Hill in 1911 A parody (ˈpɛɹədiː US, [ˈpaɹədiː] UK) in contemporary usage is a work created to mock comment on or poke fun at an original work its subject A hymn is a type of Song, usually religious specifically written for the purpose of praise adoration or Prayer, and typically addressed to a deity/deities Other notable songs written by Hill include "The Tramp", "There Is Power in a Union", "Rebel Girl", and "Casey Jones — Union Scab". " The Tramp " (1913 is &ndash together with " The Preacher and the Slave " &ndash one of labor organizer Joe Hill 's most well-known songs John Luther "Casey" Jones ( March 14, 1863 &ndash April 30, 1900) was an American Railroad engineer from
|Part of a series on|
|The Labor Movement|
|New Unionism · Proletariat|
|Social Movement Unionism|
|Syndicalism · Socialism|
|Child labor · Eight-hour day|
|Occupational safety and health|
|Trade unions by country|
|Trade union federations|
|ITUC · WFTU · IWA|
|Chronological list of strikes|
|General strike · Sympathy strike|
|Sitdown strike · Work-to-rule|
|Joe Hill · Dita Indah Sari|
|Sonja Davies · Eugene V. Debs|
|A. J. Cook · Shirley Carr|
|Labor in economics|
|Labor history (discipline)|
Joe Hill was an itinerant worker, who moved around the west, hopping freight trains, going from job to job. The labour movement or labor movement is a broad term for the development of a collective organization of working people, to campaign in their own interest for better New Unionism is a term which has been used twice in the history of the labour movement both times involving moves to broaden the union agenda The proletariat (from Latin la ''proles'' "offspring" is a term used to identify a lower Social class; a member of such a class is proletarian Social Movement Unionism is a trend of theory and practice in contemporary trade unionism Syndicalism is a type of movement which aims to degrade capitalist societies through action by the Working class on the industrial front Socialism refers to a broad set of economic theories of social organization advocating state or collective ownership and administration of the Means of production and distribution Timeline of Organized labor history 1790s - 1800s - 1810s - 1820s - 1830s - 1840s - 1850s Labor rights or workers' rights are a group of Legal rights and claimed Human rights having to do with Labor relations between Workers Child labor is the employment of Children at regular and sustained labour The 8-hour day movement or 40-hour week movement (aka the Short-time movement) had its origins in the Industrial Revolution in Britain, where Occupational safety and health is a cross-disciplinary area concerned with protecting the Safety, Health and welfare of people engaged in Collective bargaining is the process whereby workers organize together to meet converse and compromise upon the work environment with their employers A trade union or labour union is an organization of workers who have banded together to achieve common goals in key areas such as wages hours and working conditions forming This is a list of Trade unions and Union federations by country This is a list of federations of Trade unions. Those federations listed under each country are also known as National trade union centres and are organisations formed Unions have been compared across countries by growth and decline patterns by violence levels and by kinds of political activity Inaugural Congress The founding and first congress of the ITUC was held November 1 - 3 2006 in Vienna TemplateInfobox Union for usage -->The World Federation of Trade Unions (WFTU was established in the wake of the Second Template talkInfobox Union for usage --> The International Workers' Association ( IWA) ( Spanish: Strike action, often simply called a strike, is a work stoppage caused by the mass refusal by Employees to perform work. The following is a list of deliberate absence from work related to specific working conditions ( strikes) or due to general unhappiness with the political order ( General strikes A general strike is a Strike action by a critical mass of the labour force in a city region or country A sympathy strike is a Strike action that is initiated by workers in one industry and supported by workers in a separate but related industry or profession A sit-down strike is a form of Civil disobedience in which an organized group of workers usually employed at a factory or other centralized location take possession of Work-to-rule is an Industrial action in which Employees do no more than the minimum required by the rules of a workplace and follow safety or other regulations to Dita Indah Sari is an Indonesian Trade union and Socialist activist For the Baseball player Walter Ruether see Dutch Ruether. Walter Philip Reuther ( September 1, 1907 – Sonja Davies ONZ ( November 11, 1923 &ndash June 12, 2005) was a New Zealand trade unionist peace campaigner and Member Eugene Victor Debs (November 5 1855 &ndash October 20 1926 was an American union leader one of the founding members of the International Labor Union and the Industrial Arthur James Cook (1883 - 1931 known as A J Cook, was a British Coal miner and Trade union leader Shirley GE Carr is a Canadian union leader who was the first woman president of Canada's largest labour organization the Canadian Labour Congress. Labor history (or labour history) is a broad field of study concerned with the development of the Labor movement and the Working class. The field of industrial relations (also called labor relations) looks at the relationship between Management and workers particularly groups of workers represented Labour law (also known as employment or labor law is the body of Laws administrative rulings and precedents which address the legal rights of and restrictions Early 1914 found Hill working as a laborer at the Silver King Mine in Park City, Utah, not far from Salt Lake City. Park City is a town in Summit and Wasatch counties in the US state of Utah. Salt Lake City is the Capital and the most populous city of the U
On January 10, 1914, John G. Events 49 BC - Julius Caesar crosses the Rubicon, signaling the start of civil war. Year 1914 ( MCMXIV) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year Morrison and his son Arling were killed in their Salt Lake City butcher store by two armed intruders masked in red bandannas. A kerchief (from the French couvre-chef, "cover the head" is a triangular or square piece of Cloth tied around the Arling had drawn a handgun from behind the counter and wounded one of the masked men before being killed. The police first thought it was a crime of revenge, for nothing had been stolen (the elder Morrison had been a police officer, possibly creating many enemies).
On the same evening, Joe Hill appeared on the doorstep of a local doctor, bearing a bullet wound. Hill said that he had been shot in an argument over a woman, whom he refused to name. The doctor reported that Hill was armed with a pistol.
Considering Morrison's past as a police officer, several men he had arrested were at first considered suspects; twelve people were arrested in the case before Hill was arrested and charged with the murder. A red bandanna was found in Hill's room. The pistol purported to be in Hill's possession at the doctor's office was not found.
Hill resolutely denied that he was involved in the robbery and killing of Morrison. He said that when he was shot, his hands were over his head, and the bullet hole in his coat — four inches below the bullet wound in his back — seemed to support this claim. Hill did not testify at his trial, but his lawyers pointed out that four other people were treated for bullet wounds in Salt Lake City that same night, and that the lack of robbery and Hill's unfamiliarity with Morrison left him with no motive. 
The prosecution, for its part, produced a dozen eyewitnesses who said that the killer resembled Hill, including Merlin Morrison, the victims' son and brother, who said "that's not him at all" upon first seeing Hill, but later identified him as the murderer. The jury took just a few hours to find him guilty of murder. 
A widely-circulated story, which was included in the 1971 movie Joe Hill, is that Hill was in bed with a married woman on the night of the murder. He refused to use this iron-clad alibi, because in Utah in 1914, it would have ruined her reputation and her life. An alibi is the Plea or mode of defense under which a person on trial for a crime proves or attempts to prove that the person was in another place when the alleged His discretion ended his life. The story is the basis of several songs and at least one movie.
An appeal to the Utah Supreme Court was unsuccessful. The Utah Supreme Court is the State supreme court of Utah. It has final authority of interpretation of the Utah Constitution. Orrin N. Hilton, the lawyer representing Hill during the appeal, declared: "The main thing the state had on Hill was that he was an IWW and therefore sure to be guilty. Orrin N Hilton was a Denver judge and attorney who participated for the defense in several famous court cases Hill tried to keep the IWW out of [the trial]. . . but the press fastened it upon him. "
In a letter to the court, Hill continued to deny that the state had a right to inquire into the origins of his wound, leaving little doubt that the judges would affirm the conviction. In an article for the socialist newspaper Appeal to Reason, Hill wrote: "Owing to the prominence of Mr Morrison, there had to be a 'goat' and the undersigned being, as they thought, a friendless tramp, a Swede, and worst of all, an IWW, had no right to live anyway, and was therefore duly selected to be 'the goat'. Appeal to Reason is the fifth Studio album by American Punk rock band Rise Against, released on October 7, 2008 "
The case turned into a major media event. President Woodrow Wilson, the blind and deaf author Helen Keller, and people in Sweden all became involved in a bid for clemency. Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28 1856—February 3 1924 was the twenty-eighth President of the United States. Helen Adams Keller (June 27 1880 – June 1 1968 was an American Author, Activist and lecturer It generated international union attention, and critics charged that the trial and conviction were unfair.
Hill was executed by firing squad on November 19, 1915, and his last word was "Fire!" Just prior to his execution, he had written to Bill Haywood, an IWW leader, saying, "Goodbye Bill. Execution by firing squad is a method of Capital punishment, particularly common in times of war Events 1095 - The Council of Clermont, called by Pope Urban II to discuss sending the First Crusade to the Holy Land Year 1915 ( MCMXV) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year William Dudley Haywood (February 4 1869&ndashMay 18 1928 better known as Big Bill Haywood, was a prominent figure in the American labor movement. I die like a true blue rebel. Don't waste any time in mourning. Organize. . . Could you arrange to have my body hauled to the state line to be buried? I don't want to be found dead in Utah. 
His will, which was eventually set to music by Ethel Raim, read:
To commemorate the 50th anniversary of the execution of Joe Hill, Philip S. Foner published a book, The Case of Joe Hill, concerning the trial and subsequent events. It is still in print and is a concise introduction to Joe Hill’s life. Dr. Foner, like so many others, concludes that the case was seriously miscarried. 
Hill's body was sent to Chicago, where it was cremated. Chicago (ʃɪˈkɑːgoʊ is the largest City by population in the state of Illinois and the American Midwest of the United States. This was fitting, as he had joked that he would not be caught dead in Utah. His ashes were purportedly sent to every IWW local. The Industrial Workers of the World ( IWW or the Wobblies) is an international union currently headquartered in Cincinnati Ohio, USA In 1988 it was discovered that an envelope had been seized by the U. S. Postal Service in 1917 because of its "subversive potential". The envelope, with a photo affixed, captioned, "Joe Hill murdered by the capitalist class, Nov. 19, 1915," as well as its contents, was deposited at the National Archives. The United States National Archives and Records Administration ( NARA) is an independent agency of the United States federal government charged
After some negotiations, the last of Hill's ashes (but not the envelope that contained them) was turned over to the IWW in 1988. The weekly In These Times ran notice of the ashes and invited readers to suggest what should be done with them. In These Times is a politically progressive monthly magazine of news and opinion published by the Institute for Public Affairs in Chicago. Suggestions varied from enshrining them at the AFL-CIO headquarters in Washington, DC to Abbie Hoffman's suggestion that they be eaten by today's "Joe Hills" like Billy Bragg and Michelle Shocked. American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations, commonly AFL-CIO, is a National trade union center, the largest federation of Abbot Howard "Abbie" Hoffman (November 30 1936 &ndash April 12 1989 was a radical social and political activist in the United States who co-founded the Stephen William Bragg (born December 20, 1957 in Essex, England) better known as Billy Bragg, is an English musician who Michelle Shocked (born Karen Michelle Johnston 24 February, 1962, in Dallas Texas) is a U Bragg did indeed swallow a small bit of the ashes and still carries Shocked's share for eventual completion of Hoffman's last prank. The majority of the ashes were cast to the wind in the US, Canada, Sweden, Australia, and Nicaragua. Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page "Sverige" redirects here For other uses see Sweden (disambiguation and Sverige (disambiguation. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. Nicaragua (ˌnɪkəˈrɑgwə officially the Republic of Nicaragua () is a representative democratic republic and the largest nation in Central America The ashes sent to Sweden were only partly cast to the wind. The main part was interred in the wall of a union office in Landskrona, a minor city in the south of the country, with a plaque commemorating Hill. Landskrona is a city in the province Scania in southernmost Sweden. That room is now the reading room of the local city library.
One small packet of ashes was scattered at a 1989 ceremony which unveiled a monument to IWW coal miners buried in Lafayette, Colorado. The City of Lafayette (ˌlɑːfeɪˈɛt is a Home Rule Municipality located in Boulder County, Colorado, United States. The State of Colorado ( or chiefly by nonresidents) is a state located in the Rocky Mountain region of the United States of America. Six unarmed strikers were machine gunned by a Colorado state police force in 1927 in the (first) Columbine Massacre. The first Columbine Massacre, sometimes called the Columbine Mine massacre to distinguish it from the Columbine High School massacre, occurred in 1927 when striking Until 1989 the graves of five of these men were unmarked. Another famous Wobbly, Carlos Cortez, scattered Joe Hill's ashes on the graves at the commemoration. Carlos Cortez ( August 13, 1923 &ndash January 19, 2005) was a Poet, Graphic artist, Photographer, Muralist 
Hill was memorialized in a tribute poem written about him c. 1930 by Alfred Hayes titled "I Dreamed I Saw Joe Hill Last Night", sometimes referred to simply as "Joe Hill". Alfred Hayes (18 April 1911 &ndash 14 August 1985 was an English Screenwriter, Television writer Novelist and poet, who worked  Hayes's lyrics were turned into a song in 1936 by Earl Robinson. Earl Hawley Robinson ( July 2, 1910 – July 20, 1991) was a songwriter and composer from Seattle Washington.
Seattle composer and bandleader Wayne Horvitz created a musical tribute for Joe Hill in 2008. The orchestral work which premiered at Benaroya Hall in Seattle, features the Northwest Sinfona and guest soloists Bill Frisell, Robin Holcomb, Danny Barnes, and Rinde Eckert. http://www.waynehorvitz.com/
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||Joel Emmanuel Hägglund|
|SHORT DESCRIPTION||labor activist|
|DATE OF BIRTH||October 7, 1879|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Gävle Sweden|
|DATE OF DEATH||November 15, 1915|
|PLACE OF DEATH||Utah|